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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna

Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna


College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

PRECAST CONCRETE WALL PANEL WITH

BANANA FIBER AND COCOCOIR AS ADMIXTURE

A Research Study Presented to:

Faculty of Engineering and Technical-Vocational

University of Perpetual Help System Laguna

Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

In Partial Fulfilment of the Course Requirement for the Degree of

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

Presented by:

BASCON, Angelica F.

CORTEZ, Diane Mae D.

RIMPOS, John PaulA.

SAMANIEGO, Jan Kenneth C.

SIAGA, Angeline V.
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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express the deepest appreciation to our professor Engr. Catherine S.

Hernandez for her constant guidance and encouragement, without which this research would not

have been possible. For their unwavering support, we are truly grateful. We would also like to

thank Pilipinas Eco Fiber Corporation for providing the coconut fiber, Marsman Agrarian

Reform Beneficiaries Multipurpose Cooperative for the banana fiber, and Pozzolanic Philippines

Inc. for mixing and testing the concrete.

Our extended appreciation to our panelists, Engr. Ida Mandawe, Engr. Mark Anthony

Muoz, and Engr. Teresita Gonzales for helping us fulfil the inadequate information needed for

our research paper.

Above all, we would like to send or deepest gratitude to God, who made this work

possible, who blessed us with knowledge and courage to finish what we have started despite all

the challenges. We would also like to thank our family and friends who are always there to

support us in every step we take in achieving our goals.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Title Page 1

Approval Sheet -

Editors Certificate -

Acknowledgement 2

Table of Contents 3

List of Tables 5

List of Figures 5

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction 6

Background of the Study 7

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework 8

Statement of the Problem 9

Objective of the Study 9

Significance of the Study 9

Scope and Delimitation 10

Definition of Terms 11

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND


STUDIES

Related Literature 13

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

Related Studies 20

Synthesis of the Study 35

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design 36

Sources of Data 36

Block Diagram 37

Schematic Diagram 38

Data Gathering Procedure 38

CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND


INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Results 41

Technical Study 45

Operational Study 45

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND


RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion 46

Recommendation 46

REFERENCES 48

APPENDICES -

CURRICULUM VITAE -

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE

4.1 41

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE PAGE

1.1 8

1.2 8

3.1 37

3.2 38

4.1 42

4.2 42

4.3 44

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

1.1 Introduction

Nowadays, many researches are made on the natural fibers which are easily available in

large quantity and are very cheap. Annually, the worldwide consumption of fibers used in

concrete is 300,000 tons. Among this natural fiber which can be used for construction purpose is

banana fiber and coconut coir. Normally, in convectional reinforced concrete we use steel bars

which increase the weight as well as the cost of the concrete which cannot be easily affordable to

all rulers as well as urban civilians.

Shrinkage cracking in concrete can be reduced by adding fibers into the concrete mix.

The purpose of fibers is to connect the cracks that arise in concrete and resist deformation under

tensile stress. It also reduces plastic shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage cracking. The fiber

increases the toughness property of concrete. Toughness is the ability of a material to resist a

fracture under stress.

Here in the Philippines, many researchers are still studying on the improvement of

technology of concrete. Philippines is rich in natural resources whether its from water or land

and it has become the source of livelihood of some Filipinos. Philippines has plantations of

different woods, plants, and vegetables. On the other hand, these livelihoods are the cause of the

increasing capacity of wastes generated every year, for example is the residue of the harvested

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

crops. Since the Philippines is one of the countries that use concrete in constructions, these

residues may be useful in many ways.

1.2 Background of the Study

Concrete has high compressive strength, but has lower tensile strength. Concrete is

usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension. Concrete which is subjected to long

duration forces is prone to creep.

Since concrete is a hard material but is breakable, reinforcing the concrete by adding steel

has been used as a solution to overcome this problem. Steel reinforcement carries all the tensile

forces. But using steel may cause another problem, over time, steel corrodes. In spite of the fact

that there are ways to reduce the corrosion of steel, it is advisable and recommended that we use

environmental friendly materials such as fibers.

Many different types of fibers such as banana fiber and coconut fiber as admixtures both

artificial and natural, have been incorporated into the concrete mixture. The choice of fibers may

vary from synthetic organic materials such as polypropylene or carbon, synthetic inorganic such

as steel or glass, natural organic such as cellulose or sisal to natural inorganic asbestos.

Currently, the commercial products available in the market are reinforced with steel, glass,

polyester, and polypropylene fibers. The selection of the type of fibers is guided by the

properties of the fibers such as diameter, specific gravity, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength

and many more and the extent of these fibers affect the properties of the cement matrix.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

In different countries, they were studying of the different natural fibers available in their

country to incorporate in the concrete mixture. However, naturally occurring fibers may not

replace the steel and other fibers as reinforcement, but it can be added into the concrete mixture

to increase the ability of the concrete to crack.

1.3 Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework of this study, concrete will be reinforced by adding coconut

coir and banana fiber to increase the compressive strength of the concrete. (Fig. 1.1)

Concrete Wall Coconut Coir and Increase in


Panel Banana Fiber Compressive
Strength

1.4 Conceptual Framework

The concept of this study is to reinforce a concrete mixture by adding coconut coir and

banana fiber as admixtures. (Fig. 1.2)

Coconut Coir and Banana Increase in Compressive


Fiber as Admixtures to Strength
Concrete

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

1.5 Statement of the Problem

The main problem of the study is to determine if the addition of banana fibers and

coconut coir can enhance the strength and engineering properties of the concrete. The researchers

aim to answer the following questions:

How do the coconut coir and the banana fiber affect the strength of the concrete?

What ratio of coconut coir and banana fiber will be added to the concrete mixture that

will increase the compressive strength of the concrete?

Is there any difference between the strength of the ordinary concrete mix and the fiber

reinforced concrete mix?

1.6 Objective of the Study

The objective of this research is to experiment on the use of banana fibers and coconut coir

as an enhancement of concrete.The purpose of the study are the following:

To be able to identify the effects of the coconut coir and banana fiber admixtures on the

engineering properties of concrete.

To determine the percentage of coconut coir and banana fiber admixtures which gives the

maximum strength when compared to the ordinary mixture.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This study will provide knowledge or records that can be useful in the development and

innovation of new technology in the future field of Civil Engineering.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

This will provide necessary information that students of Civil Engineering can be used in

their future research. This will also encourage others to study other alternative materials

that can be used in construction.

To the government agencies that they may utilize different source of admixtures in their

infrastructures mainly in their concrete buildings, highways and bridges.

To the businessmen and entrepreneurs that they may use this research to the construction

industry.

To the local government units that may generate livelihood and more jobs since this

research needs to extract the natural fibers manually.

1.8 Scope and Delimitation

The focus of this research is to study the possibility of using banana fiber and coconut

coir as admixture to improve the concretes strength and durability. It aims to determine the

compressive strength of the concrete containing natural fibers and evaluate if there is a

significant effect in the concrete mixture.

In this study, three different percentages of banana fibers and coconut fibers are added in

a concrete mix. The banana fiber and coconut fiber reinforced concrete are tested for

compressive strength only. However, the maximum flexural strength of the fibers can be

obtained 15% of their compressive strength based on the ACI Manual of Concrete Practice 2004

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

and ACI 104-71 (97) to ACI 223-98. Two samples were made for each design mix and are tested

after 28 days.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Admixture - a thing or ingredient added in mixing

Banana Fiber - a ligno-cellulosic fiber, obtained from the


pseudo-stem of banana plant.
- obtained from the stem of banana plant that
is extracted with the use of a machine.

