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In current practice the design of base plates is controlled strength bolts.3 When the tension capacity of the bolt is

by bearing restrictions on the concrete (see Fig. 1); shear developed, a ductile failure can be ensured by the shear

is transmitted to the concrete largely through anchor bolts, friction mechanism.3

shear lugs or bars attached to the base plate and the tensile In this paper, anchor bolt design ductility is assured by

anchorage steel is generally proportioned only for direct causing a failure mechanism that is controlled by yielding

stress. The embedment requirements for anchorage steel of the anchor bolt steel, rather than brittle tensile failure

are not clearly defined by most codes and are left largely to of concrete. This is accomplished by designing the pullout

the discretion of the design engineer. Also, there are no strength of the "concrete failure cone" (Up) such that it

provisions to prevent a brittle failure in the concrete as equals the minimum specified tensile strength (FuAt) or

u

opposed to a ductile failure in the anchor bolt, as provided full anchorage value" of the anchor bolt. See Figs. 2 and

for with a probability-based limit states design or Load and 10 for illustrations of the concrete failure cone concept. See

Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for steel.8 Larger design Appendix A for the derivation of L^ to satisfy this criteria.

forces now mandated in many areas due to the revised The design approach presented herein is compatible with

seismic and wind loads require design capacities for anchor the proposed AISC Specification for Nuclear Facilities,5

bolts beyond any existing code values.6'11 Therefore, there ACI 318-77, 2 and the proposed revisions to ACI 318-77.7

is a need for a complete design procedure for anchor bolts The governing design approach is that presented in ACI

that will accommodate these larger loads and incorporate 349, Supplement 1979.3

the proposed design philosophy, i.e., probability-based limit

states design (PBLSD). 8 DESIGN PARAMETERS

The design approach presented is generally applicable to

THE HEADED BOLT AS AN ANCHORAGE

any of a number of bolt or concrete strengths. However, the

The headed bolt, as designed herein, is recommended as the following representative materials are used in developing

most efficient type of anchorage to use for both tension and the design values. Anchor bolt materials used are ASTM

shear loads. Other anchorages which have been used are A36, A307 (Grade B), A325, A449 and A687. Concrete

L-bolts, J-bolts, rods with a bolted bearing plate and shear is assumed to have a minimum compressive strength (fc)

lugs. L-bolts have been shown to be less effective in resisting of 3,000 psi. Anchor bolts are heavy hex bolts or threaded

slip at service load levels than headed bolts.13 The authors steel bars with one heavy hex nut placed in concrete. Bolt

are not aware of any published data that addresses the threads at the embedded end of each threaded steel bar are

performance of J-bolts. For a threaded rod with a bolted "staked" at two places below the heavy hex nut. All bolts

washer or bearing plate embedded in concrete, tests have are brought to a "snug tight" condition as defined by AISC4

shown that unless the plate is properly sized it may actually to ensure good contact between attachments. The concrete

decrease the anchor capacity by causing a weakened failure is at least 14 days old prior to tightening the anchor bolts

plane in the concrete.7'17 Shear lugs can fail in a brittle in order to prevent bolt rotation. Anchor bolts are designed

mode if not properly confined, and do not lend themselves for combined shear and tension loads; the area of steel re-

to a shear friction analysis.7'17 quired for tension and shear is considered additive. Criteria

The headed bolt, when properly embedded and confined, will be presented such that either Working Stress Design

will develop the full tensile capacity of even A490 high (WSD) or Ultimate Strength Design (USD) may be

used.

John G. Shipp is Supervising Structural Engineer, Fluor Engi-

neers and Constructors, Inc., Irvine, California. COMBINED TENSION AND SHEAR

Edward R. Haninger is Senior Structural Engineer, Fluor En-

Many authors have presented data and interaction equa-

gineers and Constructors, Inc., Irvine, California.

tions to account for the combined effects of tension and shear

58

Table 1A. Standard Anchor Bolt Basic Types

Bolt Edge

Spacing Distance

Type Description r m Comments

mv >

mt

only mv

plus overlapping

failure cones

reinforcement Tm/2

Note: The bolt embedment depth shall be greater than or equal to Lj ,

as given in Table IB for all bolt types.

STANDARD AMCHO* &OLT

The rationale for this basis is that the shear force (Vi)

causes a bearing failure near the concrete surface and

Fig. 1. Example of base plate loading translates the shear load on the anchor bolt into an effective

tension load by shear friction. In the absence of tension load

(see Refs. 1, 3, 12,14, 15 and 17). In this paper, the total ( 7 , an anchor bolt is developed for "full anchorage" to

required area of anchor bolt steel to resist tension and shear resist shear. In terms of Probability-Based Limit States

loads is considered to be additive (see Appendix B, and Figs. Design (PBLSD), the anchor bolt design resistance is

1 and 9). greater than or equal to the effective combined tension (7^)

and shear (Vi) load effects as indicated below (see Appendix

G).

