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Design of Headed Anchor Bolts


In current practice the design of base plates is controlled strength bolts.3 When the tension capacity of the bolt is
by bearing restrictions on the concrete (see Fig. 1); shear developed, a ductile failure can be ensured by the shear
is transmitted to the concrete largely through anchor bolts, friction mechanism.3
shear lugs or bars attached to the base plate and the tensile In this paper, anchor bolt design ductility is assured by
anchorage steel is generally proportioned only for direct causing a failure mechanism that is controlled by yielding
stress. The embedment requirements for anchorage steel of the anchor bolt steel, rather than brittle tensile failure
are not clearly defined by most codes and are left largely to of concrete. This is accomplished by designing the pullout
the discretion of the design engineer. Also, there are no strength of the "concrete failure cone" (Up) such that it
provisions to prevent a brittle failure in the concrete as equals the minimum specified tensile strength (FuAt) or
opposed to a ductile failure in the anchor bolt, as provided full anchorage value" of the anchor bolt. See Figs. 2 and
for with a probability-based limit states design or Load and 10 for illustrations of the concrete failure cone concept. See
Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for steel.8 Larger design Appendix A for the derivation of L^ to satisfy this criteria.
forces now mandated in many areas due to the revised The design approach presented herein is compatible with
seismic and wind loads require design capacities for anchor the proposed AISC Specification for Nuclear Facilities,5
bolts beyond any existing code values.6'11 Therefore, there ACI 318-77, 2 and the proposed revisions to ACI 318-77.7
is a need for a complete design procedure for anchor bolts The governing design approach is that presented in ACI
that will accommodate these larger loads and incorporate 349, Supplement 1979.3
the proposed design philosophy, i.e., probability-based limit
states design (PBLSD). 8 DESIGN PARAMETERS
The design approach presented is generally applicable to
any of a number of bolt or concrete strengths. However, the
The headed bolt, as designed herein, is recommended as the following representative materials are used in developing
most efficient type of anchorage to use for both tension and the design values. Anchor bolt materials used are ASTM
shear loads. Other anchorages which have been used are A36, A307 (Grade B), A325, A449 and A687. Concrete
L-bolts, J-bolts, rods with a bolted bearing plate and shear is assumed to have a minimum compressive strength (fc)
lugs. L-bolts have been shown to be less effective in resisting of 3,000 psi. Anchor bolts are heavy hex bolts or threaded
slip at service load levels than headed bolts.13 The authors steel bars with one heavy hex nut placed in concrete. Bolt
are not aware of any published data that addresses the threads at the embedded end of each threaded steel bar are
performance of J-bolts. For a threaded rod with a bolted "staked" at two places below the heavy hex nut. All bolts
washer or bearing plate embedded in concrete, tests have are brought to a "snug tight" condition as defined by AISC4
shown that unless the plate is properly sized it may actually to ensure good contact between attachments. The concrete
decrease the anchor capacity by causing a weakened failure is at least 14 days old prior to tightening the anchor bolts
plane in the concrete.7'17 Shear lugs can fail in a brittle in order to prevent bolt rotation. Anchor bolts are designed
mode if not properly confined, and do not lend themselves for combined shear and tension loads; the area of steel re-
to a shear friction analysis.7'17 quired for tension and shear is considered additive. Criteria
The headed bolt, when properly embedded and confined, will be presented such that either Working Stress Design
will develop the full tensile capacity of even A490 high (WSD) or Ultimate Strength Design (USD) may be
John G. Shipp is Supervising Structural Engineer, Fluor Engi-
neers and Constructors, Inc., Irvine, California. COMBINED TENSION AND SHEAR
Edward R. Haninger is Senior Structural Engineer, Fluor En-
Many authors have presented data and interaction equa-
gineers and Constructors, Inc., Irvine, California.
tions to account for the combined effects of tension and shear



Table 1A. Standard Anchor Bolt Basic Types

Bolt Edge
Spacing Distance
Type Description r m Comments

A Isolated r >rm m > mv mv > Tm/2,

mv >

B Shear reinforcement r^rm rm/2 <m< rm/2 > mt

only mv

C Shear reinforcement r<rm mt < m <mv mt < rm/2

plus overlapping
failure cones

D Tension lap w/ r <rm concrete pier

reinforcement Tm/2

fiAILt/fi* JON* DUe TO SHA* iOAP(V^)