Coco Coir - fiber from the outer husk of the coconut


used in making ropes and mattings.

Compressive Strength - a compression test which determines the


behaviour of the materials under rushing
loads.
- the capacity of a material to resist loads
tending to decrease size.

Concrete - a very hard building material made by


mixing together cement, sand, small
stones, and water.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

- a solid material

Precast - Concrete that is cast in the form of a


structural element (such as a panel or
beam) before being placed in final
position.

Wall Panel - is single piece of material, usually flat


and cut into a rectangular shape, that
serves as the visible and exposed
covering for a wall.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES

This chapter includes discussions on related literatures and related studies about using

admixtures in the concrete mix done by the researchers.

2.1 Related Literature

Common Fibers Used as Admixture

Polypropylene Fiber

Plastic concrete is prone to have cracks caused by shrinkage under dry and windy

conditions. Addition of fibers was proven to reduce the crack to yield. This study assessedthe

strength, plastic shrinkage and permeability of concrete incorporating polypropylene fiber in

various proportions (viz. 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.2%, 0.25% and 0.3%) by volume of concrete. The

experimental result with inclusion of 0.10.3% fiber in concrete showed that the crack width was

reduced down to 1 mm and the trend was continued with the addition of more fibers. However,

results indicated that with the addition of polypropylene fiber both water and gas permeability

coefficient increased. Therefore, it is concluded that the fiber reinforced concrete would work

better for plastic shrinkage susceptible structural elements (flat elements such as slab); however,

it requires careful judgement when applied to a water retaining structure. (Sadiqul Islam &

Gupta, 2016)

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

Coconut Fiber

Since high cost is the dominating factor of convectional construction material affecting

housing system, a study conducted by Agrawal et al. dealt with creating an alternative method to

overcome the decreasing of the strength of a building. The paper discussed possible alternative

materials that decreased the cost of construction without compromising the strength of concrete.

It discussed how the coconut fiber, a natural fiber, increased the strength of concrete versus using

convectional fiber. Several tests were conducted to take the compressive and tensile strength

capacity, and it showed that the compressive and tensile strength of concrete increases with

curing age but decreases with increase in quantity of coconut fiber present in the sample. The

optimum tensile strength obtained was 3.0 MPa. This research was carried out to suggest coconut

fiber as good and safe construction material.

Banana Fiber Ash

Concrete is one of the materials widely used in construction all around the world because

of its durability, energy-efficiency, low maintenance, affordability, fire-resistance, excellent

thermal mass and versatility. This research (Aqilah&Abd, 2014) was conducted to determine the

optimum temperature and strength of concrete to produce good cementitious material by using

banana fiber ash. In this study, compressive strength test was executed to know the strength of

concrete with three different temperatures. All these samples were cured for 7 days, 14 days and

28 days using water curing method. 2% of banana fiber ash was replaced with cement by weight.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

The result analysis showed that the highest temperature obtained in this research was by burned

banana ash by 500C, while the lowest temperature was 600C when the concrete was curing for

28 days. The lowest the temperature the higher the strength of concrete can be obtained.

Glass Fiber

The development of concrete has brought about the essential need for additives both

chemical and mineral in improving the performance of concrete. Different kinds of admixtures

like fly ash, coconut fiber have been used in past several studies. The main objective of the study

is to study the effect of glass fiber in the concrete. Glass fibershows high tensile strength and fire

resistant properties capable of reducing the damage during fire accidents. The addition of these

fibers into concrete dramatically increase the compressive strength, tensile strength and split

tensile strength of the concrete. In this study, tests have done for the concrete with glass fibre of

0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% of cement by adding as an admixture. (Chaitanya, Abhilash, Khan,

Manikanta, & Taraka, 2016)

Banana Fibers

Using locally available materials in building construction is an effective way of

promoting sustainable development in both urban and rural areas. This study suggested the use

of Green-Compressed Earth Block (GCEB), a CEB with the usual ingredients plus the Banana

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

fibers. Banana fibers are considered environmental friendly and showed important attributes,

such as low density, light weight, low cost, high tensile strength, as well as being water and fire

resistant. This study focused on the use of banana fiber and its effect on the compressive and

flexural strength in CEB. The results highlighted the general trends in the strength properties of

different soil mixes for CEBs. These efforts are necessary to ensure that GCEB technology

becomes more widely accepted in the world of building materials and is considered a reliable

option for providing low-cost housing.(Mostafa & Uddin, 2015)

Based from an article written by Rakesh Kumar, VeenaChoudhary, Saroj Mishra and Ik

Varma (2008)about banana fiber-reinforced biodegradable soy protein composites, a waste

product of banana cultivation has been used to prepare banana fiber reinforced soy protein

composites. Alkali modified banana fibers were characterized in terms of density, denier and

crystallinity index. Soy protein composites were prepared by incorporating different volume

fractions of alkali-treatedand untreated fibers into soy protein isolate (SPI) with different

amounts of glycerol (25%50%) as plasticizer. Composites prepared were characterized in terms

of mechanical properties, SEM and water resistance. The results indicated that at 0.3 volume

fraction, tensile strength and modulus of alkali treated fiber reinforced soy protein composites

increased to 82% and 963%, respectively, compared to soy protein film without fibers. Water

resistance of the composites increased significantly with the addition of glutaraldehyde which

acts as cross-linking agent. Biodegradability of the composites has also been tested in the

contaminated environment and the composites were found to be 100% biodegradable.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

Steel Fibers

This study inquired about the toll on flexural strength and cracking of ferrocement simply

supported panels reinforced with steel fiber and wire mesh when it comes to replacement of

cement partially with silica fume. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the 28-day

flexural strength of simply supported panels by laboratory center point flexural tests. The number

of cracks developed at failure was also considered when taking the measurements of average

crack width and crack spacing. It was further discovered that for a 15% cement replacement with

silica fume and 4% steel fiber addition in mortar mix, approximately 3.6-fold increase in 28-day

flexural strength was observed when compared to the conventional mortar. In summary,

inclusion of 4% steel fibers in a mortar of fabricated ferrocement panel improved the crack

resistance and flexural capacity. (Mousavi, 2017)

According to the study made by N. Shireesha, S. BalaMurugan, and G. Nagesh Kumar

(2013), the addition of steel fiber into concrete creates low workable or inadequate workability to

the concrete. Therefore, to solve this problem super-plasticizer is added, without affecting other

properties of concrete. Steel Fiber in concrete improves ductility and its load-carrying capacity.

The mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete are much improved by the use of

hooked fibers than straight fibers.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

Hair Fiber

Fibers are usually used in concrete to control plastic and dry shrinkage cracking and also

to lower the permeability of concrete. It also reduces greater impact, abrasions and shatter

resistances in concrete. It is an effective method when it comes to construction of light weight

seismic resistant structures. Human hair is strong in tension which make it suitable as a fiber

reinforcement material. Hair Fiber (HF), an alternate non-degradable matter, is available in

abundance and inexpensive. Present studies hadstudied the effect of human hair on plain cement

concrete on the basis of compressive, crushing, flexural strength and cracking control to

economize concrete and to reduce environmental problems.

Coconut Fiber

This research discussed the potential use of coconut fiber as an enhancement of concrete.

