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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART)

ISSN: 2454-9290, Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2017

Research of Optimizing Dynamic Performance


Shift Schedule for Three Gears
Transmission-By-Wire in Electric Vehicle
Chen Qi, Pan Zhang, Zhengbin Guo, Nana Lv, Jinyu Qu

Abstract The shift schedule of automatic transmission plays schedule are studied based on a pattern electric vehicle. The
an important influence on the dynamic performance, fuel basic parameters of the vehicle are shown in Table 1.
economy and the driving range of the vehicle. In this paper we
studied the optimizing dynamic performance shift schedule for III. MOTORS OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
the three-geared transmission-by-wire. The theoretical model
for the optimizing dynamic performance shift schedule was Motor as the only power source of electric vehicle has a
analyzed and the shift point speed is gotten under different direct impact on the performance of the fuel economy and
accelerator pedal opening. The curve of optimizing dynamic dynamic performance [6]. The motor used is a 15kW
performance shift schedule is developed which could improve permanent magnet synchronous motor. And its technical
the performance of electric vehicle, so as to achieve the purpose parameters are shown in Table 2. The motor speed, torque and
of saving energy and increasing the driving range. efficiency of the three-dimensional MAP are shown in Fig.1.
The torque changing at different accelerator opening is shown
Index TermsTransmission-By-Wire(TBW); Optimizing
Dynamic Performance; Shift Schedule; Electric Vehicle as Fig.2.

I. INTRODUCTION 100

Shift schedule refers to the regular pattern that 80


transmission shifts according to the driving condition of
Efficiency(%)

60
electric vehicle [1-3]. According to the number of shift
control parameters, the shift schedule can be divided into 40
single parameter shift schedule, double parameters shift
20
schedule and three parameters shift schedule. In this paper the
double parameter shift schedule is adopted and the control 0
150
parameters are the speed and the opening of accelerator pedal. 100
6000

According to the difference of shifting speed, the double 50


4000
Tor 2000
parameters shift schedule can be divided into equal delay, que
( Nm p m)
) 0 0 ed (r
Spe
convergent, divergent and combination.
The mechanical and hydraulic systems are replaced in Fig.1 The motor speed, torque and efficiency of the
X-By-Wire technology by a series of operation that is based three-dimensional MAP
on wires and electronic controller. Driver's steering
movements are transmitted to electrical signals through the
sensors and electronic control unit generates control signals 120

for driving actuators according to the input signals. The 100


optimizing dynamic performance shift schedule for the
three-geared TBW in electric vehicle is researched. The shift 80
Torque(Nm)

schedule is theoretically analyzed, the shift point speed is 60


gotten under different accelerator pedal opening and analyze
40
the shift schedule curve. The result shows that the developed
optimizing dynamic performance shift schedule could 20

improve the vehicles performance and realize the purpose of


0
energy saving and driving range increased [4]. 100
Ac
ce 80
le
II. VEHICLE PARAMETERS ra
to 60
rp
ed 7000
With economy development and continuous development al
o
40
5000
6000
pe 20 4000
of new energy, electric vehicles development will have more ni 3000
ng 2000
in)
and more space to become the main force of automobile (% 0 1000
d(r/m
)
0
Spee
market [5]. The parameters matching and the dynamics shift
Fig.2 Torque variation at different accelerator opening

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Research of Optimizing Dynamic Performance Shift Schedule for Three Gears Transmission-By-Wire in Electric
Vehicle
Table 1The basic parameters of vehicle throttle opening, the small torque output and high rotating
speed meet the requirement of fuel economy performance.
Parameter Numerical Unit
IV. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPTIMIZING
L*W*H 3797/1510/1820 mm DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE SHIFT SCHEDULE

A. Analysis of Shift Point


Train efficiency 0.96 --
To ensure the optimizing dynamic characteristics of
electric vehicle, the intersection of two adjacent gear
Curb Weight 1030 Kg acceleration curves under the same accelerator opening is
used as the optimizing dynamic performance shifting point,
Full quality 1310 Kg which is [5]:
d d
(1)
dt n dt ( n 1)
Radius of the wheel 0.2805 M
Connect the intersections under different accelerator pedal
Air resistance opening and the optimizing dynamic shifting curve will be
0.6 -- obtained. The relationship between rotating speed and torque
coefficient
on same drive motor operating point is:
Tp (n nm )
Frontal area 2.27 m2 (2)
T 9550Pp
(n nm )
n
Wheelbase 2500 mm
Where: T p is the maximum torque at a certain accelerator