Note: The bolt embedment depth shall be greater than or equal to Lj ,
as given in Table IB for all bolt types.
The rationale for this basis is that the shear force (Vi)
causes a bearing failure near the concrete surface and
Fig. 1. Example of base plate loading translates the shear load on the anchor bolt into an effective
tension load by shear friction. In the absence of tension load
(see Refs. 1, 3, 12,14, 15 and 17). In this paper, the total ( 7 , an anchor bolt is developed for "full anchorage" to
required area of anchor bolt steel to resist tension and shear resist shear. In terms of Probability-Based Limit States
loads is considered to be additive (see Appendix B, and Figs. Design (PBLSD), the anchor bolt design resistance is
1 and 9). greater than or equal to the effective combined tension (7^)
and shear (Vi) load effects as indicated below (see Appendix
(Si6 HOT6 / &HOW) mrtnecrs AtFy > T
oursite of
~1 where
AtFy = Nominal design resistance (capacity) equal to
the product of the bolt tensile area (.4,) and the
minimum specified steel yield strength (see
Table 2A
CVj + TF
C = Shear coefficient, equal to the inverse of the
shear friction value, as per Ref. 3, for the par-
ticular base plate mounting

Table IB. Values for Lj, rm, m v , mt

Minimum Minimum Edge Minimum Edge

Bolt Development . Bolt Distance for Distance for
tNreRs&crs Type Length Spacing Shear Tension
OUTSIP6 Of (ASTM1 Ld rm mv mt
A307 \2d 16d \2d 5d or 4" min.
secrioN c-c
A325 lid 24d \ld Id or 4" min.
ucre; A449 17d 24d lid Id or 4" min.
2. A* = A$ -Ar " (&**IU<9 A**A Of AHCHOR ST&t)
Note: The above values were derived per Table 2B and tabulated in Table
Fig. 2. Effective stress area for limited depth (Ae) 2A for various bolt diameters.



Table 2A. Standard Anchor Bolt Basic Design Values

AtFy (kips) Uit v (in ) mt (in.) rm (in.)

Tensile Sd or Id or
Bolt Stress Fy - 36 ksi Fy = 58 ksi Fy = 81 ksi \Fy = 92 ksi Fy = 105 ksi \2d 17 d \9d 4" min. 4" min. 16d 24d 28d
Diameter Area A325
d At A36 A325 A325 A36 A325 A36 A449 A36 A325
(in.) (in-2) A307 A449 A449 A449 A687 A307 A449 A687 A307 A687 A307 A449 A687

y2 0.142 5.12 13.06 14.91 6 8% 9% 4 4 8 12 14

Ys 0.226 8.14 20.79 23.73 7% 11 12 4 4% 10 15 18
% 0.334 12.02 30.73 35.07 9 13 14% 4 5V4 12 18 21
% 0.462 16.64 42.40 48.51 10% 15 17 4% 6% 14 21 25
i 0.606 21.82 55.75 63.63 12 17 19 5 7 16 24 28
1% 0.763 27.46 61.80 80.12 13% 19 21% 5% 7% 18 27 32
l'A 0.969 34.89 78.49 101.7 15 21 y4 24 6V4 8% 20 30 35
1% 1.155 41.59 93.56 121.3 16% 24 26 67/s 9% 22 33 39
i% 1.405 50.59 113.88 147.5 18 25% 28% 7% 10% 24 36 42
1% 1.90 68.4 110.2 199.5 21 30 33% 8% 12V4 28 42 49
2 2.50 90.0 145.0 262.5 24 34 38 10 14 32 48 56
2'A 3.25 117.1 188.5 341.3 27 39 43 11V4 15% 36 54 63
2'/2 4.00 144.0 232.0 420.0 30 43 48 12% 17% 40 60 70
2% 4.93 177.5 285.9 517.7 33 47 52 13% 19V4 44 66 77
3 5.97 214.9 346.3 626.9 36 51 57 15 21 48 72 84

1. The following formulas have been conservatively simplified by using the values in Table 2B:

(a) Ld = \2d\\ per AGI-349 Appendix B, Sect. B.4.2


(b) mt per ACI-349 Appendix B, Sect. B.5.1.1

(c) mv - d per ACI-349 Appendix B, Sect. B.5.1.1
2. Before entering this table, the total effective design load (T) shall include the appropriate load factors, stress increase factors or probability factors, capacity
reduction factors ((f)) and shear coefficient (C).
3. All computations are based on/' c = 3000 psi.