Some engineering properties of the concrete such as torsion, toughness and tensile strength

significantly improved when coconut fiber was added. However, the addition of fibers negatively

affected the compressive strength. When coconut fiber was added to plain concrete, the torsional

strength increased (by up to about 25%) as well as the energy-absorbing capacity, but there is an

optimum weight fraction (0.5% by weight of cement) beyond which the torsional strength started

to decrease again. In summary, the study has demonstrated that adding coconut fiber to concrete

results to refinement of concrete toughness torsion and the tensile stress.(Yalley & Kwan, 2009)

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

However, some studies (Hasanet al., 2012; Adeyemi, 1998) stated the one mix ratio

(1:2:4) the suitability of coconut fiber as substitute for either fine or coarse aggregate in concrete

production. It was examined that the coconut fibers were more suitable as low strength-giving

lightweight aggregate when used to replace common coarse aggregate in concrete production.

Coconut fiber is a hard stony endocarp but lightweight and naturally sized. Due to the stiff

surfaces of organic origin, it will not contaminate or leach to produce toxic substances once they

bound in the concrete matrix. Also, coconut fibers are lighter than the conventional coarse

aggregate so the resulting concrete will be lightweight. Therefore, it is appropriateto be a good

replacement of coarse aggregate in terms of producing structural concrete in the construction

industry.

Precast Concrete Wall Panel

This paper presented by Mohamad et al., tackled the structural behavior of precast

lightweight foam concrete sandwich panel (PFLP) under flexure, studied experimentally and

theoretically, where they casted out and tested four full scale specimens with a double shear steel

connector of 6mm diameter and steel reinforcement of 9mm diameter. The panels structural

behavior was studied considering its ultimate flexure load, crack pattern, load-deflection profile,

and efficiency of shear connectors. Results showed that the ultimate flexure load obtained from

the experiment was influenced by the panels compressive strength and thickness. The crack

pattern recorded in each panel exhibited the occurrence of cracks at the midspan which later

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

spread toward the left and right zones of the slab. The theoretical ultimate load for fully

composite and non-composite panels was obtained from the classical equations. All panel

specimens were found to behave in a partially composite manner.

2.2 Related Studies

Palm oil fiber as additive in concrete by MagendranSubramani (2007)

Several researches were conducted (Subramani, 2007) to distinguish the effects of palm

oil fiber addition on workability, density, compressive and flexural strength in the concrete mix

design of constant water-cement ratio. The mixes were prepared with fiber-cement ratio of

0.25% and 0.50% and the mix design was done based on the DOE Method.Workability of palm

oil fiber added to concrete mix decreases with the increase of fiber content in the concrete mix.

The study on palm oil fiber shows that adding palm oil fiber to concrete increases the

compressive and flexural strength of concrete after 28 days. Even though adding fiber

contributes to strength increase, the strength does not increase with the increasing fiber content

(percentage). In other words, the increase in strength is based on the amount of fiber content.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

Ultimate compressive and tensile strength of fiber-reinforced concrete containing Coconut

Fibers by Labadan (2001)

Labadan (2001), in his study entitled Ultimate compressive and tensile strength of fiber-

reinforced concrete containing Coconut Fibers tested a fiber reinforced concrete cylinder with

fiber lengths 3cm, 6cm, and 12cm in different percentages of fiber (0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0%) by

weight of plain concrete prepared in 18 batches. He included that a 0.25% fiber by weight of

plain concrete with a length of 6cm gave a good result in splitting tensile strength but no

significant results on compressive strength. He also concluded that the higher tensile strength

could be obtained by immersing the fibers in a cement solution for four hours before mixing

them with concrete.

According to Santha (1999), coconut fibers are good materials for soil erosion and

sedimentation control especially in environmentally-sensitive agricultural areas. This is due to

the low decomposition rate of coconut fibers. In his study coir rolls were used as a stabilization

of riverbanks. This is an innovative fabric-encapsulated technique in stabilization.

Previous studies and investigation of the use of natural fibers as reinforcement to cement

composites showed positive results. Coconut fibers use as reinforcement to cement composite

board satisfies ASTM specifications.

This research describes experimental studies on the use of coconut fiber and banana fiber

to enhance the strength and applications of concrete. These natural fibers have excellent physical

and mechanical properties and can be utilized more effectively. Thus it acts as a natural

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

admixture giving additional properties to the ordinary cement concrete. The coconut fiber and

banana fiber reinforced concrete were tested for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength,

flexural strength at different ages. (Gowri and Mary, 2016)

Experimental studies on Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) by R. Gowri and M. Angeline

Mary (2016),

Another study named Experimental Studies on Coconut fiber and Banana Fiber

Reinforced Concrete, International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Science. A

concrete consist of a hydraulic cement, water aggregate and fiber reinforced concrete. There are

types of fibers like coconut fiber, banana fiber, steel fiber, glass fiber, natural fiber and many

more. The role of a fiber is to reduce shrinkage cracking, increase the ductility of concrete

elements and increase more resistance to the impact load. Coconut and Banana fiber reinforced

concrete has been used in the application of making roof tiles, corrugated sheets and storage

tanks. (Chako et al, 2016)

Coconut Fiber in Concrete to Enhance its Strength and making Lightweight Concrete

by Agrawal, A. R., Dhase, S. S., & Agrawal, K. S. (2014).

The dominating factor of convectional construction material which is affecting the housing

system is the high cost. To overcome this drawback, researchers look for any alternating

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

materials which will decrease the cost and increase the strength of the concrete. Coconut fiberis a

natural fiber makes no effect on environment and also increases the strength of concrete compare

to use of convectional fiber.Concrete cylinders of dimension 150mm300mm were cast to take

the compressive as well astensile strength test. Coconut-fiber addition in the concrete increases

the many properties of the concrete such as torsion, toughness and notably tensile strength which

is the main properties of the concrete.Due to the uniform diameter property of the coconut fiber

there will be uniform distribution of the reinforcement throughout in the concrete which decrease

the voids and make the concrete more tough.The use of coconut fiber as reinforcement in the

concrete decreases the application of steel nearby 2% which is affordable with respect to the

simply steel reinforced concrete and also increase the strength of the concrete. Though these

fiber will not give the required strength, it can be used to reinforce the non-structural

components. Coconut fiber to be used in the concrete will be available priceless or of negligible

price which makes the concrete economical.

Mechanical and dynamic properties of coconut fibre reinforced concrete by Ali, M., Liu,

A., Sou, H., & Chouw, N. (2012).

Coconut fiber has the highest toughness amongst natural fibers and is likely used as

reinforcement in low-cost concrete structures, especially in tropical earthquake regions. For this

purpose, the mechanical and dynamic properties of coconut fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC)

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

members need to be well understood. In this work, in addition to mechanical properties, damping

ratio and fundamental frequency of simply supported CFRC beams are determined

experimentally. A comparison between the static and dynamic moduli is conducted. The

influence of 1%, 2%, 3% and 5% fibre contents by mass of cement and fibre lengths of 2.5, 5

and 7.5 cm is investigated. To evaluate the effect of coconut fibres in improving the properties of

concrete, the properties of plain concrete are used as a reference. Damping of CFRC beams

increases while their fundamental frequency decreases with structural damage. CFRC with

higher fiber content has a higher damping but lower dynamic and static modulus of elasticity. It

is found that CFRC with a fiber length of 5 cm and a fiber content of 5% has the best properties.

A Comparative Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Block to the Traditional Concrete

Hollow Block Wall Construction by Almacen, A. J. L., & Cruz, E. G. D. (2015).