Main reduction opening of drive motor (Nm); Pp is the maximum power at a


3.182 --
ratio certain accelerator opening of drive motor (kW).
From the formula (2), it can be seen that the motors partial
T r1 1.7 -- load characteristic below the rated speed shows constant
torque characteristic, so there is no intersection of adjacent
gear acceleration curve below the base speed. Only the motor
T r2 1.3 --
torque characteristic above the rated speed is considered
when calculates the optimum dynamic shift schedule, which is
T r3 1.0 -- [6]:
9550Pp
Table 2 Technical parameters of permanent magnet T (n nm ) (3)
synchronous motor
n
Electric vehicle runs with certain acceleration drove by
parameter symbol unit numerical motor and the transmission system, and it overcomes rolling
resistance, air resistance, grade resistance and acceleration
Rated voltage U V 108 resistance. The electric vehicles running equation is :
Ft Ff Fw Fi Fj (4)
Rated power Pe kW 15 Where, Ft is the driving force; F f is rolling resistance; Fw
is the air resistance; Fi is the grade resistance; F j is the
Peak power Pmax kW 28 acceleration resistance.
This can also be written as:
Rated torque Te Nm 46 Tmi gi 0T CDAa2 du
mgf mgi m (5)
r 21. 15 dt
Peak torque Tmax Nm 170 Kinematic differential equation is:
du Ti i C A 2
Rated speed nmax r/min 3000 m m g 0 T - mgf - D a - mgi (6)
dt r 21. 15
This can also be written as:
Peak speed ne r/min 6800 Tmi gi 0T CDAa2
m - - mg (7)
r 21. 15
From Fig.2 we can see that, when the motor speed is
constant, the greater the degree of throttle opening is the Where: is the correction coefficient of rotating mass;
larger output torque from driving motor is; when the throttle m is the full mass; a is driving speed; Tm is motor
opening is constant, the greater the rotating speed of the
dynamic output torque; i g is the transmission ratio; i 0 is the
driving motor is the smaller output torque from driving motor
is. In high degree throttle opening, the big torque output meets main reducer gear ratio; T is the transmission efficiency; r
the requirement of dynamic performance; in small degree

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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART)
ISSN: 2454-9290, Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2017
is wheel rolling radius; g is the acceleration of gravity; f is (q n1 n ) An ( n1 n )
A0
rolling drag coefficient; C D is air resistance coefficient; A 21.15
as windward area; i is the road gradient; is road B0 (n 1 n )Bn 0.000056mg
resistance coefficient ( f i )[7]. C0 (n1 - n )[Cn (igni0 0.0076)mg] .
The rolling resistance coefficient can be approximately The optimizing shift points can be solved from equation
calculated by the empirical formula: f 0. 0076 0. 000056a . (14):
Simultaneous (1) and (5), we have: B 0 B 02 4AC
Tmi gni 0T CDAa2 Tmi gn 1i 0T CDAa2 a 0 0
(17)
- - mg - - mg 2A0
r 21. 15 r 21. 15 (8)
n n 1 Compared the two roots with the gears maximum speed

Where: n and n1 are rolling resistance coefficients of


n max and the minimum speed of the next gear n 1mi n ,
transmission n gear and n 1 gear. if ( n 1) mi n n n max , n is the optimizing dynamic
The rolling resistance coefficient is mainly affected by shifting point speed.
the inertia of the flywheel ( If ), the inertia of wheel ( I w ) and In conjunction with Figure 2, deeming the throttle opening,
the driveline gear ratios, the relationship is[8]: motors torque and rotating speed characteristics as linear, the

1 2
linear interpolation function of torque, speed and accelerator
1 I w 1 If igi 0T
2 2
(9) opening according to the formula (3) and (10) can be
m r m r
2
expressed as:
When the preliminary calculation of power is done, if we Ttq f 0 ( , n) (18)

do not know the exact value of If and Iw , we can also use Where, is throttle opening, 01.
the relationship between the rolling resistance coefficient and For example, the opening of the accelerator pedal is 100%,
the total driveline gear ratios ( i gi 0 ) to determine the we can get the 1-2 gear acceleration curve which is shown in
Fig.3, and the 2-3 gear acceleration curve is shown in Fig.4.
approximate value of .This article selects 1 =1.40,
According to the steps above, the corresponding up-shift
2 =1.18, 3 =1.10. point vehicle speed under different throttle opening are
The relationship between n gears driving force Ftn and summarized as shown in Table 3.
n 1 gear driving force Ftn 1 is: Table 3 Summary of optimizing dynamic up-shifting points
i gn Throttle U-V U-V(2-3)
Ft n n 1 Ft n 1 qFt n 1 (10) opening (%) (1-2km/h km/h
ig
Where: ign and ign 1 are respectively n n 1 gear 0.1 25.37 36.89

ratios; q is ratio of n gears and n 1 gear.