For PBLSD or Ultimate Strength Design (USD): Tp Tension design load effect equal to the product
of the load factor(s) and the nominal tension load.
Vi = Shear design load effect equal to the product of The load factors shall be in accordance with
the load factor(s) and the nominal shear load. applicable codes. For example, using ACI
The load factors are in accordance with appli- 318-77, 7> = 1.4D + 1.1L
cable codes. For example, using ACI 318-77, Vt 0 = Capacity reduction factor
= 1.4Z) + 1.7L = 0.90 for factored design loads under USD

Table 2B. Values Based on ACI 349-76 Provisions

/ Fu mt=d\/
1 F
Ld - \2d \i
V 58000
56 V ? ; -V7.svrc
(ksi) Actual Use Actual Use Actual Use

58 \2d \2d 4.34J 5d 11.88J \2d

90 14.95</ 17 d S.42d Id 14.80J 17 d
105 16.15</ 17 d 5.85d Id \5.99d 17d
120 17.26J 17d 6.25d Id 17.09 d \7d
150 19.3W \9d 6.99d Id \9.\0d \9d

Note: Values listed in this table are based on/ r c = 3000 psi.



a = 1.0 for USD. Probability considerations are in- M/CC/X6 CD+J&

cluded in the load factors.

For Working Stress Design (WSD): &* SM64*

Vi = Nominal shear load. For example,

Vt=D + L
Tf = Nominal tension load. For example, Asv = TOTAL Of- ALL L6GS

7> = D + L
0 = Capacity reduction factor, which includes a ,
safety factor, used to convert yield capacity to KM
working loads = 0.55
a = Probability factor (PF) or reciprocal of the stress
increase factor (l/SIF), i.e., seismic loads com-
bined with dead loads and live loads. PF = 0.75;
therefore, a = PF = 0.75. SIF = 1.33; therefore,
a = 1/SIF = 0.75.
NOT*: T/* K&tJto*OtV<$
WLU*e COA/& TO &e
The following section establishes limitations for the com-
bined effects of bolt spacing, embedment depth and edge FAIUTA& COht6
distance, such that the heavy hex head on a standard anchor
bolt provides "full anchorage" in concrete equal to the
tensile capacity of the bolt. Several agencies/authors have Fig. 3. Shear reinforcement
published reports representing their test data and/or rec-
ommendations to account for these variables, (see Refs. 9,
10, 13, 16 and 17). The recommendations which follow
represent a composite of the published literature, modified Type B Anchor BoltsAnchor bolts are classified as
for compatibility with ACI 349. 3 Where plain bars are "Type B," or shear reinforcement only, when all of the
used, the equivalent anchorage may be accomplished by following apply:
threading the embedded end of the bar and using one The closest bolt spacing (r) is greater than or equal
American Standard heavy hex nut of equal or higher tor m .
strength steel with bolt threads "staked" at two places below
the heavy hex nut. The closest edge distance (m) is greater than or equal
to r m / 2 but less than mv. Note: rm/2 > mt
Refer to Tables 1A and IB for a summary of the various
anchor bolt classifications and criteria for which design The bolt embedment depth is greater than or equal
procedures are herein provided. Note that anchor bolts are toLd.
defined as type A, B, C or D. These types represent various The size of Type B anchor bolts is selected as per Type
design conditions of anchor bolts such as spacing, edge A anchor bolts. In addition, shear reinforcement (Asv) is
distance and development length. provided on both sides of any critical plane of potential
failure (see Fig. 3). The total area of horizontal shear
Type A Anchor BoltsAnchor bolts are classified as reinforcing steel (Asv) is determined as follows:
Type A, or isolated, when all the following apply:
The closest bolt spacing (r) is greater than or equal FutAt
to the minimum spacing (r m ) as specified in Table IB, CFy cos 45
(i.e., no overlapping failure cones). where Fy is the specified minimum yield strength of the
The closest edge distance (m) is greater than or equal reinforcing steel.
to the minimum edge distance for shear (mv) as
specified in Table IB. Note: mv > rm/2; mv > mt Type C Anchor BoltsAnchor bolts are classified as
The bolt embedment depth is greater than or equal Type C, or shear reinforcement plus overlapping failure
to Ld as specified in Table IB. cone considerations, when all the following apply:

The size of Type A anchor bolts is selected such that the The closest bolt spacing (r) is less than r m .
design load (7") does not exceed the basic Nominal Design The closest edge distance (m) is greater than or equal
Resistance (AtFy) values tabulated in Table 2A. to mt and less than mv. Note: mt < rm/2

Table 3. Standard Anchor Bolt Tensile Capacities

Tensile FuAt (kips)

Bolt Stress
Fy = 58 ksi Fy = 90 ksi Fy = 105 ksi Fy = 120 ksi Fy = 150 ksi
Diameter Area
d 4 A36 A325 A325
(in.) (in-2) A307 A449 A449 A449 A687

% 0.142 8.24 17.06 21.3

% 0.226 13.11 27.12 33.9
% 0.334 19.37 40.08 50.1
% 0.462 26.80 55.44 69.3
1 0.606 35.15 72.72 90.9
1V8 0.763 44.25 80.12 114.5
1V4 0.969 56.20 101.7 145.4
1% 1.155 66.99 121.3 173.3
1% 1.405 81.49 147.5 210.8
1% 1.90 110.2 171.0 285.0
2 2.50 145.0 225.0 375.0
2V4 3.25 188.1 292.5 487.5
2V2 4.00 232.0 360.0 600.0
23/4 4.93 285.9 443.7 739.5
3 5.97 346.3 537.3 895.5