Reinforced Concrete block or RC block is made of concrete, pre-cast wall panels with pre-

designed sections and surface and is recommended as an alternative material for concrete hollow

blocks. It can be used for exterior and interior walls, retaining walls, fences, parapet walls,

machine rooms and wet areas like the swimming pool, creek and open drainage. The main

objective of the study is to make a comparative analysis between the utilization of Reinforced

Concrete block and the traditional Concrete Hollow block in masonry wall construction and

prove that RC block is a more economical, stronger and more resilient, and time efficient

building material than concrete hollow block. Cost estimation, compressive testing, time

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

recording, and actual construction of a 6 x 6.5 ft. CHB and RCB wall were the methods used to

gather data. In the cost analysis, the computed total cost of constructing painted CHB wall is

P7246 and in constructing a painted RCB wall is P6682. The compressive strength of a

reinforced concrete block unit is 2500 psi compared to only 420 psi of a single concrete hollow

block. The total time elapsed in constructing a plastered CHB wall within two days is 6.634

hours while in constructing a painted RCB wall it is only 5.65 hours. If the cost analysis is up to

the finishing works, the use of reinforced concrete hollow block is more economical than using

concrete hollow block. Since the compressive strength of RCB is greater than that of CHB,

therefore, a reinforced concrete block unit is stronger and more resilient than a concrete hollow

block. Lastly, based on the fastest time recorded in completion of RCB wall than that of CHB

wall, it can be concluded that the use of reinforced concrete blocks in construction will save

more time than using concrete hollow blocks. Therefore, reinforced concrete block is a more

time efficient material than concrete hollow block.

Experimental Study on Concrete Using Fly Ash and Coconut by Ash, F. (2017).

Fly-ash is the by-product of thermal power plantwhich is available in large quantity in fine

and course form.Fine Fly ash can be used as a binding material in concrete inthe place of cement

due to itsPozzolanaproperty. The workability test, compressive and tensilestrength tests were

examined at the 7th, 14th and 28th day of curing. 5% and 10%replacement of cement with fly

ash gives better result and byreplacing 15% of fly ash, the strength decreases. 10% of fly ash

27
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replaced with cement with 0.25% of coconut coir fiber gives the best result for both compression

and tension. Therefore, the use of coconut coir and fly ash can reduce the cost of construction as

well as the environmental issues.

Experimental Studies on Coconut Fibre and Banana Fibre Reinforced Concrete by

Compendex, S., Elsevier, G., Services-usa, G. I., & Nadu, T. (2016).

This research describes experimental studies on the use of coconut fiber and banana fiber to

enhance the strength and applications of concrete. The findings of experimental investigations

proved that the addition of coconut-fibers and banana fibers significantly improved many of the

engineering properties of the concrete notably compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural

strength. The ability to resist cracking and spalling were also enhanced. However, the addition of

fibers poorly affected the compressive strength, as expected, due to difficulties in compaction

which consequently led to increase of voids.In this context six different percentages of coconut

fibers and banana fibers (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) having 40mm length were used.

M20 concrete with 0.5 WC and Ordinary Portland cement of grade 43 was used. The test result

showed that 0.10% of coconut and banana fiber gives the best result for both compression and

tension.

28
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A Study on the Economic Benefit of Using Lightweight Precast Hollow Core Wall on

Socialized Housing by Evaristo, T. J. S. (2013).

This research provided a comparative analysis in using a Precast Hollow Core Wall Panel

and a Concrete Hollow Block as wall systems. It evaluated the two aforementioned wall systems

for the National Housing Authoritys socialized housing projects in terms of economic benefits,

cost-efficiency, and duration of construction period. The researchers proved that the design of a

lightweight precast hollow core wall as a wall system for socialized housing is more cost and

time-efficient.

The study innovated and improved the methods of construction in housing for NHA through

the use of an Ecowall Panel instead of conventional CHB wall. The ecowall panel proved to be

more cost and time-efficient. The data showed that using Ecowall panels for existing NHA

project is more efficient in terms of materials, costs and labour compared to a conventional CHB

wall.

There is a substantial decrease in the time and cost without affecting quality, thus improving

the method of construction when Ecowall is applied as the wall system compared to the

conventional CHB wall. Through the use of a Precast Hollow Core Wall as an alternative, the

researchers were able to apply value engineering by innovating a part of construction

maintaining all functions but reducing cost. Lastly, the researchers used the NSCP (Section 7-

Masonry) and the DATEM data as the basis for the design and proved that the Ecowall system

conformed to Building Code standards and is thus considered safe.

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Properties of natural fiber cement materials containing coconut coir and oil palm fibers

for residential building applications by Lertwattanaruk, P., & Suntijitto, A. (2015).

This article presents an investigation of the properties of natural fiber based composite

building materials that is applicable for hot and humid climatic regions. These materials were

made of cement mortar containing coconut coir fiber and oil palm fiber, both waste products

from agricultural manufacturing in Thailand and are intended to be used as roof sheet and siding

to reduce heat transfer through buildings and energy conservation. The investigation focused

mainly on the effects of both cellulose fibers on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties

of products. Test results showed that increasing the percentage replacement of natural fibers

tends to reduce the density, compressive strength and flexural strength of the materials. Fiber

cement products mixed with coconut fiber yielded lower density than that of oil palm fiber. The

mixtures of fiber cement products containing up to 15% of both natural fibers by weight of

binder yielded the acceptable physical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the thermal

conductivity of the natural fiber cement sheets was 60% less than that of the control specimen.

The results of this research can be used as a guideline for using agricultural residues to develop

fiber cement products for residential building applications.

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Effect of Fine Sugarcane Bagasse and Ash as a Concrete Admixture in Enhancing the

Setting-Time and Compressive Strength of Concrete by Louise Clemente, J., Alfonso

Dyquiangco, G., & Roman Gobway, D. (2014)

The researchers aimed to produce an admixture that would enhance the setting time

andcompressive strength of concrete with the use of Bagasse Fiber and Ash. Both materials are

waste products from sugar production. Based on existing studies, the Bagasse when added to

concrete has the potential to increase the setting time while the ash increases its

compressivestrength. Based on the results, it was found out that mixing these bagasse

components withconcrete produces an optimum compressive strength at 28th day by addition of

1.25% Bagasse Fibers and 25% Ash. For the setting time, addition of ratio 1.50% Bagasse: 25%

Ash and 1% Bagasse: 25% Ash gives the optimum initial setting time of concrete. Addition of

1.75% Bagasse Fibers and 25% Ash gives the optimum final setting time.The researchers also

found out that too much addition of bagasse components resulted to soil-like composition, thus it

has weak compressive strength. However, addition of minimalamount of these bagasse

components could improve the compressive strength and setting time of concrete. Thus, bagasse

components could be an admixture to concrete which is a sustainable material and could help

decrease the waste products produced by sugar cane production.

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Performance Using Bamboo Fiber Ash Concrete as Admixture Adding Superplasticizer

by Vasudevan, G. (2017).

This research investigates the mechanical and physical properties of bamboo fiber powder

in a blended Portland cement. The structural value of the bamboo fiber powder in a blended

Portland cement was evaluated with consideration for its suitability in concrete. Varied

percentage of bamboo fiber powder (BFP) at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% as an admixture in

1:2:4 concrete mixes. The workability of the mix was determined through slump; standard

consistency test was carried on the cement. Compressive strength of hardened cured (150 x 150 x

150) mm concrete cubes at 7days, 14days and 28days were tested.

From the results obtained from the laboratory test, the effect of bamboo ash powder in

concrete mix does not give an optimal result and also weak in the workability. The reason is that

the bamboo ash powder can increase the water absorption therefore reduces the workability of

the concrete. From the result of the slump test and compaction factor test, the conclusion was

made that the more the bamboo ash powder as substitute to the fresh concrete, the lower the

workability of the concrete.

Coconut Fibre as Enhancement of Concrete byYalley, P. ., & Kwan, A. S. . (2009).

