Sie sind auf Seite 1von 2

TIhe Fundsmentofs

0f Arnold's Cord Guides: Modern Longuoge Series No. 3

E ;LI \
AyProfessorDr. R. W. ZANDVOORT, Rrjksunivers
J. L. M. TRIM, M.A. urirrrrityof combridg


@ Professor Dr. R. W. ZANDVOORT 1963 13.6d.n.t
t. NouNs II. ARTICLES adiective, or of a noun denoting a building or a
A. DEF'N'TE ARTICLE locality preceded by a proper name. (Exi.: the
!. The def. art. (the) usually denotes that the - Albert Hall, the Yictorio Embonkment.)
l. The plural of most nouns is formed by adding.s, following noun refers to a special person, animal or 4. Note the special use of the in so much the better:
or (in the caseof nouns ending in s, ss or sh).es: thing: the King, the wolf (in the fable), the life of an the ntorc tha nerrier.
, cot(s), dog(s), eye(s); bus(es), gloss(es), lish(es). oirmon (but: life is short), the iron found in Woles 8. 'NDEF'N'TE ARTICLE
2. The following change -f(e) into -ves: calf-half- (but: iron may rust), in front of the schoof(but: school l. The indef. art. (a before consonan$, an before
I oof -kn i fe- I i fe -w i fe - I eo f -sheof-th i ef-sel f- begins at nine), the events of the next three doys vowels) usually denotes that we have to do with a
shelf-wolf. (but: events moved swiftly). As appears from the single person, animal or thing: o wcman fointed,
3. Thefollowing form their plurals by vowel-change: examples, abstract nouns and names of materials o dog barked, o bus stopped crose to me, not a word.
mon-men; womon-womenl goose-geese; tooth- take no article unless contextually specified. It is used after to be (or a verb of similar meanine)
teeth; foot-feet; louse-lice; peg5g-pi6s. Names of meals and of seasons usually take no
tf. Note ox-oxent child-children. before a noun denoting a profession or a trade (
Deer and sheeo article: dinner is reody, spring has come (but: in the wctnts to be an engineer), unless a post is held by
take no ending (forty sheep), Also: six solmon ond spring of 196l), Cl. also: people soy..., but: the one person only (Dr. Arnold was headmaster of
ntne trout, people(s) of China. Rugby).
5. -y after a vowel takes.s: boy(s); after a consonant 2 . T h e + s i n g . n o u n m a y d e n o t e a s p e c i e s :t h e l i o n , t h e
.y becomes .ies: lody-ladies. -o after a consonant Corresponding plural expressions have either no
ook (but man without the def. art.: mon is mortall. article (generalization: a child grows quicklylchildren
sometimes takes -es: negroes, pototoes, but photos, 3. No def. art. is used in combinations like Ancierit
p/.lnos. chonge faster than odults) or some (unspecified
Rom, Westminster Abbey, Windsor Forest, consisting
5. Attributive nouns usually take no ending even -. number: hove on apple! hoye some apples!).
of the name of a town or country preceded byan 2. Note its special use in twice a yeor; sixpenceo pound.
when they denote more than one: o dog show, a
five-pound note. But: o goods troin. E.'NTERRO6ATIYE PRONOUNS
7. fnvariabfe singulars: furniture, information, o,"-
rII. TRONOUNS AND PRONOI,IINAL l. Who asks after persons: who goes there? lt has a
duce, etc. lnvariable plurals: scrssors, spectocles
(:glasses), trousers, etc. (Where orc my spectacles?
ADJECTIYES genitive whose: whose house is that? and an oblect-
form whom, which, however, is little used in
When counted: bought two poirs ofspectocles.) A. PERSONI
PRONOUNS spoken English: who(ml do you meon? who(m) ore
you thinking of?