The bolt embedment depth must be determined by lines extending from the exterior bolt heads toward
considering the effect of overlapping concrete tensile the compression face do not intersect within the con-
stress cones (see Fig. 2). Note: Lj (required) > Ld as crete, then the effective stress area is limited as shown
tabulated in Table IB. in Fig. 2.
Under no condition will the closest bolt edge distance
Type D Anchor BoltsAnchor bolts are classified as
be less than mt or 4 in.
Type D, or tension lap with reinforcement, when all the
The size of Type C anchor bolts is selected as per Type following apply:
A anchor bolts. Shear reinforcement is provided as per
The closest bolt spacing (r) is less than rm.
Type B anchor bolts. Also, the bolt embedment depth is
calculated as follows: The closest edge distance (m) is greater than or equal
to mt and less than rm/2.
First, calculate the effective concrete tensile stress area
Ae (see Fig. 2) based on r, m and an assumed em- The required bolt embedment depth is greater than
bedment depth greater than L^ The effective concrete or equal to L^
tensile stress area (Ae) is the projected area bounded The projected area of the overlapping concrete tensile
by the intersection between 45 degree lines radiating stress cones (Ae) are extremely limited, such that
from the edge of the bolt head and the concrete surface failure mechanism is controlled by the reinforced
at which the loads are applied, minus the area of the section rather than by the yielding of the anchor bolt
bolt heads (refer to Fig. 2). steel. Such situations commonly arise in concrete
Then, calculate the pullout strength (Up), where piers.
4/5 y/fc is the allowable uniform concrete tensile The size of Type D anchor bolts is selected as per Type
stress applied over the effective stress area Ae: A anchor bolts. Shear reinforcement is provided as per
Up = [4PVTc\Ae > FuAt Type B anchor bolts. Additional tension reinforcement is
provided as follows:
Note that Up must be greater than or equal to the
minimum specified tensile strength (FuAt) of the Additional tension reinforcement is provided by
standard anchor bolt as tabulated in Table 3. If Up is concentrically located reinforcing steel (Ast), such that
less than FuAt, continue to increase the bolt embed- the anchor bolts are developed for "full anchorage."
ment depth until a solution is obtained. Refer to Fig. 4 for the recommended tension rein-
The tensile strength of the concrete failure cone in a forcement practice.
slab or wall is limited by the thickness of concrete and The total area of tension reinforcement (Ast) as de-
the out-to-out dimensions of the anchors. If 45 degree termined by the following equation is developed on

[BOLTS kcoL.JeAs&/i

^~ -#


#- # PttRO* COL.&IW.


Lcl * oe/etoPM&rr

Fig. 5. Example 1: Type A anchor bolt

\CVj + TF 1.85(15)+ 35
T = a 0.75 = 86 kips
0 0.55
PUW6- Refer to Table 2A and select 1%-in. dia. A325 bolts:
AtFy = 93.6 kips > 86 kips
Use 1%-in. dia. A325 bolts; rm = 33 in. and Lj = 24 in.
VB**S (Ast)
pie* ofK COL teih/p.
Example 2: Type D (Bolts in a Confined Pier),
see Figs. 6 and 7
Fig. 4. Tension lap Design Data:
Design anchor bolts for cylindrical heater foundation.
both sides of the critical plane of potential failure: For empty + wind load combination:
Ast '= nFuAt/Fy Tp = 1 kip; V{ = 3 kips
Fy = 60 ksi; f'c = 3000 psi
where SIF=\.0; a = 1.0
n = total number of bolts in the bolt group r = 12; ra=4
Fy = minimum yield strength of reinforcing 0 = 0.55 (working stress design)
steel C = 1.85 (grouted base plate)


The application of the criteria presented in this paper is CVl + 7)1 1.85(3) + !
T = a = 11.9 kips
illustrated by the following three example problems. The 0 0.55
examples demonstrate Type A and D anchor bolts. An From Table 2A, for 3/4-in. dia. A307 anchor bolt:
example is also presented for a column base plate for which
special attention is given to concrete strength and anchor AtFy = 12.02 kips > 11.9 kips
bolt head placement. r = 12 in. < rm = 12 in.
Example 1: Type A (Isolated Bolt), see Fig. 5 mt < m <mVi where mt 4 in.
Design Data: Ld = 9 in.
Tp = 35 kips) FuAt = 19,370 lbs (see Table 3)
F, = 15 kipsj DL + LL + W L
f'c = 3000 psi ^A ( (r ro en iqi uminr-e dfutAt
) - 4 ^ ^~- - 4 ( (1 )9 6) 357 ) V _ _
SIF=\.33; a = 1/SIF = 0.75
0 = 0.55 (working stress design) = 136 sq. in.
C = 1.85 (grouted base plate) Ae = 10 = 100 sq. in. < 136 sq. in. n.g.



