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CHAPTER 1

DESIGN PROBLEM

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF ACRYLIC ACID

This chapter will explain the background of acrylic acid, which covering the
properties and uses of acrylic acid, the production process and the chemical reaction of
this acid.Acrylic acid is unsaturated carboxylic acid, which has double bond and carboxyl
group in C3 one molecule with the formula CH2=CHCOOH. The vinyl group is attached
to the carbonyl carbon directly. The systemic name is 2-propenoic acid. Acrylic acid is a
colorless liquid with a distinctive acrid odor. It is miscible with water, chloroform
alcohols and ethers (Mortan, 2011).

Acrylic acid is broadly utilized as a part of the coating formulation as well as in


sheet form because of the exceptional clarity and durability of the sheets. This type of
acid is an important chemical in the manufacturing of plastics and textiles industries. The
uses of acrylic acid, then are utilized in manufacturing of latex, in floor polish, in
polymer solutions, emulsion polymers, leather and finishing (Luo et al. 2012). Exposure
to acrylic acid may occur basically in the working environment through breathing and
dermal contact. Acrylic acid is a strong irritant to the eyes, skins, and mucous membranes
in humans. The liquid may cause blindness if it splashed in eyes. It is observed that
acrylic acid may to produce lung haemorrhage and degenerative changes in the liver and
kidneys. Since acrylic acid is extremely reactive, special attention has to be paid for its
handling and use. The specified storage temperature range is between 15 and 25C at
atmospheric pressure. Also, because of its flammability, only spark resistant tools should
be operated in its presence (John, 2014).

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1.2 PROPERTIES & USES OF ACRYLIC ACID
1.2.1 Physical Properties of Acrylic Acid

Table 1.1: Physical Properties of Acrylic Acid

PROPERTIES DESCIRPTION
Chemical structure CH = CH - COOH
Molecular weight 72.06 g / mol
Melting point 13.5 C
Boiling point 141 C
Water solubility > 10 g/L
Critical temperature 342C
Specific gravity 1.05 (Water =1)
Density 1.051g/mL
Vapor density (air =1) 2.50g/mL
Appearance Clear, colourless liquid
Odor Acrid (strong)
Odor Threshold 0.092ppm
Vapor pressure 3.2 mm Hg at 20C
Flash point 68 C
Solubility Soluble in cold water
Very slightly soluble in acetone
Insoluble in diethyl ether
Dispersion Properties Partially dispersed in methanol, diethyl ether
Water/Oil Distribution The product is more soluble in oil
Coefficient Log (oil/water) = 0.4

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Acrylic acid is a clear, colorless liquid. The boiling point is 141.0C and melting
point 13.5C. It forms crystalline needles in the solid state. Acrylic acid is highly
miscible with water, alcohol, ester and many other organic solvents. The density of
aqueous solution is functioning as water content.

1.2.2 Application Of Acrylic Acid

The worldwide production of acrylic acid in 1994 was estimated to be


approximately 2 million tonnes. Acrylic acid is used primarily as a starting material in the
production of acrylic esters as a monomer for polyacrylic acid and salts, as a comonomer
with acrylamide for polymers used as flocculants, with ethylene for ion exchange resin
polymers, with methyl ester for polymers (Luo et al. 2012). Acrylic acid is used in the
field of application of:

Plastics
Paper manufacture and coating
Exterior house paints for wood and masonry
Coatings for compressed board and related building materials
Flocculation of mineral ore fines and waste water, and treatment of sewage
Printing inks
Interior wall paints
Floor polishes
Floor and wall coverings
Industrial primers
Textile sizing, treatment and finishing
Leather impregnation and finishing
Masonry sealers
Lubricating and fuel oil additives
Lacquers for automotive

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Appliance and furniture finishes
Pharmaceutical binders
Hot metal coatings

Acrylic acid is used in the manufacture of plastics, in latex applications, in floor


polish, in polymer solutions for coatings applications, emulsion polymers, paint
formulations, leather finishings, and paper coatings. Acrylic acid is also used as a
chemical intermediate.

1.3 The Production Processes

Acrylic acid has been found within 1865 in Europe. It had been resulting from
acrylic acid and had been researched in 1877. Fittig and Paul which were two German
chemists found the actual polymerisation method when the substance turns into a
polymers. It was not untill 1933 which methacrylic acids uses were discovered by Otto
Rohm, exactly who trademarked the goods and also termed that Plexiglas was a new well
known brand of acrylic substances along with a lot of uses (Bertorello and Argello,
2013). Advertising was started that within 1937 and also hundreds of companies include
their masterpiece version of the implemented acrylic acid nowadays. The earliest
synthesis of acrylic acid occurred in 1843 via the oxidation of acrolein. Since 1927, the
commodity chemical has been commercially available through many different production
means.There are 3 earliest production of acrylic acid which are:
Ethylene cyanohydrins process,
Reppe Process
-Propiolactone Process
Acrylonitrile hydrolysis.

The most common process for production of acrylic acid is the two stage
oxidation of propylene. This process employs highly active and very selective

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heterogeneous catalysts consisting of metal oxides such as vanadium and molybdenum to
oxidize propylene to acrolein in the first stage (Bertorello and Argello, 2013).

Acrylic production is probably the most well known materials which might be
retail generated these days. Its been used in manufacturing of aeroplanes, bomber planes,
and many other ordinary products. Acrylic product however offers many utilizes these
days which includes being manufactured of bulletproof materials for automobiles or
perhaps helmets, aquariums, and fibre optic products. U.S experts are still researching
materials properties to learn more about it. This includes both business in addition to
professional medical utilizes because it's a safe substance to help implant in the surgical
purpose (Luo et al. 2012).

There are several chemical pathways to produce Acrylic Acid, but the most
common one is via the partial oxidation of propylene. This is normally done as a standard
process involving two reactors in series. Each reaction step usually takes place over a
separate catalyst and at different operating conditions. The first reactor typically operates
at a higher temperature than the second unit. In this arrangement, the first reactor
converts the propylene to acrolein while the second reactor completes the conversion
from acrolein to acrylic acid. The reactions stoichiometric are as below:

1. Production of Acrolein:

C3H6 + O2 C3H4O + H2O (e.q 1.0)


2. Production of Acrylic Acid:

C3H4O + O2 C3H4O2 (e.q 1.1)

During this process reaction, several side reactions may occur which resulting in
the oxidation of reactants and products. Some typical side reactions are given below:

C3H4 + O2 3CO2 + 2H2O (e.q 1.2)

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C3H4 + O2 3C2H4O2 + CO2 (e.q 1.3)

C3H6 + O2 3CO2 + 3 H2O (e.q 1.4)

In industry, Acrylic acid is divided in two grades. First is 94% technical grade for
esterification. Secondly is 98-99.5% glacial grade with 0.3% water present by weight for
production of water-soluble resins. Acrylic acid polymerizes easily when exposed to heat,
light or metals, and so a polymerization inhibitor is added to commercial acrylic acid to
prevent the strong exothermic polymerization (Mortan, 2011).

Acrylic acid undergoes the typical reactions of a carboxylic acid to forms the
corresponding ester if acrylic acid combines with alcohol. The esters and salts of acrylic
acid are collectively known as acrylates (or propenoates). The common alkyl esters of
acrylic acid are 2-ethylhexyl-acrylate, methyl-, butyl- and ethyl-.

Furthermore, acrylic acid is ready to react with free radicals and nucleophilic or
electrophilic agents. It may polymerize in the presence of alkalis, amines, acids, iron
salts, elevated temperature, light, peroxides, and other compounds that form peroxides or
free radicals. Without inhibitor, peroxides are formed when oxygen is sparge into acrylic
acid. The vicinity of oxygen is required for the stabilizer to work adequately. Acrylic acid
must never be taken care of under an inert environment (Mortan, 2011).

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1.4 CHEMISTRY
1.4.1 Chemical Properties of Acrylic Acid

Table 1.2: Chemical Properties of Acrylic Acid (Source :


http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ compound/acrylic_acid#section=Chemical-and-
Physical-Properties)

Acrylic acids undergo reactions characteristics of both unsaturated acids and


aliphatic carbolic acids or esters. The high reactivity of these compounds stems from the
two unsaturated centers situated in the conjugated position. The carbon atoms,
polarized by carbonyl group, behaves as an electrophile; this favours the addition of large
variety of nucleophiles and active hydrogen compounds to the vinyl group. Moreover, the
carbon-carbon double bond undergoes radical-initiated addition reactions, Diels-Alder
reactions with dienes, and polymerization reactions. The carboxyl function is subject to

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the displacement reactions typical of aliphatic acids and esters, such as esterification and
transesterification. Joint reactions of the vinyl and carboxyl functions, especially with
bifunctional reagents, often constitute convenient route to polycyclic and heterocyclic
substances. Acrylic acids polymerise very easily. The polymerization is catalysed by
heat, light, and peroxides and inhibited by stabilizers, such as monomethyle ether of
hydroquinone or hydroquinone itself. These phenolic inhibiters are effective only in the
presence of oxygen. The highly exothermic, spontaneous polymerization of acrylic acid
is extremely violent (Sittig, 2010).

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CHAPTER 2

FEASIBILITY STUDY AND LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Acrylic acid is a commodity chemical with an estimated annual production


capacity of 4.2 million metric tons (Weissermel and Arpe, 2003). The acrylic acid ranks
it at about position 25 in the list of organic chemical products. The major utilization of
acrylic acid, its salt and esters, is in polymeric flocculants, dispersants, coatings, paints,
adhesives and binders for leather, paper and textile. Acrylic acid is conventionally
produced from petrochemicals. Currently, most of the commercial acrylic acid is
produced by partial oxidation of propene. In the so-called single step process, the yield is
at most 50-60%, leading to large amounts of waste. A two-step process via acrolein is
preferred, achieving about 90% yield overall. There is a requirement for efficient one-
step processes starting from cheap carbon sources (Lin, 2001).

2.2 GENERAL INFORMATION

2.2.1 Market and Competitive Analysis

Acrylic acids use varies in number of consumers. For example, industrial


application
(including paints, plastics, hygiene product, and detergent). There exists an $11 billion
market for the compound. The growth in Western Europe and the United State for the
production of chemical has slowed down to around 1.6% per year. However, China and
India have begun to adopt to U.S production techniques and strategies, the need for
polymer and copolymer has increased, adding to the growing demand for acrylic acid.
China, in particular, is the high-growth market for acrylic acid and is increasing its
consumption by approximately 8% per year. The average world demand is growing at a
rate of approximately 3% to 5% per year. Worldwide, the acrylic acid market is predicted
to be worth $14 billion by 2018. Because this proposed process uses a cheaper raw

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material and produces a higher yield of acrylic acid at the same purity, it should be
competitive within the existing industrial market. However, the proposed acrylic acid
plant may face a number of competitive challenges from renewable acrylic acid
pathways. The selling price of acrylic acid is predicted to drop if bioacrylic acid plants
are able to scale-up their process to industrial production levels. OPX Biotechnologies, a
leader in the fermentation process used to produce acrylic acid, is able to produce a
($1.102 USD/kg) acrylic acid, which is much cheaper than the price of acrylic acid
($3.858 USD /kg) which was assumed in this project.
(Kevin,2013)

2.2.2 Customer Requirements


Customer requirements for this process are standardized due to the high demand
in the existing market. There are two grades of acrylic acid, which are commercially
available. Glacial, or industrial-grade, which is 99.7% acrylic acid by mass, is used for
the production of super absorbent polymers for water treatment, disposable diapers, and
detergents. Technical grade, or crude acrylic acid, which is approximately 94% acrylic
acid by mass, is mostly used for the production of surface coatings, adhesives, plastic
additives, and proper treatment. Customer requirements for this process are based on the
existing industry market standard for glacial-grade acrylic acid. Typically acrylic acid is
stored as a purified liquid, immediately after production, and pumped when sold. Acrylic
acid and related acrylate esters polymerize in the presence of heat, light, and peroxides.
Thus, stabilizers such as hydroquinone or the monomethyl ether of hydroquinone
(MEHQ) must be added in the presence of oxygen to inhibit polymerization and prolong
shelf life. Storage and shipment temperatures should be kept in the range of 288.15 K to
298.15K and under atmospheric pressure with air to prevent undesired reactions. Acrylic
acid should not be stored with any inert gases so as to prevent premature polymerization.
Because acrylic acid is corrosive, it must be shipped with stainless steel, aluminum, or
polyethylene drums. Safety requirements demand that the containers are labeled as
corrosive, flammable, and dangerous to the environment. (Amanda,2010)

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2.2.3 Product Insights

Commercial derivatives include acrylate esters and glacial acrylic acid (GAA)
along with alkyl acrylates, dialkylaminoethyl acrylates, hydroxyalkyl acrylates. Acrylate
esters were the largest derivative with global consumption estimated at 2,731.2kilo tonns
in 2013. Acrylate esters are further segmented into methyl, butyl, ethyl acrylates and 2-
ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA). Acrylates impart several desirable properties of polymers
such as clarity, color stability, ageing and heat resistance along with good weather-
ability, leading to higher product demand in coating & adhesives industries.(Rohan,2011)

2.3 Process technology

There are some of plant designs in industries that aim to produce good quality of
acrylic acid with low cost and less harmful. In industries, what is differing of plant design
one to another is mainly is the reactor. There is some process technology that could help
in improving the production of acrylic acid :
Novomer Green Company Technology
Mitsubishi Chemical Technology
Nippon Shokubai Technology (half of the world production of acrylic
acid)

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2.3.1 Novomers Process

2.3.1.1 Introduction

Novomers process has the potential to enable a significant improvement in the


manufacture of
acrylic acid from both an operational and environmental perspective. The Novomer
process is simple, requires low capital investment and most importantly is easy to
operate. The Novomers process requires significantly less equipment and creates the
opportunity to dramatically change the transportation of glacial acrylic acid.

The process of Acrylic Acid has a few key steps and uses widely available
equipment:
Production of Beta-propiolactone
Catalyst Recovery and Recycle
Production of Poly-propiolactone (the polymer can either be isolated or passed on
to the next unit operation)
Production of Acrylic Acid (this step can be practiced on the same site where
Polypropiolactone is produced or at another remote site where the Acrylic Acid is
required for another process).

2.3.1.2 Features
Low Cost, Environmentally Friendly.

Novomer has developed a low cost, environmentally friendly route to make


acrylic acid and acrylate esters. Ethylene oxide, carbon monoxide, and Novomers
catalyst are combined together to form an intermediate called beta-propiolactone. The
prolactin is then converted to polypropiolactone which is used to produce either glacial
acrylic acid or acrylate esters.

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Acrylic acid is made today using propylene instead of ethylene oxide as the main
feedstock. The propylene is reacted in the presence of oxygen at high temperatures and
pressures in a complex reactor system that is very energy intensive. Novomers route to
acrylic acid will produce the same final chemical, but at a lower cost and with a lower
environmental impact.

Figure 2.1 Novomers Acrylic Acid Process Technology (Source: Novomer Green
Company)

2.3.1.3 Process Description

In the first stage of the process, a novel catalyst spurs the reaction of carbon
monoxide and shale-gas-based ethylene oxide to form propiolactone. This then is
converted into acrylic acid in the second stage using established technology.

The core catalyst that enables the technology is a homogeneous cobalt-based


compound first developed at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., by Professor Geoffrey
Coates and further optimized by Novomer. This catalyst is 99% selective, so almost no
raw materials are wasted in the process. Moreover, it functions at only 3050C,
compared to current acrylic-acid processing catalysts that typically operate at 200250C.
The combination of high selectivity and moderate temperature mean that Novomer's
process will have a lower carbon and energy footprint than the propylene oxidation
process to make acrylic acid.

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2.3.2 Mitsubishi Chemical Technology

2.3.2.1 Introduction

Mitsubishi Chemical offers deliver numerous advantages. First, they offer a broad range
of technologies which they customize to our individual requirements, resulting in higher
performance and streamlined operating costs for you. Additionally, the commitment to
the continuous technology advancement gives you a competitive advantage that is so
critical in todays world. Mitsubushi using C4 derivative in production of Acrylic Acid.

2.3.2.2 Features

(1) Economical process Product Application

a) Catalyst
For Acrylic Acid Mitsubishi oxidation catalyst is top performance. It has very
high yield and long life. And Mitsubishi continues the development of oxidation catalyst.
Many users are satisfied by Mitsubishi oxidation catalyst.

b) Process of Acrylic Acid


There is little wastewater from Mitsubishi AA process. So, Mitsubishi AA
process is not only economical but also good for ecology. Operation of Mitsubishi
Acrylic Acid process is stable, because it prevents polymer formation. So, plant user does
not need often to shut down the plant for cleaning.

(2) High Safety


Our licensees and our own plants have never met serious accidents and perfect safety
records.

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2.3.2.3 Process Description

Acrylic Acid is produced from Propylene and Air. This section consists of the following
to sections:
(1) Oxidation Reaction section
(2) Purification section

The main reactions are as follows:


CH3CHCH2 + O2 CH2=CHCHO + H2O
(Propylene) (Acrolein)

CH2=CHCHO + 1/2O2 CH2=CHCOOH


(Acrylic Acid)

Figure 2.2: Process Flow Diagram of Acrylic Acid (Source : Mitsubishi Chemical
Technology)

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New technology (New Waved-Plate Reactor)
Mitsubishi has developed a new technology, Waved-Plate Reactor. The merit of new
reactor:
1) Higher Productivity (high space time yield)
2) Low Pressure Difference
3) Easy Catalyst-Renewal Operation
4) Low construction cost and variable cost
Mitsubishi will start the new Waved-plate Reactor in Yokkaichi from 2014.

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2.3.3 Nippon Shokubai Technology

2.3.3.1 Introduction
Nippon Shokubai is a global chemical company, and boasts the world's top-class
production capacity for acrylic acid and superabsorbent polymers. Acrylic acid was
developed by establishing a method of propylene direct oxidation. Another world rst in
1970 and a technology that has been widely adopted among leading overseas acrylic acid
manufacturers. Nippon Shokubai produces not only acrylic acid but also derivative
products, such as acrylates and superabsorbent polymers. These products are used as raw
materials for paints, adhesives, diapers and so on. Since they are in high demand, Nippon
Shokubai continues to operate its acrylic acid plants at full production capacity.

2.3.3.2 Features

Superabsorbent polymers
In 1985, Nippon Shokubai began full-scale production of superabsorbent polymers at a
plant with an annual capacity of 10,000 tons. With their application in diapers, its annual
production capacity has grown to 560,000 tons over a quarter century later, and it
continues to grow strongly

The strengths of Nippon Shokubais SAP


Superabsorbent polymers are used mainly in diapers. By drawing on the company's
strengths such as its high product development capability, innovative manufacturing
processes, in-house-manufactured raw materials and intellectual property strategy,
Nippon Shokubai boasts the world's top-level market share.

*NO Process Description of this technology as it is the highest production in the


world

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2.4 Market Data
2.4.1 Worldwide Production of Acrylic Acid

Figure 2.3 Acrylic acid world production broken down by region in 2011

In 2011, the world creation limit of acrylic acid went past 5.3 million tons.
Around the same time, Asia ranked the 1st in the world in terms of acrylic acid
production capacity, calling for a bit under 47.5% of the worlds total figure. It was
trailed by Europe and North America with shares equal to 25.26% and 25.08%,
individually.

Figure 2.4 Acrylic acid world productions broken down by country in 2011

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In the between of 2008 and 2011, the world acrylic acid production has followed
an upward trend. However, in 2011 the production grew 4.8% and surpassed 4.15 million
tons. Asia was the main territorial acrylic acid production with a share of 46.66% of the
overall production volume and it is trailed by Europe and North America. In 2011, the
main five acrylic acid manufactured countries (the USA, China, Japan, Germany and
Belgium) captured slightly over 78.5% of the worlds total acrylic acid production. At the
same time, the combined production volume of the top five country producers stood at
more than 3.25 million tons.

2.4.2 Economic Potential

Figure 2.5 Acrylic Acid Revenue by product in between 2012 to 2022 (USD
Million)

Worldwide acrylic acid business sector size was 5,750.0 kilo tons in 2014.
Growing demand for super absorbent polymers in personal care industry is expected to
drive growth over the forecast period. Increasing consumption in surfactants, surface
coatings and adhesives & sealants production is also expected to shape up the industry.
Worldwide acrylic acid market is expected to reach USD 22.55 billion by 2022 growing
at a CAGR of 5.6% from 2015 to 2022. Personal care products formed the largest end-
use industry and accounted for 30% of total market volume in2014. Increasing adult
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incontinence product demand on account of growing geriatric population base in Europe
and Japan coupled with the increasing population of baby boomers in the U.S. is expected
to drive this segment over the forecast period. Surfactants & surface coatings are
expected to witness significant gains in its market size over the forecast period. Asia
Pacific led the global acrylic acid industry with demand share exceeding 48% in 2014.
Low manufacturing cost associated with superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in China and
India has ensured the continuous demand for acrylic acid in the region. China alone
accounted for over 50% of total regional demand in 2014. North America and Europe are
mature markets and are characterized by a strong focus towards commercializing bio-
based acrylic acid. Companies such as Novozymes, Cargill, BASF and OPX Bio have
successfully developed bio-based sources on a pilot scale and are moving towards
commercial operations. Global acrylic acid market share is dominated by BASF, Arkema,
Dow Chemical and Nippon who accounted for over 45% in 2014. The industry is
moderately consolidated in nature and moving towards developing acrylic acid from bio-
based feedstock.

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2.4.3 Feedstock market condition
Table 2.1: Potential Supplier for the Feed Stock
Material Company Name Address Contact

Propylene 20, Lorong IKS Phone: +604 502 5116


Juru 11,
C3H6 (R1270) WELL
Fax: +604 502 4116
Taman Perindustrian
Ringan Juru, Email:
SOLUTIONS
14100 cs.heng@well.com.my
SDN. BHD. Simpang Ampat,
Penang, Malaysia. website:
http://well.com.my/

Propylene No. 328, Jalan 2C, Phone :+603 7847 6980


(99.8% )MIN USP Grade Kampung Baru Fax: +603 7847 6982
BIS CHEMICAL Subang, Email : info@bischem.com
SDN.BHD. 40150 Shah Alam, Website :
Selangor, www.bischem.com
Darul Ehsan,
Malaysia.

Source: Alibaba.com

2.4.4 Market Prices of Propylene


Table 2.2: Price Current Propylene
Materials Quantity Price (RM)

Propylene 1kg 13.36 (Inc GST)


Excluded courier charge

100kg 133.36 (Inc GST)


Excluded courier charge
Source:Alibaba.com

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2.5 Potential Competitor

There are two types of competitor which are local competitor and international
competitor. The local competitor that we would be faced is BIS Chemical Sdn.Bhd.,
located in Shah Alam, Selangor. This company is a local company and very new in the
industry so the competition is less. The very strong competition, we will be facing is
BASF and have many operating place in Johor,Kedah and Selangor.

For international competitor, there are many industries that supply the acrylic acid.
As an BASF, Dow Chemical, Arkema, Nippon Shokubai, Formosa Plastics Corp,
StoHaas Marl GmbH,Jiangsu Jurong Chemical, LG Chem, Zhejiang Satellite
Petrochemical, PetroChina Company Limited, American Acryl LP, Mitsubishi Chemical
Corp (MCC), Sasol Acrylates and Shenyang Paraffin Chemical are among the top players
in the world acrylic acid market.