(Si6 HOT6 / &HOW) mrtnecrs AtFy > T

oursite of

COhtGWte

~1 where

AtFy = Nominal design resistance (capacity) equal to

the product of the bolt tensile area (.4,) and the

minimum specified steel yield strength (see

Table 2A

CVj + TF

a

0

C = Shear coefficient, equal to the inverse of the

shear friction value, as per Ref. 3, for the par-

ticular base plate mounting

Bolt Development . Bolt Distance for Distance for

tNreRs&crs Type Length Spacing Shear Tension

OUTSIP6 Of (ASTM1 Ld rm mv mt

cottcxere

A307 \2d 16d \2d 5d or 4" min.

secrioN c-c

A325 lid 24d \ld Id or 4" min.

ucre; A449 17d 24d lid Id or 4" min.

2. A* = A$ -Ar " (&**IU<9 A**A Of AHCHOR ST&t)

Note: The above values were derived per Table 2B and tabulated in Table

Fig. 2. Effective stress area for limited depth (Ae) 2A for various bolt diameters.

59

Table 2A. Standard Anchor Bolt Basic Design Values

Tensile Sd or Id or

Bolt Stress Fy - 36 ksi Fy = 58 ksi Fy = 81 ksi \Fy = 92 ksi Fy = 105 ksi \2d 17 d \9d 4" min. 4" min. 16d 24d 28d

Diameter Area A325

d At A36 A325 A325 A36 A325 A36 A449 A36 A325

(in.) (in-2) A307 A449 A449 A449 A687 A307 A449 A687 A307 A687 A307 A449 A687

Ys 0.226 8.14 20.79 23.73 7% 11 12 4 4% 10 15 18

% 0.334 12.02 30.73 35.07 9 13 14% 4 5V4 12 18 21

% 0.462 16.64 42.40 48.51 10% 15 17 4% 6% 14 21 25

i 0.606 21.82 55.75 63.63 12 17 19 5 7 16 24 28

1% 0.763 27.46 61.80 80.12 13% 19 21% 5% 7% 18 27 32

l'A 0.969 34.89 78.49 101.7 15 21 y4 24 6V4 8% 20 30 35

1% 1.155 41.59 93.56 121.3 16% 24 26 67/s 9% 22 33 39

i% 1.405 50.59 113.88 147.5 18 25% 28% 7% 10% 24 36 42

1% 1.90 68.4 110.2 199.5 21 30 33% 8% 12V4 28 42 49

2 2.50 90.0 145.0 262.5 24 34 38 10 14 32 48 56

2'A 3.25 117.1 188.5 341.3 27 39 43 11V4 15% 36 54 63

2'/2 4.00 144.0 232.0 420.0 30 43 48 12% 17% 40 60 70

2% 4.93 177.5 285.9 517.7 33 47 52 13% 19V4 44 66 77

3 5.97 214.9 346.3 626.9 36 51 57 15 21 48 72 84

Notes:

1. The following formulas have been conservatively simplified by using the values in Table 2B:

58

V56V77:

(c) mv - d per ACI-349 Appendix B, Sect. B.5.1.1

V7.5V77:

2. Before entering this table, the total effective design load (T) shall include the appropriate load factors, stress increase factors or probability factors, capacity

reduction factors ((f)) and shear coefficient (C).

3. All computations are based on/' c = 3000 psi.

For PBLSD or Ultimate Strength Design (USD): Tp Tension design load effect equal to the product

of the load factor(s) and the nominal tension load.

Vi = Shear design load effect equal to the product of The load factors shall be in accordance with

the load factor(s) and the nominal shear load. applicable codes. For example, using ACI

The load factors are in accordance with appli- 318-77, 7> = 1.4D + 1.1L

cable codes. For example, using ACI 318-77, Vt 0 = Capacity reduction factor

= 1.4Z) + 1.7L = 0.90 for factored design loads under USD

/ Fu mt=d\/

Fu

,n

1 F

Ld - \2d \i

V 58000

56 V ? ; -V7.svrc

Fu

(ksi) Actual Use Actual Use Actual Use

90 14.95</ 17 d S.42d Id 14.80J 17 d

105 16.15</ 17 d 5.85d Id \5.99d 17d

120 17.26J 17d 6.25d Id 17.09 d \7d

150 19.3W \9d 6.99d Id \9.\0d \9d

Note: Values listed in this table are based on/ r c = 3000 psi.