0.2 30.14 47.23
The relationship between the output torque and its rotating
speed under the same accelerator opening can be fitted to a
quadratic curve, the fitting relation is: 40.37 53.17
0.3
Tm An 2 Bn C (11)
The relationship between motor speed and EV travelling 41.28 62.75
speed is: 0.4
rn
a 0. 377 (12) 0.5 42.26 69.68
i gni 0
Relationship between each gears driving force Ftn and the 0.6 42.74 70.27
motor output torque is:
Tmigni0T
Ftn (13) 0.7 44.73 75.16
r
The expression for each gears driving force Ftn is: 0.8 49.63 79.44
Ft n
An Bn a Cn
2
a
(14)
From (8) and (12), we can get: 0.9 51.06 85.27
i A Bn a Cn i A Bn 1a Cn 1
n 1
g
2
n a
n
g
2
n 1 a
(15) 1.0 51.74 86.16
This can also be written as:
A0 a2 B0 a C0 0 (16)
Where,

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Research of Optimizing Dynamic Performance Shift Schedule for Three Gears Transmission-By-Wire in Electric
Vehicle
2.5 performance; the big throttle opening degree with big
1-gear acceleration curve
deceleration difference improves vehicles economy
performance;
2 2-gear acceleration curve (3)At the same throttle opening, high gear has greater
deceleration difference than the low-speed gear;
(4)Avoid overdriving motor speed after shifting to improve
a(m/s )

1.5
2

the life of the drive motor.


Based on the above deceleration difference rules, through
1
reasonably formulating deceleration difference [12], the
optimizing dynamic performance shift schedule of EV is
0.5 developed as shown in Fig.5.

100

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 90

u(km/h) 80
Fig.3 The 1-2 gear acceleration curve at 100% throttle
70
opening
2.5 60

%
2-gear acceleration curve
3-gear acceleration curve 50

2
40

30
1-2
1.5 2-3
a(m/s )

20 2-1
2

3-2
10
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
1
ukm/h
Fig.5 The optimizing dynamic performance shift schedule
0.5
IV CONCLUSION

0
In this paper, the shift points vehicle speeds are calculated
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 through the theoretical analysis and research of the
ukm/h
Fig.4 The 2-3 gear acceleration curve at 100% throttle three-geared optimizing dynamic performance shift schedule
opening for TBW. The optimizing dynamic performance shift
schedule for the three-geared TBW is developed. The shift
B. The Development of Shift Schedule Curve schedule could improve the vehicle performance, realize
The adjacent gears acceleration intersection are selected as energy saving and increasing driving range. This research laid
shift points[9], the optimizing dynamic performance shift foundation for the latter part of the real vehicle tests.
schedule is developed through polynomial fitting the
corresponding adjacent gear shift points at different REFERENCES
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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART)
ISSN: 2454-9290, Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2017
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AUTHOR PROFILE
Chen Qi
He was born on 25th September, 1992 in Shandong province, China. He is a
graduate student at the Shandong University of Technology,
and major in transportation engineering. His research
direction is the new energy vehicles. His research contents
are the automotive electronic technology, vehicle
transmission and drive by wire technology.

Pan Zhang
He was born on 7th August, 1991 in Shandong province, China. He is a
graduate student at the Shandong University of Technology,
and major in transportation engineering. His research
direction is the new energy vehicles. His research contents are
the automotive electronic technology, vehicle transmission
and drive by wire technology.

Zhengbin Guo
He was born on 27th October, 1994 in Shanxi province, China. .He is a
graduate student at the Shandong University of Technology,
and major in transportation engineering. His research direction
is the new energy vehicles. His research contents are the
automotive electronic technology, vehicle transmission and
drive by wire technology.

Nana Lv
She was born on 25th May, 1992 in Shandong province, China.
He is a graduate student at the Shandong University of
Technology, and major in transportation engineering. His
research direction is the new energy vehicles. His research
contents are the automotive electronic technology, vehicle
transmission and drive by wire technology.

Jinyu Qu
He was born on July, 1961 in Shandong province, China. He
is a professor at the Shandong University of Technology. His
main research direction is automobile electronic technology
and vehicle energy saving technology.

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