Table 2.3: Local Competitors for Acrylic Acid


No. Company Name Address Contact

1. BIS CHEMICAL No .328, Jalan 2C, Phone :+603 7847 6980


SDN.BHD. Kampung Baru Subang, Fax: +603 7847 6982
40150 Shah Alam, Selangor, Email : info@bischem.com
Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Website :
www.bischem.com

2. BASF East Side Of Wentou Lingjiao, Tel : 0086-757-85115270


Fengxi Village, Heshun, Lishui Mobile: 13923202292
Town, Nanhai Dist., Foshan, Fax: 0086-757-85126616
Guangdong, China (Mainland) Website:
http://www.huategas.com

Source: Alibaba.com

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CHAPTER 3 PROCESS SELECTION

SUMMARY

In this chapter, the objective is to select the best process to produce mass
production of an acrylic acid that available. Next, is to compare the process based on the
process flow and the advantages and the disadvantages of the process. Various methods
for the manufacture of acrylic acid have been discussed in this chapter. For a route to be
commercially attractive the raw material costs and utilization must be low, plant
investment and operating cost not excessive, and waste disposal charges minimal. There
are 3 methods being studied which are oxidation of propylene, carboxylation of ethylene
cyanohydrin and acrylic ester method. The propylene method has two steps of oxidation.
First, the oxidation of propylene to produce acrolein by using catalyst Ni,Fe,Zn or
Zn+CO. Then, the second one is partial oxidation of acrolein to produce acrylic acid.
This method is producing the highest purity with 99.7% of acrylic acid with utilising low
economical cost. Second method is producing acrylic acid via carboxylation of ethylene
cyanohydrin. This method also have 2 stages that is on the first stage is oxidation of
ethylene and then carbonylation of ethylene oxide. This method producing 99.4%
conversion purity and has high economical cost. Both stages are using different catalysts.
At the first stage, it use silver -alumina while at second stage use CO(CO)4. . Last
method is acrylic ester process. Only 1 step process involved without using any catalyst.
The conversion purity is the lowest with 99% and has low economical cost. According to
the several methods of manufacturing of acrylic acid, the most favorable method and to
be applied in this study is producing 150 000 metric tons per year of acrylic acid via
oxidation of propylene. The selection is being chosen based on the low costing, high
purity conversion and giving most advantages towards the process.

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3.1 INTRODUCTION

Generally, acrylic acid is produced using propylene. Propylene is a byproduct of


hydrocarbon cracking and naphtha refining, and the price very closely follows that of oil.
Because of high refinery production rates in the US, propylene has been sold at a slight
discount to ethylene historically. However, the US has seen a recent shale gas boom that
has increased the supply of natural gas and ethane and dropped their prices to the lowest
ever seen. With the announcement of large scale ethane crackers such as the $6 billion
cracker ConocoPhillips plants to have operational by 2017, the price and supply of
ethylene may soon flood US markets (Culp et.al, 2013).

In Acrylic acid production by the oxidation of propylene, the propylene is used as


the starting raw material. The objective of this project is to design an acrylic acid plant
that will produce glacial acrylic acid which is at 99.0% purity. The desired product must
be separated from the rest of the reactor product stream. This stream consists acrylic acid,
acetic acid, water, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. A by-product is also a
marketable commodity. The goal is to produce 150,000 metric tons per year of 99.9 mole
% of acrylic acid product and utilizing 8000 hours a year (Bannister, 2001).

The earliest synthesis of acrylic acid occurred in 1843 via the oxidation of
acrolein. Since 1927, the commodity chemical has been commercially available through
many different production means, including the Ethylene cyanohydrins process, the
Reppe Process, the - Propiolactone Process, and the Acrylonitrile hydrolysis (Campos et
al.,2014). The two stage oxidation of propylene is most common process for production
of acrylic acid. Highly active and very selective heterogeneous catalysts consisting of
metal oxides are employs in this process such as vanadium and molybdenum to oxidize
propylene to acrolein in the first step and the yields of greater than 85% are possible
(Kumar and Prasad, 2013).

The most common process for production of acrylic acid is the two-stage
oxidation of propylene. This process employs highly active and very selective

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heterogeneous catalysts consisting of metal oxides such as vanadium and molybdenum to
oxidize propylene to acrolein in the first step. Yields of greater than 85% are possible
(Culp et.al, 2013). The second step involves the further oxidation of acrolein to acrylic
acid using cobalt- molybdenum oxides at reactions temperatures of 200 to 300oC with
contact times of around 2 seconds. This current process gives acrylic acid yields of
around 80-90% after absorption by water.

Acrylic acid and its derivatives are primarily used in the preparation of solution
and emulsion polymers. Acrylic acid is also a commonly used chemical intermediate,
which because of its widespread uses, is a valuable chemical commodity. Because of this
fact, this design project invests the optimization of an acrylic acid plant, to see if such a
plant could be a profitable undertaking. This section compares the differences between
the type of process in term of operational pressure, temperature, existence of catalyst and
some other characteristic as to gain much safer process that produce the high purity and
conversion with acceptable operational parameters (Kumar and Prasad, 2013).

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3.2 PROCESS COMPARISON & OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

In this sub-chapter, it will discuss a few processes or methods that are available in
industry for the production of Acrylic Acid. This chapter will also discusses about the
consideration of the suitable synthesis of production acrylic acid. There are many process
synthesis that can produce acrylic acid but the best process will be selected for the
process design. These kind of process consist of various method that may use during the
production of acrylic acid. There are 3 methods that we want to compare in this chapter
that is:

1. Ethylene Cyanohydrin Method


2. Propylene Method
3. Acrylic Ester Method

All of these processes are being describe in details in explanation below and every
processes has its own process flow diagram (PFD) in order to understand more about the
flow of the process by using these different technologies.

3.2.1 Ethylene Cyanohydrin Method

First method to produce acrylic acid is by using Ethylene Cyanohydrin method.


For this process, ethylene will be oxidized to its epoxide, which will then be carbonylated
to propiolactone. The propiolactone intermediate will then be treated with a
concentrated phosphoric acid to allow for rearrangement to acrylic acid. The project is
envisioned as three main reaction steps including ethylene oxidation, carbonylation of
ethylene oxide, and acid catalyzed rearrangement of -propiolactone (Culp et.al, 2013).
There are three stages involves in this process. The first step in this process is oxidation
of Ethylene Oxide. The process equation is as follows:

26
C2H4 +O2C2H4O (e.q 3.1)

The process utilizes silver catalyst on - alumina support in the form of rings or
lobed shapes to increase the surface area. It operates at a selectivity of 80-90% based on
the industrial grade silver -alumina catalyst used. The next step involved in this process
is Carbonylation of Ethylene Oxide. The reaction equation is given as follows:

C2H4O + COC3H4O2 (e.q 3.2)

The final step in this process involves Acid-Catalyzed Rearrangement of -


Propiolactone. The reaction equation is as follows:

C3H4O2 C3H4O2 (e.q 3.3)

Phosphoric acid and propiolactone are mixed in the third step to induce a homogenously
acid catalyzed rearrangement yielding the acrylic acid product. The reaction is carried out
in the liquid phase under vacuum at high temperature. At this point, mono methyl ether
hydroquinone (MEHQ) is added as an inhibitor to prevent the polymerization of the
acrylic acid product.

27
Table 3.2.1: Advantages and Disadvantages Ethylene Cyanohydrin Method

Advantages Disadvantages

The catalyst may be allowed to remain in the Long residence times are required so that the
crude product while the latter is dehydrated at residues become viscous and finally solidify.
elevated temperatures in the production of
acrylonitrile.

Steady decomposition takes place with the Very serious corrosion phenomena occur
formation of high boiling materials and the owing to the use of acids.
release of ammonia when aqueous ethylene Catalysts used become inactive owing to
cyanohydrin in contact with a considerable resinification in very quick.
amount of calcium hydroxide.

Source: Adapted from United State Patent US2459430 A (1946)

28
3.2.2 Acrylic Ester Method

The alternative to produce acrylic acid is by using synthesis of acrylic esters. It is


carried out by interaction of acrylic acid with alkyl halides in the presence of the sodium
hydroxide or potassium hydroxide in aqueous solution. This method is preventing the
polymerisability of the starting material. Esters at low boiling point will be available and
the formed alchohols as it will be compared with acrylic acid. The salt can then be
converted to the acid by:

Neutralizing the calcium salt with sulphuric acid, removing precipitated calcium sulfate
by a difficult filtration procedure, and obtaining the formed acrylic acid in aqueous
concentrate.

Treating an aqueous solution of sodium salt with ion- exchange resin to remove sodium
ions, removing the resin by filtration, and obtaining an aqueous concentrate of acrylic
acid (Kumar and Prasad, 2013).

The reactions of producing acrylic acid via Acrylic Ester method is:

H2SO4
CH2=CHCOOCH3 + H2O CH2=CHCOOH + CH3OH (e.q 3.4)

Generally, saponify the ester is preferable to form the corresponding salt.

CH2=CHCOOCH3 + NaOH CH2=CHCOONa + CH3OH


(e.q 3.5)

29
Table 3.2.2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Acrylic Ester Method Source: Adapted
from United State Patent US2962525 A (1960)

Advantages Disadvantages

Elimination of the necessity of handling The precipitation of nickel salts tends to


precipitated nickel salts in the reactor. occur on cooling surfaces inside the reactors,
decreasing the heat transferability of the
cooling surface.

The used of mineral acids, especially the In the conventional production of acrylic
hydrogen halides, are readily available acid esters of alcohols, the reaction is
and more economical to use. This process accompanied by the precipitation of nickel
will enable the coproduction of acrylic salts. Due to the formation of this
acid and esters of acrylic acid using precipitate, it is necessary to use reactors
aqueous solutions of these mineral acids. capable of handling slurries of solids in
liquids.

30
3.2.3 Oxidation of Propylene Method

Oxidation of Propylene method becomes the most favorable method. This


recently developed process involves the oxidation of propylene to hydroxypropionic acid,
oxides of nitrogen or nitric acid act as catalyst for the reaction. Subsequent dehydration
yields acrylic acid.mAn alternative route is the catalytic oxidation to acrolein, and then to
acrylic acid with oxygen with the usage of certain metallic catalyst such as Mo, Co, or Ce
(Bannister, 2001). There are two stages of oxidation happens in this process. Simply, the
chemical reactions involves in this process are as below:

3. Production of Acrolein:

C3H6 + O2 C3H4O + H2O (e.q 3.6)

4. Production of Acrylic Acid:

C3H4O + O2 C3H4O2 (e.q 3.7)

There are several side reactions may occur which resulting in the oxidation of reactants
and products. Some typical side reactions are given below:

C3H4 + O2 3CO2 + 2H2O (e.q 3.8)

C3H4 + O2 3C2H4O2 + CO2 (e.q 3.9)

C3H6 + O2 3CO2 + 3 H2O (e.q 3.10)

31
Figure 3.1: Manufacturing of acrylic acid by using oxidation of propylene (Source: Kumar and Prasad, 2013)

32
Figure 3.3.3 shows the process flow of acrylic acid production utilizing the method of
oxidation of propylene. This method will be used in this project to produces 150,000 metric
tons per year of 99.9 mole % of acrylic acid product. The number of operating hours should
be taken as 8000/yr. The reactor in the process shown in Figure 3.3.3 uses a proprietary
catalyst that eliminates the production of the intermediate, acrolein. Therefore, this process
requires only a single reactor. After reaction, it is essential to cool the products (at reactor
effluent) quickly to avoid further homogeneous oxidation reactions. This is achieved by
rapidly quenching the reactor effluent, Stream 6, by injecting deionized water into it
(Bannister, 2001).

The homogeneous combustion reactions will not take place so long as the reactor
effluent is cooled to below 100C immediately after the reactor. Additional recovery of
Acrylic acid and acetic acid as a by-product) from the gas, Stream 7, leaving the phase
separator (V-301) is achieved in the absorber, T-301. The liquid stream, Stream 9, leaving the
absorption section is a dilute aqueous acid. It is combined with the liquid from the phase
separator, V-301, to form the feed to the extractor section, Stream 13. This stream is sent to
the liquid-liquid extraction section, X-301, to remove preferentially the acid fraction from the
water prior to purification.

In this process line, there are several columns, exchangers, pumps, vessels, and other
miscellaneous equipment in X-301. The organic phase leaving X-301, Stream 15, contains
99.5 % of the acrylic acid and acetic acid in Stream 13 and essentially no water or other
components. This is sent to the acid purification column, T-302, where 95% by mole acetic
acid byproduct is produced overhead and 99.9 % by mole Acrylic Acid is produced as a
bottom product. This product and byproduct will be then cooled prior to being sent to storage.
Whereas, the aqueous phase from the extractor, Stream 14, is sent to a wastewater treatment
process (Liu, 2014).

33
Table 3.2.3: Advantages and disadvantages by using Propylene method (Source: Adapted
from United State Patent WO2014108417 A1, 2014)

Advantages Disadvantages

Able to increase the productive output of Propylene, obtained by steam cracking or


acrylic acid while reducing the dependency catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions.
on a fossil resource. Therefore, it contributing to increasing the
greenhouse effect due to its fossil origin.

Has a relatively high route efficiency, also Both propene and propane are currently only
when compared to other acrylic acid readily available as fossil feedstocks and are
production routes using renewable feedstocks therefore not renewable.

The CO2 emission from the global process


would be lower if propane were used.

34
3.2.4 Process Safety & Health Concerns

In the process of making acrylic acid, there is several safety measures require to be
taken. As the process involves the oxidation of a gaseous hydrocarbon which is propylene,
essential safety concern is the possibility for explosion. The process is controlled primarily by
running under an excess of propylene. In this case, oxygen is kept as limiting agent. It should
be noted that both reactors in the process must be monitored at frequently and isolated from
any source of sparks as well as flames. Another safety concern is the presence of high
temperatures during the production process. The peak temperature range for first reactor is
330 430 C and second reactor is 280- 360 C. Thus, care must be taken to ensure
propylene does not leak from the reactor into any other parts, where it may form a
combustible mixture. Also, this process is involving the storage of liquefied propylene and
acrylic acid. It is highly recommended that the propylene storage tank to be stored in a
pressure vessel to prevent any explosive vapour to happens (Liu, 2014). Referring on the
Material Safety Data Sheet of acrylic acid, acrylic acid appears as colourless liquid with
stench odour at room temperature and pressure. It is miscible in water and most organic
solvents. As the product been formed (acrylic acid), it is advised that the storage tank of
acrylic acid can be designed as a fixed cone roof because acrylic acid will have a relatively
low vapor pressure at storage conditions. Acrylic acid polymerizes easily when exposed to
heat, light or metals, and so a polymerization inhibitor is added to commercial acrylic acid to
prevent the strong exothermic polymerization (Campos et. al, 2014).

35
3.2.5 Environmental Considerations

Acrylic acid is relatively non-toxic to bacteria and soil microorganisms. It is miscible


in water and is not expected to adsorb any soil as well as any sediment. As it is exposed to
atmosphere, it reacts to produce hydroxyl radicals and ozone will result in quick degradation.
As it is readily biodegrades in water, acrylic acid will not produce any bioaccumulation and
the estimation of its atmospheric lifetime is about less than one month (Liu, 2014).
Environmental concerns will be analysed with respect to standards for pollution control. The
main impact on the environment throughout this process is the waste water. The part of the
process that contributes to the high amount of water that needs to be treated is the flash
evaporation system. The water must be treated to remove any possible pollutants in the
streams. This treatment will be done at on off-site facility (Bannister, 2001).

36
3.3 CONCLUSION OF PROCESS SELECTION

According to the several methods of manufacturing of acrylic acid, the most


commercially attractive route is via oxidation of propylene compared to others methods
which are ethylene cyanohydrin and acrylic glycerol. The most important part to be
considered are the plant investment, operating cost and the waste disposal charges must be
under controlling cost. Although the cost of propylene tends to be increasing by demand in
every year, but it is still moving at slow rate compare to other raw materials. Specifically, the
raw material for acrylic acid production via oxidation of propylene is propanoic acid
(propylene + oxygen). Briefly, producing acrylic acid is involving 2 steps of oxidation
processes. First oxidation process happens when the propylene (propene) is reacting with
sufficient oxygen producing acrolein. Meanwhile, the second process happens with partial
oxidation of acrolein which will turn into the final product which is acrylic acid. The essence
equipment used to produce acrylic acid is reactor. This process is build up with two-reactor
system in which each of the reactors will utilise different catalyst with separating operating
condition. Both reactors are fixed-bed shell-and-tube type. In the first reactor, several catalyst
can be used which are Nickel, Iron, Zinc, Bismuth or Copper. However, Iron (Fe) is more
preferable with the range of temperature 330 430 C. As the acrolein being produced in first
reactor, it passed to the second stage reactor which is similar to the first stage reactor but
packed with catalyst which designed for selective conversion of acrolein to acrylic acid. The
catalyst may Metal Oxide, Cobalt, or Cerium with the temperature peaks in the range of 280-
360 C. The used of catalysts are to give high performance towards the production process.
The selection of catalyst also may influence the setting condition of the reactor to process the
product. The product then will enter the separation tower. The purpose is to put the acrylic
acid into a cool down until 80 C. It also used to separates out the gaseous material in the
product stream such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and propylene.

37
Table 3.3 Process comparison in selection of acrylic acid method

Characteristic
and Oxidation of Propylene Ethylene Cyanohydrin Acrylic Ester
consideration
Ethylene oxide,
Raw material Propanoic Acid Ester
hydrogen cyanide

Oxidation of Ethylene
Process involved 2 Step Oxidation Polymerization
Carbonylation of
Exylene Oxide

Oxidation: Ni. Fe. Zn. Bi.


Oxidation: Siver -
or Zn + Co (Fe promotion )
Using catalyst alumina
Partial Oxidation: Metal No
Oxide, Mo, Co, or Ce. Carbonylation: CO(CO)4

Operating
Temperature 300-450 240 290 250 350
(C)
Conversion
99.7% 99.4% 99%
purity
Economical cost Low High Low

Number of
2 2 1
process/stage
increase the
productive output easy handling
smaller
reducing the precipitated
equipment size
dependency on a nickel salts in
Advantages high yield
fossil resource. the reactor
high conversion
high efficiency low operating
low carbon cost
monoxide emission
low heat
transfer
high cost
need to clean
greenhouse
greenhouse effect frequently
Disadvantages effect
not renewable long production
not renewable
time
hard to handling
slurries

38
CHAPTER 4

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF MAJOR EQUIPMENT UNIT

SUMMARY

The process description acrylic acid production by using the oxidation of propylene is
discussed in this chapter. The objective this chapter is to study all the parameters, condition
function of all equipments used and route of the process flow in making acrylic acid. There
are two stages before the acrylic acid is formed. The propane undergoes through process of
oxidation and form propylene. Then, the selective oxidation of propylene in one reactor
loaded with a two-catalyst bed and form acrylic acid. The are 4 major component in this
production that is reactor, light gas seperator , distillation column, and absorber. The reactor
mixed the feed using a right composition, specific temperature and pressure. While light gas
separator, partially separate the acrylic acid and water according Raoults Law. Distillation
column is separate the water and acrylic acid completety. Lastly, absorber is removed inert
gas. There are 3 feeds streams that enter the reactor that is pure propylene at stream 1, oxygen
at stream 2, and steam at stream 3. Feed mixture should have the following components: air
(containing oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor) 55 mole % steam (added as steam) 40 mole%
propylene 5 mole % at the stream 4 and start to mix at the reactor. Then, the mixture goes
through the t gas seperator,S301 seperating the acrylic and water. Some goes to incinerator
(purge) and the other goes through distillation column. The unsuccesful product is recyled
back to the feed.

39
4.1 INTRODUCTION

In a chemical process, material is moved in streams by mechanical devices such as


pumps and compressors from one process unit to another. The streams are connected to the
process units by pipes and ducts for fluids and by screw or belt conveyors in the case of
solids, for example. The process units perform operations on the content of the streams to
change their temperature, pressure, phase, and composition. These units are often referred to
as unit operations and are carefully configured by the chemical engineer to transform raw
materials into the desired products, economically and safely. Some units are combinations of
unit operations. Utilising the method of oxidation of propylene, there are several main
equipments being used which consisting 2 reactors, refluxed gas absorber column, liquid
extraction column and distillation column. In this chapter will cover the functions of every
equipments, parameters used, process flow diagram as well as the process description of
acrylic acid production via oxidation of propylene plant (Luo et al. 2012).

40
4.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION OF ACRYLIC ACID PRODUCTION

Figure 4.1: Figure below is a preliminary process flow diagram (PFD) for the acrylic acid production process

41
The process description of acrylic acid production via oxidation of propylene method
is based on the process flow diagrams shown in Figures 4.1. The input to the first reactor
which is R-101 consisting of three feed streams and a recycle stream from the off gas
absorber from T-101. The three feed streams are air (1), steam (2), and propylene (3). The
feed of the propylene has a purity of at least 95%, with the balance being is propane. The
purpose of the recycle stream is to add carbon dioxide to the reactor feed stock. Steam is used
to reduce the risk of explosion of the propylene and acrolein during the oxidation stage.
Route on producing crylic acid requires the reaction of the feedstock and then the separation
and purification of the acrylic acid via liquid extraction and distillation. The gaseous phase
oxidation of propylene is undertaken in two stages and running in the separated fixed-bed
reactors of identical capacity. The difference between both reactors is the temperature of the
cooling fluid and types of catalysts used in the reactor. The first reactor operates at
temperature range between 300 C and 450 C. At this temperature range the catalyst's
activity is at its maximum, and subsequently both the single-pass conversion of propylene
and the selectivity of propylene to acrolein are at their maximum. The most preferable
catalyst used in this reactor is iron. The reaction take place in this reactor is:

C3H6 + O2 C3H4O +H2O (eq 4.1)

Due to this reaction, the propylene is still oxidised in three undesirable exothermic reactions
producing acetic acid, acrylic acid, carbon dioxide and water byproducts. Because the
reaction is exothermic, large amounts of heat are produced. Consequently, an efficient
cooling system is required to ensure that the reactor operates within the optimum temperature
range. The recommended reaction temperature is 409 C. The propylene reactor operates at
465 kPa (Bannister, 2001).

The second reactor operates more efficiently when the temperature is kept between
200 C and 350 C. The conversion of acrolein and selectivity of acrolein to acrylic acid are
both maximised. Catalyst used in this reactor is zinc oxide. The difference is only on the

42
composition of the main active elements. The reaction to obtain acrylic acid from acrolein is
as follows:

C3H4O + 0.5O2 C3H4O2 (eq 4.2)

The reaction is also exothermic and the cooling fluid is the same as that used in R-101. The
recommended reaction temperature is 300 C. The acrolein reactor operates at 350 kPa.

The product from the acrolein reactor then is piped directly to the refluxed gas
absorber, T-101. The product from R-102 is here simultaneously cooled and separated by a
water stream entering the top of the tower. The water is used to scrub out the gas and remove
all the gases that are immiscible in water such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, acrolein
and propylene. Small amounts of both acetic acid and acrylic acid are absorbed into the
water. The gaseous distillate waste stream, stream 10, containing water and undesirable
gases, is passed through a splitter, where 85 mass % is recycled as a feed to the propylene
reactor, and the remaining 15 mass % is piped to the incinerator. The bottoms product of
water and the two acids, stream 15, is piped to the acid extraction tower, T-102. The refluxed
gas absorber operates at a pressure of 550 kPa and temperatures between 60 and 300 C
(Bannister, 2001).

The top product from T-102, stream 17, goes directly to the solvent tower at T-103
used for the separation of the n-pentane solvent from the two acids. Since n-pentane has the
lowest value of vapour/liquid ratio, it will be predominantly recovered in the distillate, with
only trace amounts in the bottoms product. Both acrylic acid and acetic acid are removed as
bottoms product and fed to T-104. The solvent tower distillate, stream 20, containing 99.9
mass % of n-pentane is recycled to the acid extraction tower, T-102.

The acrylic acid tower, T-104, separates the bottoms product from T-103 into an
acrylic acid bottoms product, stream 26, and an acetic/acrylic acid distillate, stream 25, which
is fed to T-105 for further purification. The acrylic acid tower operates at a pressure of 250
kPa and temperatures between 150 C and 175 C. The acetic acid tower, T-105, separates
the bottom product from T-104 into an acrylic acid bottoms product, stream 27, and an acetic
distillate product, stream 31. The acetic acid tower operates at a pressure of 200 kPa and
temperatures between 130 C and 160 C.

43
The production of acrylic acid via the oxidation of propylene generates four output
streams in which the acrylic acid product exit at stream 34, containing 99.7 mol% of acrylic
acid by receiving the combination of bottoms products from both the acrylic acid and acetic
acid towers, T-104 and T-105. The acetic acid product at the stream 29 containing 98.5 mol%
acetic acid. It comes from the acetic acid tower at T-105, distillate product. The wastewater at
stream 18 containing 99.1 mol% water and the balance n-pentane, acrylic acid and acetic acid
comes from the acid extraction tower, T-102. Meanwhile, the off gas at stream 12 consisting
85 mol% nitrogen, with the balance being propylene, acrolein, oxygen, carbon dioxide and
water vapour, is only 15 mass% of the stream originated from the refluxed gas absorber at T-
101.