60

a = 1.0 for USD. Probability considerations are in- M/CC/X6 CD+J&

*~U"6AKS

For Working Stress Design (WSD): &* SM64*

Vt=D + L

Tf = Nominal tension load. For example, Asv = TOTAL Of- ALL L6GS

7> = D + L

0 = Capacity reduction factor, which includes a ,

safety factor, used to convert yield capacity to KM

'***tK'a&6'

working loads = 0.55

COV6X

a = Probability factor (PF) or reciprocal of the stress

PLAU

increase factor (l/SIF), i.e., seismic loads com-

bined with dead loads and live loads. PF = 0.75;

therefore, a = PF = 0.75. SIF = 1.33; therefore,

a = 1/SIF = 0.75.

NOT*: T/* K&tJto*OtV<$

MUST MT**C6PT W&

WLU*e COA/& TO &e

ef-tecT/ve.

ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN

The following section establishes limitations for the com-

bined effects of bolt spacing, embedment depth and edge FAIUTA& COht6

distance, such that the heavy hex head on a standard anchor

bolt provides "full anchorage" in concrete equal to the

tensile capacity of the bolt. Several agencies/authors have Fig. 3. Shear reinforcement

published reports representing their test data and/or rec-

ommendations to account for these variables, (see Refs. 9,

10, 13, 16 and 17). The recommendations which follow

represent a composite of the published literature, modified Type B Anchor BoltsAnchor bolts are classified as

for compatibility with ACI 349. 3 Where plain bars are "Type B," or shear reinforcement only, when all of the

used, the equivalent anchorage may be accomplished by following apply:

threading the embedded end of the bar and using one The closest bolt spacing (r) is greater than or equal

American Standard heavy hex nut of equal or higher tor m .

strength steel with bolt threads "staked" at two places below

the heavy hex nut. The closest edge distance (m) is greater than or equal

to r m / 2 but less than mv. Note: rm/2 > mt

Refer to Tables 1A and IB for a summary of the various

anchor bolt classifications and criteria for which design The bolt embedment depth is greater than or equal

procedures are herein provided. Note that anchor bolts are toLd.

defined as type A, B, C or D. These types represent various The size of Type B anchor bolts is selected as per Type

design conditions of anchor bolts such as spacing, edge A anchor bolts. In addition, shear reinforcement (Asv) is

distance and development length. provided on both sides of any critical plane of potential

failure (see Fig. 3). The total area of horizontal shear

Type A Anchor BoltsAnchor bolts are classified as reinforcing steel (Asv) is determined as follows:

Type A, or isolated, when all the following apply:

The closest bolt spacing (r) is greater than or equal FutAt

to the minimum spacing (r m ) as specified in Table IB, CFy cos 45

(i.e., no overlapping failure cones). where Fy is the specified minimum yield strength of the

The closest edge distance (m) is greater than or equal reinforcing steel.

to the minimum edge distance for shear (mv) as

specified in Table IB. Note: mv > rm/2; mv > mt Type C Anchor BoltsAnchor bolts are classified as

The bolt embedment depth is greater than or equal Type C, or shear reinforcement plus overlapping failure

to Ld as specified in Table IB. cone considerations, when all the following apply:

The size of Type A anchor bolts is selected such that the The closest bolt spacing (r) is less than r m .

design load (7") does not exceed the basic Nominal Design The closest edge distance (m) is greater than or equal

Resistance (AtFy) values tabulated in Table 2A. to mt and less than mv. Note: mt < rm/2

61

SECOND QUARTER / 1983

Table 3. Standard Anchor Bolt Tensile Capacities

Bolt Stress

Fy = 58 ksi Fy = 90 ksi Fy = 105 ksi Fy = 120 ksi Fy = 150 ksi

Diameter Area

d 4 A36 A325 A325

(in.) (in-2) A307 A449 A449 A449 A687

% 0.226 13.11 27.12 33.9

% 0.334 19.37 40.08 50.1

% 0.462 26.80 55.44 69.3

1 0.606 35.15 72.72 90.9

1V8 0.763 44.25 80.12 114.5

1V4 0.969 56.20 101.7 145.4

1% 1.155 66.99 121.3 173.3

1% 1.405 81.49 147.5 210.8

1% 1.90 110.2 171.0 285.0

2 2.50 145.0 225.0 375.0

2V4 3.25 188.1 292.5 487.5

2V2 4.00 232.0 360.0 600.0

23/4 4.93 285.9 443.7 739.5

3 5.97 346.3 537.3 895.5

The bolt embedment depth must be determined by lines extending from the exterior bolt heads toward

considering the effect of overlapping concrete tensile the compression face do not intersect within the con-

stress cones (see Fig. 2). Note: Lj (required) > Ld as crete, then the effective stress area is limited as shown

tabulated in Table IB. in Fig. 2.

Under no condition will the closest bolt edge distance

Type D Anchor BoltsAnchor bolts are classified as

be less than mt or 4 in.

