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Latin Numerals

NUMERAL Adjectives are of three kinds:


Cardinal, answering the question quot? how many?
Ordinal, answering the question quotus? which in order?
Distributive, answering the question quotni? how many each?

Table of Latin Numerals


CARDINAL ORDINAL DISTRIBUTIVE ADVERBS

I. nus (na, nam) prmus (-a, -um) singul (-ae, -a) semel
II. duo (duae, duo) secundus, alter bn bis
III. trs (trs, tria) tertius tern ter
IV. quattuor qurtus quatern quater
V. qunque quntus qun qunqui(n)s
VI. sex sextus sn sexins
VII. septem septimus septn septins
VIII. oct octvus octni octins
IX. novem nnus novn novins
X. decem decimus dn decins
XI. ndecim ndecimus ndn ndecins
XII. duodecim duodecimus dodn duodecins
XIII. trdecim tertius decimus tern dn terdecins
XIV. quattuordecim qurtus decimus quatern dn quaterdecins
XV. qundecim quntus decimus qun dn qundecins
XVI. sdecim sextus decimus sden dn sdecins
XVII. septendecim septimus decimus septen dn septins decins
XVIII. duodvgint duodvc(n)simus duodvcn duodvcins
XIX. ndvgint ndvcnsimus ndvcn ndvcins
XX. vgint vcnsimus vcn vcins
XXI. nus et vgint nus et vcnsimus vcn singul semel et vcins
XXX. trgint trcnsimus trcn trcins
XL. quadrgint quadrgnsimus quadrgn quadrgins
L. qunqugint qunqugnsimus qunqugn qunqugins
LX. sexgint sexgnsimus sexgn sexgins
LXX. septugint septugnsimus septugn septugins
LXXX. octgint octgnsimus octgn octgins
XC. nngint nngnsimus nngn nngins
C. centum centnsimus centn centins
CC. ducent ducentnsimus ducn ducentins
CCC. trecent trecentnsimus trecn trecentins
CCCC. quadringent quadringentnsimus quadringn quadringentins
D. qungent qungentnsimus qungn qungentins
DC. sescent sescentnsimus sescn sescentins
DCC. septingent septingentnsimus septingn septingentins
DCCC. octingent octingentnsimus octingn octingentins
DCCCC. nngent nngentnsimus nngn nngentins
M. mlle mllnsimus singula milia mllins
MM. duo milia bis mllnsimus bna mlia bis mllins

nus, (nus, num) one, is declined in the singular as follows:


M. F. N.
N. nus na num
V. ne na num
Acc. num nam num
G. nius nius nius
D. n n n
Ab. n n n

The plural of nus is regular.

Duo (duae, duo) and trs (tres, tria) are declined as follows:
M. F. N.
N., V. duo duae duo
Acc. duo or dus dus duo
G. durum durum durum
D., Ab. dubus dubus dubus

M. F. N.
N., V. trs trs tria
Acc. trs trs tria
G. trium trium trium
D., Ab. tribus tribus tribus

Duo sometimes has a genitive duum.


Ambo, both, is declined like duo (except that the final o is long); but it never has the shortened
genitive.

The Cardinals from quattuor to centum are indeclinable; from ducenti to nongenti they are
declined like the standard first and second declension plural adjectives. Mille in the singular is an
indeclinable noun or adjective; the plural milia is a neuter noun declined like tria. [cf. Aulus
Gellius on mille in Noctium Atticarum, I. xvi.]

Ordinals are declined like the standard first and second declension adjectives. The letter n is often
ommitted in forming ordinal numbers in -ensimus.
The Ordinals must be used to give the years: e.g., A.D. 100 is anno post Christum nato
centensimo.

Distributives are declined like the standard first and second declension plural adjectives.
The Distributive (a) denotes that the number belongs to each of several persons or things, as
"pueri denum annorum,"boys of ten years old; (b) are used in multiplication, as "bis bina,"
twice two; (c) with nouns which have no corresponding singular, such as "una castra,"one
camp, but "bina castra,"two camps, and "binae litterae,"two epistles, but "duae litterae,"
two letters of the alphabet; and (d) poets often use distributives for cardinals.
Distributive Numerals originally had a collective sense: e.g., bini meant "two together," "two at a
time," "a couple." Caesar has "uxores habent deni duo deniqui inter se communes.""groups of
ten or twelve men had wives in common." Thus Vergil., Aen. vii. 538: quina armenta,"five
herds."

Compound Numbers: from tredecim to undeviginti inclusive, the smaller number is prefixed
without et; from XXI to XCIX either (a) the larger precedes without et, or (b) the smaller precedes
with et. From CI upwards, the larger generally precedes. [cf. Aulus Gellius on duovicesimo in
Noctium Atticarum, V. iv.]

The letter n is often ommitted in forming numeral adverbs in -iens.