Thus, we have a Type D anchor bolt.

Ae (to OM BOLT) AR6A COST = nFuAt = 4(19.37)

Fy (60)
= 1.29 sq. in. < 1.60 sq. in. ( 8 - # 4 bars)
Shear reinforcement must also be provided.
At 19.37
CFy cos 45 (1.85)(60)(.707)
= 0.25 sq. in. < 0.40 sq. in. ( l - # 4 U-bar)
Use: l - # 4 U-bar in each direction.

CRITICAL Example 3: (See Figs. 8 and 9)

tLMATION "'"** Ae s Trr2 = TT(28) 2 = 2463 in.2
Fig. 6. Example 2: Type D anchor bolt Up=4pVFcAe*FuAt
= 4 (.85) 4000 (2463) = 529,630 lbs
Increase pier size to 24 in. square, (to avoid placement of FuAt = 110,200(4) = 440,600 lbs < 529,630 lbs (see Table 3)
tension reinforcement), such that:
Ae = 122 = 144 sq. in. > 136 sq. in. o.k.
Next, check the reinforced section and provide tension lap EFFECTIVE CONCRETE
reinforcement. FOUR ANCHOR BOLTS /A/

- COL tetMA

u m
(SH6A* fi&tJA)


3* (T&JSIOht Kfrtffi )

*3T/6S<P<t"M*K. /%"/UAX.A307A3.CTjP,
OtPTH (Lj)

As .' 4'*O.S5

Fig. 7. Example 2: Pier for Type D anchor bolt Fig. 8. Example 3: Column base plate



Therefore, 4-l3/4-in. maximum diameter bolts may be
Note: Ld = 24 in. not adequate \ifc = 3000 psi and /3 =
0.65, i.e., anchor bolt head within far face reinforce-
CVi + 7>"
AtFy >T = a
Tcj> = 4>AtFy = 0.55AtFy = CVl + 7)
C =1.85, a = 1.0
0 = 0.55(WSD)
T = AtFy (Table 2A)

Anchor Bolt Working Stress Loads: See Fig. 9 for plot.

Bolt Dia.
(in.) 0.554*V Vi TF
v2 2.82 0 2.82
1.52 0
10 TO 30
1 12.00 0 12.00
ty (SH6AZ LO40j KtPS)
6.49 0
A 307 STb MCHO* BOLTS' 1V2 27.82 0 27.82
15.04 0
Fig. 9. Example 3: Interaction curves
1% 37.62 0 37.62
20.34 0

Ae = Effective projected stress area to which the al-
lowable uniform concrete tensile stress is ap-
plied to determine the pullout strength of con-
Ast = Total area of reinforcing steel across a potential
tension failure plane(s)
Asv = Total area of reinforcing steel across a potential
L+e/t shear failure plane(s)
PLAN At = Tensile stress area of anchorage per AISC 4
C = Shear coefficient applied to standard anchors
which accounts for effects of various shear
failure surfaces
= 1.10 when steel plates are embedded with ex-
posed surface flush with concrete surface
= 1.25 when steel plates are recessed in grout with
bottom of plate in concrete surface
= 1.85 when steel plates are supported on grout
mortar with exposed surface exterior to con-
crete surface
6L6VAT/OM c = Equivalent circle for hex head
d = Nominal diameter of a bolt or plain bar
Fig. 10. Projected area of heavy hexagonal head fc = Specified compressive strength of concrete