Type D, or tension lap with reinforcement, when all the

The size of Type C anchor bolts is selected as per Type following apply:

A anchor bolts. Shear reinforcement is provided as per

The closest bolt spacing (r) is less than rm.

Type B anchor bolts. Also, the bolt embedment depth is

calculated as follows: The closest edge distance (m) is greater than or equal

to mt and less than rm/2.

First, calculate the effective concrete tensile stress area

Ae (see Fig. 2) based on r, m and an assumed em- The required bolt embedment depth is greater than

bedment depth greater than L^ The effective concrete or equal to L^

tensile stress area (Ae) is the projected area bounded The projected area of the overlapping concrete tensile

by the intersection between 45 degree lines radiating stress cones (Ae) are extremely limited, such that

from the edge of the bolt head and the concrete surface failure mechanism is controlled by the reinforced

at which the loads are applied, minus the area of the section rather than by the yielding of the anchor bolt

bolt heads (refer to Fig. 2). steel. Such situations commonly arise in concrete

Then, calculate the pullout strength (Up), where piers.

4/5 y/fc is the allowable uniform concrete tensile The size of Type D anchor bolts is selected as per Type

stress applied over the effective stress area Ae: A anchor bolts. Shear reinforcement is provided as per

Up = [4PVTc\Ae > FuAt Type B anchor bolts. Additional tension reinforcement is

provided as follows:

Note that Up must be greater than or equal to the

minimum specified tensile strength (FuAt) of the Additional tension reinforcement is provided by

standard anchor bolt as tabulated in Table 3. If Up is concentrically located reinforcing steel (Ast), such that

less than FuAt, continue to increase the bolt embed- the anchor bolts are developed for "full anchorage."

ment depth until a solution is obtained. Refer to Fig. 4 for the recommended tension rein-

The tensile strength of the concrete failure cone in a forcement practice.

slab or wall is limited by the thickness of concrete and The total area of tension reinforcement (Ast) as de-

the out-to-out dimensions of the anchors. If 45 degree termined by the following equation is developed on

62

ENGINEERING JOURNAL / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

[BOLTS kcoL.JeAs&/i

HJS

^~ -#

T&SStON LAP

#- # PttRO* COL.&IW.

PLAhl

Lcl * oe/etoPM&rr

L&GMOt&ClT

Jtjh*06V6LOP*9eMr

L6N$TH OP &6AK

r

WW SfP. HOOK $QUA*t

Design:

\CVj + TF 1.85(15)+ 35

T = a 0.75 = 86 kips

N CRITICAL

0 0.55

fiAILU**

PUW6- Refer to Table 2A and select 1%-in. dia. A325 bolts:

AtFy = 93.6 kips > 86 kips

Use 1%-in. dia. A325 bolts; rm = 33 in. and Lj = 24 in.

VB**S (Ast)

pie* ofK COL teih/p.

Example 2: Type D (Bolts in a Confined Pier),

see Figs. 6 and 7

Fig. 4. Tension lap Design Data:

Design anchor bolts for cylindrical heater foundation.

both sides of the critical plane of potential failure: For empty + wind load combination:

Ast '= nFuAt/Fy Tp = 1 kip; V{ = 3 kips

Fy = 60 ksi; f'c = 3000 psi

where SIF=\.0; a = 1.0

n = total number of bolts in the bolt group r = 12; ra=4

Fy = minimum yield strength of reinforcing 0 = 0.55 (working stress design)

steel C = 1.85 (grouted base plate)

The application of the criteria presented in this paper is CVl + 7)1 1.85(3) + !

T = a = 11.9 kips

illustrated by the following three example problems. The 0 0.55

examples demonstrate Type A and D anchor bolts. An From Table 2A, for 3/4-in. dia. A307 anchor bolt:

example is also presented for a column base plate for which

special attention is given to concrete strength and anchor AtFy = 12.02 kips > 11.9 kips

bolt head placement. r = 12 in. < rm = 12 in.

Example 1: Type A (Isolated Bolt), see Fig. 5 mt < m <mVi where mt 4 in.

Design Data: Ld = 9 in.

Tp = 35 kips) FuAt = 19,370 lbs (see Table 3)

F, = 15 kipsj DL + LL + W L

f'c = 3000 psi ^A ( (r ro en iqi uminr-e dfutAt

) - 4 ^ ^~- - 4 ( (1 )9 6) 357 ) V _ _

SIF=\.33; a = 1/SIF = 0.75

0 = 0.55 (working stress design) = 136 sq. in.

2

C = 1.85 (grouted base plate) Ae = 10 = 100 sq. in. < 136 sq. in. n.g.

63

Thus, we have a Type D anchor bolt.

st

Fy (60)

= 1.29 sq. in. < 1.60 sq. in. ( 8 - # 4 bars)

Use4-#4U-bars.

Shear reinforcement must also be provided.