44
4.3 MECHANICAL DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT LISTS

This part will explain more details on the process and reaction occur in each of
equipment to produce acrylic acid. Table 4.1 shows the list of main equipment in the process.

Table 4.1: List of Main Equipment

No. Equipment label Name of Equipment Quantity

1 R-101 & R 102 Reactor 2

2 T-101 Refluxed gas Absorber Column 1

3 T-102 Liquid Extraction Column 1

4 T-104 and T -105 Distillation Column 1

45
4.3.1 Plug Flow Reactor (R -100)

Table 4.4.1: The function of first reactor and its description

In the production of acrylic acid, there are two reactors are


Function being involved. The purpose of the first reactors is the place
where the first oxidation process happen producing acrolein as
a product.
Temperature: 550 C
Parameter Pressure: 465 kPa
Catalyst: Iron (Fe)

Composition Feed composition : C3H6 : Air : Steam = 1 : 7.75 : 3.75

Feed Composition:
Propylene = 347.78 kmol/hr
Steam = 347.78 x 3.75 = 1304.18 kmol/hr
Air = 347.78 x 7.75 = 2695.26 kmol/hr
Nitrogen = 2129.26 kmol/ hr
Oxygen= 566 kmol/hr

Product Composition:
Acrolein=0.7 x 347.78 = 243.446kmol/hr
Acrylic Acid = 0.11 x 347.78 = 38.26kmol/hr
Steam = 243.446kmol/hr
46
Oxygen left unreact = 44.33kmol/hr
Steam = 1547.626 kmol/hr
The feed mixture of this reactor should have following
components which are 55 mole % air (containing oxygen,
nitrogen, and water vapor), 40 mole% steam (added as steam)
and 5 mole % propylene. Propylene presence as pure vapor at
Description 25C and 465 kPa entering this reactor while air at 218C and
465 kPa (it has been compressed from atmospheric pressure
causing the temperature increase in the reactor). Steam enters
reactor at pressure 465 kPa. First stage of oxidation takes place
in R-101 producing acrolein as the major product.

47
4.3.2 Plug Flow Reactor (R -101)

Table 4.4.2: The function of second reactor and its description

Function The purpose of the second reactors is to complete the


conversion from acrolein to acrylic acid where the iron oxide
where used as the catalyst in this chemical reactions.
Temperature: 350 C
Parameter Pressure: 350 kPa
Catalyst: Metal Oxide
Feed Composition:
Composition Acrolein = 243.446kmol/hr
Acrylic Acid = 0.11 x 347.78 = 38.26kmol/hr
Steam = 1547.626 kmol/hr
Oxygen = 44.33kmol/hr
Nitrogen = 2129.26 kmol/hr
(Acetic Acid+CO2) = 66.08 kmol/hr

Product Composition:
Acrylic Acid =237.36 kmol/hr
Acrylic in Reactor I = 38.26 kmol/hr
Total Acrylic Acid = 275.62 kmol/hr
Steam = 1547.626 kmol/hr
By-product = 0.025 x 243.446 = 6.086 kmol/hr
Acetic Acid= 33.04 kmol/hr
48
Carbon Dioxide = 33.04 kmol/hr
Oxygen left unreact = 22.15 kmol/hr
Nitrogen = 2129.26 kmol/hr

The acrolein passed to the second stage reactor which is


similar to the first stage reactor but packed with catalyst
Description (Metal oxide). This reactor operates more efficiently when the
temperature is kept between 200 C and 350 C. However, the
recommended temperature us 300 C. The chemical reaction
take place in this reactor is:
C3H4O + 0.5O2 C3H4O2
The end product of this partial oxidation taking place in this
reactor is acrylic acid.

49
4.3.3 Refluxed Gas Absorber Column (T-101)

Table 4.4.3: The function of refluxed gas absorber column and its description

The purpose of this equipment in this production of acrylic


Function acid is to absorb the product stream such as nitrogen, carbon
dioxide, oxygen, acrolein and propylene using deionized
water. The water absorbs the acrylic and acetic acids and
allows the other gases to continue on to an incinerator to be
burned.
Temperature: 250 C
Parameter Pressure: 450 kPa
Feed Composition:
Composiion Acrylic Acid = 2.7562 kmol/ hr
Acetic Acid = 0.3304 kmol/ hr
Carbon Dioxide = 33.04 kmol/ hr
Oxygen = 22.15 kmol/ hr
Nitrogen = 2129.26 kmol/ hr
Steam = 154.7626 kmol/ hr
Solvent = 5922.1927 kmol/ hr

Product Composition:
Top Product:
Acrylic Acid = 2.7562 kmol/ hr
50
Acetic Acid = 0.3304 kmol/ hr
Carbon Dioxide = 33.04 kmol/ hr
Oxygen = 22.15 kmol/ hr
Nitrogen = 2129.26 kmol/ hr Steam = 154.7626 kmol/ hr
Solvent = 5922.1927 kmol/ hr

Bottom Product:
Acrylic Acid = 272.8638 kmol/hr
Acetic Acid = 32.7096 kmol/hr
Water = 1392.8634 kmol/ hr
The product from the acrolein reactor, is piped directly to the
refluxed gas absorber which is T-101. Meanwhile, acrylic acid
Description produced in the reactor R- 102 is being cooled at the top. The
water is used to "scrub" the gas and remove all the gases that
are immiscible in water (nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen,
acrolein and propylene). Small amounts of both acetic acid and
acrylic acid are absorbed into the water. The gaseous distillate
waste stream, containing water and undesirable gases, is
passed through a splitter, where 85 mass % is recycled as a
feed to the propylene reactor, and the remaining 15 mass % is
piped to the incinerator. The bottoms product of water and the
two acids, is piped to the acid extraction tower, T-102. The
refluxed gas absorber operates at a pressure of 550 kPa and
temperatures between 60 C and 300 C.

51
4.3.4 Liquid Extraction Column (T-100)

Table 4.4.4: The function of liquid extraction column and its description

The liquid extraction column used to extract the acids or the


Function products which are acrylic and acetic acids and to remove
water and a very small amount of solvent by counter flow
using organic solvent.
Temperature: 40 C to 50 C
Parameter Pressure: 200 kPa
Feed Composition:
Composition Acrylic Acid = 272.8638 kmol/hr
Acetic Acid = 32.7096 kmol/hr
Water = 5931.3907 kmol/hr

Solvent:
n-pentane = 4157.976 kmol/hr
Product Composition:
Extract Stream :
52
Acrylic Acid =271.4995 kmol/hr
Acetic Acid =32.3825 kmol/hr
Water = 59.3139 kmol/hr
n-pentane =3949 kmol/hr

Raffinate Stream:
Acrylic Acid = 1.364319kmol/hr
Acetic Acid =0.3271 kmol/hr
Water =5872.0768 kmol/hr
n-pentane =207.8533 kmol/hr
Liquid extraction column use to remove the acid fraction by an
organic solvent. The product leaves on the top of the unit is
Description acrylic and acetic acids. The waste stream at the bottom side of
this extraction column containing water and small amounts of
n-pentane and the two acids, is removed from the bottom of T-
102 and piped to the wastewater treatment facility.

53
4.3.5 Distillation Column (T-103)

Table 4.4.5: The function of distillation column and its description

To separate heavier stream containing acrylic acid at the bottom


Function with the highest purity from lighter component containing acetic
acid.

T-104
Temperature: 150 C to 175 C
Pressure: 250 kPa
Parameter
Feed Composition:
Acrylic Acid = 270.6395 kmol/ hr
Acetic Acid = 32.2206 kmol/ hr

Product Composition:
Distillate:
Acrylic Acid = 0.8119 kmol/ hr

54
Acetic Acid = 30.6096 kmol/ hr

Bottom:
Acrylic Acid = 269.4087 kmol/ hr
Acetic Acid = 1.6110 kmol/ hr

This column operates at pressure of 250 kPa and temperatures


Description range of 150 C to 175 C. The main product of this column at T-
104 are acrylic acid at the bottom with purity 99.7% and acetic
acid distillate at 95% purity.

55
4.5 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is a simplified sketch that uses symbols to identify instruments and vessels and to describe the primary
flow path through a unit. It illustrates the general plant streams, major equipments and key control loops. They also provide detailed mass/energy
balance data along with stream composition and physical properties. Namely, that acrylic acid must be 99.7 % pure and that acetic acid must be
95% pure.

Figure 4.2: Figure below is a preliminary process flow diagram (PFD) for the acrylic acid production process

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Table 4.5.1: PFD Acronym and Numberings

NO. ACRONYM UNIT FULL NAME

1 C-101 Air compressor

2 C-102 Off-gas-recycle compressor

3 E-101 Propylene reactor preheater

4 E-102 Acrolein reactor precooler

5 E-103 Product gas cooler

6 E-109 Molten salt cooler

7 E-110 Molten salt cooler

8 R-100 Propylene reactor

9 R-101 Acrolein reactor

10 T-100 Refluxed gas absorber column

11 T-101 Liquid extraction column

12 E-104 Solvent-recycle cooler

13 E-105 Solvent-free acid cooler

14 E-106 Acrylic acid product cooler

15 E-107 Acetic acid product cooler

16 E-108 Acrylic acid product cooler

17 T-103 Solvent recovery cooler

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18 T-104 Acrylic acid column

19 T-105 Acetic acid column

20 V-101 Solvent-recycle storage tank

21 V-102 Acrylic acid product storage tank

22 V-103 Acetic acid product storage tank

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CHAPTER 5

SITE CONSIDERATION

SUMMARY

Based on the site survey section, it consists of numerous parts in developing Acrylic Acid
plant. Site selection indicates the practice of new facility location, both for business and
government. Site selection involves measuring the needs of a new project against the merits of
potential locations. Regarding in this situation, by focusing in the location problem which is also
one of major importance in all types of to build the plant. It is important to notice the different
problems that may arise while trying to choose a suitable location. There are An ideal chemical
plant site is above the flood plain, flat, has good drainage, a high soil- bearing capability, and
consists of sufficient land for the proposed plant and for future expansion. Normally, the general
area is chosen and then a detailed survey of that area is carried out to find suitable sites where the
plant or facility could be located. However, the decision as to where to locate a facility is made
by taking into consideration more detailed requirements.

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The geographical location of the final plant will have strong influence on the success of
the industrial and the world demand of the product company which later will affect the
profitability of the project. There are various principal factors need to consider in order to choose
the most suitable location. Usually, once the area chosen is selected, then further survey of the
area will be carried out to know the facilities located as well as to plan the plant layout.
However, the decision as to where to locate a facility is made by taking into consideration based
on the complete survey of the advantages and disadvantages of various geographical areas and
ultimately, on the advantages and disadvantages of the available real estate. The factors to be
considered are:

1. Availability of Suitable Land


2. Transportation

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3. Availability of Raw Material
4. Availability of Water & Electricity
5. Pollution and Ecological Factors
6. Availability of Labour and Skills
7. Safety Requirements
8. Site Cost
9. Climate

5.1.1 Availability of Suitable Land

The characteristics of the proposed land site should be examined in very careful. It is
important to know on the cost of the land is important, local building costs and living conditions.
Any changes on the future may make it valuable or necessary to expand the plant facilities. The
land area should be ideally flat, well drained and have load-bearing characteristics. A full site
evaluation should be made to determine the need for piling or other special foundations.

5.1.2 Transportation

It is very important to have proper connection in receiving and dispatch the raw materials
and end products through good transportation via road, proper linking with ports and rail heals.
The possibility of in-plant rail siding is depending on the amount of raw materials and products
to be handled per year. The least expensive method of shipping is usually by water; the most
expensive is by truck.

5.1.3 Availability of Raw Material

The availability and price of suitable raw materials will often determine the site location.
Propylene is the major raw material for the manufacture of Acrylic acid, hence the plant can be
located near any plant producing propylene. It will reduce transportation and storage costs.

5.1.4 Availability of Water & Electricity

Water is needed by every processing plant. It used for various purposes. It is including as
cooling system for heat exchanger, steam generation and used for utilities for washing purposes.

60
The plant site must have an adequate amount of each type of water at all times of the year. Not
only the amount and quality but the temperature of the water is important.

Other than water, most industrial plants industry require electrical power and steam as an
ordinarily utilities. It is used to run various equipment like generators, pump, turbines, plant
lightings and general use and thus be considered as one major factor is choice of plant site.

5.1.5 Pollution and Ecological Factors

All industrial processes produce waste products, and full consideration must be given to
the difficulties and cost of their disposal. The disposal of toxic and harmful effluents will be
covered by local regulations, and the appropriate authorities must be consulted during the initial
site survey to determine the standards must be met.

5.1.6 Availability of Labour and Skills

Labor will be needed for construction of the plant and its operation. Skilled construction
workers will usually be brought in from outside the site area, but there should be an enough
group of unskilled labor available locally and labor suitable for training to operate the plant.
Even so, new skills can be taught, processes and key personal moved from one area to another.

5.1.7 Safety Requirements

Certain production and manufacturing units may present potential hazards to the
surrounding neighborhoods. For example certain plants such as nuclear power stations and
chemical factories should be located in remote areas. It can refer to materials safety date sheets
(MSDS) of chemical involve which is acrylic acid to site consideration.

5.1.8 Climate

Adverse climatic conditions at a site will increase costs. Abnormally low temperatures
will require the provision of additional insulation and special heating for equipment and pipe
runs. Stronger structures will be needed at locations subject to high winds or earthquake. Other
than that, it is important to be obtained from the meteorological station nearest to the site. As an
example the mean monthly temperature, rainfall, evaporation, humidity, sunshine and wind
speed and direction.
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Table 5.1: Two Differences Places choose for selection

Location Gebeng Industrial Estate, Pasir Gudang Industrial Park,


Pahang Johor
Raw Material Available Available

Land area available ( 100 acres 180.7 acres


Acres)
Land Area required ( per 217800 ft 217800 ft
feet square)
Land Area required 5 acres 5 acres
(Acres)
Built Up 150000 ft 150000 ft

Price (per square feet) RM 16 RM 18

Total price land RM 3 484 800 RM 3 920 400

Climate North-East Monsoon South-west Monsoon


(November-March) (Mei-September)
10-20 knot wind speed Below 15 knot wind speed
Availability of labours Available Available

Political strategic Stable Stable


considerations

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Figure 5.1: The location of Gebeng Industrial Park

Gebeng Industrial Park is one of the central houses for a world-class chemical and
petrochemical industrial zone in Malaysia. In 2007, Malaysian Federal Government has labeled
three regional state; Kerteh, Terengganu, Pasir Gudang, Johor and Gebeng, Pahang as Industrial
Development Area. Petrochemical and chemical companies are mostly developed in these areas
due to its availability of factors mentioned earlier. Large scale industrialization has been
witnessed in both Kerteh and Pasir Gudang. Gebeng promised a series of expansion and million
ringgit investment in Pahang. It would be a great opportunity to explore the benefits provided for
this area and be a pioneer to resite in this location. Due to the rapid expending activities in the
chemical and petrochemical industries in this areas, several utilities been provided to ensure that
the activities will continuously run smoothly for example Kuantan Port, telecommunication,
Roads and highways, Railroad and airport. All this consideration has been taken as the concrete
63
reasons to build the plant at this location area.

Figure 5.2: Land lot position based on the Gebeng Industrial Park Maps

Figure 5.3: Land Structure during the site survey

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Table 5.2: Gebeng Industrial Estate information

Information Description

Distance from Nearest Town 25km from Kuantan;


250km from Kuala Lumpur

Total Planned Area (Acre) 5

Total Land Development (Acre) 3.5

Total Land Available (Acre) 250

Land Original State Land

Selling Price RM16.00 per square feet (Industrial Lot-Ready


Land)
RM20.00 per square feet (Small Medium
Enterprise- SME Lot complete with
infrastructure)
RM12.00 per square feet (Raw Land)

Quit Rent per Annum (RM) RM15 for every 100 square meter portion of it
for the first 2 hectares and RM10.00 for every
100 squares metre or portion of it subject to a
minimal taxation of RM 150.00 per ownership

Annual Assessment 7% of the property/land value

Least Period 99 years

Type of Preferred Industry Chemical, Petrochemical and general.

(Source:http://www.investinpahang.gov.my/)

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5.2 UTILITIES

Utility service is the most important factors that need to be taken into consideration in the
operation of any production process. Basically, utility is the motive for the production process to
perform their activity. Without this utility, the plant cannot be operated for example water, fuel,
electricity and etc. Since Gebeng Industrial Estate is operated under the Ministry of Pahang, lot
of advantages and facilities has been supplied by the government to ensure that any process that
happened around here will run smoothly. Some utility that been provided around the acrylic acid
plants are:

1. Telecommunication
2. Financial and Banking Services
3. Water Supply
4. Electricity Power Supply
5. Effluent disposal facilities

5.2.1 Telecommunication

Telecommunication is one of the important focuses in all businesses because the only way to
interact and deal with the customers or supplier is by communication. Usually, the distance
factors causes the process of discussion cannot be done directly. Our supplier and customers
comes from several countries. The raw material is come from the India. Meanwhile, our major
customers company location is in China. It is quite difficult for us to entertain them face to face
every day. By providing the telecommunication facilities, the discussion process can be done
easily. Besides that, the advantages of this telecommunication is we can improve our relationship
with the customers by make a followed up in order to know the progress of our products. The
dominant company tha arrange the telecommunication service in Malaysia is Telekom Malaysia
Berhad. Another supporting privatise telecommunication services in Malaysia are Celcom,
Maxis Mobile, Digi Telecommunications and P1 W1Max.

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5.2.2 Internet

Another supporting method in order to interact with the customers and supplier are internet.
The most preferred communication nowadays is email. This is because, email is faster, save and
does not require any cost. Besides that, internet also can be used between the workers for any
submission among them. Based on the package offered, the package that will be chosen is Biz10
Fixed IP. The price of the internet rate can be considered as reasonable because our company is
still under start up. The selected package can help connect our company to the world with little
hassle. Apart from that, TM also allows users to change their internet package in a flexible
manner, so when the company becomes well-known we can upgrade our broadband package
with no trouble.

Table 5.3: Installation fees by TMnet Streamyx in 2015

Installation Fees RM
Activation Fees by TM 50.00
Installation Fees 50.00
Business line Wireless Terminal 30.00-50.00
External antenna (if required) 50.00

Table 5.4: Business packages (Fixed IP)


No Monthly Fee RM599 Rm899
1 Packages BIZ10 BIZ20
2 Download/Upload up 10Mbps 20Mbps
to
3 Dynamic IP
4 Unlimited Download
per month

5 DECT (cordless)
Phone

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6 Monthly FREE calls RM50 RM100
up to
7 Flat Rate
TM fixed line =
3sen/min
Mobile & other fixed
line operator =
12sen/min
8 Business Gateway
(WiFi router) WiFi
b/g/n
9 1 x 10GB web Hosting
Basic
10 1x 2GB email
11 TM WiFi ID 1 2
12 1 x Infoblast account

13 Online Guard Plus 2 3

14 iShield Plus 2 3

(Source: http://tmshop.tm.com.my/office-unifi)

5.2.3 Financial and Banking Services

Several banking system for example commercial banks, investment banks and Islamic
banks can be consider as the primary mobiliser of funds and the main source of financing to
support economic activities in Malaysia. Same goes to this project, the financial and banking
services is important in order for purchasing and selling and process of money exchange can be
simplified because there is a medium to be use. Most of the bank branches operated in Kuantan,
the capital city of Pahang.

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Table 5.5: Licensed banking institution in Pahang
Banks Number of branches in Pahang
Agro Bank 20
RHB Bank Bhd 10
Public Bank Bhd 16
Hong Leong Bank Bhd 12
United Overseas Bank (M) Bhd 3
Alliance Bank Malaysia Bhd 3
Ambank (M) Bhd 11
Bank Kerjasama Rakyat Malaysia Bhd 29
Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad 11
OCBC Bank (M) Bhd 1
Maybank Bhd 73
CIMB Bank Bhd 24
Bank Muamalat (M) Bhd 4
Affin bank Bhd 4
HSBC Bank (M) Bhd 9
Citibank Kuantan 1
(Source:http://www.investinpahang.gov.my/)

5.2.4 Water Supply

Water is another essential utility for large industrial. There are several purposes of water for
example to cooling down the equipment, washing the affected equipment, steam generation and
etc. The important of water in the acrylic acid production increases as this utility been used as
one of the raw material in order to produce the end products. Due to this matter, the plant
therefore must be located near with the dependable water supply available for example lakes,
rivers, wells and seas. However, in order to choose the water supply, several criteria need to be
consider which is its mineral content, slit, sand content, and bacteriological content. This is done

69
to ensure that the water supply will not effects the equipment such as rusting. Other than that,
cost for supply must also be considered.

In Pahang, the party that are responsible as water supply service are Pahang Water
Management Berhad or Pengurusan Air Pahang Berhad (PAIP). This department also
responsible for the planning, development and management of water supply as well as billing
and collection of payment.

Table 5.6: Water Tariff in Pahang from Pengurusan Air Pahang Berhad (PAIP) (National Water
Services Commision, 2013)
Tariff Category Min price/month Rate / m3
code (RM)
A Household 3.00
0 18 m3 0.37
18.1 45 m3 0.79
Over 45 m3 0.99
C Trading 20.00 1.45
D Place of worship and charity 3.00 0.44
E Mosque 3.00 0.44
F Swimming pool 15.00 1.32
G1 Shipyards (Commercial) 30.00 4.00
G2 Shipyards (Fisheries) 30.00 3.00
H Untreated water bulk 30.00 0.52
I Port None 1.45
J Industries in industrial areas 30.00
approved by government
0 227 m3 0.92
Over 227 m3 0.84
K Supply to military complex, None 0.55
voluntary service, hostels, flats,
condominiums and government

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The water source that supply the whole Gebeng Industrial Area are Semambu River. This
river will also be as the water provider for the Acrylic acid plant. The distance between this
water source are 20.0km and require about 21 min if driving. The capacity of water of this river
are 145.47MLD.

Figure 5.4: Location of water source from the Acrylic Acid plant.

5.2.5 Cooling water

Water is used as a method to cool down the system, as it has several advantages over air
cooling. Water has a higher specific heat capacity, density and thermal conductivity. This allows
it to remove heat more effectively than air, as it can transmit heat with less volumetric flow and
reduced temperature difference. For a plant of this scale, it is a better choice to use water as a
cooling medium in the cooling towers, as this process generates a lot of heat which cannot be
removed effectively using air.

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5.2.6 Electricity

Power is the source that is required to operate the whole plant so that the products can be
produced. Other than that, fuel and steam are also needed to ensure that all the equipment in the
plant operated such as generators, motors, turbines, plant lightings and other general use.
Therefore, the source of electricity must be considered in order to place the site location of the
plant to ensure the continuity of electrical supply so that there will no disturbance during the
operation process. In Peninsular Malaysia, the party who are responsible in supplying electricity
is Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB). Prior to this, all activities such as generation, transmission,
and distribution of electricity in the state of Pahang lie under the responsibility of TNB.