Fy = Minimum specified yield strength of steel or Strength Design (USD) for steel tensile
rebar as tabulated below: stress
= 0.55 for service design loads under Working
Stress Design (WSD); complies with AISC
Fy (ksi) ASTM Bolt Diameter (in.)
allowable Ft values
36 A307 All ji = Coefficient of friction
92 A325 V2 to 1, incl.
81 A325 Over 1 to IV2, incl.
a = Probability Factor (PF) or reciprocal of the
92 A449 V2to l,incl. stress increase factor (X/SIF)
81 A449 Over 1 to 1V2, incl. j8 = Concrete tensile stress reduction factor
58 A449 Over 1V2 to 3, incl. = 0.65 for concrete tensile stress when embedded
105 A687 % to 3, incl.
anchor head is within far face reinforcement
60 A615 Type S, Grade 60 Rebar = 0.85 for concrete tensile stress when embedded
40 A615 Grade 40 Rebar
anchor head is beyond the far face reinforce-
Fu Minimum specified tensile strength of steel as
tabulated below:
This paper was sponsored by Fluor Engineer and Con-
Fu (ksi) ASTM Bolt Diameter (in.)
structors. The contents of this paper reflect the views of the
58 A307 All writers and not necessarily the official policies of Fluor
120 A325 V2 to 1, incl.
105 A325 Over 1 to 1V2, incl.
Engineers and Constructors.
120 A449 1/2 to 1, incl.
105 A449 Over to 1 to l 1 ^, incl.
90 A449 Over 1V2 to 3, incl. REFERENCES
150 A687 % to 3, incl.
1. Adihardjo, R. and L. Soltis Combined Shear and Tension
on Grouted Base Details Engineering Journal, American
h = Thickness of a concrete slab or wall Institute ofSteel Construction, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1979.
Ld = Minimum embedded length required to fully 2. ACI Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete
develop the tensile strength of an anchor bolt ACI318-77.
3. ACI Appendix BSteel Embedments (1978C) ACI
Id = Basic development length for reinforcement
349-76 Supplement, 1979.
Idh = Development length of reinforcement with a 4. AISC Manual of Steel Construction Eighth Edition,
standard hook 1980.
m = Edge distance from the center of an anchor to 5. AISC Specification for The Design, Fabrication and
the edge of concrete Erection of Steel Safety Related Structures For Nuclear
mt = Minimum edge distance to prevent failure due FacilitiesN690 AISI Proposed Specification, Jan. 1,
to lateral bursting forces at a standard anchor 1981.
bolt head 6. ANSI American National StandardBuilding Code Re-
mv = Minimum edge distance to develop the full quirements for Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and
tensile capacity of an anchor bolt in shear Other Structures ANSI A58.1-1972.
within additional reinforcement when the shear 7. Cannon, R. W.,D. A. Godfrey andF. L. Moreadith Guide
to The Design of Anchor Bolts and Other Steel Embedments
load acts toward the free edge Concrete International, July 1981.
n = Number of bolts in a bolt group 8. Edlingwood, B. ,etal A Probability Based Load Criterion
PF = Probability Factor for Structural Design Civil Engineering, ASCE, July
r = Spacing of multiple anchors 1981.
rm = Minimum spacing of multiple anchor bolts 9. Fisher, James M. Structural Details in Industrial Buildings
SIF = Stress Increase Factor Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Con-
T = Total effective anchor bolt design tension load struction, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1981.
due to bending and direct load 10. Hasselwander, G. B., J. O. Jirsa, J. E. Breen and K. Lo
Tp = Tension load acting on an individual anchor Strength and Behavior of Anchor Bolts Embedded Near
bolt or wedge anchor Edges of Concrete Piers Research Report 29-2F, Center
of Highway Research, The University of Texas at Austin,
Up = Pullout strength of concrete equal to the tensile May 1977.
capacity of the concrete failure cone 11. ICBO Uniform Building Code1979 Edition Interna-
V = Total shear in an anchorage tional Conference of Building Officials, 1979.
V{ = Shear load acting on an individual anchor 12. Kharod, V. J. Anchor Bolt Design for Shear and Tension
0 = Capacity reduction factor Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Con-
= 0.90 for factored design loads under Ultimate struction, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1980.

13. Lee, D. W. and J. E. Breen Factors Affecting Anchor Bolt Tensile stress area Ae = A\ A2
Development Research Report 88- 1F, Project 3-5-65-88, = ir(L + C/2)2 - 7T (C/2) 2
Cooperative Highway Research Program with Texas = ir [L2 + CL + C 2 /4 - C2/4]
Highway Department and U.S. Bureau of Public Roads, = ir[L2 + CL]
Center for Highway Research, University of Texas, Austin,
Aug. 1966. Up = Ae[4j3 y/fc (assume 0 = 0.65)
14. McMackin, P., R. Slutter and J. Fisher Headed Steel = TT[L2 + CL][4(0.65)V3000]
Anchors Under Combined Loading Engineering Journal, = ir[L2 + CL]U2
American Institute of Steel Construction, Vol. 10, No. 2, = 447(L2 + CL)
15. PCI Design HandbookPrecast Prestressed Concrete Also, Up = FuAt , in pounds (see Table 3).
Second Edition, 1974. Therefore,
16. Swirsky, R. A. et al Lateral Resistance of Anchor Bolts
Installed in Concrete California Department of Transpor- 0 = 447.4L2 + 447ACL - FuAt
tation, Sacramento, U.S. Department of Commerce National 0 = L2 + CL- (FuAt/UlA)
Technical Information Service PB80-116189, May 1979.
17. TV A Anchorage to Concrete Tennessee Valley Authority
Division of Engineering Design, Thermal Power Engi-
-CyJ C2 + 4 447]
neeringReport No. CEB 75-32, Dec. 1, 1975. 1
~ 2