Fuu^t

At 19.37

ASv

CFy cos 45 (1.85)(60)(.707)

= 0.25 sq. in. < 0.40 sq. in. ( l - # 4 U-bar)

Use: l - # 4 U-bar in each direction.

PLAM Ofi

POTtNTIAL Design:

tLMATION "'"** Ae s Trr2 = TT(28) 2 = 2463 in.2

Fig. 6. Example 2: Type D anchor bolt Up=4pVFcAe*FuAt

= 4 (.85) 4000 (2463) = 529,630 lbs

Increase pier size to 24 in. square, (to avoid placement of FuAt = 110,200(4) = 440,600 lbs < 529,630 lbs (see Table 3)

tension reinforcement), such that:

Ae = 122 = 144 sq. in. > 136 sq. in. o.k.

Next, check the reinforced section and provide tension lap EFFECTIVE CONCRETE

STRESS AREA (Ae) FOR

reinforcement. FOUR ANCHOR BOLTS /A/

TENS/ON h

APPROXIMATE RAPH4S (r) = E8

i2Mse

COL..

- COL tetMA

u m

Ft*-Vifl

m -BARS

(SH6A* fi&tJA)

-*4\t*3A*S STRESS ARBA

(T&/S/CM X6/A/*) (OVERLAPPING)

PLAN

&

t+'*WB4*S

3* (T&JSIOht Kfrtffi )

m

*3T/6S<P<t"M*K. /%"/UAX.A307A3.CTjP,

THKU BOLTS 6M3.

OtPTH (Lj)

CRITICAL

o PLAM& OP

POT&tffAL

FAILUte

8

a-acou&Mf.-

As .' 4'*O.S5

eLGl/ATtOH

Fig. 7. Example 2: Pier for Type D anchor bolt Fig. 8. Example 3: Column base plate

64

Therefore, 4-l3/4-in. maximum diameter bolts may be

used.

Note: Ld = 24 in. not adequate \ifc = 3000 psi and /3 =

0.65, i.e., anchor bolt head within far face reinforce-

ment.

CVi + 7>"

AtFy >T = a

0

Tcj> = 4>AtFy = 0.55AtFy = CVl + 7)

C =1.85, a = 1.0

0 = 0.55(WSD)

T = AtFy (Table 2A)

A307

Bolt Dia.

(in.) 0.554*V Vi TF

v2 2.82 0 2.82

1.52 0

10 TO 30

1 12.00 0 12.00

ty (SH6AZ LO40j KtPS)

6.49 0

INTeRACTtOM CURVES

A 307 STb MCHO* BOLTS' 1V2 27.82 0 27.82

15.04 0

Fig. 9. Example 3: Interaction curves

1% 37.62 0 37.62

20.34 0

NOMENCLATURE

Ae = Effective projected stress area to which the al-

lowable uniform concrete tensile stress is ap-

plied to determine the pullout strength of con-

crete

Ast = Total area of reinforcing steel across a potential

tension failure plane(s)

Asv = Total area of reinforcing steel across a potential

L+e/t shear failure plane(s)

PLAN At = Tensile stress area of anchorage per AISC 4

C = Shear coefficient applied to standard anchors

which accounts for effects of various shear

failure surfaces

= 1.10 when steel plates are embedded with ex-

posed surface flush with concrete surface

= 1.25 when steel plates are recessed in grout with

bottom of plate in concrete surface

= 1.85 when steel plates are supported on grout

mortar with exposed surface exterior to con-

crete surface

6L6VAT/OM c = Equivalent circle for hex head

d = Nominal diameter of a bolt or plain bar

Fig. 10. Projected area of heavy hexagonal head fc = Specified compressive strength of concrete

65

SECOND QUARTER / 1983

Fy = Minimum specified yield strength of steel or Strength Design (USD) for steel tensile

rebar as tabulated below: stress

= 0.55 for service design loads under Working

Stress Design (WSD); complies with AISC

Fy (ksi) ASTM Bolt Diameter (in.)

allowable Ft values

36 A307 All ji = Coefficient of friction

92 A325 V2 to 1, incl.

81 A325 Over 1 to IV2, incl.

a = Probability Factor (PF) or reciprocal of the

92 A449 V2to l,incl. stress increase factor (X/SIF)

81 A449 Over 1 to 1V2, incl. j8 = Concrete tensile stress reduction factor

58 A449 Over 1V2 to 3, incl. = 0.65 for concrete tensile stress when embedded

105 A687 % to 3, incl.

anchor head is within far face reinforcement

60 A615 Type S, Grade 60 Rebar = 0.85 for concrete tensile stress when embedded

40 A615 Grade 40 Rebar

anchor head is beyond the far face reinforce-

ment

Fu Minimum specified tensile strength of steel as

tabulated below:

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This paper was sponsored by Fluor Engineer and Con-

Fu (ksi) ASTM Bolt Diameter (in.)

structors. The contents of this paper reflect the views of the

58 A307 All writers and not necessarily the official policies of Fluor

120 A325 V2 to 1, incl.

105 A325 Over 1 to 1V2, incl.

Engineers and Constructors.