Table 5.7: Industrial Electricity Tariff provides by Tenaga Nasional Berhad


TARIFF CATEGORY CURRENT NEW
RATES RATES

(1 JUNE (1 JAN
2011) 2014)
1. Tariff D - Low Voltage Industrial Tariff
For Overall Monthly Consumption Between 0-200 kWh/month
For all kWh 34.50
sen/kWh
The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20
For Overall Monthly Consumption More Than 200 kWh/month
For all kWh (From 1kWh onwards) 37.70
sen/kWh
The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20
New Structure Effective 1 January 2014
For the first 200 kWh (1 -200 kWh) per month 38.00
sen/kWh

72
For the next kWh (201 kWh onwards) per month 44.10
sen/kWh
The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20
Tariff Ds Special Industrial Tariff (for consumers who qualify only)
For all kWh 35.90 42.70
sen/kWh sen/kWh
The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20
2. Tariff E1 - Medium Voltage General Industrial Tariff
For each kilowatt of maximum demand per month 25.30 29.60
RM/kW RM/kW
For all kWh 28.80 33.70
sen/kWh sen/kWh
The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00
Tariff E1s Special Industrial Tariff (for consumers who qualify only)
For each kilowatt of maximum demand per month 19.90 23.70
RM/kW RM/kWh
For all kWh 28.30 33.60
sen/kWh sen/kWh
The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00
3. Tariff E2 - Medium Voltage Peak/Off-Peak Industrial Tariff
For each kilowatt of maximum demand per month 31.70 37.00
during the peak period RM/kW RM/kW
For all kWh during the peak period 30.40 35.50
sen/kWh sen/kWh
For all kWh during the off-peak period 18.70 21.90
sen/kWh sen/kWh
The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00
Tariff E2s Special Industrial Tariff (for consumers who qualify only)
For each kilowatt of maximum demand per month 27.70 32.90
during the peak period RM/kW RM/kW
For all kWh during the peak period 28.30 33.60

73
sen/kWh sen/kWh
For all kWh during the off-peak period 16.10 19.10
sen/kWh sen/kWh
The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00
4. Tariff E3 - High Voltage Peak/Off-Peak Industrial Tariff
For each kilowatt of maximum demand per month 30.40 35.50
during the peak period RM/kW RM/kW
For all kWh during the peak period 28.80 33.70
sen/kWh sen/kWh
For all kWh during the off-peak period 17.30 20.20
sen/kWh sen/kWh
The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00
Tariff E3s Special Industrial Tariff (for consumers who qualify only)
For each kilowatt of maximum demand per month 24.40 29.00
during the peak period RM/kW RM/kW
For all kWh during the peak period 26.70 31.70
sen/kWh sen/kWh
For all kWh during the off-peak period 14.70 17.50
sen/kWh sen/kWh
The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00
(Source: http://www.tnb.com.my/)

5.2.7 Workforce/ Labour

Another factors that need to be consider to build a plant is the availability of labour. Labour
is needed during the construction and to operate the plant. Usually, several skilful workers will
be brought in from outside the site so that the plant will be operated under the experienced and
safety environment. For recruitment and training, local trade union customs and restrictive
practice will have to be considered when assessing the availability and suitability of the labours.

74
Basically, there is about 200 to 300 number of workers is estimated to run this business
activities. Among this 300 peoples, they will be divided into a number of department referring to
their strength, speciality and education background. This may include the marketing, finance,
human resource, engineer, technician, chemist, safety officer, operator as well as the cleaner and
the guard. It can be seen that the opening of this Acrylic acid plant is just not to fulfil the demand
of the chemical industries, but also it provides the carrier opportunity especially to the residential
peoples around this Gebeng area.

Several universities either Private or Government had been listed by the Perbadanan
Kemajuan Negeri Pahang in their website (www.investinpahang.gov.my). This shows that almost
every year there will be lot of graduates that had finished their studies and will be seeking for a
job. Therefore, there will be no problems in order to find the workforce. In addition, most of the
listed universities provide the course that related with the chemical and petrochemical industries
for example University Malaysia Pahang offering courses of Bachelor in Chemical Engineering
and Bachelor in Safety and Health. The existence of this institution can easiest the process of
finding the workforce and the source is continuously because every year there will be a students
who will graduates.

Table 5.8: List of Private Higher Learning Institution and Public Higher Learning Institution
situated in Pahang
Private Universities Public Universities

Kolej Shah Putra Kuantan International Islamic University


Malaysia (IIUM)

Institute Kemahiran Ikhtisas Pahang University Malaysia Pahang


(IKIP)

ECMA Institute Pahang Islamic College

MIDAS Technology Institute Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Polytechnic

75
Olympia College

PSDC College

Cosmopoint International College

Meanwhile, the supporting position in this plant can be open to the local community. There
is about more than ten settlement neighbouring around the Gebeng Industrial Estate area. The
nearest residential area are Taman Balok Perdana, Taman Balok Makmor and Kampong
Seberang Balok. Based on the statistical data obtained by the Department of Statictics Malaysia
in 2000, the population count for this residential area is about 5973 peoples. Out of this 5973
peoples, 43% are 25 years and above.

Other settlements that located near to the Acrylic Acid plant are Kampung Sungai Ular,
Kampung Hulu Balok, Kampung Berahi, Kampung Seberang Balok, Kampong Balok, Kampong
Balok baru and Kampung Gebeng. This means that the quantity of the community around the
plant area is enough to fulfil the requirement of the vacancies.

5.2.8 Transportation

Transport facilities are also one of the major factors that need to be concerned in order to
place a location of the plant. The location of the plant should at least have two major forms of
transportation for example road, rail, waterway and seaport so that the process of transferring the
products to the consumer or receiving raw materials from the suppliers will be easy.

Comparing all those method of transportation, transporting material by roads is most


expensive because the quantity of the materials been transfer is usually least due to the size of
cargo trucks. Based on the articles in Commonwealth of Virginia, the maximum weight for 5
Axle Tractor-Semitrailer is 80 000 pounds which equivalent to 3600kgs per journey. This means
that more trucks need to be provided in order to distribute the end products to the customers.

76
However, road transport is suitable for the local activities.

Another method that can be use and least expensive are by using Rail transport and water
shipping. Since Gebeng Industrial Estate is equipped with a port, so most of the shipping process
will be done through this facility. For the products that require to be sent to Kemaman, or Kerteh,
Terengganu, the Rail road facilities will be used. Other than bulk quantity of materials can be
shipping, the cost of this transportation is also cheap. For more effective transportation facilities,
personnel plant transportation for example air transportation between the plant and the main
company headquarters are necessary.

Example of transportation facilities provided around the Acrylic Acid plant is:

1. Kuantan Port
2. East Cost Highway
3. Gambang-Kuantan Highway
4. Kertih-Kemaman-Kuantan Railroad
5. Sultan Ahmad Shah Airport

5.2.8.1 Kuantan Port

Figure 5.5: Overview of Kuantan Port

77
Kuantan Port is a privatized port which has started their operation since 1998 and been
managed by Kuantan Port Consortium Sdn Bhd. It is one of the modern world-class port as this
port is equipped with modern liquid cargo bulk terminal that has the ability to handle more than
seven tonnes of cargo. The modern and dedicated facilities that has been provided by this port
makes it as one of the famous petrochemical hub port and one of the major container terminal of
the East Coast region of Malaysia.
The location of Kuantan port is at Tanjung Gelang which is on the eastern seaboard of the
Peninsular Malaysia with latitude between 03 58 N, longitude 103 26.4 E. The distance of this
Kuantan Port with the Acrylic Acid Plant is about 11 km and 15 minutes to reach the plant by
driving.

Figure 5.6: Distance of Kuantan Port from the Acrylic Acid plant.

Kuantan port is a very strategic location and gives lot of advantages to the company that
shipping their material to this place. This is because, this port is only about 25km north of
Kuantan town, less than 8km from the Gebeng Industrial area and Peramu, Pekan , 38km from

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the Kuantan Airport and link with the East Coast Expressway that connects this places with the
Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur at the distance about 220 Kilometres. Another source that
link this port with the other places is the sea. This port is connected to the major sea lanes of the
shipping world for example Pacific Rim, the Middle East, the Far East and ASEAN region.
Table 4 shows the facilities that been provided by the port while Table 5.10 is the contact
information of the Kuantan Port.

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Table 5.9: Kuantan Port Facilities
Facilities Description
Berth 3213 metres in length for multi-purpose
berths, liquid chemical berths, palm oil
berths mineral oil berths and container
terminals
Storage Container, conventional, dangerous goods
yard and tank storage
Third Party Storage Common pipe rack facilities
Equipment Container cranes, multipurpose cranes, tug
boat, pilot boat, mooring boat, rubber-tyres
gantry cranes, reach stackers, forklifts,
prime movers and trailers.
Services Handling of container, break bulk, dry
bulk, liquid bulk and general cargo.
Also provides marine, fire and securities as
well as other port-related logistic services.
(Source: http://www.investinpahang.gov.my/)

Table 5.10: Contact Information of Kuantan Port


Company Address Contact Number
Kuantan Port Consortium Wisma KPC, Phone: +60 (9) 583 3205
Sdn Bhd KM25 Tanjung Gelang, Fax: +60 (9) 5839393
P.O. Box 199
25720 Kuantan
Malaysia

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5.2.8.2 East Coast Highway

The East Coast Highway is the new routes that links Kuala Lumpur to Pahang. This 169km
long roads makes the transportation facilities for this area are more convenient by promoting
economic activities in major districts in Pahang. Total costing about RM4 billion, this routes
also links to the other expressway which is 1000 kilometres North South Expressway on the
West Coast.

The distance of the Acrylic Acid plant to enter this highway is 22.9km and about 18 minutes
if driving. This present of this routes can fasten the process of transferring the end products to the
customers around Malaysia.

Figure 5.7: Distance of East Coast Highway from the Acrylic Acid plant.

5.2.8.3 Gambang Kuantan Highway.

Along with the East-Coast Highway, there is also another highway that provide bigger
opportunity for all the industries inside the Gebeng Industrial Estate to connect with the outside
area. The end products also able to be sold to the retailers which require this acrylic acid

81
production in the small quantities. Gambang-Kuantan Highway which also known as Jalan
Gambang or Jalan Tanah Putih is the major highway in Kuantan that connects Gambang to
Kuantan. This 32km long highway providing good access to various towns along the routes.

5.2.8.4 Kertih-Kemaman-Kuantan Railroad

Kertih-Kemaman-Kuantan Railroad is another transportation facilities to be used as another


alternatives to distribute the end products to the customers. This 77-kilometer long routes linked
three integrated petrochemical complex which is Kertih, Terengganu to Gebeng, Pahang and the
Kuantan Port. The capability of the railway to stand hauling cargo in large volumes and in bulk
makes this transportation is highly economical, safe, reliable and consistent in transporting all
the raw materials and finish products to their destination. As this method of transportation is
quiet cheap, therefore any delivery of acrylic acid production to the customers that having their
activity operation near this railway routes will be sent through this method.

Figure 5.8: The destination of Railway link along Peninsular Malaysia

There are some features of Kuantan-Kerteh railway which are:

a) This railway equipped with single line track that links the Petronas Oil Refinery complex
and the nearby town of Kerteh, Terer with the petrochemical complex in Gebeng,
82
Kuantan and Kuantan Port near Kuantan Pahang.
b) 3 Railway yards at Kerteh, Gebeng and Kuantan
c) 2 locomotives

5.2.8.5 Sultan Ahmad Shah Airport

Sultan Ahmad Shah Airport located about 35.3km away from the Acrylic Acid plant.is to be
seen as other alternatives for the transportation of raw materials and end products. Require about
33 minutes to reach this airport form the Acrylic Acid plant., the present of this airport also
believes can gives more opportunities for our company to interact closely and directly with our
foreign customers to discuss further about our business. By inviting them to visit and see the real
process in order to produce acrylic acid production, we believe that we can gain our customers
trust to make a long-relationship business with us. The facility that has been provided by the
airport such as taxi services and hotels that available at the terminal building can make our
customers journey easier.

.
Table 5.11: Contact Information of Sultan Ahmad Shah Airport, Kuantan Pahang
Company Address Contact Number
Malaysia Airports Sultan Ahmad Shah Tel: +60 (9) 531 2123
Holdings Berhad Airport, Fax: +60 (9) 538 201
25150 Kuantan,

83
Figure 5.9: Distance of Acrylic Acid plant.to the Sultan Ahmad Shah Airport through Google
map

Besides that, this airport provide services of daily shuttle to Kuala Lumpur and Penang
through Malaysia Airlines and low-cost subsidiary Firefly. Other than that, the departure of the
flight to certain foreign countries also been provided almost five times a week with daily arrivals.
This shows that the process of distribution of end products and receiving raw materials through
the air can be done almost every day. Formerly known as Padang Geroda Airport, this airport
was operated under Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad.

5.3 LAND/ LOCATION

The exact location of this Acrylic Acid plant will be develop in the Jalan Gebeng 2/5,
Kawasan perindustrian Gebeng, Balok, Kuantan, Pahang. The total size of the free land around
this area is 100 acres. However, after considering the plant size, equipment use, and the
production produce every year, only 5 acres of land site with the measurement of 217 800ft 2 will
be buy for the plant development. This size is included with the free space if there is any

84
expansion will be made to the plant in the future.

Figure 5.10: Location of the Acrylic Acid plant

This place was chosen to be the final location for the Acrylic Acid plant due to its
advantages in many factors such as geographic suitability, transportation advantages, safety to
the community surrounded and utility provided.

The geographical factor is the most crucial thing to be considered in order to build a plant so
there will be no pronounced effect on the construction cost. Based on the topography survey that
had been made by the Jurukur Teguh (Terengganu) in October 2007, the site is relatively flat
with an overall nature gradient of 0. Meanwhile, the ground levels at the side generally ranged
between 7.4m and 7.8m above Mean Sea Level (MSL). It can be said that the Acrylic Acid plant
and its ancillary facilities are on the low-lying and flat areas of the site (Nuclear Malaysia, 2010).
This place is also provided with the bypass, which eases traffic flow that link the industrial estate
to Kuantan port and near with the East Coast Highways that connects this area with Kuala
85
Lumpur. This routes gives cost effective and convenient means for the transportation of freight
and raw materials locally and international.

Besides that, this plant is far away from the residential area and other plant industries.
Theoretically, to build a chemical or petrochemical plant, the plant area should at least 2km away
from the residential community to ensure people safety. The nearest human settlement to the
plant is Taman Balok Perdana and Kampung Berahi which is 5.2km and 7.6km respectively.
This means that, resident around the Balok area will not be affected by this plant if there is any
leakage or accident happen and the potential harmful of sickness can be avoided. The distance
between this plant and residential area also to prevent disturbance to the resident people
especially noise pollution. Meanwhile, the site location that are quiet away from the other plant
can reduce the busyness especially in terms of traffic. This Plant also near with the Pusat
Perkhidmatan Gebeng where this place is provided by Majlis Perbandaran Kuantan (MPK) to
monitor all the activity around this area. This place is equipped with several hospitality services
for example clinics and supermarket.

Other utility that makes this place suitable to build the Acrylic Acid plant are its excellent
infrastructure for example 9-kilometre common pipe-rack that connects the petrochemical plants
of Gebeng Industrial Estate to and from the tank farm facilities at Kuantan Port and its liquid
chemical berths to facilitate safer and faster transportation of petrochemical products between the
two areas. After considering the size of the land, of 5 acre with the measurement of 217 800 ft2,
the total price of the land is RM3 484 800.

5.4 WASTE AND EFFLUENT DISPOSAL FACILITIES

All industrial processes produce waste products. Full consideration must be given to the
difficulties and cost for disposal of waste. Toxic and harmful effluents will be managed by local
authorities to be disposed of in an environmentally responsible manner. Until the local solid
waste management company arrives to pick up the hazardous effluents, it is to be kept at a
storage facility under proper watch so as to prevent unwanted incidents from happening.

86
For domestic wastes such as food waste from the workers cafeteria, it will be collected and
disposed in RORO bins supplied by the local authorities such as from Kualiti Alam SDN BHD
and SWM Management before pickup. These large bins are kept at a proper distance away from
the plant site so that it will not pose any hygienic and environmental problems to the staffs and
surroundings.

5.5 PLANT LAYOUT

Plant layout is prioritized in order to set up the facilities and plant according their uses such
as department, machinery, main equipment and other layout in order to complete the plant to
produce acrylic acid. It is important to properly set the layout as it concerned with in the orderly
and proper arrangement of the usage available resources such as, men, money, machines,
materials and methods of production inside the factory. A well designed plant layout is needed
for maximum and effective usage of available resources at minimum operating costs.

In this acrylic acid production plant, all area for management purpose including financial
department, sales and marketing, services, purchasing, customer service department and human
resources are placed in one big area which is called administration area that located on the upper
section of the plant area with. On the left side of the bottom section located the post guard,
laboratory and R&D department, and smoking room and research facilities. Cafeteria, smoking
room and prayer room will also put on the nearby to assembly area.

The top section of the plant is for technical facilities which on the right side including
workshop and maintenance, plant utilities, wastewater treatment plant and production plant area.
Administration workers and technical workers are separated in order to develop better ways to
synchronize the work division between these two different areas. Technical area is being placed
near to the processing plant for the ease to control the plant during its running time and also to
ease the access during the emergency time.

87
On the left side of the top section of the plant is for distribution area of end product which is
acrylic acid and also loading bay of the raw material which is near the entrance for supplier and
shipping. This site is put separately for the systematic work purpose as while doing this the
smooth running of the plant can be maintained. However, this plant is still connecting with each
other from management area, through technical area until the end of the plant side which is
distribution area; it is connected with the entrance used by technical staff which is post-guarded
for safety inspection.

88
89
Figure 5.11: Acrylic Acid Production Plant Layout
5.5.1 Administration Area

This area include all area for management purpose including financial department, sales and
marketing, services, purchasing, customer service department and human resources. Basically
facilities for administrative staff, in this working condition the places usually similar to any
building for management. Places that the workers can have meeting, meet clients, hold a
conferences, and usually does not have to wear any personal protective equipment and safe for
outside people to enter.

5.5.2 Production Plant Area

Production area is the area where the raw materials are transformed into the finished
product. This is the area where the process steps take place and the product is assembled.
Accomplishing these tasks usually involves equipment. Raw materials, components assemblies
need enough space to move quickly from one step to another. Finally, workers and supervisors
must have easy access to all areas on the manufacturing floor to perform their jobs. Pathways
must allow them to move freely from one place to another

In production plant area it must have control room that helps secure the overall process,
space must be provided for the equipment. Additional space is usually required so workers can
control, adjust, fix, and maintain the equipment. There are process steps that require a manual
function. Space must be provided for the worker and, if needed, for tools, machines, equipment,
or components.

5.5.3 Control Room

The process unit was designed with control room that give the overall control of the whole.
The control room benefit economically because of process optimization and increases in
efficiency of personnel. Although control room functions and locations are generally determined
by process economics, the design of the control room is very important for maintaining
emergency control and for worker protection. With the advent electronic instrumentation and
computer-controlled processing, individual control rooms have been replaced by a central control

90
room that controls a number of process units in many operations.

5.5.4 Storage Facilities

The layout provided show three storage facilities, which are loading bay for product and raw
material and warehouse. The warehouse stores the product acrylic acid for research and
development process, it is guarded with all safety features in order to prevent and leakage of
spills to the nearby administrative area The location of the storage facilities must be close to the
production plant for easy transfer and cost reduction for transport within the plant. All of these
materials are generally stored in the above facilities based on the level and quantity produced.
This storage is to ensure there is no unwanted exposure to the environment as well as the
workers in chemical plant. The quantity of raw material supply in the storage store must be
organized and sufficiently enough for the process. The raw material storage must also consider
the cost as storing or buying too much raw material can cause in huge effect in term of cost and
availability of the space needed. Meanwhile, the storage facilities in a chemical processing plant
such as solid feed and liquid, intermediate chemical, by products and process product is also
important.

5.5.5 Utilities and Workshop

The utilities will include the maintenance workshop, emergency site, electricity, water and
steam supply for the operation of the plant. The workshop is important for the instrument or
equipment maintenance during shutdown of a plant to repair any problem or leaking equipment.
The electricity supply to the plant and generator to ensure the plant receive enough of electricity
and water. Utility buildings should be sited to give the most economical run of pipes to and from
the process units. Other utilities are also important to ensure the safety of the plant.

5.5.6 Laboratory and Research & Development Centre

Every product of acrylic acid produced, it need to be tested in order to meet the specification
of the market demand, and every product will be tested before release into the market.
Laboratory is where the finishing product was being tested to make sure that the product

91
produced meets the specification during the production line. Every raw material that being
supply for production area need to be passed a quality test to control the quality of the product
As the process being control in the control room, hence it affect the quality of the product as the
operator need to carefully control the production process based on the parameter requirement so
that the product are in the range of specification during being tested or analysis in the laboratory.
Research and development is the placed to develop a new product or modified to increase the
efficiency and the purity of the product.

5.5.7 Other Facilities

For every production, it is a necessity to have the basic facilities such as toilet, cafeteria,
prayer room (surau), and smoking area. This type facilities set a standard for every plant must
have in order to maintain the welfare and personal needs of the staff. The toilets and hand basins,
with soap and towels or a hand-dryer; a drinking water during hot weather, a place to store
clothing (and somewhere to change if special clothing is worn for work), cafeteria for to rest and
eat meals and prayer room for Muslim in general.

5.5.8 Emergency Assembly

There are three Emergency Assembly Area (located in areas with enough space for large
crowds to gather in areas that are out of harm's way). These areas have been selected as they are
large enough to hold a significant number of people and will provide an evacuated population
access to washroom facilities and protection from the harmful elements. Evacuation is required
any time the fire alarm sounds, an evacuation announcement is made. When an evacuation
occurs, departments should put their evacuation plan into effect. After the building has been
evacuated, the building cannot be re-entered until Safety personnel gives permission. The
silencing of alarms is not the sole indicator that it is safe to re-enter. Everyone must be accounted
for, and their names should be written down, or checked off an attendance roster.