2. What, when used subsrantively, asks after things:
l. Nouns denoting persons or animals have a form in I
's (genitive)
to indicate their relation to a following -t
I l t. she l whot are you looking ot? When used attributively,
S in g . You t-t iE it may ask after persons or thints: what womon
noun (the headword): my uncle's house, the dog's mel would not hove done the same? what languoges do you
lhim herl
toil. This relation may usually be paraphrased by know?
the verb to hove: my uncle has o house; the dog has a 3. Which asks after one or more persons or things
toil, Simifarfy the ship's copto|n (doctor, popers, we they out of a limited number: which way shall we go?
Plur. you
etc.: cf. lll A2). In literary English also England's which of you is Peter Brown?
Future, the world's judgment; cf.4, The plurals men, us them
women and children may also take this ending: F. RELATIVE PRONOUNS
men's clothes, children's yoices. Other plurals may l. The forms in the upper rows are used as subjects, l. Who refers to personal, which to non-personal
be used in a similar way, with an apostrophe after those in the lower rows in other functions antecedents: the man who wrote thot book: the house
the s: my clients' interests, thieves' s/ang. (See 4.) - (l sow them; they went ofter him). of which I spoke,
The genitive is also used in indications of time, such 2. Males(human and animai) are reierred to as he/him, 2. That may refer to any antecedent, provided the
as todoy's poper, lost yeor's cricket results. females as she/her, lower animals, plants and life- r e l a t i v e c l a u s ei s r e s t r i c t i v e , i . e . l i m i t s t h e r e f e r e n c e
2. In names of buildings and localities the headword less things (unless personified) as it, e.g. he is o of the antecedent'. you ore the very boy thdt I have
is often understood: I dine at my uncle's tonight; good mon, she's o bright child, kill it, it's a slug..l been looking for; this is the house thot ldck built (no
5t. Poul's (Cothedrall was built by Wren. she's o fne ship! Where sex is unknown, he or commas), (Cf. my uncle, who will be seventy
3. Note on oid friend of my brother's; cousinsof Mory's. they may be used of an adult, he or it of children, _ tomorrow, is still o keen sportsmon.)
{. With nouns not denoting persons or animals this he, she, it of animals. e.g. There's someone ot the 3. A preposition may be put ar the end of a relative
refation is usually expressed by of: the roof of the door. Whot does he (do they) wont? The Smiths clause opening with who(m) or which: the house
house; the end of the rood. The of-construction hove o boby. Whot is its (his) nome? w h i c h I s p o k eo f t i t m u s t b e p u t a t t h e e n d o f a r e l .
sometimes alternates with the genitive of names of _ cl. opening with that: the house that I spoke of.
persons or animals: Dickens's novels-the novels of B. POSSESS'Y PRONOUNS {. A rel. pron. may be dispensed with when the
Dickens. In ordinary English the intetests of my l. Attributive Possessives. antecedent is the obiect of the verb (or verb +
clients, the future of England, etc., are more usual Sing.: my, your, his/her/its; plur,: our, your, preposition) in a restricrive clause: the house I
than the constructions given under l. their. spoke of.
The use of his/her/its agreeswith that of he/she/it 5 . W h a t i n t r o d u c e s c l a u s e sw i t h o u t a n a n t e c e d e n t : I
C, GENDER - . d e s c r i b e d i n A 2 ( t h e p i c t u r e w a s n o t i n i t s u s u o lp l o c e ) . witl do whot I con. Similarly with indefinite whot-
2. lndeoendent Possessives. eyer: do whotever you like.
Every noun can be referred to by one of the pronouns
Sing.:mine, yours, his/her/its; plur.: ours, yours,
hc/him/his, she/her/her, it/itlits, as explained in lll. G. 'NDEF'N'TE PRONOUNS
thei rs.
l. Some is mostly used in affirmative, any in negative,
Exx.: your house and mine; o cousin of hers (cf. I 83);
interrogative and conditional contexts; I hove some
IY. ADJECTIYES ANO ADVERBS Yours sincerely (at the end of a letter).
money-l hove not (hoven't) any money-hove you
any money?-if you hove ony money . .. Some may
be used in questions to which an affirmative answer
l. Adiectives and adverbs of one syllable usually Sing.: myself, yourself, himself/herself/itself;
is expected: can we hove some milk?