120 A449 1/2 to 1, incl.

105 A449 Over to 1 to l 1 ^, incl.

90 A449 Over 1V2 to 3, incl. REFERENCES

150 A687 % to 3, incl.

1. Adihardjo, R. and L. Soltis Combined Shear and Tension

on Grouted Base Details Engineering Journal, American

h = Thickness of a concrete slab or wall Institute ofSteel Construction, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1979.

Ld = Minimum embedded length required to fully 2. ACI Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete

develop the tensile strength of an anchor bolt ACI318-77.

3. ACI Appendix BSteel Embedments (1978C) ACI

Id = Basic development length for reinforcement

349-76 Supplement, 1979.

Idh = Development length of reinforcement with a 4. AISC Manual of Steel Construction Eighth Edition,

standard hook 1980.

m = Edge distance from the center of an anchor to 5. AISC Specification for The Design, Fabrication and

the edge of concrete Erection of Steel Safety Related Structures For Nuclear

mt = Minimum edge distance to prevent failure due FacilitiesN690 AISI Proposed Specification, Jan. 1,

to lateral bursting forces at a standard anchor 1981.

bolt head 6. ANSI American National StandardBuilding Code Re-

mv = Minimum edge distance to develop the full quirements for Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and

tensile capacity of an anchor bolt in shear Other Structures ANSI A58.1-1972.

within additional reinforcement when the shear 7. Cannon, R. W.,D. A. Godfrey andF. L. Moreadith Guide

to The Design of Anchor Bolts and Other Steel Embedments

load acts toward the free edge Concrete International, July 1981.

n = Number of bolts in a bolt group 8. Edlingwood, B. ,etal A Probability Based Load Criterion

PF = Probability Factor for Structural Design Civil Engineering, ASCE, July

r = Spacing of multiple anchors 1981.

rm = Minimum spacing of multiple anchor bolts 9. Fisher, James M. Structural Details in Industrial Buildings

SIF = Stress Increase Factor Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Con-

T = Total effective anchor bolt design tension load struction, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1981.

due to bending and direct load 10. Hasselwander, G. B., J. O. Jirsa, J. E. Breen and K. Lo

Tp = Tension load acting on an individual anchor Strength and Behavior of Anchor Bolts Embedded Near

bolt or wedge anchor Edges of Concrete Piers Research Report 29-2F, Center

of Highway Research, The University of Texas at Austin,

Up = Pullout strength of concrete equal to the tensile May 1977.

capacity of the concrete failure cone 11. ICBO Uniform Building Code1979 Edition Interna-

V = Total shear in an anchorage tional Conference of Building Officials, 1979.

V{ = Shear load acting on an individual anchor 12. Kharod, V. J. Anchor Bolt Design for Shear and Tension

0 = Capacity reduction factor Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Con-

= 0.90 for factored design loads under Ultimate struction, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1980.

66

ENGINEERING JOURNAL / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

13. Lee, D. W. and J. E. Breen Factors Affecting Anchor Bolt Tensile stress area Ae = A\ A2

Development Research Report 88- 1F, Project 3-5-65-88, = ir(L + C/2)2 - 7T (C/2) 2

Cooperative Highway Research Program with Texas = ir [L2 + CL + C 2 /4 - C2/4]

Highway Department and U.S. Bureau of Public Roads, = ir[L2 + CL]

Center for Highway Research, University of Texas, Austin,

Aug. 1966. Up = Ae[4j3 y/fc (assume 0 = 0.65)

14. McMackin, P., R. Slutter and J. Fisher Headed Steel = TT[L2 + CL][4(0.65)V3000]

Anchors Under Combined Loading Engineering Journal, = ir[L2 + CL]U2

American Institute of Steel Construction, Vol. 10, No. 2, = 447(L2 + CL)

1973.

15. PCI Design HandbookPrecast Prestressed Concrete Also, Up = FuAt , in pounds (see Table 3).

Second Edition, 1974. Therefore,

16. Swirsky, R. A. et al Lateral Resistance of Anchor Bolts

Installed in Concrete California Department of Transpor- 0 = 447.4L2 + 447ACL - FuAt

tation, Sacramento, U.S. Department of Commerce National 0 = L2 + CL- (FuAt/UlA)

Technical Information Service PB80-116189, May 1979.

FM

17. TV A Anchorage to Concrete Tennessee Valley Authority

Division of Engineering Design, Thermal Power Engi-

-CyJ C2 + 4 447]

neeringReport No. CEB 75-32, Dec. 1, 1975. 1

L

~ 2

Vc2+

APPENDIX A.