92
CHAPTER 6

MATERIAL BALANCES AND ENERGY BALANCES

6.1 Overall Mass Balance

6.1.2 Material Balance Calculation

Basis : 150,000 metric tonnes per year of Acrylic Acid

Assume the plant work continuously 320day/year

Assume the plant work continuously 24hr/day

1. CH2CHCH3 + O2 CH2CHCHO + H2O


(Propylene) (Acrolein)

2. CH2=CHCHO + O2 CH2CHCOOH
(Acrylic Acid)

Compound Molecular Weight


Propylene 42
Acrylic acid 72
Acetic acid 60
Acrolein 56
Oxygen 16
Carbon Dioxide 55
Table 6.1 Molecular weight of the compound

Feed composition : C3H6 : Air : Steam = 1 : 7.75 : 3.75

93
6.1.2.1 Propylene

1 kmol of C3H6 1kmol of Acrylic Acid

42 kg/hr of C3H6 72kg/hr of Acrylic Acid

C3H6 required to produce 150,000 tonnes per annual of Acrylic Acid

= 150,000 x (42/72) = 87,500 TPY of C3H6

= 87,500

At a yield of 78% (A few trials)

C3H6 required = = 112,179

112,179 x x x = 347.78

6.1.2.2 Oxygen

1 kmol of C3H6 requires : 3/2 kmol of O2

Hence O2 required = 3/2 x 347.78

= 521.67

Feed Composition:
C3H6 fed = 347.78 kmol/hr
Steam fed = 347.78 x 3.75 = 1304.18 kmol/hr
Air fed = 347.78 x 7.75 = 2695.26 kmol/hr
N2 in = N2 out = 2129.26 kmol/ hr
O2 entering = 566 kmol/hr

94
6.1.3 Reactor I

6.1.3.1 Oxidation of Propylene to Acrolein.

Feed composition : C3H6 : Air : Steam = 1 : 7.75 : 3.75

Overall conversion of C3H6 = 100%

Conversion to acrolein = 70%

Conversion to AA = 11%

Stream 1 Stream 2
Reactor I
A = 4302.89 kmol/hr B = 4198.56 kmol/hr

347.78 kmol/hr C3H6 173.89kmol/hr Oxygen


1304.18 kmol/hr Steam 243.446 kmol/hr Acrolein
2695.26 kmol/hr Air 38.26 kmol/hr Acrylic Acid
521.67 kmol/hr Oxygen 66.08 kmol/hr (CO2+Acetic)
2129.26 kmol/hr Nitrogen 1547.626 kmol/hr Steam
2129.26 kmol/hr Nitrogen

Figure 6.1 Block Diagram of Reactor I

Product Composition:
Acrolein produced =0.7 x 347.78 = 243.446kmol/hr
Acrylic Acid produced = 0.11 x 347.78 = 38.26kmol/hr
Steam produced = 243.446kmol/hr
Oxygen left unreact = 521.67 347.78= 173.898 kmol/hr
Total steam leaving = 1547.626 kmol/hr

95
6.1.4 Reactor II

6.1.4.1 Partial Oxidation of Acrolein to Acrylic Acid

CH2=CHCHO + O2 CH2=CHCOOH

Acrolein Acrylic Acid

Feed Composition:
Acrolein feed =0.7 x 347.78 = 243.446kmol/hr
Acrylic Acid feed = 0.11 x 347.78 = 38.26kmol/hr
Steam feed = 1547.626 kmol/hr
Oxygen feed = 44.33kmol/hr
N2 = 2129.26 kmol/hr
(Acetic Acid+CO2) feed= 66.08 kmol/hr

Stream 2 Stream 3
Reactor II
B = 4111.61 kmol/hr
A = 4198.56 kmol/hr
275.62 kmol/hr Acrylic Acid
173.89 kmol/hr Oxygen
33.04 kmol/hr Acetic Acid
243.446 kmol/hr Acrolein
33.04 kmol/hr CO2
38.26 kmol/hr Acrylic Acid
6.086 kmol/hr By-product
66.08 kmol/hr (CO2+Acetic)
86.95 kmol/hr Oxygen
1547.626 kmol/hr Steam
1547.626 kmol/hr Steam
2129.26 kmol/hr Nitrogen
2129.26 kmol/hr Nitrogen

Figure 6.2 Block Diagram of Reactor II

96
(From literature)

Catalyst composition: Mo:V:Al:Cu = 12 : 1.9 : 1.0 : 2.2 (support - Al sponge)

Contact time : 1 - 3 sec

Average temperature 300 C

Acrolein conversion - 100%

Yield of Acrylic Acid - 97.5%

Product Composition:
Acrylic Acid produced = 0.975 x 243.446 =237.36 kmol/hr
Acrylic in Reactor I = 38.26 kmol/hr
Total Acrylic Acid = 275.62 kmol/hr
Steam produced = 1547.626 kmol/hr
By-product produced = 0.025 x 243.446 = 6.086 kmol/hr
Acetic Acid produced = 33.04 kmol/hr
CO2 produced = 33.04 kmol/hr
Oxygen left unreact = 22.15 kmol/hr
N2 produced = 2129.26 kmol/hr

97
6.2.1 REFLUXED GAS ABSORBER COLUMN

Based on the literature: (Kumar and Prasad, 2013)

Feed entering at the bottom of column

Solvent used is water entering at top of the column

90% of steam is condense into water

99% of acrylic acid is being absorbed

99% of acetic acid is being absorbed

Stream 5a
VIT = 2342.2992 kmol/ hr
Stream 3b
2.7562 kmol/ hr Acrylic Acid
Water, Lo = 5922.3902 kmol/ hr
0.3304 kmol/ hr Acetic Acid
33.04 kmol/ hr Carbon Dioxide
86.95 kmol/hr Oxygen REFLUXED
2129.26 kmol/ hr Nitrogen GAS
ABSORPTION
154.7626 kmol/ hr Steam COLUMN

Stream 3a Stream 4
VN+1 = 3799.96 kmol/ hr LNT = 7620.8275 kmol/ hr
2.7562 kmol/ hr Acrylic Acid 272.8638 kmol/ hr Acrylic Acid
33.04 kmol/ hr Acetic Acid 32.7096 kmol/ hr Acetic Acid
33.04 kmol/ hr Carbon Dioxide 1392.8634 kmol/ hr Water
86.95 kmol/hr Oxygen
2129.26 kmol/ hr Nitrogen
1547. 626 kmol/ hr Steam

98
CALCULATION:

Symbol:

A Acrylic Acid

B Acetic Acid

C - Carbon Dioxide

D Oxygen

E Nitrogen

F Steam

FEED STREAM: STREAM

Molar Flowrate:

VN+1 = VAN +VBN + VCN + VDN + VEN + VFN

VN+1 = (275.62 + 33.04 + 33. 04 + 22.15 + 2129.26 + 1547.626) kmol/ hr

= 4040.736 kmol/ hr

Mole Fraction:

YAN+1 = 275.62 / 4040.736 = 0.0682

YBN+1 = 33.04 / 4040. 736 = 0.0082

YCN+1 = 33.04 / 4040. 736 = 0.0082

YDN+1 = 22.15 / 4040.736 = 0.0055

YEN+1 = 2129.26 / 4040.736 = 0.5069

YFN+1 = 1547.626 / 4040.736 = 0.3830

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6.2.1.1 TOP PRODUCT STREAM: STREAM

Molar Flowrate:

VIT = VA1 +VB1 + VC1 + VD1 + VE1 + VF1

VA1 = 1% x 275.62 = 2.7562 kmol / hr

VB1 = 1% x 33.04 = 0.3304 kmol / hr

VFN = 10% x 1547.626 = 154.7626 kmol / hr

VIT = (2.7562 + 0.3304+ 33. 04 + 22.15 + 2129.26 + 154.7626) kmol/ hr

= 2342.2992 kmol/ hr

Mole Fraction:

YA1 = 2.7562 / 2342.2992 = 0.00118

YB1 = 0.3304 / 2342.2992 = 0.000141

YC1 = 33.04 / 2342.2992 = 0.0141

YD1 = 22.15 / 2342.2992 = 0.00946

YE1 = 2129.26 / 2342.2992 = 0.9090

YF1 = 154.7626 / 2342.2992 = 0.06607

6.2.1.2 BOTTOM PRODUCT STREAM: STREAM

Molar Flowrate:

LNT = VAN +VBN + VCN + LO

VAN = 99% x 275.62 = 272.8638 kmol/hr

VBN = 99% x 33.04 = 32.7096 kmol/hr

VFN = 90% x 1547.626 = 1392.8634 kmol/hr

100
LNT = 272.8638 + 32.709 + 1392.8634 + Lo

LNT = 1698.4368 + Lo

To find Lo & LNT ,

Lo ( + V ( ) = Lo ( ) + V( )

V = VN+1 x VFN+1

V = 4040.736 x 0.3830 = 1547.626

6.3.1 Balance on Acrylic Acid

XAO = 0

1547.626 [ = Lo [ ] + 1547.626 [ ]

113.2733 = Lo [ ] + 1.8284

= 111.4449 kmol/hr

111.4449 =

101
[ ] LNT = 272.8638Lo

LNT =

LNT = Lo + 1698.4368 kmol/hr

LO = LNT 1698.4368 kmol/hr

LNT =

LNT = 2682.6638 kmol/hr

6.3.2 Balance on Acetic Acid

1547.626 = Lo + 1547.626 [ ]

12.7955 = A + 0.21825

A = 12.57725

12.57725 =

12.5773 LNT -411.3893 = 32.7090 Lo

LNT =

Lo = LNT 1698.4368 kmol/hr

LNT =

LNT = 2759.5369 kmol/hr

102
6.3.3 Balance on water

1547.626 = Lo + 1547.626

960.6819 = A + 109.4853

A = 851.1965

851.1965 =

Lo = LNT 1698.4368 kmol/hr

LNT =

LNT = 2178.6268 kmol/hr

TOTAL LNT = 2178.6268 kmol/hr + 2759.5369 kmol/hr + 2682.6638 kmol/hr

= 7620.8275 kmol/hr

Lo = 7620.8275 kmol/hr 1698.4368 kmol/hr = 5922.3902 kmol/hr

103
6.4 SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN :

Based on the literature: (Kumar and Prasad, 2013)

99.5% of Acrylic Acid is extracted from feed stream

99% of Acetic Acid is extracted from feed stream

1% of H20 is extracted from feed stream

95% of m-pentene is used for the high solubility for acrylic acid and low solubility for water.

Stream 5

Extract Stream :

Acrylic Acid =271.4995 kmol/hr


Stream 4 (i)
Acetic Acid =32.3825 kmol/hr
Solvent Stream:
Water = 59.3139 kmol/hr
n-pentane = 4157.976 kmol/hr
n-pentane =3949 kmol/hr
LIQUID LIQUID
EXTRACTION Raffinate Stream :
Stream 4 (LLE)
Acrylic Acid = 1.364319kmol/hr
Feed Stream :
Acetic Acid =0.3271 kmol/hr
Acrylic Acid = 272.8638 kmol/hr
Water =5872.0768 kmol/hr
Acetic Acid = 32.7096 kmol/hr
n-pentane =207.8533 kmol/hr
H20 = 5931.3907 kmol/hr

104
Calculation :

6.4.1 Extract Product (to solvent recovery)

Acrylic Acid = 99.5% x 272.8638 = 271.4995kmol/hr

Acetic Acid = 99% x 32.7096 = 32.3825 kmol/hr

Water = 1% x 5931.3907 = 59.3139kmol/hr

n-pentane = 95% x 4157.0613kmol/hr

6.4.2 Product ( to waste tower)

Acrylic Acid = 0.05% x 272.8638 = 1.364319 kmol/hr

Acetic Acid = 1% x 32.7096 = 0.3271 kmol/hr

Water = 99% x 5931.3907 = 5872.0768 kmol/hr

n-pentane = 0.05% x 4157.0613 = 2078533 kmol/hr

105
6.5 SOLVENT RECOVERY COLUMN :

Based on the literature: (Kumar and Prasad, 2013)

100% of water and n-pentane being recovered and is recycle bck into LLE column

99.5% of Acrylic Acid and Acetic Acid is being recover in this colum

Stream 5b

Acrylic Acid = 1.36 kmol/hr


Stream 5 Top Product Acetic Acid = 0.1619 kmol/hr
Acrylic Acid = 271.4995 kmol/hr Water = 59.3139 kmol/hr
Acetic Acid = 32.3825 kmol/hr n-pentane = 3999.2028 kmol/hr
Water = 59.3139 kmol/hr

n-pentane = 3949.2082
Feed

Stream 5c

Acrylic Acid = 270.6395 kmol/hr


Bottom product
Acetic Acid = 32.2206 kmol/hr

Calculation

Top Product :

Acrylic Acid = 0.5% x 271.995 = 1.36 kmol/hr

Acetic Acid = 0.5% x 32.3825 = 0.1619 kmol/hr

Water = 100% x 59.3139 = 59.3139 kmol/hr

n-pentane = 100% x 3999.208 =3999.2028 kmol/hr

Bottom Product :

Acrylic Acid = 99.5% x 271.9995 = 270. 6395 kmol/hr

Acetic Acid = 99.5% x 32.3825 = 32.2206 kmol/hr

106
6.6 DISTILLATION COLUMN

Objective:

To produce 150,000metric tonnes per annual with 99.7% purity

Stream 6a (31.4215kmol/hr)
99.5%
Acrylic Acid =30.6096 kmol/hr

Acetic Acid = 0.8119 kmol/hr


Stream 6 (302.8601kmol/hr)
DISTILLATION
Acrylic Acid = 270.6395 kmol/hr
COLUMN
Acetic Acid = 32.2206 kmol/hr
99.7% Stream 6b (271.0197kmol/hr)

Acrylic Acid =269.4087 kmol/hr

Acetic Acid = 1..6110 kmol/hr

Calculation

Feed = Top + Bottom

302.8601 kmol/hr = Top + Bottom

6.6.1 Balance on Acrylic Acid

At bottom stream:

99.7% x 2706395 kmol/hr =269.4087 kmol/hr

At the top stram:

0.3% x 270.6395 kmol/hr = 0.8119 kmol/hr

107
6.6.2 Balance of Acetic Acid

Balance at the top steam:

95%x 32.2206 kmol/hr = 30.6096kmol/hr

Balance of bottom stream:

5% x 32.2206 kmol/hr = 1.6110 kmol/hr

Error = x100 = 0.68%

108
6.7 ENERGY BALANCES

Heat capacity,Cp:

C3H6 (propylene): (2.85 + 0.23 x 10-2 T) (1.2 x 10-4 T2) + (2.3 x 10-8 T3) kJ/kmol K

C3H4O (acrolein) : (3.7957 + 4.4 x 10-2 T) (0.1304 x 10-4 T2) (0.2848 x 10-8 T3) cal / mol K

C3H4O2(acrylic acid): (1.6828 + 6.9212x10-2 T) (0.4475 x 10-4 T2) + (1.10186 x 10-8 T3)
cal/mol K

C2H4O2 (acetic acid) : (2.0142 + 5.6065 x 10-2 T) (0.3401 x 10-4 T2) + (0.802 x 10-8 T3) cal / mol K

6.7.1 REACTOR 1

Heat in:

Feed is preheated to 200 (molten salt coolant temperature)

Heat in with C3H6:

= m Hf at 25 +m

=347.78 (20.27x103 +

= 11,717,711. 27

Heat in with air = m Cp T

(Compressed to 5 bar) = 2650.93 x 1.015x 29x (200-25)

= 13,655,271 kJ / hr

109
Heat in with steam

= 1304.18 x ( 2676 x 18 + 2.291 x 18 ) x (200-25)

= 30,817,126.95 kJ / hr

Total heat in = 41739961.9 kJ / hr

110
Heat Generated :

Heat generated by reaction 1 = 340.8 kJ / mol

Heat generated by reaction 2 = 254.1 kJ / mol

Heat generated by other side reactions are neglected.

Total heat generated = (340.8x103 x 103.866) + (254.1 x 103 x 16.32)

= 39544444.8 kJ / hr

Heat removed by Coolant :

The temperature in the reactor reaches an average peak temperature of 355 C due to
exothermic reaction. At the end of the catalyst bed, the temperature drops toward that of
molten salt coolant (210 C)

Heat with acrolein = m

=243.446

= 3,499,524.84 kJ / hr

Heat with Acrylic acid = m

=38.26

= 653,722 kJ / hr

Heat with Acetic acid = m

=33.04

= 480,629 kJ / hr

111
Heat with air = m Cp T

=2650.93 x 30.35 x ( 628-483)

=11,666,080 kJ / hr

Heat with CO2 = m Cp T

=30.04 x 47.896 x ( 628-483)

=97897.62 kJ / hr

Heat with steam = m Cp T

=1547.626 x 36.173 x ( 628-483)

=3463347.34 kJ / hr

Total heat removed by the Coolant = 9946411.17 kJ/hr

Heat out:

Heat out with Acrolein = m

=243.446

=1509276.32 kJ/hr

Heat with Acrylic acid = m

= 38.26

= 283613.82 kJ/hr

112
Heat with Acetic acid = m

= 33.04

= 208578.2 kJ / hr

Heat with air = m Cp T

=2650.93 x 30.35 x ( 483-298)

=5624249.59 kJ / hr

Heat with CO2 = m Cp T

=33.04 x 42.37 x ( 483-298)

=110490.79 kJ / hr

Heat with steam = m Cp T

=1547.626 x 33.913 x ( 483-298)

=4142581.4 kJ / hr

Total heat out = 11878790.12 kJ/hr

Heat to Waste heat boiler

=Heat in + Heat generated - Heat removed by coolant - Heat out =59459205.41kJ/hr

Water required in boiler = m = 5945205.41/ = 22219.43 kg/hr

113
6.7.2 REACTOR II

Heat in from reactor I = 11 878 790.12 kJ/hr

Heat generated:

= 254.1 x 103 kJ/kmol of Acrylic acid

=254.1 x 103 x 101.26

=25730166 kJ/hr

Heat removed by coolant:

The feed to the second reactor enters at temperature of 210 C The temperature in the
reactor reaches an average peak temperature of 300 C due to exothermic reaction. At the
end of the catalyst bed, the temperature drops toward that of molten salt coolant(210 C)

Heat with Acrylic acid = m

=275.62

= 1211152.08 kJ / hr

Heat with Acetic acid = m Cp dT

= 33.04 (2.0142 + 5.6065 x 10-2 T) (0.3401 x 10-4 T2) + (0.802 x 10-8 T3) dT

= 134946.92 kJ / hr

Heat with air = m Cp T

=2151.41 x 30.35 x ( 573-483)

=2588415.83 kJ / hr

114
Heat with CO2 = m Cp T

=33.04 x 46.0548 x ( 573-483)

=63807.91 kJ / hr

Heat with steam = m Cp T

=1547.626 x 35.42 x ( 573-483)

=2104879.2 kJ / hr

Total heat removed by the Coolant = 6103201.95 kJ/hr

Heat out:

Heat with Acrylic acid = m Cp dT

=275.62

= 2043343.9 kJ / hr

Heat with Acetic acid = m Cp dT

= 33.04 x (2.0142 + 5.6065 x 10-2 T) (0.3401 x 10-4 T2) + (0.802 x 10-8 T3) dT

= 54442.55 kJ / hr

Heat with air = m Cp T

=2151.41 x 30.35 x ( 483-298)

=5332617.47 kJ / hr

115
Heat with CO2 = m Cp T

=33.04 x 40.528 x ( 483-298)

=115421.42 kJ / hr

Heat with steam = m Cp T

=1547.626 x 36.913 x ( 483-298)

=4142581.4 kJ / hr

Total heat out = 11861751.85 kJ/hr.

Heat to Waste heat boiler

=Heat in + Heat generated - Heat removed by coolant - Heat out = 19644022.32


kJ/hr

=Water required in boiler = m = 19644022.32/ =7340.8 kg/hr

116
6.7.3 REFLUXED GAS ABSORPTION COLUMN

Substance Inlet Outlet Top Bottom


n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/mol) n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/mol) n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/mol)
x 103 x 103
Propylene - - - - - -
(v)
Steam (v) 1547.626 1 - - - -
Air :Oxygen 22.15 2 41.167 8 - -
(g)
Air: 2129.26 3 908.4 9 - -
Nitrogen (g)
Acrolein (v) - - - - -
Acrylic acid 275.62 4 1.1758 10 116.404 13
(C H4) (v)
CO2 (v) 33.04 5 15.38 11 - -
Acetic Acid 33.04 6 1.1758 12 15.236 14
(v)
H20 488.6 7 - - 1082.85 15

117
Steam: 1

= -156.53 KJ/mol

Air (oxygen) : 2

= 235.846 4076 + 407.49 29.56

= -3462.22J/mol K x 1/1000 K/J


= -3.46 kJ/mol

Nitrogen: 4

= -7.87 KJ/mol

Acrylic Acid: 5

= -1.79 0.9816 + 0.000202 3.06 x 10-6


= -212.8 KJ/mol
CO2: 6

118
= -1.79 0.9816 + 0.000202 3.06 x 10-6
= -22.8 KJ/mol

H2O: 7

= -71.87 KJ/mol
Air: 8

= -56.53 KJ/mol

Nitrogen: 9

= -1.79 0.9816 + 0.000202 3.06 x 10-6


= -22.8 KJ/mol

Acrylic acid (C H4): 10

= -1.361 0.3614 0.051 0.118


= - 21.8914 KJ/mol

C02: 11

119

= 235.846 4076 + 407.49 29.56

= -3462.22J/mol K x 1/1000 K/J


= -43.46 kJ/mol
Acetic Acid: 12

= -11.16 KJ/mol

Acrylic Acid: 13

= -51.53 KJ/mol

Acetic Acid: 14

= -1.79 0.9816 + 0.000202 3.06 x 10-6


= -22.18 KJ/mol
H2O: 15

= -171.287 KJ/mol

120
Q total = Q out - Q in
Q out = -57684.3
Q in = -1230.62
= 57684.3-(-1230.62)
Q Total = -56453.38 x 103 kJ/hr

6.7.4 DISTILLATION COLUMN

Substance Inlet Outlet Top Bottom


n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/mol) n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/mol) n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/mol)
x 103 x 103
Propylene - - - - - -
(v)
Steam (v) - - - - - -
Air :Oxygen - - - - - -
(g)
Air: - - - - - -
Nitrogen (g)
Acrolein (v) - - - - -
Acrylic acid 115.3 1 0.14 3 115.16 5

121
(C H4) (v)
CO2 (v) - - - - - -
Acetic Acid 15.08 2 14.883 4 0.197 6
(v)
H20 - - - - - -
n-pentane - - - - - -

Acrylic Acid: 1

= -106.53 KJ/mol

Acetic Acid: 2

= -1.79 0.9816 + 0.000202 3.06 x 10-6


= -13.8 KJ/mol

Acrylic Acid: 3

= 235.846 4076 + 407.49 29.56

= -3462.22J/mol K x 1/1000 K/J


= -3.12 kJ/mol

122
Acetic Acid: 4

= -23.14 KJ/mol

Acrylic Acid: 5

= -68.93 KJ/mol
Acetic Acid: 6

= -1.79 0.9816 + 0.000202 3.06 x 10-6


= -32.21 KJ/mol

Q total = Q out - Q in

Q out = -77684.5

Q in = -3230.53

= -77684.5-(-3230.53)

Q Total = - 74453.97 x 103 kj/hr

123
6.7.5 Energy Balance Liquid-liquid Extraction

Substance Inlet Outlet

n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/mol) n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/mol) x


103
Acrylic Acid (l) - -
(Feed Stream) 272.86 1

Acetic Acid (l) - -


(Feed Stream) 32.71 2

Water (l) - -
(Feed Stream) 5931.39 3

n-pentane (l) - -
(Solvent Stream) 4157.976 4

Acrylic Acid (l) - - 1.36 5


(Raffinate Stream

124
Acetic Acid (l)
(Raffinate Stream) - - 0.33 6

Water (l)
(Raffinate Stream) - - 5872.08 7

n-pentane (l)
(Raffinate Stream) - - 207.85 8

Acrylic Acid (l)


(Extract Stream) - - 271.50 9

Acetic Acid (l)


(Extract Stream) - - 32.38 10

Water (l)
(Extract Stream) - - 59.31 11

n-pentane (l)
(Extract Stream) - - 3949 12

Acrylic Acid (C3 H4O2) (l) : 1 =

= -17.69 12.92 + 1.84 0.12


= -78.89 kJ/mol

Acetic Acid (C2 H4O2) (l) : 2 =

= 23.26 -17.23 + 2.66 0.186


= 38.01 kJ/mol

125
Water (H2O ) (l): 3 =
=

= -19.26 -12.56 + 3.54 -0.29


= -28.57 kJ/mol

n-pentane (l): 4 =

= -7.4984 - 0.0438 - 0.0462 + 0.00325


= -34.585 kJ/mol

Acrylic Acid (C3 H4O2) (l): 5 =

= -0.00644 3.128 0.0314 -0.041


= -3.227 kJ/mol

Acetic Acid (C2H4O2) (l): 6=

= -1.16 KJ/mol

Water (H2O) (l) :7=

= -1.53 KJ/mol
n-pentane (l): 8=

= -1.361 0.3614 0.051 0.118


= - 1.8914 KJ/mol
126
Acrylic Acid (C3H4O2) (l): 9=

= -1.79 0.9816 + 0.000202 3.06 x 10-6


= -2.8 KJ/mol

Acetic Acid (C2H4O2) (l): 10=

= -0.696 0.264 + 0.0173-0.00045


= 0.943 kJ/mol

Water (H2O) (l) :11=

= -1.398 0.259

= -1.657 kJ/mol

n-pentane (l): 12=

= -1083.82 163.17
= -1246.99 cal/mol x 4.18/1000

= -5.21 kJ/mol

127
6.7.6 Energy Balance Solvent Extraction Column

TOP
PRODUCT

BOTTOM
FEED PRODUCT

Substance Inlet Outlet


n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/mol) n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/mol)
Acrylic Acid (l)
(Feed Stream) 271.99 1 - -

Acetic Acid (l)


(Feed Stream) 32.38 2 - -

Water (l)
(Feed Stream) 59.31 3 - -

n-pentane (l)
(Feed Stream) 3949.21 4 - -
Acrylic Acid (l) - - 1.36
(Top Product) 5

Acetic Acid (l) - -


(Top Product) 0.16 6
Water (l)
(Top Product) - - 59.31 7

128
n-pentane (l)
(Top Product) - - 3999.20 8

Acrylic Acid (l)


(Bottom Product) - - 270.64 9

Acetic Acid (l)


(Bottom Product) - - 32.22 10

Acrylic Acid (C3H4O2) (l): 1=

= - 5.39 0.0049

= -5.395 kJ/mol - 48.66 kJ/mol

= -54.055 kJ/mol

Acetic Acid (C2H4O2) (l): 2=

= - 6.34 0.007

= -6.35 kJ/mol

Water (H2O) (l) :3=

= -4911.78 17.338

= -4929.12 kJ/mol x 4.18/1000

= -20.6 kJ/mol

n-pentane (l): 4=

129

= -15.59 KJ/mol

Acrylic Acid (C3H4O2) (l): 5=

= -7.87 KJ/mol

Acetic Acid (C2H4O2) (l): 6=

= 3.74 KJ/mol

Water (H2O) (l) :7=

= 7.23 KJ/mol

n-pentane (l): 8=

= 13.44 KJ/mol

Acrylic Acid (C3H4O2) (l): 9=

130
= 13.44 KJ/mol

Acetic Acid (C2H4O2) (l): 10=

= -12.55 KJ/mol

131
CHAPTER 7

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT DESIGN

7.1 INTRODUCTION

Mechanical design is important in order to determine the suitable measurement and


dimension for equipment in the chemical plant before plant operating well. In this chapter, the
aspect of the mechanical design has been discussed detailed in the calculation. Otherwise, all the
safety study and control strategies information has been followed the requirement. The data of
equipment has been interpreted particularly in specification sheet. In the process of acrylic acid
production via oxidation of propylene, there is several main equipment which are:

Table 7.1 Main equipment list

No. Name of Equipment Quantity

1 Reactor 2

2 Refluxed gas Absorber Column 1

3 Liquid Extraction Column 1

4 Distillation Column 1

132
7.2 PACKED BED REACTOR

Packed bed reactors are chosen for the selection reactor is due to their high conversion rate per
catalyst weight compared to other catalytic reactors. The reactors consist of a chamber, such as a
tube or channel that contains catalyst particles or pellets, and a liquid that flows through the
catalyst. Below is the calculation of the packed bed reactor (Hill & Root, 2014).