This research describes experimental studies on the use of coconut fiber as enhancement of

concrete. The addition of coconut-fibers significantly improved many of the engineering

properties of the concrete, notably torsion, toughness and tensile strength. The ability to resist

32
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cracking and spalling were also enhanced. However, the addition of fibers adversely affected the

compressive strength. When coconut fiber was added to plain concrete, the torsional strength

increased (by up to about 25%) as well as the energy-absorbing capacity, but there is an optimum

weight fraction (0.5% by weight of cement) beyond which the torsional strength started to

decrease again. Similar results were also obtained for different fiber aspect ratios, where again

results showed there was an optimum aspect ratio (125). An increase in fiber weight fraction

provided a consistent increase in ductility up to the optimum content (0.5%) with corresponding

fiber aspect ratio of 125. Overall the study has demonstrated that addition of coconut fiber to

concrete leads to improvement of concrete the toughness torsion and the tensile stress. Despite

its excellent properties, coconut fiber as an enhancement of concrete is unlikely to replace steel

for the vast majority of structures.High water absorption of natural fiber causes unstable volume

and low cohesion between fiber and matrix and decomposes rapidly in the alkaline environment

of cement and concrete. However, further work is required to assess the long term durability of

concrete enhanced with coconut fibers.

Studies of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete Composites by Chawla, K., & Tekwani, B.

(2013)

Plain concrete possess very low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to

cracking. Internal micro cracks are inherently present in concrete and its poor tensile strength is

due to propagation of such micro cracks. Fibers when added in certain percentage in the concrete

improve the strain properties well as crack resistance, ductility, as flexure strength, and
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toughness. In recent times, glass fibers have also become available, which are free from

corrosion problem associated with steel fibers. The paper outlines the experimental investigation

on the use of glass fibers with structural concrete. Cem-fill anti crack, high dispersion, alkali

resistance glass fiber of diameter 14 micron, having an aspect ratio 857 was employed in

percentages, varying from 0.33 to 1 percentage by weight in concrete and the properties of this

Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) like compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness,

modulus of elasticity were studied. Results showed that the addition of glass fiber in reinforced

concrete increases the toughness by1157%compared with conventional reinforced concrete. The

value of toughness observed maximum 272.4 KN-mm whenusing fiber content 0.67% and

1.25% steel (12 mm reinforcement bar).

Palm oil fiber as additive in concrete by MagendranSubramani (2007)

This research was carried out to establish the effects of palm oil fiber addition on

workability, density, compressive and flexural strength in the concrete mix design of constant

water-cement ratio. The mixes were prepared with fiber-cement ratio of 0.25% and 0.50% and

the mix design was done based on the DOE Method.

The sizes of the specimen tested were 150mm x 150mm x 150mm cubes for compressive

and 100mm x 100mm x 500mm rectangular beams for flexural strength. Specimens were cured

in water for 28 days before testing them. Workability of palm oil fiber added to concreter mix

decreases with the increase of fiber content in the concrete mix. The results from density test also

34
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demonstrated that the fiber content increases the density of concrete when 0.25% fiber is added,

but the density decreases when 0.50% fiber is added to the concrete. The study on palm oil fiber

shows that adding palm oil fiber to concrete increases the compressive and flexural strength of

concrete after 28 days. Even though adding fiber contributes to strength increase, but the strength

does not increase with the increasing fiber content (percentage). In other words, the increase in

strength is only up to certain amount of fiber content.

Ultimate compressive and tensile strength of fiber-reinforced concrete containing Coconut

Fibers by Labadan (2001)

Labadan (2001), in his study entitled Ultimate compressive and tensile strength of fiber-

reinforced concrete containing Coconut Fibers tested a fiber reinforced concrete cylinder with

fiber lengths 3cm, 6cm, and 12cm in different percentages of fiber (0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0%) by

weight of plain concrete prepared in 18 batches. He included that a 0.25% fiber by weight of

plain concrete with a length of 6cm gave a good result in splitting tensile strength but no

significant results on compressive strength. He also concluded that the higher tensile strength

could be obtained by immersing the fibers in a cement solution for four hours before mixing

them with concrete.

According to Santha (1999), coconut fibers are good materials for soil erosion and

sedimentation control especially in environmentally-sensitive agricultural areas. This is due to

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the low decomposition rate of coconut fibers. In his study coir rolls were used as a stabilization

of riverbanks. This is an innovative fabric-encapsulated technique in stabilization.

Previous studies and investigation of the use of natural fibers as reinforcement to cement

composites showed positive results. Coconut fibers use as reinforcement to cement composite

board satisfies ASTM specifications.

Experimental studies on Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) byR.Gowri and

M.AngelineMary (2016),

This research describes experimental studies on the use of coconut fibre and banana fibre

to enhance the strength and applications of concrete. These natural fibres have excellent physical

and mechanical properties and can be utilized more effectively. They are economical (zero cost),

with no chemicals. The addition of coconut-fibres and banana fibres significantly improved

many of the engineering properties of the concrete notably compressive strength, tensile strength

and flexural strength. The ability to resist cracking and spalling were also enhanced. Thus it acts

as a natural admixture giving additional properties to the ordinary cement concrete. In this

context six different percentages of coconut fibres and banana fibres (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%

and 30%) having 40mm length were used. M20 concrete and Ordinary Portland cement of grade

43 was used. The coconut fibre and banana fibre reinforced concrete are tested for compressive

strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength at different ages.

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Another study made by Chacko, Raphael &Hema, S, (2016); Experimental Studies on

Coconut fiber and Banana Fiber Reinforced Concrete, International Journal of Modern Trends in

Engineering and Science. A concrete consist of a hydraulic cement, water aggregate and fiber

reinforced concrete. There are types of fibers like coconut fiber banana fiber, steel fiber, glass

fiber, natural fiber and many more. The role of a fiber is to reduce shrinkage cracking, increase

the ductility of a concrete elements and increase more resistance to the impact load. Coconut and

Banana fiber reinforced concrete has been used in the application of making roof tiles,

corrugated sheets and storage tanks.

SYNTHESIS OF THE STUDY

The studies Experimental Studies on Coconut Fibre and Banana Fibre Reinforced

Concrete (2016); made by Raphael Chacko, S Hema, and M Vadivel, concluded that the addition

of coconut fibers and banana fibers significantly improved many of the engineering properties of

the concrete, especially compression, tensile strength, and the ability to resist cracking and

spalling. However, the addition of fibers poorly affected the compressive strength, as expected,

due to difficulties in compaction which consequently led to increase of voids. Despite its

excellent properties, coconut fiber and banana fiber as an enhancement of concrete is unlikely to

replace steel for the vast majority of structures.

37
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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

The researchers will employ an experimental method which is the most practiced design.

It is defined as Observation under controlled conditions where in the subjects will be exposed

in the same situations to see different results or reactions. The study will focus on the effect of a

certain independent variable employed on a dependent variable. In this experimental method the

independent variable will be the coconut fibers and banana fibers as an admixture for they will

hypothetically change the output of the concrete when as its value also changed. On the other

hand the dependent variable will be the strength of concrete wall panel.

3.2 Sources of Data

Internet is the most functional source in the study as it can give all the information

needed by the proponents. Internet is a global network connecting millions of computers that are

linked together for the exchanging of data.

Articles are published data in newspapers or magazines where in you can find

information related for the research.

Experiment is a test performed in a laboratory for an observation to determine if the trial

conducted reached the expectations of the proponents.

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3.3 Block Diagram (Fig. 3.1)


The Researchers
established the idea of
increasing the strength
of an ordinary concrete

The researchers considered developing a


pre-cast concrete wall panel with coco
coir & banana fiber

Will it be more
effective than
that of the
ordinary mix?