'FuAt -

MINIMUM SPACING AND EMBEDMENT

112

c

An equivalent circle is assumed equal to the projected area

of a heavy hexagonal head (see Fig. 10).

2 See Table 4 for tabulated values. The design criteria are

Ahex = \ ^ F = 0.866^ as follows:

Acircle = 7rC 2 /4 1. Minimum spacing of bolts (r m ):

2

0.866F = TTC /4 2 ForA307: 2 X 8.0J = I6d

For A325/A449: 2 X I2.0d = 24d

ForA687: 2 X 14.0J = 2Sd

Heavy

Hex

Tensile Width

Bolt Stress Across Eff.

A36, A307 A325, A449 A687

Diameter Area Flats Dia.

d F C L L L

(in.) (in.2) (in.) (in.) (in.) *L/d (in.) *L/d (in.) *L/d

% 0.226

74 0.334 1.25 1.32 6.0 8.0 8.9 11.9 10.0 13.3

% 0.462

1 0.606 1.625 1.71 8.1 8.1 12.0 12.0 13.4 13.4

l'A 0.969

IV2 1.41 2.375 2.50 12.4 8.3 17.0 11.4 20.5 13.6

1% 1.90

2 2.50 3.125 3.28 16.5 8.3 22.7 11.4 27.3 13.7

2'A 3.25

2V2 4.00 3.875 4.07 20.9 8.4 28.7 11.5 34.6 13.8

2% 4.93

3 5.97 4.625 4.86 25.5 8.5 35.1 11.7 42.3 14.1

* To ensure ductile failure, use the value of L/d obtained by multiplying the largest L/d value in each column by an arbitrary factor of safety of 1.33:

For A36, A307: L/d = 1.33 (8.5) = 12

For A325, A449: L/d = 1.33 (12.0) = 16

For A687: L/d = 1.33 (14.1) = 19

67

SECOND QUARTER / 1983

2. Formula for embedment length (Ld): Expressed as an interaction equation:

CV

Ld = \2d where Fu is in ksi.

V 58000' (j)FyAt 4>FyAt a

3. Embedment length (Ld):

APPENDIX C. PROBABILITY-

ForA307: Ld = \2d

BASED LIMIT STATES DESIGN (PBLSD)

For A325/A449: Ld = \7d

1. The PBLSD design criterion is expressed in general

ForA687: Ld = \9d form as follows:

4. Values are tabulated in Table 2. Design Resistance > Effect of Design Loads

j

In equation form: 0 R > ye X! Qklk

APPENDIX B. BOLT TENSION/ k\

SHEAR INTERACTION EQUATIONS where

The area of steel required for tension and shear is consid- 0 = resistance factor, less than 1.0, accounts for

ered additive. uncertainties in material strength

aCV R = nominal design resistance (capacity), equal

Av = = area of steel required for shear to the plastic strength of a structural

member

AT = = area of steel required for tension ye = analysis factor

J1 A jk = load factor, normally greater than 1.0, and

where provides for load variations

Qk = nominal design load effect

Fv = allowable shear stress

J

FA == allowable tension stress X = denotes the combined load effects from

a = Probability factor (PF) or reciprocal of the k=\

various causes

stress increase factor (i/SIF).

Note: a <1.0. 2. The PBLSD uses the concept of "limit state" design.

AV + AT = At The nominal resistance (R) is always related to a

specific "limit state." Two classes of limit states are

where At = tensile stress area of anchorage pertinent to structural design: the "ultimate limit

aCV , aTF A state" and the "serviceability or working limit state."

Fv + - =

FA = A t Violation of the "ultimate limit state" involves loss

of all or parts of the structure mechanism. "Service-

CV TF ability limit state" involves excessive deflection, ex-

FvAt +

FAAt a cessive vibration and gross yielding.

The shear force (V) causes a crushing/bearing failure near 3. The anchor bolt design equation expressed in

the surface and translates the shear load into an effective PBLSD form may be derived as follows:

tension load in the anchorage.

FV=FA <t>R>yei Qkjk

k=\

FvAt = FAAt = d>T

Let R = FyAt

J_ where

<j>T 4>T' a

Fy = minimum yield strength of steel

\CV+ 7>1 At = bolt tensile area

T = a

<>

/ Let ye = a

Note that AT may be solved for as follows:

aCV , aTF _ Let L ykQk = CV, + 7>

k=\

+

Fv FA ~At (the combined effect of tension and shear loads

FV=FA= 4>Fy as derived in Appendix B.)

. \CV+ TF where

4>Fy C = Shear coefficient

68

ENGINEERING JOURNAL / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Vi = ylVl + y2V2 + ...ykVk where FyAt values are tabulated in Table 2A.