Table 7.2.1: Advantage and disadvantage of using Packed Bed Reactor

Usage Advantages Disadvantages

Heterogeneous has Uniform mixing Bed-fluid mechanics not


phase reactions with a well known
catalyst Good uniformity of
temperature Severe agitation can
result in catalyst
Catalyst can be destruction and dust
continuously formation
regenerated with the use
of an auxiliary loop. Uncertain scale-up

133
Volume of reactor

Therefore,

134
According to (Hill & Root, 2014), the residence time () used in the acrolein reactor produced by
the oxidation process of propylene is 2 second. Therefore;

a. Volume of catalyst bed

Total volume cylindrical of reactor

135
Since the reactor is known to have tube running through in the vessel, thus the tube length is
calculated. According to the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association (TEMA), the
preferred lengths of the tubes should be is 6ft, 8ft, 12ft, 16ft, 20ft and 24ft. Therefore, length of
tube selected is 24 ft.

(Source: ANSI/ASME 36.19M - Stainless Steel Pipe)

136
Selected dimension of the tube:

Length = 24ft = 7.32 m

Nominal pipe size = 3 inches = 0.0762 m

Outside diameter = 3.5 inches = 0.0889 m

Wall thickness = 0.083 inches = 0.0021 m

Inside diameter = 0.0889 m - 0.0021 m = 0.0868 m

Inside radius = 0.0434 m

Volume of one tube

Number of tube

Volume of reactor dome closure

Since the calculated diameter of reactor is 0.0868 meter, therefore the radius of the hemisphere
would be as calculated below:

137
= = 0.0434 m

Allowance of the reactor height is 20% - 50% of the shell height.

For our system assuming the allowance for shell is 25% of the tube height.

So

Total height of dome at top and bottom

Volume of cylinder dome at top and bottom

Diameter of cylinder vessel

138
Therefore;

Total height of reactor

7.32 m + 3.66 m = 10.98 m

139
Design for Shell Wall Thickness

There will be a minimum shell wall thickness required to ensure that any vessel is
sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight. From (William, 2012) stated a vessel diameter
between 1 m to 2 m, its wall thickness (include corrosion allowance of 2mm) should not less
than 7 mm. For a cylinder shell, the minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure is
determine from the equation (given in the BS 5500):

Pi D s
e
2f Pi

Where,

e = wall thickness

Ds = internal diameter = 2.2 m

Pi = design pressure = 1.65 N/mm2

f = design stress = 145 N/mm2

1.65 N / mm 2 x2.2 1000mm


e 12.6mm 0.0126 m
2 x145 N / mm 2 1.65 N / mm 2

Triangular Pinch for baffle


The tube contain in the shells are stacked in bundle. There are two types of tube bundle which
are fixed tube bundle and u-tube bundle.

140
Fix Tube Bundle
A fixed-tube sheet heat exchanger has straight tubes that are secured at both ends by tube sheets
welded to the shell. The bundle diameter can be estimate by using following formula :

Where,
DB = Bundle Diameter
d0 = Outside tube diameter = 3.50 inch = 0.09 m
Nt = Number of tubes = 645 tubes
K1 and n given in the table below:

Since we are using triangular pitch arrangement of tubes, thus, K and n selected is as highlighted.

Baffle spacing

According to the (William, 2012), the range of baffle spacing used is in between 0.2 to 1.0 and
the minimum spacing is usually in between of 0.3 to 0.5 times the shell diameter. The selected
spacing is 0.5

141
Number of baffle

Baffle is a plate or mechanical device designed to restrain or regulate the flow of a fluid,

Therefore, the number of baffle

Heat transfer to vessel

From the material balance calculated, the Q obtain is negative and it shows that the reaction is
exothermic. In term of cooling process, the amount of water is needed to maintain the
temperature of the reaction and absorb the excess heat produce during the reaction occur. To
determine the amount of water needed for cooling, the formula used is:

142
Overall heat transfer coefficient

Where,

143
Therefore,

144
Reactor Parts

145
Reactor Dimension

2.2 m

0.0126 m

146
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Identification: First packed bed reactor


Function: To produce acrolein by using oxidation process
By: Nor Shahida Binti Norizan

Specification Data Mechanical Design Data

Design position Vertical Diameter 2.2 m


Material of Construction Stainless Steel Wall thickness 0.0126 m
Reactor Type Packed Bed Volume Cylindrical 28 m
Catalyst Vanadium Catalyst Volume 7.0 m
molybdenum Residence Time 2s
Total volume 41.91 m
Total height 10.98 m
Height of dome 1.83 m
Volume of dome 6.95 m

Operating Condition Data

Feed Volumetric Flowrate 37 802.73 m3/hr


Temperature 500 K
Pressure 4.6 atm
Feed phases Gases

147
Tube dimension Data
Number of tube 645 tubes
Tube position Vertical
Tube length 7.32 m
Nominal pipe size 0.0762 m
Outside diameter 0.0889 m
Wall thickness 0.0021 m
Inside diameter 0.0868 m
Inside radius 0.0434 m
Volume of one tube 0.0434 m
Shape of Baffle Triangular pinch
Number of passes 1
Baffle spacing 0.434
Number of baffle 16
Heat transfer to vessel
Overall heat transfer coefficient

148
REACTOR 2

b. Volume of reactor

Therefore,

149
According to (Hill & Root, 2014), the residence time () used in the acrol reactor produced by
the oxidation process of propylene is 2 second. Therefore;

c. Volume of catalyst bed

d. Total volume cylindrical of reactor

Since the reactor is known to have tube running through in the vessel, thus the tube length is
calculated. According to the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association (TEMA), the
preferred lengths of the tubes should be is 6ft, 8ft, 12ft, 16ft, 20ft and 24ft.
Therefore, length of tube selected is 16 ft.

150
(Source: ANSI/ASME 36.19M - Stainless Steel Pipe)

151
Selected dimension of the tube:

Length = 16ft = 4.87 m

Nominal pipe size = 3 inches = 0.0762 m

Outside diameter = 3.5 inches = 0.0889 m

Wall thickness = 0.083 inches = 0.0021 m

Inside diameter = 0.0889 m - 0.0021 m = 0.0868 m

Inside radius = 0.0434 m

e. Volume of one tube

f. Number of tube

g. Volume of reactor dome closure

Since the calculated diameter of reactor is 0.0868 meter, therefore the radius of the hemisphere
would be as calculated below:

152
= = 0.0434 m

Allowance of the reactor height is 20% - 50% of the shell height.

For our system assuming the allowance for shell is 25% of the tube height.

So

Total height of dome at top and bottom

Volume of cylinder dome at top and bottom

Diameter of cylinder vessel

Therefore;

153
h. Total height of reactor

4.87 m + 2.44 m = 7.31 m

Design for Shell Wall Thickness

There will be a minimum shell wall thickness required to ensure that any vessel is
sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight. From (William, 2012), vessel diameter between 1
m to 2 m, its wall thickness (include corrosion allowance of 2mm) should not less than 7 mm.
For a cylinder shell, the minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure is determine from
the equation (given in the BS 5500):

Pi D s
e
2f Pi

Where,

e = wall thickness

Ds = internal diameter = 2.58 m

Pi = design pressure = 1.65 N/mm2

f = design stress = 145 N/mm2

1.65 N / mm 2 x2.58 1000mm


e 14.76mm 0.01476 m
2 x145 N / mm 2 1.65 N / mm 2

154
Baffle spacing

According to the (William, 2012), the range of baffle spacing used is in between 0.2 to 1.0 and
the minimum spacing is usually in between of 0.3 to 0.5 times the shell diameter. The selected
spacing is 0.5

Number of baffle

Baffle is a plate or mechanical device designed to restrain or regulate the flow of a fluid,

Therefore, the number of baffle

Heat transfer to vessel

From the material balance calculated, the Q obtain is negative and it shows that the reaction is
exothermic. In term of cooling process, the amount of water is needed to maintain the
temperature of the reaction and absorb the excess heat produce during the reaction occur. To
determine the amount of water needed for cooling, the formula used is:

155
Overall heat transfer coefficient

Where,

156
Therefore,

157
Triangular Pitch Arrangement of Tubes

The tube contain in the shells are stacked in bundle. There are two types of tube bundle which
are fixed tube bundle and u-tube bundle.
Fix Tube Bundle
A fixed-tube sheet heat exchanger has straight tubes that are secured at both ends by tube sheets
welded to the shell.
The bundle diameter can be estimate by using following formula :

Where,
DB = Bundle Diameter
d0 = Outside tube diameter = 3.50 inch = 0.09 m
Nt = Number of tubes = 877 tubes
K1 and n given in the table below:

Since we are using triangular pitch arrangement of tubes, thus, K and n selected is as highlighted.

158
Reactor Parts

159
Reactor dimensions

2.58 m

0.01476 m

160
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Identification: Second packed bed reactor


Function: To produce acrylic acid by using partial oxidation process
By: Ahmad Muzammil Bin Idris

Specification Data Mechanical Design Data

Design position Vertical Diameter 2.58 m


Material of Construction Stainless Steel Wall thickness 0.01476 m
Reactor Type Packed Bed Volume Cylindrical 25.3 m
Catalyst Vanadium Catalyst Volume 6.3 m
molybdenum Residence Time 2s
Total volume 38.0 m
Operating Condition Data Total height 7.31 m
Height of dome 1.22 m
Feed Volumetric Flowrate 34 363.5 m3/hr Volume of dome 6.37 m
Temperature 450 K
Pressure 4.6 atm
Feed phases Gases

Tube dimension Data


Number of tube 877 tubes
Tube position Vertical
Tube length 4.87 m

161
Nominal pipe size 0.0762 m
Outside diameter 0.0889 m
Wall thickness 0.0021 m
Inside diameter 0.0868 m
Inside radius 0.0434 m
Volume of one tube 0.0288 m
Shape of Baffle Triangular pinch
Number of passes 1
Baffle spacing 0.434
Number of baffle 10
Heat transfer to vessel
Overall heat transfer coefficient

162
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Identification: Second packed bed reactor


Function: To produce acrylic acid by using partial oxidation process
By: Ahmad Muzammil Bin Idris

Specification Data Mechanical Design Data

Design position Vertical Diameter 2.58 m


Material of Construction Stainless Steel Wall thickness 0.01476 m
Reactor Type Packed Bed Volume Cylindrical 25.3 m
Catalyst Vanadium Catalyst Volume 6.3 m
molybdenum Residence Time 2s
Total volume 38.0 m
Operating Condition Data Total height 7.31 m
Height of dome 1.22 m
Feed Volumetric Flowrate 34 363.5 m3/hr Volume of dome 6.37 m
Temperature 450 K
Pressure 4.6 atm
Feed phases Gases

Tube dimension Data


Number of tube 877 tubes
Tube position Vertical
Tube length 4.87 m

163
Nominal pipe size 0.0762 m
Outside diameter 0.0889 m
Wall thickness 0.0021 m
Inside diameter 0.0868 m
Inside radius 0.0434 m
Volume of one tube 0.0288 m
Shape of Baffle Triangular pinch
Number of passes 1
Baffle spacing 0.434
Number of baffle 10
Heat transfer to vessel
Overall heat transfer coefficient

164
7.3 HAZARD AND OPERABILITY (HAZOP) STUDY OF REACTOR

7.3.1Introduction

Hazard and operability (HAZOP) study is an analysis which is a reputable and well
proven method for identifying safety and operational issues related to the design, operation and
maintenance of a process system. Essentially, a HAZOP analysis provides a full review of a
process system and systematically questions every part of it to establish how deviations from the
design intention might arise. Once it is identified, deviations and their consequences are assessed
to see whether there might have a negative effect on safe and efficient plant operation. This
technique ensures a systematic evaluation to identify potential problem or hazards.

7.3.2 Objective HAZOP

The primary objective of HAZOP study is to identify potential hazards and operating problems
on the process plant. Performed by a multi-disciplinary team which applies the HAZOP
structured brainstorming technique all possible deviations from normal operating conditions are
examined in details and their reasons and consequences are assessed. The detailed insight into
the plant is supported by dividing the plant into manageable sections, so called 'nodes'. Specific
'parameters' and 'guidewords' are used to focus the team towards likely design issues in each
section of the plant. Once identified, potential 'deviations' from the standard operating or design
conditions may then be discussed and assessed by the team with respect to their effect on safety.
Subsequently the implemented safeguards are identified and where considered necessary
recommendations for action or further consideration are recorded.

165
Table Guidewords for HAZOP Analysis
GUIDE WORD EXPLANATION

NONE No forward flow when there should be, i.e. no flow or reverse flow.

More of any relevant physical property than there should be, e.g. higher

flow (rate or total quantity), higher temperature, higher pressure, higher

MORE OF viscosity, etc.

Less of any relevant physical property than there should be, e.g. lower

LESS OF flow (rate or total quantity), lower temperature, lower pressure, etc

AS WELL More components present in the system than there should be, e.g. extra

AS /MORE phase present (vapour, solid), impurities (air, water, acids, corrosion

THAN products), etc.

A parameter occurs in the opposite direction to that for which it was

REVERSE Intended e.g. reverse flow.

OTHER THAN Complete substitution e.g. sulphuric acid was added instead of water.

EQUIPMENT What else can happen apart from normal operation, e.g. start-up,

WORDS shutdown, uprating, low rate running, alternative operation mode,

OTHER failure of plant services, maintenance, catalyst change, etc.

A preliminary HAZOP analysis of the reactor must be explained clearly. There will be
exists a wide range of possible failures and operating conditions that could lead to hazardous
situations. Hence, most of this event must be identified ad safety measures should be included to
overcome the hazard occurred. As the reactor operate in high pressure and moderate temperature,
all the consideration of feed inlet of raw material which is the physical properties must be clearly

166
identified. For example at the inlet which is Isobutane and isobutylene can cause explosion if it
react with air and also highly flammable. Hence, in term of different hazard occur from the feed
inlet, the HAZOP analysis will help to overcome the entire problem that might happen to the
reactor itself. In term of operation in the reactor, the feed quality must be high and contain no
impurities as well as the catalyst must be maintained in good condition. Any failure of control
might cause contamination or corrosion of the equipment and the valve failure. The most
important is the process flow must be controlled correctly. The detailed installation of process
control will be discussed after the HAZOP study. Operating pressure and temperature should be
monitored and as it affect the functional process of the reactor and product quality.

167
7.4 REFLUXED GAS ABSORBERS COLUMN DESIGN

7.4.1 Introduction

Gas absorbers are used extensively in industry for separation and purification of gas streams, as
product recovery devices, and as pollution control devices. This chapter focuses on the
application of absorption for pollution control on gas streams with typical pollutant
concentrations ranging from 250 to 10,000 ppm. Gas absorbers are most widely used to remove
water soluble inorganic contaminants from air streams (McInnes et al., 1990). Absorption is a
process where one or more soluble components of a gas mixture are dissolved in a liquid (i.e., a
solvent). The absorption process can be categorized as physical or chemical. Physical
absorption occurs when the absorbed compound dissolves in the solvent; chemical absorption
occurs when the absorbed compound and the solvent react. Liquids commonly used as solvents
include water, mineral oils, nonvolatile hydrocarbon oils, and aqueous solutions. (McInnes et al.,
1990)

7.4.2 System Efficiencies and Performance

Removal efficiencies for gas absorbers vary for each pollutant-solvent system and with the type
of absorber used. Most absorbers have removal efficiencies in excess of 90 percent, and packed
tower absorbers may achieve efficiencies as high as 99.9 percent for some pollutant-solvent
systems. (Jose, 1992)

The suitability of gas absorption as a pollution control method is generally dependent on the
following factors:

1) Availability of suitable solvent;

2) Required removal efficiency;

3) Pollutant concentration in the inlet vapor;

4) Capacity required for handling waste gas;

5) Recovery value of the pollutant(s) or the disposal cost of the spent solvent. (Robert, 1980)

168
Physical absorption depends on properties of the gas stream and solvent, such as density
and viscosity, as well as specific characteristics of the pollutant(s) in the gas and the liquid
stream (e.g., diffusivity, equilibrium solubility). These properties are temperature dependent,
and lower temperatures generally favor absorption of gases by the solvent. (Research Triangle).
Absorption is also enhanced by greater contacting surface, higher liquid-gas ratios, and higher
concentrations in the gas stream. (Perry, 1984) The solvent chosen to remove the pollutant(s)
should have a high solubility for the gas, low vapor pressure, low viscosity, and should be
relatively inexpensive. (Treybal, 1980)Water is the most common solvent used to remove
inorganic contaminants; it is also used to absorb organic compounds having relatively high water
solubilities. For organic compounds that have low water solubilities, other solvents such as
hydrocarbon oils are used, though only in industries where large volumes of these oils are
available (i.e., petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants). (Jack, 1992)

7.4.3 Process Description

Absorption is a mass transfer operation in which one or more soluble components of a


gas mixture are dissolved in a liquid that has low volatility under the process conditions. The
pollutant diffuses from the gas into the liquid when the liquid contains less than the equilibrium
concentration of the gaseous component. The difference between the actual concentration and
the equilibrium concentration provides the driving force for absorption.

7.4.4 Absorber System Configuration

Gas and liquid flow through an absorber may be countercurrent, crosscurrent, or cocurrent. The
most commonly installed designs are countercurrent, in which the waste gas stream enters at the
bottom of the absorber column and exits at the top. Conversely, the solvent stream enters at the
top and exits at the bottom. Countercurrent designs provide the highest theoretical removal
efficiency because gas with the lowest pollutant concentration contacts liquid with the lowest
pollutant concentration. This serves to maximize the average driving force for absorption
throughout the column. (Perry and Chilton ., 1984) Moreover, countercurrent designs usually

169
require lower liquid to gas ratios than cocurrent and are more suitable when the pollutant loading
is higher. (Jose ., 1992)

7.4.5 Types of Absorption Equipment

Devices that are based on absorption principles include packed towers, plate (or tray)
columns, venturi scrubbers, and spray chambers. This chapter focuses on packed towers, which
are the most commonly used gas absorbers for pollution control. Packed towers are columns
filled with packing materials that provide a large surface area to facilitate contact between the
liquid and gas. Packed tower absorbers can achieve higher removal efficiencies, handle higher
liquid rates, and have relatively lower water consumption requirements than other types of gas
absorbers. (Harrison et al 1989)

However, packed towers may also have high system pressure drops, high clogging and fouling
potential, and extensive maintenance costs due to the presence of packing materials. Installation,
operation, and wastewater disposal costs may also be higher for packed bed absorbers than for
other absorbers.

Figure 7.4: Internal Packed Column

170
7.4.6 Packed Tower Internals

A basic packed tower unit is comprised of a column shell, mist eliminator, liquid
distributors, packing materials, packing support, and may include a packing restrainer.
Corrosion resistant alloys or plastic materials such as polypropylene are required for column
internals when highly corrosive solvents or gases are used. A schematic drawing of a
countercurrent packed tower is shown in Figure 1.1. In this figure, the packing is separated into
two sections. This configuration is more expensive than designs where the packing is not so
divided. (McInnes et at ., 1990)

Figure 1.2: Random Packing Material

In order to ensure that the waste gas is well distributed, an open space between the bottom of the
tower and the packing is necessary. Support plates hold the packing above the open space. The
support plates must have enough strength to carry the weight of the packing, and enough free
area to allow solvent and gas to flow with minimum restrictions. (Treybal and Robert ., 1980)

171
7.4.7 Packed Tower Operation

As discussed in Section 1.2.1, the most common packed tower designs are
countercurrent. As the waste gas flows up the packed column it will experience a drop in its
pressure as it meets resistance from the packing materials and the solvent flowing down.
Pressure drop in a column is a function of the gas and liquid flow rates and properties of the
packing elements, such as surface area and free volume in the tower. A high pressure drop
results in high fan power to drive the gas through the packed tower and consequently high costs.
The pressure drop in a packed tower generally ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 in. H2O/ft of packing
(Perry, 1984) For each column, there are upper and lower limits to solvent and vapor flow rates
that ensure satisfactory performance. The gas flow rate may become so high that the drag on the
solvent is sufficient to keep the solvent from flowing freely down the column. Solvent begins to
accumulate and blocks the entire cross section for flow, which increases the pressure drop and
presents the packing from mixing the gas and solvent effectively. When all the free volume in
the packing is filled with liquid and the liquid is carried back up the column, the absorber is
considered to be flooded.(Treybal and Robert., 1980) Most packed towers operate at 60 to 70
percent of the gas flooding velocity, as it is not practical to operate a tower in a flooded
condition.(Perry and Chilton ., 1984) A minimum liquid flow rate is also required to wet the
packing material sufficiently for effective mass transfer to occur between the gas and
liquid.(Perry and Chilton ., 1984)or operations that are based on chemical reaction with
absorption, an additional concern is the rate of reaction between the solvent and pollutant(s).
Most gas absorption chemical reactions are relatively fast and the rate limiting step is the
physical absorption of the pollutants into the solvent. However, for solvent-pollutant systems
where the chemical reaction is the limiting step, the rates of reaction would need to be analyzed
kinetically. Heat may be generated as a result of exothermal chemical reactions. Heat may also
be generated when large amounts of solute are absorbed into the liquid phase, due to the heat of
solution. The resulting change in temperature along the height of the absorber column may
damage equipment and reduce absorption efficiency. This problem can be avoided by adding
cooling coils to the column.(Perry and Chilton ., 1984) However, in those systems where water is
the solvent, adiabatic saturation of the gas occurs during absorption due to solvent evaporation.
This causes a substantial cooling of the absorber that offsets the heat generated by chemical
reactions. Thus, cooling coils are rarely required with those systems. (Jack ., 1992) In any event,

172
packed towers may be designed assuming that isothermal conditions exist throughout the
column. (Perry and Chilton ., 1984)

7.4.8 Mass Balance

The following is sizing columns of absorber calculation.

a. Calculating NOG
Before calculating height absorber column, we must find theoretical stage.

Partial pressure Feed = 270kPa


Partial pressure out = 0.36kPa

With use Figure A.4 from Sinnott Book, we can get theoretical stage. Colburn (1939) has
suggested that the optimum value for the term mGm/Lm will lie between 0.7 to 0.8.