Plur.: ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
take -(e)r and .(e)st: greot-greoter-greotest; 2. Any may be used in affirmative contexts in the sense
true-truer-truest; soon-sooner-soonest. l. These pronouns may be used a) reflexively, with 'no
of matter which (who or what)': I om free to
2. Adjectives of two syllables may take -er and -est, weak stress: he gave himself o greot deal of trouble; come ony ody.
e) when stressed on the second syllable: polit* b) ditto, with stropg stress: I am not quite myself 3. Every means 'without exception': he comes here
politer-politest; b) when ending in consonant * le: thesedoys; c) in apposition to a noun or pronoun: e v e r yd a y , U n l i k e s o m e a n d a n y i t a l w a y s p r e c e d e s
noble-nobler-noblest; c) when ending in -er, -ow, whot does John himself think of it? or: whot does a singulor noun.
-some or -y: happy-happier-happiest (cf. I A5); John think of it himself?;d) in combination with a {. Each means 'one by one, separately': eoch student
d) in the cue of common-cruel-pleasant-quiet- - . n o u n : m y s i s t e r o n d m y s e l f ( : m y s i s t e ro n d l l . had a room to himself.
stupid-wicked. 2. After prepositions denoting plce the simpie pers. 5. Singular all means 'the whole (of)': we cannot stoy
3. The adverbs eorly and often may also take -er and pronouns are used: he lookedobout him.
' here all doy, Plural all means 'without exceDtion':
-eSt. oll students should register before October lst. Noce
{ . O t h e r a dj e c t i v e s a n d a d v e r b s t a k e m o r e a n d m o s t : M the difference between oll men (in general) and oll
difftcult-more difftcult-most Sing.: this (near), that (farther off); plur.: these
difficult; eosily-more _ the men (with reference to a particular number).
eosily-most easily. (near), those (farther off). 6. Either:a) one or other of two: either of you may
5. lrregular degrees o{ comparison: good (well)- l. That and those may be used as antecedents of a go; b) both: either onswer is correct. Opposite:
better-best; bod(ly)-worse-worst; much (sing.)/ relative clause (cf. | | I F): that which (commoner: neither of you; neither ansuer.
mony (plur.)-more-most; little (opp. much)- whot) we admire, we emulote; those who are not for 7. One may replace a preceding noun: I lose a neigh-
less-leost. Besides the regular forms old---older- us ore oqoinst us. bour ond you goin onei the difference between a good
ordest there exist a comparative elder and a super- 2. So may iefer back to a preceding word or words, wolker and a bod one; five penny stamps and three
lative erdest, mostly used attributively and with a) after to do: he deceived me once and mov do so fourpenny ones.-One may be used as a personal
reference to relatives: my eldest son. ogoin; b) after to be, to remain, to seem: they indefinite pronoun; in this case it has a genitive
were poor ond likely to remoin so; c) after to think, one's: one should alwavs do one's dutv.
B. FORAIT'ON OF ADVERES OF /MANNER to hope, to suppose, to say, to tell: I hope so; 8, No is always, none hardly ever used attributively:
I told you so. lt may also be used before an auxiliary I hove no moneyi none of us had any money; it's none
Adverbs of manner are formed by adding -ly to
adiectives (including participles and ordinal or copula, either to confirm a statement: (your of your business.
numerals): greotly (superior), secondly, decidedly, daughter says you ore ill-so I am), or to apply it 9. Some, any, every and no may form compounds
Sometimes forms without -lv ore used: don't tolk to another subject (you are ill and so om l). (ln with .body, -one, -thing: somebody, anyone,
so loud! Fost never takes Jy. C(. to work hord, the former case,denial would be expressed by I'm everything, nothing.
not; in the latter, a negative statement would be 10. Each other and one another express reciprocity:
but: thot's hordly (:scorcely) foir,
applied to anorher subject 6y nor am l.) help eoch otheri you need one another.