The researchers will


advanced to the gathering
of information about the
topic
The researchers will have to see other
factors that affected the strength and
efficiency of the precast concrete wall Quoting the materials that will be
panel with coco coir & banana fiber used for the model of ordinary and
precast concrete wall panel with
coco coir & banana fiber

Experiment and
evaluation of data

Writing of document

The researcher will


move on in defending
the study

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3.4 Schematic Diagram

Schematic diagram is a detailed design presentation of a system where it shows how the

experiment interacts. (Fig. 3.2)

3.5 Data - Gathering Procedure

With regards to the strength condition between ordinary and banana fiber

admixture for precast concrete wall panel, the following test where conveyed:

Data collection was conducted to analyze the engineering properties between an

ordinary concrete mix and, coconut fiber and banana fiber reinforced concrete mix. Thus,

the following tests were carried out:

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3.5.1 Materials used:

Ordinary Portland cement, fine aggregates (sand), and coarse aggregates

(gravel) were used, as it is readily available in the market. The fibers used were

coconut and banana fibers with length ranging between 30mm - 50mm. Coconut

fiber was purchased from Pilipinas Eco Fiber Corporation in San Pablo City,

Laguna while the banana fiber was transported from Marsman Agrarian Reform

Beneficiaries Multipurpose Cooperative at Puerto Azul, St. Tomas Davao Del

Norte. Water available at the location was also used.

3.5.2 Preparation and mixing of cement

a) Ordinary concrete mixture

For the test procedure in this study, a ratio of 1:1.5:3 concrete mix

was applied. For every one part of cement theres a corresponding one and

a half parts of sand and three parts of gravel.

b) Coconut and Banana reinforced concrete mixture

For the test procedure used in the ordinary concrete mix, same

approach was used. The ratio of 1:1.5:3 was applied but there will be an

admixture consists of coconut and banana fibers added to the mix. Three

different percentages of coconut and banana fibers (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%)

was added per weight of cement.

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All the materials were mixed properly as water was added in the concrete mixer.

Slump test was conducted. Coconut fiber and banana fiber were added in the concrete

mixer. Concrete fiber reinforced concrete mixture was poured into the cylindrical mold

with dimension 100mm x 150mm for the Compressive Strength testing. Rod was used in

the compaction of the concrete mix to remove air voids. The same procedure goes with

the other specimens. The samples were kept dried for 24 hours and then cured for 28 days

for testing.

3.5.3 Curing

The specimens were removed from the molds 24 hours after casting and

were submerged in water for 28 days before testing.

3.5.4 Testing of specimen

Compressive strength test was conducted for the concrete cylinders with

the use of digital compression testing machine.

43
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CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND

INTERPRETATION OF DATA

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CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

4.1 RESULTS

4.1.1 The results of the compressive strength of banana & coconut reinforced concrete

conducted by Pozzolanic Philippines, Inc.

COMPRESSIVE

SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION STRENGTH

Mpa psi

Trial 1 14.87 2156.05


Ordinary Concrete Mix
Trial 2 21.02 3047.64

0.5% of Admixture per Trial 1 8.05 1166.63

weight of cement Trial 2 9.22 1336.46

1.0% of Admixture per Trial 1 5.88 852.82

weight of cement Trial 2 5.72 828.83

1.5% of Admixture per Trial 1 11.7 1696.41

weight of cement Trial 2 9.98 1447.21

Table4.1 Compressive Strength

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The results show that the ordinary concrete mix has a much greater compressive strength

than that of the banana and coconut fiber reinforced concrete mixture. Trial 1 with 1.5 % of

admixtures gives the higher compressive strength among the other fiber reinforced concrete

mix yet, it still did not meet or match the strength of the ordinary concrete mix.

Compressive Strength (MPa)


25
20
15
10
5
0
Ordinary 0.5% of 1.0% of 1.5% of
Concrete Admixture Admixture Admixture
Mix per weight per weight per weight
of cement of cement of cement

Tiral 1 Trial 2

Figure 4.1 Compressive Strength

Compressive Strength (psi)


3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Ordinary 0.5% of 1.0% of 1.5% of
Concrete Admixture Admixture Admixture
Mix per weight per weight per weight
of cement of cement of cement

Tiral 1 Trial 2

Figure 4.2Compressive Strength

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Computation of flexural strength:

Ordinary Mix

Trial 1

fy = (fc) x 15% = 2156.05 x 0.15 = 323.41 psi

Trial 2

fy = (fc) x 15% = 3047.64 x 0.15 = 457.15psi

0.5% of admixture per weight of cement

Trial 1

fy = (fc) x 15% = 1166.63x 0.15 = 174.99psi

Trial 2

fy = (fc) x 15% = 1336.46x 0.15 = 200.47psi

1.0% of admixture per weight of cement

Trial 1

fy = (fc) x 15% = 852.82 x 0.15 = 127.92psi

Trial 2

fy = (fc) x 15% = 828.83x 0.15 = 124.32psi

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1.5% of admixture per weight of cement

Trial 1

fy = (fc) x 15% = 1696.41x 0.15 = 254.46psi

Trial 2

fy = (fc) x 15% = 1447.21x 0.15 = 217.08psi

Flexural Strength (psi)


500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Ordinary 0.5% of 1.0% of 1.5% of
Concrete Admixture Admixture Admixture
Mix per weight per weight per weight
of cement of cement of cement

Tiral 1 Trial 2

Figure 4.3FlexuralStrength

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4.2 TECHNICAL STUDY

The most common material used for partition or wall is the CHB (concrete hollow

blocks) which means it has a higher demand in the construction industry. However, precast

wall panels are much easier to install and saves construction time compared to CHB since

they are already cast in a controlled environment. Precast concrete wall panel is the material

of choice for residential houses and other common structures. Continuing to introduce this

product will help increase its demand in the market.

4.3 OPERATIONAL STUDY

The researchers analyzed and determined the raw material needed for the research. The

raw materials used in this study are banana fiber and coconut fiber. These fibers are used as

admixtures in the concrete mix. The coconut fiber was obtained from Pilipinas Coco Fiber

Corporation which manufactures different coconutproducts while the banana fiber was

obtained from a banana fiber processing cooperative in Davao del Norte. The data gathered

from the concrete samples went through a standard testing and observation conducted by

Pozzolanic Philippines Inc.

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 CONCLUSION

Based on the compressive strength test conducted, the addition of banana and

coconut fiber significantly reduces the compressive strength of the concrete almost by

half compared to the ordinary concrete mixture. As per the DPWH Department Order No.

189 series of 2002, the minimum compressive strength of structural members is 3000 psi

and 2500 psi for non-structural members. Since the wall panel is classified as a surface

structural member, the minimum compressive strength required is 3000 psi. The result of

the compressive strength test of banana and coconut reinforced concrete failed to meet

the required strength of the concrete wall panel.One factor affecting the compressive

strength of the concrete is due to the difficulty in compaction which consequently led to

increase of voids.Though the addition of fibers will not give the required strength, it has

the ability to reduce shrinkage cracking and spalling.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION

The researchers recommend the following to the next researcher/s who will be planning

to conduct a similar study:

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In combining mixtures, make sure that the materials (i.e. fibers) are uniformly

distributed for it may affect the final output.

Instead of using banana fiber and coconut fiber, the future researchers may

use a smaller length of fibers or even a finer material such as coco peat

powder as an admixture or replacement.

Modifythe mix proportion of the banana and coconut fiber to be added in

every cubic meter of concrete to alter the result.

Provide more percentages of materials for the comparison of the results.

Researchers may try to consider other structural members like beam column

or concrete slab.