173
With mGm/Lm = 0.8, NOG from Figure X is 25.

Figure 1: Number of transfer units NOG as a function of y1/y2 with mGm/Lm as parameter

Calculate Column Diameter

174
( )( )

Where:
L = Liquid mass velocity, lbm/ft2.s
G = Gas mass velocity, lbm/ft2.s
l= liquid density, lbm/ft3
g = gas density, lbm/ft3
= liquid viscosity, centistokes
F = packing factor

Figure 2: Packing Factor

7.4.9 Specifications of Packing

Ceramic Saddles (Intalox)


1.used in Chemical and Petrochemical industries
2.used in environmental areas

Ceramic Saddles (Intalox) are divided into two different types of products according to their
properties, one is often used in the field of Chemical and Petrochemical industries, another is
mainly used in environmental areas such as RTO (Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers)
175
equipments. But both of them are the most frequently used high-performance packing and
exhibit advantages for most applications in comparison with other shapes. Their smooth surface
imparts a high chemical resistance and provides Ceramic Intalox saddle rings (Ceramic Saddles)
with a high level of stability. Due to their simple form, ceramic saddles can be produced at a
relatively low cost.

For this absorber column, we use Intalox Saddles Ceramics 1.5 inch with packing factor 52.
Calculate X, to get Y value.

( )( )

mL = mass flowrate liquid = 19 662.565 kg/hr


mg = mass flowrate gas = 19 861.17 kg/hr
l= mass density liquid = 1050 kg/m3
g = mass density gas = 2.1 kg/m3
= 1.232 cp

( )( )

( )( )

So, Y value from Figure 2:

176
Figure 3

From absorbers, we choose pressure drop in packing is 0.5.

From Figure 3, we can get Y = 2.0

177
( )

a. Calculating Column Height

from Campbell, estimates height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) for preliminary
planning and sizing calculation can used:

Packing Size HETP


2.54 cm [1 in.] 0.46 m
3.81 cm [1.5 in.] 0.66 m
5.08 cm [2 in.] 0.89 m

So, absorber column height: 0.66 m x 25 =16.5 m

178
Minimum Thickness, e

Where,

Pi = Working pressure = 0.101325

Di = Internal Diameter = 2080 mm

J = Stress on design = 210

F = Efficiency = 0.85

C = Corrosion allowance = 2 mm

Therefore,

The According to (Sinnot, 2005), as for stability of the shell, the column is divided into four
parts and thickness is increased from top to bottom of the shell.

Table 7.3.3 Thickness of column from top to bottom Reflux gas absorber

Column Top column Bottom column

Thickness shell 4mm 10mm

179
Gas Absorption Column
Equipment Specification
Identification: Gas Absorption Column
By: Muhamad Faris Bin Hamir
Name Vapor-liquid separator (Absorber)
Code A-01
Function To separate out the gases by the help of
deionized water
Operation Continuous
Total 1
Specification
Design type Vertical
Material of Construction Stainless Steel
Material of Insulation Mineral Wool
Column Type Plate Column
Operation Data
Inside diameter m
Outside diameter 2.084 m
Column height 16.5 M
Column thickness mm
Stage 25
Column material Stainless Steel, SA-167 grade 3
Packing Type Intalox Saddles (ceramic) 1 1/2 inch

180
7.5 DESIGNING DISTILLATION COLUMN

Distillation is a unit operation most widely used to separate liquid mixture into more or less pure
components. In distillation separation of constituents is based upon differences in boiling points
(Towler & Sinnott, 2008).

7.5.1 Designing Steps

Specify the degree of separation required: set product specification.


Select the operating conditions: batch or continuous; operating pressure.
Select the type of contacting device: plates or packing.
Determine the stage and reflux requirements: the number of equilibrium stages.
Size the column: diameter, number of real stages.
Design the column internals: plate, distributors, packing supports.

Figure 1.0 Process flow diagram of distillation column

181
The principal step will be to determine the stage and reflux requirements. This is a relatively
simple procedure when the feed is a binary mixture, but a complex and difficult task when the
feed contains more than two components (multicomponent systems) (Towler & Sinnott, 2008).

7.5.2 Choice between Plate and Packed column

Plate columns are designed to handle wide range of liquid flow rates without flooding
than packed column.
For large column heights, weight of the packed column is more than plate column.
Periodic cleaning is easy in plate columns as compared to packed columns.
When temperature change is involved, packing may be damaged.
If the liquid causes fouling or contains solids, it is easier to make provision for cleaning
in plate column

7.5.3 Selection of Plate Column


More positive contact by repeated mixing and separation.
For the large temperature changes.
Easy to maintain than that of packed column.

182
7.5.4 Mechanical Design of Plate Distillation Column

This is illustrated clearly by applying the McCabe-Thiele method to design a binary column.
Below are the component and mole fraction that is used for the calculation.

Figure 2.0 Material balances for distillation column

Table 7.5 Component for Distillation Column

Symbol XF XD XB Molecular Weight


Component
(Kg/kmol)

Acetic Acid A 0.11 0.97 0.006 60.05

Acrylic Acid B 0.89 0.03 0.994 72.06

According to (Towler & Sinnott, 2008), the vapour pressure of acrylic acid at its boiling point
(141 C) is 62.5 kPa

Vapor pressure for acetic acid:

183
(Source: Table data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 44th ed)

Figure 3.0 Vapour pressure range of acetic acid according to temperature

Vapor pressure of acetic acid at its boiling point (118 C) is 760 mm Hg which is equal to 101.33
kPa.

The total pressure of distillation column is

PA = 101.33 kPa x 0.11 = 11.14 kPa

PB = 62.5 kPa x 0.89 = 55.63 kPa

PT = 11.14 kPa + 55.63 kPa = 66.765 kPa = 0.65 atm

Relative volatility (AB):


AB

AB =

Equilibrium line of McCabe Thiele Method:

Table 2.0 Equilibrium line

Xa 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Ya 0.29 0.52 0.71 0.87 1.0

Xb 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0

184
Yb 0.71 0.48 0.29 0.13 0.00

AB 1.63 1.63 1.63 1.67 0

Avg =

7.5.5 Reflux Ratio


Most of the distillation column is designed to operate between 1.2 and 1.5 times the
minimum reflux ratio because this is approximately the region of minimum operating cost
(Buckley et al., 1985). In this column, the minimum reflux ratio is assumed 1.2 Rmin.

Ractual = 1.2 Rmin

From the graph:

y* = 0.162 and x* = 0.11

Thus;

(From eq. 1)

Ractual = 1.2(1.29) = 1.55

ROL = 38

185
By using Fenske equation, the number of theoretical plates can be calculated as below:

x 1 xB
ln D
xB 1 xD
N min 1
ln
Therefore,

Nmin = = 7.73=8.0

Based on the plotted graph, the total stages is 12 and the tray is 11. Meanwhile, the minimum
number of plate was calculated by using the Fenske is 8.0.

1.1.1 Number of Tray


From the graph,

Ntheo = 12 tray

Typical values for tray efficiency range from 0.5 to 0.7. These values depend on the type of trays
being used, as well as the internal liquid and vapor flow rates and maximum efficiency of 0.7 is
used in this distillation column (Buckley et al., 1985).

7.5.6 Height of Column

The tower height can be related to the number of trays in the column. The following formula
assumes that a spacing of two feet between trays will be sufficient including additional five to
ten feet at both ends of the tower.

Htower = 2.3Nactual

Htower = 2.3(20) = 46 feet = 14m

186
By using the sizing notes found on Peters &Timmerhaus, the column sizing is starts by calculate
velocity by using following equation:

Generally plate or tray spacing range is from 8 to 36 inches (Eldridge, 2005). In this
project, the tray spacing in the distillation column is assumed to 24 inches or 0.6096 m.

( )( )

( )( )

Value of Csb is obtained from graph below;

Figure 4.0 Estimation of Csb value for allowable vapor velocity

187
Based on the figure above, the value of load factor, Csb is obtained at 16 inches of tray
spacing. Thus, the Csb value is 0.396 m/hr which is rounded to 0.4 m/hr. The velocity can be
calculated as:

L = acetic acid @ liquid phase: 1050 kg/m

v = acetic acid @ gas phase is : 2.1 kg /m

Uf = 8.9
According to (Buckley et al., 1985), the flooding in the distillation column will be 0.5%

Un= 0.05Uf = 0.445 m/hr

7.5.7 Mass Flowrate of Feed


V =molar flowrate x molecular weight x

Acetic Acid, Vo = 32.2206 x 60.05 x = 1.84

Acrylic Acid, Vo = 270.6395 x 72.06 x = 18.57

Total Volumetric Flowrate, VTotal= (1.84+ 18.57) m3/hr


= 20.41 m3/hr

7.5.8 Column Diameter


188
Equation used:

( )
( )

Normal flooding point (F) for distillation operation between 50-80 % and F in this column is
80% to maximize the flooding point operation in this column (Eldridge, 2005).

F = 80% = 0.80

Figure 5.0 Properties to determine tray section area

FLG 0.1 => Ad/At = 0.1

Diameter Column (Dc):

( )

Height column = 14m


Diameter column = 1.72m
Volume = 32.53 m
Ratio = 14/1.72 = 8.14

Notations used:

189
Lw = length of weir

Dc = Diameter column

An = net gas flow in tray

Ac = Cross section area

Ad = Downcomer area

7.5.9 Ideal Weir for Distillation Column

Area available for gas flow (An)


* +

Downcomer area (Ad):

* + ( ) ( )( ) ( )

Value of :

( )

( )
( )

( )

Thus;

190
= 35.550

* + ( ) ( )( ) ( )

Thus;
Area available for gas flow:
m2 = 2.27 m2
Active area (Aa)


m2
7.5.10 Plate Consideration

Valve trays are used for this distillation column tray. The major advantages of these
valves are: efficient mass transfer in large range of workloads, simple design, low content of
metal and low cost. A new high efficiency type of valve trays design is based on the traditional
trays. It features improved design of valve and tray in general, increased capacity, efficiency and
operation flexibility.

Perforated area (Ap)

Where;
Acz = Support area
Awz= Calming area

Support Area:

Column diameter (Dc) = 1.72 m

191
Figure 6.0 Support and Calming zone area in valve tray

Number of hole in tray:

The characteristic of the tray holes specification from Perry chemical handbook 7th Edition:

Hole diameter (Dh) = 5mm = 0.005m

Hole pitch (Ip) = 15mm = 0.015m

Tray thickness = 3mm = 0.003m

Ratio of hole to perforated area:

( ) ( )
( )

( ) ( )

( )

Thus;

192
Total holes area (Ah):

Ah = 0.430m2

Number of hole:

( )

( )

= 7.85x10-5 m2

Number of holes (N)

( )

N = 1426 holes

Height of weir was choose in 15mm = 0.015m

7.5.11 Standard Torispherical Head


These heads have a dish with a fixed radius (r1) as shown in figure 7.0 below, the size of which
depends on the type of torispherical head. The transition between the cylinder and the dish is
called the knuckle. The knuckle has a toroidal shape. The type of torispherical head used is
Klopper Head (Eldridge, 2005).

193
Figure 7.0 Schematic of torispherical head

Diameter of column, Dc = 1.72m

Crown radius, Rc = 0.86 m

Knuckle radius, Rk = 0.1 x 0.86 = 0.0.86 m

Standard thickness, t = 13 mm = 0.013 m

Height of the head, h = (0.1935).(Dc) (0.455t)

= (0.1935 X 1.72 m) (0.455 X 0.013m)

= 0.33 m

194
According to (Eldridge, 2005), the consideration of h will be:

h 3.5t

h 3.5(0.013)

h 0.046 m ; since h = 0.3, h 0.046 so above the minimum height

7.5.12 Material Consideration


Table 3.0 Material density of stainless steel

Material Stainless Steel

Density of material 8000

Minimum Thickness, e

Where,

Pi = Working pressure = 0.101325

Di = Internal Diameter = 1720 mm

J = Stress on design = 80

F = Efficiency = 0.85

C = Corrosion allowance = 2 mm

195
Therefore,

The According to (Towler & Sinnot, 2008), as for stability of the shell, the column is divided
into four parts and thickness is increased from top to bottom of the shell.

Table 4.0 Thickness of column from top to bottom Distillation Column

Column Top column Bottom column

Thickness shell 6mm 15mm

196
7.5.4 DISTILLATION COLUMN PARTS

Figure 8.0 Parts of distillation column

197
7.6.5 DISTILLATION COLUMN DIMENSIONS

Figure 9.0 Dimensions of distillation column

198
7.6. DIMENSIONS OF PLATE

Figure 10.0 Dimensions of plate

199
Table 5.0 Equipment specification sheet for Distillation Column

DISTILLATION COLUMN SPECIFICATION SHEET

Identification: Distillation Column


Function: Separate acetic acid from acrylic acid
By: Nor Shahida Binti Norizan

Specification Data Mechanical Design Data

Design position Vertical Domed head wall


Material of Construction Stainless Steel thickness 0.006 m
Material of Insulation Mineral Wool Tray spacing 0.6096 m
Column Type Plate Column Column diameter 1.72 m
Plate Type Valve Column wall thickness
Domed head type Torispherical Total column weight 0.015 m
Volume 14 m
Operating Condition Data Ratio 32.53 m2
8.14
Feed Volumetric Flowrate 20.41 m3/hr
Bottom Temperature 391.15 K
Bottom pressure 6.5 atm
Feed phases Liquid
No of tray 20

200
Plate layout dimension Data
Weir length 1.03 m
Height of weir 0.015 m
Cross section area 2.32 m2
Downcomer area
Net gas flow in tray 2.27 m2
Perforated area 4.266m2
Hole diameter 0.005 m
Hole area 7.85x10-5 m2
Hole pitch 0.015 m
35.55o
Plate material Stainless Steel
Downcomer material Stainless Steel
Plate thickness 0.003 m
No. of holes(active) 1426

201
7.7 LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTOR

7.7.1 Introduction

In liquid-liquid extraction, component of a liquid are separated according to their


preferential distribution in a suitable solvent. Intimate contact between the two liquid phases is
made to achieve the grafted approach. After contacting the phases, provision is made to separate
the two liquid phases. The simplest extraction system involves the solute, the solvent, and the
carrier. Feed which is included solute and carrier is charged into the extraction column pair with
solvent in other path. In extraction, there must be a perceptional concept on light phase, heavy
phase, dispersed phase, continuous phase, feed, raffinate and extract phase. An extraction
process or system always requires an additional support such as extractive agent to recover the
extract.

Solute, Solvent and Carrier

The solute is the material being dissolved, and in extraction, the solute is the material to be
extracted. Meanwhile, the solvent is the part of the mixture that does dissolving. The carrier is
defined as the non-solute portion of the feed mixture which helps in carry in the solute (Peters et
al., 2004).

Light Phase and Heavy Phase

Light phase behaves as the vapor with, of course, liquid-like properties. It is usually had low
density and being dispersed during process. This phase will cover the top section of the column.
Otherwise, the heavy phase had high density and considered as continuous phase in which they
flow downwards to the bottom section.

Feed, Raffinate and Extract

Feed prior to the process is basically consists of the component to be removed (solute).
Raffinate is identified as the component that is left after the extract has been extracted. Indeed,
extract is the component that is being removed from the feed.

202
Extractive Agent

Extractive agent is often been introduced to the process to enhance the extraction process.
After extraction, extractive agent is part of raffinate phase whereby involve carrier component
and some solute.

Mechanical Design

This chapter covers the design of extraction column. Though the design is emphasized on
extraction process, the basic construction features, and the design methods are more or less
similar to other separation process such as distillation, stripping and absorption.

Type of Column

There are several types of extraction column which including spraying column, sieve
plate/tray column, and packed column. These types of column have a countercurrent flow of the
two phases and do not depend on energy input. Building of droplets and the liquid flow inside
the system are not influenced from the outside condition.

The column type of interest for this design is sieve plate/tray column. This is mainly due to
the better mass transfer produced during the separation whereby droplets are produced at every
plate (Gamse, 2010). Sieve plate/tray is the cheapest and is satisfactory for most application
(Mehra, 1979).

203
Light/dispersed phase

Heavy/continuous phase

Figure 7.7 Mechanism of sieve plate/tray column

Based on Figure, the heavier phase flowing down to the next lower tray, while the lighter
phase rises as drop and coalesced. It coalesced to form a phase-separated layer that remains in
between the dispersion and the immediate upper tray. The lighter phase will rises and cover the
top section of the column, while the heavier phase is otherwise.

Material of Construction

According to Mehra (1979), the relative cost will depend on the material of construction
used. Thus, it is relevant to use carbon steel as material for construction. Carbon steel which is
available in variety shape and forms including plate and coated sheet, yet is so cost-effective to
use. Since this material does not require regular replacement, money will be saved. It is stronger
than other materials which make it effective and long-lasting.

In additional, carbon steel is very durable making it perfect to use in industries like building
and manufacturing. It is also very resistant to natural disasters due to its strength and the fact that
it is quite resistant to shock. Moreover, the carbon containing steel can help in cast the iron even
with 2% composition. Carbon steel is also excellent in heat transfer, with temperature-stand

204
range of 45 to 350 . Thus, carbon steel is preferable as material of construction for extraction
column, (Peters, 2004).

Equipment Support

In chemical process plant, it is required to consider the mechanical support for the
equipment. This is to ensure the equipment is well-located in the plant. In this present design, the
equipment support of interest is structural frame base (refer Figure). It is specifically designed
and engineered to support mechanical equipment requiring a supplemental mounting frame.
Structural frame bases are used to support mechanical equipment and provide rigid platforms for
attachment of vibration isolators, without allowing excessive differential movement between
driving and driven members. The bases provide a means by which the equipment can be
stabilized and motion reduced by lowering the equipment center of gravity.

Figure 7.8: Structural frame base

The bases are fabricated with channels, angles, or WF beams, and is complete with outboard
height saving isolator brackets and relocated equipment anchor bolts. Main steel members have
section depths of 3" to 12" (76 mm to 305 mm), designed to be a minimum of 10% of the longest
span between isolators.

205
Equipment Accessories

The cylindrically shaped body of the tower is called the shell. The shell is closed at both ends
with dome-shaped covers called heads. There are three head designs in common use:

Torispherical, the most common of which is the ASME flanged and dished head

Ellipsoidal, also called elliptical, elliptical dished or 2:1 ellipsoidal (because the ratio of the
length of the major to the minor axis of this head is 2:1)

Hemispherical.

Which kind of head to use is considered to be an economic decision. The torispherical head
is the cheapest to fabricate, but is the thickest for a given pressure. The ellipsoidal head is more
expensive to fabricate than the torispherical, but is thinner at the same pressure. The
hemispherical head is the most costly to fabricate, but is the thinnest for a given pressure. Thus,
the material cost decreases from the torispherical to hemispherical because the head gets thinner,
but the fabricating costs increase. Torispherical head, ellipsoidal head, and hemispherical head is
selected based on pressure applied in the column. Torispherical head is suitable at pressures
below 10.2069 atm, while the hemispherical head is suitable at pressure above 10.2069 atm.
From 10.2069 atm to 34.025 atm, the ellipsoidal is usually selected. According to this selectivity
reference, the head of interest for extraction column, D-3 is torispherical in which D-3 operating
pressure is 0.5 1.0 atm.

Number of Stages, N

Number of stages, N, is calculated to determine the number of trays inside a column. This
determination can be done by using the following formula:


*
( ) + (7.61)

Where,

206

Step 1:

Refer Figure7.8 for information data.


COOH
46721.76286
0.005 H2O

0.095 C5H12

0.35 H2O

Extraction
Unit, T-100





OO


0.5 C5H12

Figure 7.9 Flow diagram of extraction column

207
Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

Step 5:

(7.62)

Step 6:

(7.63)

Where,



(7.64)

208
Note: Density of N-pentane,



(7.65)

Note: Density of Acrylic acid,

Step 7:


( )
[ ( ) ]

209
Height of Column, Z

The height equivalent to a theoretical stage is defined as:

(7.66)

Where,

Step 1:

According to Peters, M.S. (2003), HETS values for sieve tray column which commercially noted
earlier are in range of 0.5 3.6 m.

Height of Merged Trays, ZT

Merged trays is the number of trays that coalesced in the column in which required to determine
the height of merged trays to ensure its relevancy with actual column height.

(7.67)

Where,

Note: As stated by Krishna (1993), the default tray spacing is said to be 0.4 m. Meanwhile,
general tray thickness is about gauge 10 (0.134 in; 0.0034 m) for carbon steel (Chuang &
Nandakumar, 2000).

210
Hole Diameter, dh

For sieve plate/tray type, it is necessary to determine the hole diameter as it related to the
total tray area and column diameter. There is no weir and the hole diameter is set by default to:

(7.68)

Where,

(7.69)

Step 1:

Liquid interfacial tension, is (www.engineeringtoolbox.com).

Step 2:

Step 3:


* +

* +

Hole Velocity, Uh

The hole velocity is computed with:

211
(7.70)

Where,

(7.71)

(7.72)

Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

Droplet Diameter, dp

212
For is more than 0.4, the droplet diameter is computed by:

(7.69)

Where,

(7.70)

Step 1:

(7.71)

Where,

Step 2:

(7.72)

213
Hole Area, Ah

The hole area is the ratio of volumetric flow rate of dispersed phase over hole velocity whereby
computed as:

(7.73)

Where,

Step 1:


(7.74)

Where,

Step 2:

214
Column Diameter, dc

Considering the total tray area with downcomer area, and flooding capacity, column diameter
can be computed.

* + (7.75)

Where,

Step 1:

(7.76)

Where,


(7.77)

Where,

(7.78)

Where,

215
( ) (7.79)

Where,

Note: Csb is determined from the graph (refer Figure 7.38)

Figure 7.31 Graph for Csb determination

* +* + (7.80)

Where,

216


* +* +

Based on the graph, at and tray spacing


* + * +

Note: Range of commercial flooding percentage is 80 90.

Note: Let downcomer occupied 15 % of cross sectional area, Ac

(7.81)

Step 2:

* + (7.82)

217
Total Tray Area, At

The total area is equal to two downcomer area plus the active area and 0.5 % area for support
(Krishna, 1993).

(7.83)

Where,

Step 1:
(7.84)

Where,

Note: The free area ratio is limited to lie between 1 20 %. And the default free area ratio is 5
%.

Step 2:

( )

218
Number of Holes, Nh
The number of holes is determined as follow:

(7.85)

Where,

219
Plate and Column Illustration

Front View (Adapted from refinerypedia.blogspot.com )

220
Figure 7.32 Illustration of extraction column,(front view)

Top View (Adapted from mxcad.com)

downcomer part

Figure 7.33 Illustration of extraction column, (top view)

221
Specification Sheet

Table 7.4 Specification sheet of extraction column

MECHANICAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET


(LIQUID- LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMN)
Extraction of Acrylic Acid
Operation: Continuous
No. required: 1
Type: Sieve plate/tray column
Process Specification

Operating pressure (atm): 0.5 1.0


Operating temperature (C): 131 143
Design Item Unit Specification
Material of Construction - Carbon Steel
Flow Type - Counter-current
Tray Type - Perforated
Tray Thickness m 0.0034
Number of Trays - 14
Tray Spacing m 0.4
Height of Column m 7
Height of Merged Trays m 5.248
Hole Diameter m 0.0076
Hole Velocity m/s 0.114
Hole Area m2 0.03
Column Diameter m 1.385
Downcomer Area m2 0.192
Sieve Tray Flooding Capacity m/s 0.025
Total Tray Area m2 0.989
Number of Holes - 33

222
7.8 DESIGN EQUIPMENT OF HEAT EXCHANGER

7.8.1 Introduction:

A heat exchanger is a device that allows heat from a fluid (a liquid or a gas) to pass to a
second fluid (another liquid or gas) without the two fluids having to mix together or come into
direct contact. The are two types of heat exchanger that is shell and tube and plate heat
exchanger. The plate heat exchanger consists of a frame, which consists of a head, follower,
column, carrying bar, guiding bar, and a number of clamping bolts. In between head and
follower a varying number of pressed plates are clamped together. Each plate is supplied with a
gasket, so that the plates form a closed system of parallel flow channels, through which the
medias flow alternatively at every second interval. The shell and tube works by burning natural
gas, making a line or grid of hot gas jets that fire upward over water flowing through a network
of pipes. (Christ,2016) As the water pumps through the pipes, it absorbs the heat energy and
heats up. The gas jets cool down and the water heats up. Main basic Heat Exchanger equation is:

Q = U x A x Tm

The log mean temperature difference Tm is:

Tm = (T1 t2) (T2 t1)


Where:
T1 = Inlet tube side fluid temperature
t2 = Outlet shell side fluid temperature
T2 = Outlet tube side fluid temperature
t1 = Inlet shell side fluid temperature

223
When used as a design equation to calculate the required heat transfer surface area, the equation
can be rearranged to become:

A = Q/ (U x Tm)
Where:
A = Heat transfer area (m) (ft)
Q - Heat transfer rate (kJ/h) (Btu\h);
U - Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K)

The heat exchanger used in many application such as refrigerator, air conditioner, engines
and power plant. In power plants or engines, exhaust gases often contain heat that's heading
uselessly away into the open air. That's a waste of energy and something a heat exchanger can
certainly reduce (some heat is always going to be lost). The way to solve this problem is with
heat exchangers positioned inside the exhaust tail pipes or smokestacks. As the hot exhaust gases
drift upward, they brush past copper fins with water flowing through them (Woodford,2009).
The water carries the heat away, back into the plant. There, it might be recycled directly, maybe
warming the cold gases that feed into the engine or furnace, saving the energy that would
otherwise be needed to heat them up. Or it could be put to some other good use, for example,
heating an office near the smokestack.