TF = y1T1 + y2T2 + ...ykTk

71 = Load factor for load case number 1 Note: 0 = 0.90 is a resistance factor which ac-

72 = Load factor for load case number 2 counts for uncertainties in material

By substitution: 0 FyAt > [CVl + TF]a strength (USD).

0 = 0.55 is a resistance factor which converts

\CV1 + T] the yield capacity to working loads

FyAt>

0 a =T

(WSD)

69

DISCUSSION

Design of Headed Anchor Bolts

Paper by JOHN G. SHIPP AND anchor heads as shown in Fig. B.4 of the ACI 349-80

EDWARD R. HANINGER commentary.

(Second Quarter, 1983)

Clarification on these points should provide a useful

Discussion by William C. Sherman guide for the design of headed anchor bolts.

The methods for design of anchor bolts presented by Closing discussion by John G. Shipp and Edward R.

John Shipp and Edward Haninger are useful in describ- Haninger

ing the problems encountered in anchor bolt design.

However, some of the information presented appears to The writers wish to thank William Sherman for his com-

be inconsistent. The paper states the governing design ments. The items he presented demonstrate the fine edge

approach used is that presented in ACI 349, Supplement between "governing design approach" and literal inter-

1979, although some of the data presented is inconsistent pretation of the ACI 349, Supplement 1979. In reference

with ACI 349. to the computation for embedment depth (Ld) an arbitrary

The formula presented for determination of embed- factor of safety of 1.33 was applied to account for var-

ment depth "per ACI-349, Appendix B, Section B.4.2" iations in the material values (', FH and (3) and basic,

is as follows: conservative good engineering practice to insure a duc-

tile failure under all conditions. Regarding the Ld values,

it is recognized that all codes allow an increase in factor

of safety. The values of rm are based on the computed

In Table 4, presented in Appendix A, it is stated that values without the additional factor of safety because it

Lid value has been modified "by an arbitrary factor of is already accounted for in the computation of Ld.

safety of 1.33." There is no provision in ACI 349 for As stated in the paper, it is the writers' position that

such an additional factor for safety. Thus, the embed- the closest bolt edge distance should not be less than mt

ment depths listed in Table 2A could be reduced. This or 4 in. The provisions for required reinforcement for

also creates an apparent inconsistency in the values pre- edge distances less than this are provided in ACI 349

sented for rm. To prevent overlapping failure cones, rm but are based on limited test data. In view of this, and

should be equal to two times Ld. This appears inconsis- the extensive reinforcement recommended, the limita-

tent in Table 2A, due to the additional safety factor ap- tions presented for design are preferred. The specific

plied to Ld. condition given (e.g., r > rm and m < rJ2) is a type

The paper also limits all edge distances m to be greater " c " basic bolt type, as is any combination of spacing

than or equal to mt. ACI 349 permits the edge distance that produced overlapping of truncated failure cones.

to be reduced below mt if adequate reinforcement is pro- The increase in pier size from 20 in. square to 24 in.

vided in accordance with ACI 349 Section B.4.4. square is necessary to provide sufficient concrete for

The four types of anchor bolts presented are useful for embedment of the anchor bolts into the pier (i.e., to

general classifications, but do not cover all possible com- satisfy the effective projected stress area Ae). Alter-

binations (e.g., r > rm and m < rm/2). Example 2: Type nately, tension reinforcement may be provided for direct

D presented in the paper is technically inconsistent with tensile load transfer, without satisfying Ae (see the com-

the definition of a Type D anchor bolt. In the example mentary of Ref. 3). This would require hairpin reinforce-

r is not less than rm, and the pier size is increased to ment located within Ld/3 of each anchor bolt. Essentially

meet the requirements of a Type C anchor bolt. The pier what is presented is development of the anchor bolts

size could have remained smaller with the reinforcement within the top portion of the pier, and then the attach-

design presented. The increase in pier size should be ment of that top portion of the pier to the remainder of

presented as an alternative to the reinforcement design. the pier and/or foundation. Sherman's interpretation of

Figures 4 and 7 for the Type D anchor bolt require that the location of the "critical failure plane" for the com-

the bolt be embedded at least Ld. However Ld does not putation of the development length is correct. The fig-

relate to Type D anchor bolts, and the embedment depth ures in the published paper should show the 45 failure

need only be related to ldh for development of the rein- cone surface as the correct plane to be used to calculate

forcement. Also, the "critical failure plane" in Fig. 4 the embedment length.

should be shown as 45 failure cones radiating from the As additional clarification of the failure criteria, it should

be noted that 4(3\/' is the ultimate concrete stress which

William C. Sherman is a Registered Professional Engineer in Den- is to be applied to the affective stress area Ae. The area

ver, Colorado. Ae used for design is the "plan" area which is projected

vertically (not the actual area of the failure cone surface).

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