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REFERENCES

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References

Agrawal, A. R., Dhase, S. S., & Agrawal, K. S. (2014). Coconut Fiber in Concrete to Enhance its

Strength and making Lightweight Concrete, 9(8), 6467.

Akar, C., & Canbaz, M. (2016). Effect of molasses as an admixture on concrete durability.

Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 23742380.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.081

Aqilah, N. U. R., & Abd, B. T. (2014). Strength Performance Of Banana Fiber Ash As

Cementitious Material With Different Temperature, (July).

Chaitanya, J. D., Abhilash, G. V. S., Khan, P. K., Manikanta, G., & Taraka, V. (2016).

Experimental Studies on Glass Fiber Concrete American Journal of Engineering Research (

AJER ), (5), 100104.

Chandramouli K., Rao, S. S., Pannirselvam N, Sekhar, S. T., & Sravana P. (2010). Strength

Properties of Glass Fibre Concrete. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 5(4), 16.

Corinaldesi, V., Donnini, J., & Nardinocchi, A. (2015). The influence of calcium oxide addition

on properties of fiber reinforced cement-based composites. Journal of Building

Engineering, 4, 1420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2015.07.009

Mohamad, N., Khalil, A. I., Abdul Samad, A. A., & Goh, W. I. (2014). Structural behavior of

precast lightweight foam concrete sandwich panel with double shear truss connectors under

flexural load. ISRN Civil Engineering, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/317941

54
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

Mostafa, M., & Uddin, N. (2015). Effect of Banana Fibers on the Compressive and Flexural

Strength of Compressed Earth Blocks. Buildings, 5(1), 282296.

https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5010282

Mousavi, S. E. (2017). Flexural response and crack development properties of ferrocement

panels reinforced with steel fibers. Journal of Building Engineering, 12, 325331.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2017.06.010

Nila, V. M., Raijan, K. J., Antony, S., M, R. B., & Davis, N. R. (2015). Hair Fibre Reinforced

Concrete, (June), 1011.

Phanikumar, B. R., & Sofi, A. (2016). Effect of pond ash and steel fibre on engineering

properties of concrete. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 7(1), 8999.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2015.03.009

Puri, V., Chakrabortty, P., Anand, S., & Majumdar, S. (2017). Bamboo reinforced prefabricated

wall panels for low cost housing. Journal of Building Engineering, 9, 5259.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2016.11.010

Sadiqul Islam, G. M., & Gupta, S. Das. (2016). Evaluating plastic shrinkage and permeability of

polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete. International Journal of Sustainable Built

Environment, 5(2), 345354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.05.007

Sofi, A., & Phanikumar, B. R. (2016). Durability properties of fibre-reinforced pond ash-

modified concrete. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 11(10), 13851402.

55
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2015.03.008

Yalley, P. ., & Kwan, A. S. . (2009). Coconut Fibre as enhancement of concrete Yalley and

Kwan. Journal of Engineering and Technology, 5473.

56
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

APPENDICES

57
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

DOCUMENTATION:

58
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

MATERIALS:

59
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

MIXING:

60
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

TESTING:

61
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

CURRICULUM VITAE

62
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

ANGELICA FLORENBASCON
Juana 6, Blk.10, Lot 14, Abraham St.,
Brgy. San Francisco,Bian, Laguna
Contact #: +63975-2516742
basconangelica@yahoo.com

CAREER OBJECTIVES

To gain experience and more knowledge from outside the campus in the field of Civil
Engineering.

PERSONAL DATA
Age : 21 years old
Date of Birth : September 21, 1996
Gender : Female
Civil Status : Single
Height : 5 3
Weight : 45 kg
Nationality : Filipino
Religion : Roman Catholic
Language : English, Filipino

TECHNICAL SKILLS
Can work well with others
Computer Literate (MS Word, MS Excel, and MS PowerPoint)
Knowledgeable in AutoCAD and Photoshop
Willing to learn and can multitask

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
TERTIARY: Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
2013 Present
SECONDARY: Mater Ecclesiae School
2009 2013
PRIMARY: Chrysanthemum Village Elementary School
2003 - 2009

63
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

SEMINARS ATTENDED

6TH RESEARCH FORUM AND OJT ORIENTATION


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
March 06, 2017

VIBRANT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS SEMINAR: INTRODUCTION TO BIM AND


TEKLA STRUCTURES
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
March 03, 2017

CIVIL ENGINEERING CAREER PATH TALK 2016: EMPOWERING


KNOWLEDGE TO BE GLOBALLY COMPETITIVE ENGINEERS
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
March 02, 2016

CUTTING EDGE: STREAMLINING CIVIL ENGINEERING IN ADVANCING


NATION
NATIONAL CIVIL ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM
University of the Philippines Diliman
September 11, 2015

ORGANIZATIONS AND AFFILIATIONS

UPHSL ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDENTS (ACES)


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Auditor (2017 2018)

PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE OF CIVIL ENGINEERS (PICE)


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Member (2016 Present)

CHARACTER REFERENCES

Engr. Catherine S. Hernandez Professional Engineer/Professor


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Contact #: +63943-7294943
Relationship: Professor

Engr. Ida P. Mandawe Professional Engineer/Professor

64
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Contact #: +63943-7294943
Relationship: Professor

I hereby certify that the above statements are true and correct.

_______________________________
BASCON, ANGELICA F.
Applicant

65
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

DIANE MAE D. CORTEZ


Blk. 3 Lot 40 Honesty St. Cityland
Brgy. Mabuhay Carmona, Cavite
Contact #: +639267697349
Dianed1204@gmail.com

CAREER OBJECTIVES
To secure a position where I can efficiently contribute my skills and abilities for the growth
of the organization and build my professional career.

PERSONAL DATA
Age : 20 years old
Date of Birth : December 04, 1996
Gender : Female
Civil Status : Single
Height : 5 3.5
Weight : 55 kg
Nationality : Filipino
Religion : Roman Catholic
Language : English, Filipino

TECHNICAL SKILLS
Knowledgeable in Autocad
Knows how to effectively work as a part of a team
Willing to learn and can multitask
Proficient in MS office

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
TERTIARY: Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
2013-Present

SECONDARY: St. Therese School of Southville, Inc.


2009 - 2013
Town and Country Southville Sto. Tomas Bian, Laguna

66
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

ELEMENTARY: Carmona Elementary School


2003 - 2009
Carmona, Cavite
SEMINARS ATTENDED

6th Research Forum and OJT Orientation


March 06, 2017
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna

Vibrant Technology Solutions Seminar: Introduction of BIM and TEKLA Structures


March 02, 2017
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna

Civil Engineering Career Path Talk 2016: Empowering Knowledge to be Globally


Competitive Engineers
March 02, 2016
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna

Cutting Edge: Streamlining Civil Engineering in Advancing Nation


September 11, 2015
University of the Philippines Diliman

ACHIEVEMENTS

Member
Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE)
February 23, 2016 - Present

Participant
AutoCAD 2D Drafting and 3D Modeling
April 21, 2014 June 13, 2014
Katsumi ONDA Computer Literacy Center Carmona, Cavite

1st Honorable Mention


Academic Excellence Award
2012-2013
St. Therese School of Southville, Inc.

Participant
Sci-math Spelling Bee

67
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

October 08, 2011


De La Salle Canlubang

Quizzer 3rd Place


Academic Quiz Bee Competition
2011
St. Therese School of Southville, Inc.

CHARACTER REFERENCES

Engr. Catherine S. Hernandez


Professor
0943-7294-943

Engr. Ida P. Mandawe


Professor
0925-7255-787

Engr. Emiterio C. Hernandez


Professor
0917-8829-460

I hereby that all above information is correct and true.