'FuAt -
An equivalent circle is assumed equal to the projected area
of a heavy hexagonal head (see Fig. 10).
2 See Table 4 for tabulated values. The design criteria are
Ahex = \ ^ F = 0.866^ as follows:
Acircle = 7rC 2 /4 1. Minimum spacing of bolts (r m ):
0.866F = TTC /4 2 ForA307: 2 X 8.0J = I6d
For A325/A449: 2 X I2.0d = 24d
ForA687: 2 X 14.0J = 2Sd

Table 4. Tabulated Values of L

Tensile Width
Bolt Stress Across Eff.
A36, A307 A325, A449 A687
Diameter Area Flats Dia.
d F C L L L
(in.) (in.2) (in.) (in.) (in.) *L/d (in.) *L/d (in.) *L/d

% 0.142 0.875 0.92 3.9 7.8 5.8 11.6 6.5 12.9

% 0.226
74 0.334 1.25 1.32 6.0 8.0 8.9 11.9 10.0 13.3
% 0.462
1 0.606 1.625 1.71 8.1 8.1 12.0 12.0 13.4 13.4
l'A 0.969
IV2 1.41 2.375 2.50 12.4 8.3 17.0 11.4 20.5 13.6
1% 1.90
2 2.50 3.125 3.28 16.5 8.3 22.7 11.4 27.3 13.7
2'A 3.25
2V2 4.00 3.875 4.07 20.9 8.4 28.7 11.5 34.6 13.8
2% 4.93
3 5.97 4.625 4.86 25.5 8.5 35.1 11.7 42.3 14.1

* To ensure ductile failure, use the value of L/d obtained by multiplying the largest L/d value in each column by an arbitrary factor of safety of 1.33:
For A36, A307: L/d = 1.33 (8.5) = 12
For A325, A449: L/d = 1.33 (12.0) = 16
For A687: L/d = 1.33 (14.1) = 19

2. Formula for embedment length (Ld): Expressed as an interaction equation:
Ld = \2d where Fu is in ksi.
V 58000' (j)FyAt 4>FyAt a
3. Embedment length (Ld):
ForA307: Ld = \2d
For A325/A449: Ld = \7d
1. The PBLSD design criterion is expressed in general
ForA687: Ld = \9d form as follows:
4. Values are tabulated in Table 2. Design Resistance > Effect of Design Loads
In equation form: 0 R > ye X! Qklk
The area of steel required for tension and shear is consid- 0 = resistance factor, less than 1.0, accounts for
ered additive. uncertainties in material strength
aCV R = nominal design resistance (capacity), equal
Av = = area of steel required for shear to the plastic strength of a structural
AT = = area of steel required for tension ye = analysis factor
J1 A jk = load factor, normally greater than 1.0, and
where provides for load variations
Qk = nominal design load effect
Fv = allowable shear stress
FA == allowable tension stress X = denotes the combined load effects from
a = Probability factor (PF) or reciprocal of the k=\
various causes
stress increase factor (i/SIF).
Note: a <1.0. 2. The PBLSD uses the concept of "limit state" design.
AV + AT = At The nominal resistance (R) is always related to a
specific "limit state." Two classes of limit states are
where At = tensile stress area of anchorage pertinent to structural design: the "ultimate limit
aCV , aTF A state" and the "serviceability or working limit state."
Fv + - =
FA = A t Violation of the "ultimate limit state" involves loss
of all or parts of the structure mechanism. "Service-
CV TF ability limit state" involves excessive deflection, ex-
FvAt +
FAAt a cessive vibration and gross yielding.
The shear force (V) causes a crushing/bearing failure near 3. The anchor bolt design equation expressed in
the surface and translates the shear load into an effective PBLSD form may be derived as follows:
tension load in the anchorage.
FV=FA <t>R>yei Qkjk
FvAt = FAAt = d>T
Let R = FyAt
J_ where
<j>T 4>T' a
Fy = minimum yield strength of steel
\CV+ 7>1 At = bolt tensile area
T = a
/ Let ye = a
Note that AT may be solved for as follows:
aCV , aTF _ Let L ykQk = CV, + 7>
Fv FA ~At (the combined effect of tension and shear loads
FV=FA= 4>Fy as derived in Appendix B.)
. \CV+ TF where
4>Fy C = Shear coefficient