224
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Identification: Heat Exchanger

Function: Increase the temperature of feed to the reactor

By: Ahmad Haziq Bin Mohamad Razak

Specification Data Mechanical Design Data

Design type Shell and tube Shell Properties

Design position Horizontal

Material Construction Stainless Steel Material construction Stainless Steel

Type of flow Crossflow Baffles cut 28%

Gas In Temperature 30C Baffles spacing 0.5m

Gas Out Temperature 226.85C Shell diameter 2ft

Water In Temperature 280C Number of baffles 10

Water Out Temperature 90C Number of baffles 7

Specific heat ,Cp 1.5

Molar flowrate 4302 kmol/hr Tubes Properties

Overall heat coefficient,U

225
Number of passes 250 W/m2K Material construction Chromium Alloy

Type of process 1-tube passes Number of tubes 23 tubes

Heating process Length of tubes 10ft

Tube diameter 3/4 inches

Calculation of heat exchanger :

Figure 1:The temperature of fluid and water in and out

CP ( propylene ) = 1.5

m = 4302.89 kmol/hr

T = 196.85 C

226
Chemical Water

Inlet temperature = 30C Inlet temperature = 280C

Oulet temperature = 226.85C Outlet temperature = 90C

1. To find heat transfer rate,


Q = m Cp T

Q = 4302.89 x 1.5 x 196.85K

= 3,227,167.15 x x

= 896,435.42 W

2. To find log mean temperature,

Lmtd =

= 56.50 C

227
3. To find area of estimate heat exchanger
The area of estimate heat exchanger is calculated by using formula below. The overall
coefficient choosen is 250W/m2K.

A= Q / U Tm

= 10.877m2 = 117 ft2

4. To find surface area per tube:


Since the heat exchanger is known to have tube running through in the vessel, thus the tube
length and diameter is estimated According to the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association
(TEMA), the preferred lengths of the tubes should be is 6ft, 8ft, 12ft, 16ft, 20ft and 24ft.
Therefore, length of tube selected is 10 ft and the diameter is 2ft
Sa = D L

= 3.142 x (2/12)ft x 10ft

= 5.236ft2

228
5. To find area number of tube:

Number of tube =

=
23 tubes

229
Figure 7.2 : Heat exchanger design (one pass)

230
Selection criteria for heat exchanger:

a) Baffles Design
Number of baffle

According to Peterhaus and Timmerhaus,2013, the baffles spacing suggested 1.5ft. the
number of baffles can be calculated by using the equation below:

B = 1.5ft

Nb = (Lt / B) -1 = (10/1.5) 1 = 6.67 = 7 baffles

Plate Baffle types

Baffles are used to support tubes, enable a desirable velocity to be maintained for the shell side
fluid, and prevent failure of tubes due to flow-induced vibration. The choosen plate baffles is
single-segmental baffles.

231
Baffles cut

The baffle cuts can be vary between 15% and 45% and are expressed as ratio of segment
opening height to shell inside diameter. The upper limit ensures every pair of baffles will support
each tube. Kern shell side pressure drop correlations are based on 25% cut which is standard for
liquid on shell side (Jurandir,2012). The choosen baffle cut is 28% of the area full baffle is cut
and place in the shell to force the shell side fluid to flow across the shell to enhance heat transfer
and also to maintain uniform spacing between tubes, to support the tubes, preveting tube
vibration and sagging , and secondly to direct the flow to have a higer heat coefficient
(Robert,2009). The distance between two baffles is baffle spacing.

b) Heat exchanger design


The most common sizes used for diameter of tubes are inches and 1inches. The smallest
diameter for greater heat transfer area with a minimum of 3/4inches tube due to cleaning
considerations and vibration (Primor,2012). The choosen diameter an internal diameter of
inches of tube. This is consideration due to easy cleaning and less vibration. The length of each
tube is 10ft. The tube in the shell were arranged in-line in the direction of flow with a 0.1m
square pitch. The number of tube is 23 in the heat exchanger . The tube material , the chromium
alloy is choosen because several justification. This is due to strengthness of the material,the
chromium alloy is heavy duty,corrosion resistance, good impact resistance and high thermal
conductivity that is 42.7W/m2K(Carlisle,2012).
Heat exchanger tube bundles

232
There are two types of tube bundles that is tube bundle and fixed tube sheet. A fixed-tube sheet
heat exchanger has straight tubes that are secured at both ends by tube sheets welded to the shell.

Heat exchanger type

There are two type of heat exchanger that is plate and shell and tube heat exchanger. The shell
and tube is choosen because of several reason.

Figure 3: Plate heat exchanger Figure 4: Shell and tube heat exchanger

The main advantages of shell-and-tube heat exchangers (Ross, 2010)

1. Condensation or boiling heat transfer can be accommodated in either the tubes or the
shell, and the orientation can be horizontal or vertical.

2. The pressures and pressure drops can be varied over a wide range.

3. Thermal stresses can be accommodated inexpensively.

233
4. There is substantial flexibility regarding materials of construction to accommodate
corrosion and other concerns. The shell and the tubes can be made of different materials.

5. Extended heat transfer surfaces (fins) can be used to enhance heat transfer.

6. Cleaning and repair are relatively straightforward, because the equipment can be
dismantled for this purpose.

Heat integration system:

The objective to design a heat integration is to recycle back the heat loss from the reactor.
The heat will oscillate around the reactor and goes back to heat exchanger. The problem for the
reactor is the reactor is energy consumption. From the calculation of energy balance on reactor,
the energy value is 39.5 x106 kJ / hr. The energy consumption will cause a lot of cost for the
energy usage on the reactor. In order to minimize the cost of operating reactor, the heat
integration is been introduced to the process. The diagram below shows the design of heat
integration system in the reactor.

Figure 3: Heat integration on the reactor

The heat will flow to the heat exchanger and then it will circulate back into the heat exchanger.
This process will recycle heat from the reactor.Next step, design the heat exchangers positioned

234
inside the exhaust tail pipes or smokestacks. As the hot exhaust gases drift upward, they brush
past copper fins with water flowing through them (Woodford,2009). The water carries the heat
away, back into the plant. There, it might be recycled directly, maybe warming the cold gases
that feed into the engine or furnace, saving the energy that would otherwise be needed to heat
them up.

235
7.8 Control Strategies

Figure 7.8 : Plantwide control system for Acrylic Acid production

236
7.8.1 Controlling system in Arcylic acid Production

In this part, dynamic control of this process is studied based on the steady-state
design which has been determined above and shown in Figure 7.8. It is necessary to
determine the volumes of all vessels before it is converted to a pressure-driven dynamic
simulation. The units with dynamics include the tubular reactor, the flash tank, the
absorber, and two distillation columns. The size of the tubular reactor has been
determined above. The flash tank, reflux drums and column bases of the two distillation
columns and the absorber base are sized to provide 5 min of hold-up when at half full.
The decanter is sized to provide 10 min of holdup when at the 50% level. The reactor is
simulated as a tubular reactor with constant coolant temperature. It is a 30-lump model
and runs without no difficulty in Aspen Dynamics. The absorber and two distillation
columns are simulated with radfrac model in Aspen. The flash tank is simulated with
flash2 model in Aspen.

For the controls of the two distillation columns, optimal control trays are selected
to hold the composition profile by adjusting manipulated variables, and it is often
possible to achieve effective control. Several methods about how to select the best control
trays are well summarized in Luybens book and only steady-state information is needed.
Here, a sensitivity criterion is used to find the tray on which there is the largest change in
temperature for a change in the manipulated vari- able. A small change is made in the
reboiler duty of the two distillation columns and reflux ratio of De-ACE column, and the
resulting change in temperature of all trays is obtained. The tray with the largest
temperature difference is considered to be the most sensitive.

It also should be noticed that there exists maximum temperature limitation in the
bottom of both distillation columns. Therefore, bottom temperatures of azeotrope column
must be tightly controlled. Reboiler duty has the fastest and the most direct effect on
bottom temperatures, so bottom temperature is controlled by manipulating reboiler duty.
However, it precludes the direct use of the control stage when bottom temperature is used
to manipulating reboiler duty, because reboiler duty cannot be manipulated in two

237
independent temperature control loops at the same time. This dilemma is resolved by
using 11th tray temperature/bottom temperature cascade control structure.

7.8.2 Controlling Loops

The purity of the bottom product is controlled by using a tray temperature, a tray
near the bottom or using a composition controller. However, AA composition cannot be
held when the temperature of the trays is held near the bottom or the bottom temperature
is held constant by manipulating reboiler duty. So composition control is considered, and
compositiontemperature cascade control structure is used in the bottom of De-ACE
column. This control structure com- bines the advantages of composition control strategy
with temperature control strategy and avoids the defects of both strategies. Temperature
control is fast but it may not hold purity specifications. Composition control is slow but it
can drive AA purity to the set point. The composition controller (reserve acting) is used
to determine AA composition and generates set point signals for bottom temperature
controller (reserve acting). The set point ranges from 106 C to 110 C, so maximum
temperature limitation is not violated.

The other various control loops are listed as follows:

Fresh feed of the mixture of propylene, water and air is flow controlled (reverse
acting).
Peak temperature of the tubular reactor is controlled by manipulating the
temperature of heat conduction oil (reverse acting).
The pressure of the reactor is controlled by manipulating the discharge valve of
the reactor (direct acting).
The condenser duty of HX is ratioed to the feed flow rate of HX, and the ratio
(condenser duty/mass feed flow rate of HX) is manipulated by the temperature of
the stream leaving HX (direct acting). This feed forward con- trol structure works
well to control temperature changes of the flow leaving HX caused by fresh feed
flow rate disturbances, and it performs better than the direct tem- perature control.

238
The pressure in the flash tank is controlled by manipulating the gas leaving the
top of the vessel (direct acting).
The liquid level of the flash tank is controlled by manipulating the stream leaving
the bottom (direct acting).
The base levels of the absorber and two distillation columns are controlled by
manipulating the flow rate of the stream leaving the bottom (direct acting).
The pressure in the absorber is controlled by manipulating the flow rate of the off-
gas (direct acting).
The flow rate of the wash stream to the absorber is rationed to the gas feed
coming from the flash tank.
The pressure in the azeotrope column is controlled by manipulating the flowrate
of the vapor stream from the top (direct acting).
Organic reflux from the decanter is rationed to the azeotrope column feed.
The bottom temperatures of the azeotrope column and De-ACE column are
controlled by manipulating the reboiler heat inputs of the two columns,
respectively (reverse acting).
The temperature of the decanter is controlled by manipulating the condenser duty
(reverse acting).
The decanter pressure is controlled by manipulating the flow rate of the vent
stream (direct acting).
Aqueous level is controlled by manipulating the flow rate of the aqueous stream
(direct acting).
Organic level is controlled by manipulating the flow rate of toluene makeup
(reverse acting).
Liquid level in the reflux drum of De-ACE column is con- trolled by
manipulating reflux flowrate because the reflux ratio is quite large (direct acting)
(Luyben, 2009).
Conventional proportional and integral (PI) settings are used in all control loops
(Luyben, 1996, 2000). The level controls are only proportional with gain

239
The plantwide control structure we proposed is shown in Fig.7.8. Now, dynamic
performance of this control structure is evaluated by introducing feed flowrate
disturbances and feed composition disturbances. Temperature transient deviations of the
flow leaving HX are controlled within 1 C. Bottom temperatures of the two distillation
columns are controlled below 110C by using cascade control structure, and the purities
of AA and ACE are held close to the set points.

240
CHAPTER 8
COST ESTIMATION
8.1 INTRODUCTION

Cost estimation for plant design is important as it must present a process that
capable of operating which will yield a profit. Capital cost must be consisting of direct
plant expenses and indirect expenses. The total investment which consist of fixed capital
investment and working capital investment need of a direct cash expense. Thus, in an
analysis of cost in industrial processes, capital-investment cost, manufacturing costs,
general expenses including tax must be taken into consideration. So, the estimate rate of
investment can be acknowledged. Figure 8.1 below show the example of cash position
starting from a plant start to be build till its end of project or shutdown of the plant. For
this plant, it is assumed that the construction period is 2 years.

Figure 8.1: Graph of cumulative cash position showing effects of cash flow with time for
an a industrial operation neglecting time value of money (Peter & Timmerhouse, 1991)
241
8.2 CAPITAL COST INVESTMENT

The capital needed to supply the necessary manufacturing and plant facilities is called
the fixed-capital investment, while that necessary for the operation of plant is termed the
working capital. The sum of the fixed capital investment and the working is known as the
total capital investment. Generally, the working capital amounts 10-20% of the total
capital investment.

8.2.1 Types of capital cost estimate

1. Order of magnitude estimate (ratio estimate) based on similar cost data; probable
accuracy of this estimate over 30%.
2. Study estimate based on knowledge of major items of equipment, probable accuracy
of this estimate up to 30%.
3. Preliminary estimate( budget authorization estimate scope method): based on
sufficient data to permit the estimate to the budget, probable accuracy of this
estimate is within 20%.
4. Detailed estimate based on complete engineering drawing, specifications and site
survey, probable accuracy of this estimate within 10%.

242
8.2.2 Estimation of present plant cost

According to Coulson&Richardson, an approximate estimate of the capital cost of


a project can be obtained if the cost of earlier projects using the same manufacturing
process is obtained. This method can be used prior to the preparation of the flow-sheets to
get a quick estimate of the investment. The capital cost of a project is related to capacity
by the equation

C2 =C1(S2 / S1)n

Where C2 is capital cost of the project with capacity S2, C1 is capital cost of the
project with capacity S1.

This relationship has been found to give reasonable results for individual pieces of
equipment and for entire plant. The value of the index n taken as 0.6 which is the six-
tenths rule that can be used to get a rough estimate of the capital cost if there are not
sufficient data available to calculate the index for the particular process(Sinnot,R,K,
2005). Although, the exponent, n, may vary from 0.48 to 0.87 for equipment and from
0.38 to 0.90 for plants, the average value is closed to 0.6 thus, if the capacity is doubled,
the exponent gives only a 52% increase in cost (Sinnot,R,K, 2005).

From Meyers, Handbook of Petrochemical Production Process,the typical


classic unit of 500,000MTA capacity investment cost in third-quarter 2003 was
approximately US$75million.

Therefore by using the six-tenth rule, the investment cost in 2003 can be given as,

C2 = US$75x106 (95000MTA / 500,000MTA)0.6

243
C2 = US$27689392.27

Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index(CEPCI) is referred to know the investment cost
in 2010.

8.2.3 The types of Cost Index

1. The Chemical Engineering (CE) Plant Cost Index

2. The Marshall & Swift (MS) Equipment Cost Index

3. The Nelson-Farrar (NF) Refinery Construction Cost Index

4. The Engineering News-Record (ENR) Construction Cost Index

The CE and NF applicable to the entire processing plant which considers the
account labour and materials to fabricate the equipment, deliver it, and install it. However
the NF index is restricted to petroleum industry, while CE index applicable to an average
of all chemical processing industries. The ENR index is a more general index that
pertains to the average of all industrial construction. The MS index used to an all industry
average equipment purchase cost.

Our calculation is referred to CEPCI index.

Table 8.4: CEPCI index


CEPCI corresponding to 1999 389.9

CEPCI corresponding to 2015 (source 550.3


from:cheresources)

244
.

Figure 8.2 : History of selected cost indices pertinent to chemical processing. All cost
data in the text based on the Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index Value of 400.
The investment cost in 2011 is,

Based cost ( current index/based index) = Current cost

US$27689392.27 x(660/402) = US$45460195.82

RM3.03 = US$1

US$27689392.27 x RM3.03/US$1 = RM 83907249.3

So the investment cost is around RM83.9 million


245
As the investment cost is not include the working capital cost, we assumed that
the investment cost equal to fixed capital investment.

246
COST OF PURCHASED EQUIPMENT:

(Major Equipment)

Packed bed reactor

(Reactor 1 and 2)

**Price for one reactor

Material construction : Stainless steel

Stainless steel sheet RM 150000

Stainless steel tube (645tube) RM 20 921.20

Baffle plate RM 20 955.20

Reactor dome RM 50 000

Total material construction RM 241 876.40

Gas absorption column

Material construction: Stainless steel

Stainless steel sheet RM 80 000

Insulator sheet RM 3 513.40

Plate column (25plate) RM16 986.90

Total Material construction RM 100 500.30

247
Distillation column

Material construction:stainless steel

Stainless steel sheet RM 70 000

Valve plate RM 27 106.93

Plate column RM 19 106.92

Domed head RM 20 000

Total Material Construction RM 136 213.85

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column

Material construction: Carbon steel

Carbon steel sheet RM70 000

Perforated tray RM 14726.60

Sieve plate RM 24726.60

Total Material Construction RM 109 453.20

248
Heat exchanger

Material construction: Stainless steel

Shell (Stainless steel) RM 4000

Tube sheet RM500

Stainless Steel Tube( 23tubes) RM 5500

Baffle (7baffles) RM 500

Gasket RM 196.40

Total Material Cost RM 10696.40

249
COST ESTIMATION AND ECONOMICS

C2 = C1 ( Q2 / Q1)n

C1 = Fixed capital cost of a plant of Capacity Q1

C2 = Fixed capital cost of a plant of Capacity Q2

n= 0.6.

For the year 1999.

Utilizing 8000 operating hours / year.

Q1 = 50,000 tons/year

Q2 = tons / year.

C1 = RM 97,357,200.

C2 = RM 97,357,200 x ( / 50,000)0.6

= RM 187 x 106

Cost of the plant in 2015: (source from:cheresources)

(Cost of plant in 2016 / Cost of plant in 1999) = (Cost index in 2015 / Cost index in
1999)

Cost of plant in 2016 = RM 1,87,434,388 x (550.3 / 389.9)

= RM 264 x106

Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) required

= RM 264 x106

250
I Direct cost:

(70 - 85 % of FCI )

1. Purchased Equipment (PEC) :


(source from: Alibaba.com)
Reactor 1
Reactor 2 RM 840 616.55 RM 241 876.40
Gas Absorber Column
Liquid Extraction Column RM 241 876.40
Distillation Column RM 100 500.30
Heat exchanger
RM 109 453.20

2. Installation including insulation and painting ( 25 - RM 136 213.85


55% of PEC) RM 10696.40
30% of (25% of FCI)

3. Instrumentation and Controls , Installed (6 - 30 %


of PEC)
RM 19.8 x106
4. Piping, Installed (10 - 80 % of PEC) 25% of (25% of FCI)

5. Electrical ,Installed (10 - 40% of PEC)


RM 16.5 x106
30% of (25% of FCI)

B. Building, process and auxiliary (10 - 70% of PEC)


25% of (25% of FCI)
C. Service Facilities and Yard Improvements ( 40 -
100% of PEC)
RM 19.8 x106

251
D. Land ( 1- 2% of FCI or 4- 8% of PEC) 40% of (25% of FCI) RM 16.5 x106

60% of (25% of FCI)

RM 26.4 x106

5% of (25% of FCI)= RM5.04 x106

RM 3.3x106

Total Direct Cost = RM 108.18x106

II Indirect Costs

(15 - 30 % of FCI)

A. Engineering and Supervision ( 5 - 30


% of Direct Cost) 10% of Direct cost RM 2.64 x105

B. Construction Expense and


Caontractors Fee (6 - 30% of Direct
cost )
10% of Direct RM 2.64 x105
costs
C. Contingency (5- 15% of FCI)

RM 13.2 x106
5% of FCI

252
Total Indirect Cost = RM 13.5 x106

III Working Capital

(10 - 20% of FCI)

15% of FCI = RM 39.6 x106

IV Total Capital Investment (TCI)

TCI = FCI + Working Capital

TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT = RM303.6 x 106

253
ESTIMATION OF TOTAL PRODUCT COST (TPC):

I Manufacturing Cost

Total Product Cost

TPC = Fixed Charges / 0.15 = RM 258.99x 106

A. Fixed Charges (10 - 20% of TPC)

1. Depreciation ( 10% of FCI + 2 - 3% of 10% of FCI + 2.5% of RM 26.4 x106


building value for building ) Building value

2. Local Taxes (1-4% of FCI )


4% of FCI
3. Insurance (0.4 - 1% of FCI) RM 10.6 x106

0.7% of FCI
B. Direct Production Costs ( about 60 % of RM 1.848 x106
TPC)

1. Raw Materials (10 - 50 % of TPC) Total Fixed Charges


RM 38.848 x106
2. Operating Labor ( 10 - 20 % of TPC )

3. Direct Supervisory and Clerical Labor ( 10 -


25 % of Operating labor)

4. Utilities ( 10 - 20% of TPC ) 10% of TPC


5. Maintenance and Repairs ( 2- 10% of FCI )
RM 25.89x106
6. Operating supplies ( 10 - 20% of cost for
254
maintenance and repairs) 15% of TPC

7. Laboratory Charges ( 10 - 20% of Operating RM 38.85x106


Labor )
15% of Operating
8. Patents and Royalties ( 0 - 6% of TPC ) Labor
RM 5.82 x106

10 % of TPC

RM 25.89 x106
5% of FCI

RM 13.2 x106
15% of cost for
maintenance and repairs

15% of Operating RM 1.98x106


Charges

RM 0.297x106

2% of TPC

RM 5.18 x106

Total Direct Production Cost = RM 117.107 x106

Plant Overhead Cost ( 5 - 10% of TPC) 7% of TPC = RM 18.13 x106

Total Manufacturing Cost = RM 174.085 x106

II General Expenses

255
A. Administrative Costs ( 2- 6% of 5% of TPC = RM 12.95 x106
TPC)
18% of TPC = RM 46.62 x106
B. Distribution and Selling Costs ( 2 -
20% of TPC )

C. Research and development cost ( 5% 5% of TPC = Rs. 12.95 x106


of TPC )
5% of TPC = RM 15.18 x106
D. Financing ( 0- 10 % of TCI )

Total General Expenses = RM 87.7 x106

SELLING PRICE:

Acrylic Acid (Main Product)

Acrylic acid produced = TPY

Selling price of Acrylic acid = RM2577.06/tonnes

(source from:icis)

Total income = selling price x quantity of product RM 383.99 x106

Acetic acid (By product)

Acetic acid produced =141,166.58 TPY

Selling price of Acetic acid = RM 1416.77/tonnes

(source from:icis)

Total income = selling price x quantity of product RM 200 x106

TOTAL INCOME RM 583.99 x 106

256
Gross Earning`

Gross Earning = Total income - Total product cost

= RM 583.99 x 106 - RM 258.99 x106

= RM 180.16 x106

Tax

Tax on gross earning = 40% of gross earning.

Net Profit = Gross earning [ 1 - tax rate ]

= RM 180.16 x106 x 0.6

= RM 325 x106

Rate of return

Rate of return = Net profit / Fixed capital investment x 100%

= RM 108.09 x106 / RM 264.5 x 106

= 74.09%

Payback period

257
Payback = RM 726.665x106/ 195.6x 106

= 3.71

= 3year 8 month

258
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