________________________
DIANE MAE D. CORTEZ
Applicant

68
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

JOHN PAUL AVILA RIMPOS


Block 6 Lot 21 Phase 1-A Annex, San Lorenzo
South Subdivision, Malitlit, Sta. Rosa, Laguna
E-mail Address: johnpaulrimpos@gmail.com
Mobile Number: 09985147978

CAREER OBJECTIVES

To improve my communication and computer literacy skills like MS Word, MS Excel and
especially in Auto Cad; to enhance myself in the field of Civil Engineering once I graduate.

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


2012 - Present
Binan Campus

Bachelor of Science
Major in Civil Engineering

Dominican College Sta. Rosa, Laguna


2010 - 2012
3rd - 4th Year High School

Don Bosco Technical Institute


2008 - 2010
Makati City
1st - 2nd Year High School
Secondary Education

Don Bosco Technical Institute


2001 - 2008
Makati City
Preparatory - Elementary
Primary Education

69
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

SEMINARS ATTENDED

National Civil Engineering Symposium


University of the Philippines Diliman
September 15, 2017

UPHSL -ACES Annual General Assembly


University of Perpetual Help
System Laguna - Binan
July 18, 2017

PERSONAL DATA

Date of Birth : January 16, 1995


Place of Birth : Manila, Philippines
Civil Status : Single
Religion : Roman Catholic
Weight : 127.6 lbs.
Height : 52
Age : 22 y/o
Language : English / Filipino

SKILLS AND ABILITIES

Computer Literate (MS Word, MS Excel, and MS PowerPoint


Knowledgeable in AutoCAD
Good in English proficiency
Willing to learn and can do multitasking

ORGANIZATIONS AND AFFILIATIONS

UPHSL ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDENTS (ACES)


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Member (2017 2018)

PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE OF CIVIL ENGINEERS (PICE)


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Member (2016 Present)

70
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

CHARACTER REFERENCES

Engr. Catherine S. Hernandez Professional Engineer/Professor


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Contact #: +63943-7294943
Relationship: Professor

Engr. Ida P. Mandawe Professional Engineer/Professor


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Contact #: +63943-7294943
Relationship: Professor

I hereby certify that the above statements are true and correct.

___________________________
JOHN PAUL A. RIMPOS
Applicant

71
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

JAN KENNETH CAPUNITAN SAMANIEGO


597 Jade Street Nepa Hi-way Subdivision,
San Vicente, Bian City, Laguna
Contact #: +63935-9090217
jankennethsamaniego@yahoo.com

CAREER OBJECTIVES

To gain knowledge and improvement of my professional skills, as well as to make the


most of my potentials towards achieving the goals, also to gain more knowledge from
outside the campus in the field of Civil Engineering.

PERSONAL DATA
Age : 21 years old
Date of Birth : March 20, 1996
Gender : Male
Civil Status : Single
Height : 5 4
Weight : 57 kg
Nationality : Filipino
Religion : Roman Catholic
Language : English, Filipino

SKILLS AND ABILITIES

Computer Literate (MS Word, MS Excel, and MS PowerPoint)


Knowledgeable in AutoCAD, SketchUp Pro, HEC-RAS, and STAAD
Familiar with: Computer Language (C++, Visual Basic)
Good in English proficiency
Willing to learn and can multitask

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
TERTIARY: Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
2013 Present
SECONDARY: Panorama Montessori School, Bian

72
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

2009 2013
PRIMARY: Panorama Montessori School, Bian
2003 - 2009

SEMINARS ATTENDED

6TH RESEARCH FORUM AND OJT ORIENTATION


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
March 06, 2017

VIBRANT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS SEMINAR: INTRODUCTION TO BIM AND


TEKLA STRUCTURES
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
March 03, 2017

CIVIL ENGINEERING CAREER PATH TALK 2016: EMPOWERING


KNOWLEDGE TO BE GLOBALLY COMPETITIVE ENGINEERS
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
March 02, 2016

RECONSTRUCT: FORGING THE NATIONS ADVANCEMENT THROUGH


SERVICE AND INNOVATION
NATIONAL CIVIL ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM
University of the Philippines Diliman
September 15, 2017

CUTTING EDGE: STREAMLINING CIVIL ENGINEERING IN ADVANCING


NATION
NATIONAL CIVIL ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM
University of the Philippines Diliman
September 11, 2015

ORGANIZATIONS AND AFFILIATIONS

UPHSL ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDENTS (ACES)


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Member (2017 2018)

73
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE OF CIVIL ENGINEERS (PICE)


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Member (2016 Present)

CHARACTER REFERENCES

Engr. Catherine S. Hernandez Professional Engineer/Professor


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Contact #: +63943-7294943
Relationship: Professor

Engr. Ida P. Mandawe Professional Engineer/Professor


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Contact #: +63943-7294943
Relationship: Professor

I hereby certify that the above statements are true and correct.

_______________________________
SAMANIEGO, JAN KENNETH C.
Applicant

74
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

SIAGA, ANGELINE VILLEGAS


B-6 L-31 Bittersweet St. Villas III, Brgy. Malusak
City of Santa Rosa Laguna
Contact No.: 09154017845
Email: Angie_siaga24@yahoo.com

CAREER OBJECTIVES

To attain valuable knowledge and professional skills to complement those that I have
learned from school in an actual job environment. In return, I offer my service and determination
to be an asset to your company throughout the duration of my training period.

SKILLS AND ABILITIES

Adept in Microsoft Office Application such as:


Microsoft Office Word
Microsoft Office PowerPoint
Microsoft Office Excel
Knowledgeable in AutoCAD application such as:
2- Dimensional Plans
3- Dimensional Plans
Knowledgeable in Computer application such as:
STAAD Structural Analysis and Design
Oriented in Photoshop CS4 and CS5
Oriented in Video Editing Applications

75
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Tertiary : University of Perpetual Help System Laguna 2010- Present


Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
Sto. Nio, City of Bian, Laguna
Secondary: Santa Rosa Science and Technology High School 2006-2010
Rizal Blvd, Santa Rosa, Laguna

Elementary: Santa Rosa Elementary School Central 1 2000-2006


Rizal Boulevard, Kanluran, Santa Rosa City, Laguna

SEMINARS ATTENDED

Civil Engineering College Laboratory Tour 2013 2015


National Civil Engineering Symposium 2014
National Civil Engineering Symposium 2015
Civil Engineering Career Path Talk 2016
National Civil Engineering Symposium 2017

ORGANIZATIONS AND AFFILIATIONS

Member - Association of Civil Engineering Students (ACES)


Member - Philippine Institute of Civil Engineering Students (PICES)
Member - Laguna Chess Association (LCA)
Member - Santa Rosa Lion Chess Federation (SRLCF)
President - University of Perpetual Help System Laguna-Chess Club

PERSONAL DATA

Age : 23 years old


Date of Birth : June 04, 1994
Gender : Female
Civil Status : Single
Height : 5 3
Weight : 55kg
Nationality : Filipino
Religion : Roman Catholic
Language : English, Filipino

76
University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Sto. Nino, City of Binan, Laguna
College of Engineering and Aviation
(02) 779-5310 local 3006 / CELL #09228900917

CHARACTER REFERENCES

Engr. Catherine S. Hernandez Professional Engineer/Professor


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Contact #: +63943-7294943
Relationship: Professor

Engr. Ida P. Mandawe Professional Engineer/Professor


University of Perpetual Help System Laguna
Contact #: +63943-7294943
Relationship: Professor

I hereby certify that the above statements are true and correct.

_______________________________
SIAGA, ANGELINE V.
Applicant

77