Vi = ylVl + y2V2 + ...ykVk where FyAt values are tabulated in Table 2A.
TF = y1T1 + y2T2 + ...ykTk
71 = Load factor for load case number 1 Note: 0 = 0.90 is a resistance factor which ac-
72 = Load factor for load case number 2 counts for uncertainties in material
By substitution: 0 FyAt > [CVl + TF]a strength (USD).
0 = 0.55 is a resistance factor which converts
\CV1 + T] the yield capacity to working loads
0 a =T



Design of Headed Anchor Bolts
Paper by JOHN G. SHIPP AND anchor heads as shown in Fig. B.4 of the ACI 349-80
EDWARD R. HANINGER commentary.
(Second Quarter, 1983)
Clarification on these points should provide a useful
Discussion by William C. Sherman guide for the design of headed anchor bolts.
The methods for design of anchor bolts presented by Closing discussion by John G. Shipp and Edward R.
John Shipp and Edward Haninger are useful in describ- Haninger
ing the problems encountered in anchor bolt design.
However, some of the information presented appears to The writers wish to thank William Sherman for his com-
be inconsistent. The paper states the governing design ments. The items he presented demonstrate the fine edge
approach used is that presented in ACI 349, Supplement between "governing design approach" and literal inter-
1979, although some of the data presented is inconsistent pretation of the ACI 349, Supplement 1979. In reference
with ACI 349. to the computation for embedment depth (Ld) an arbitrary
The formula presented for determination of embed- factor of safety of 1.33 was applied to account for var-
ment depth "per ACI-349, Appendix B, Section B.4.2" iations in the material values (', FH and (3) and basic,
is as follows: conservative good engineering practice to insure a duc-
tile failure under all conditions. Regarding the Ld values,
it is recognized that all codes allow an increase in factor
of safety. The values of rm are based on the computed
In Table 4, presented in Appendix A, it is stated that values without the additional factor of safety because it
Lid value has been modified "by an arbitrary factor of is already accounted for in the computation of Ld.
safety of 1.33." There is no provision in ACI 349 for As stated in the paper, it is the writers' position that
such an additional factor for safety. Thus, the embed- the closest bolt edge distance should not be less than mt
ment depths listed in Table 2A could be reduced. This or 4 in. The provisions for required reinforcement for
also creates an apparent inconsistency in the values pre- edge distances less than this are provided in ACI 349
sented for rm. To prevent overlapping failure cones, rm but are based on limited test data. In view of this, and
should be equal to two times Ld. This appears inconsis- the extensive reinforcement recommended, the limita-
tent in Table 2A, due to the additional safety factor ap- tions presented for design are preferred. The specific
plied to Ld. condition given (e.g., r > rm and m < rJ2) is a type
The paper also limits all edge distances m to be greater " c " basic bolt type, as is any combination of spacing
than or equal to mt. ACI 349 permits the edge distance that produced overlapping of truncated failure cones.
to be reduced below mt if adequate reinforcement is pro- The increase in pier size from 20 in. square to 24 in.
vided in accordance with ACI 349 Section B.4.4. square is necessary to provide sufficient concrete for
The four types of anchor bolts presented are useful for embedment of the anchor bolts into the pier (i.e., to
general classifications, but do not cover all possible com- satisfy the effective projected stress area Ae). Alter-
binations (e.g., r > rm and m < rm/2). Example 2: Type nately, tension reinforcement may be provided for direct
D presented in the paper is technically inconsistent with tensile load transfer, without satisfying Ae (see the com-
the definition of a Type D anchor bolt. In the example mentary of Ref. 3). This would require hairpin reinforce-
r is not less than rm, and the pier size is increased to ment located within Ld/3 of each anchor bolt. Essentially
meet the requirements of a Type C anchor bolt. The pier what is presented is development of the anchor bolts
size could have remained smaller with the reinforcement within the top portion of the pier, and then the attach-
design presented. The increase in pier size should be ment of that top portion of the pier to the remainder of
presented as an alternative to the reinforcement design. the pier and/or foundation. Sherman's interpretation of
Figures 4 and 7 for the Type D anchor bolt require that the location of the "critical failure plane" for the com-
the bolt be embedded at least Ld. However Ld does not putation of the development length is correct. The fig-
relate to Type D anchor bolts, and the embedment depth ures in the published paper should show the 45 failure
need only be related to ldh for development of the rein- cone surface as the correct plane to be used to calculate
forcement. Also, the "critical failure plane" in Fig. 4 the embedment length.
should be shown as 45 failure cones radiating from the As additional clarification of the failure criteria, it should
be noted that 4(3\/' is the ultimate concrete stress which
William C. Sherman is a Registered Professional Engineer in Den- is to be applied to the affective stress area Ae. The area
ver, Colorado. Ae used for design is the "plan" area which is projected
vertically (not the actual area of the failure cone surface).