A. Many verb stms may be used as noun3: hove o be used substantively, with a corresponding CONSTRUCTIONS
look, go for a ride, the woter is on the boil. plural verb, preceded by the definite article: the A. Agreement is invited by repeating the copula or
B. Many nouns may be used as verbs: he motored poor wete oppressed by the rich; the English do not auxiliary (or using a form of to do) accompanied
bock to town: our cdt hds kittened. olwoys understond the French. (But: many poor by not when the statement is affirmative: she is
G. Some .diectiies may be used as verbs: the train people, several Frenchmen.J ill, isn't she?: he hunts, doesn't he?; you're not sorry,
sloweddowni his hoi r began to grey. Some adverbs 2. Many nouns may be used attributively, are you?i they don't live here ony more, do they?
may be used as nouns or yerbs: the ups ond downs e s p d c i a f l y a ) p l a c e - n a m e s : t h e L o n d o ns t r e e t s , t h e B. Interested or lronic Comment is similaily ex-
of life: 20,000 colliers downed tools. Y o r k s h i r em o o r s ; b ) m a t e r i a l n o u n s : o n i r o n b o r , o p r e s s e d ,e x c e p t t h a t b o t h s t a t e m e n t a n d c o m m e n t
D. PRT'AI CONYERS'ON. silver wotch (cf. o wooden tobte). are either affirmative or negative: oh, you're sorry,
denotins of
yr. vERBs t
,tl".,ij:f J i;r:1,1'l"ln?.[:]f;'l: ,NF'NITIYE E. GERUND AND PRESENT PARTICIPLE
cededby to).;b) present tense (with l. Used without to after a) can/could 1. Like the inf. with to, the gerund
A. RE.U.AR 'ERBS the exception of the 3rd person (she con sing), may/might (may we combines the meaning and function
l . A n E n g l i s hv e r b n o r m a l l y h a s t h e s i n g , ) ;c ) i m p e r a t i v e : s t o p ! co?), must, shall/should, will, of a verb with those of a noun, The
following forms: a) the stem: p,df, 3. The stem+(e)s is usedas the 3rd p. would; b) to dare and to need in gerund is used a) after prcpositions:
coll, woit, poss; b) the stem +(e)s: sing. of the present tense. negative and interrogative sentences he went awoy without saying good-bye;
ploys, colls, woits, posses; c) the 4. The stem+ing is used a) as a (cf. VllB5); c) to do in ditto sentences b) after a number of transitive verbs
stem +ing: playing, calling, woiting, gerund, b) as a present participle. and to express emphasis or contra- such as to avoid (l tied to avoid
possing;d) the stem +-(e)d: plofed, 5, The stem +(e)d is useda) * a past diction (see VllFl); d) had better, meeting himl, to deny (she denied
called,waited, possed. participle, b) as a past tense. had or would rather (sooner) hoving seen me), to enioy (ploying
(we'd better go now; would you rather the violin), and a few expressions liki
stoy?1. it's no good (crying over spilt milk),
8. 'RREGUIAR YERES Also when preceded by a noun or (f) cannot help (thinking he mode a
l, Instead ofthe stem +(e)d, a fairly large number of verbs have irregular forms object pronoun after to hear (we mistoke); c) after worth (seeing, etc.).
for the past tense and the past participle. Sometimes there are three different heard her come downstairs), to feel, Either the gerund or the inf, may be
forms for stem-past t.-past p.: begin-began-begun; sometimes only two: to see, to watch: to let, to make used 6,a subiect (scamping your
beot-beat-4eaten, bind-bound-bound, run-ron-run; sometimes only one: (they mode him repeot everything), wofK ts naroty the way to get on; to
cut-cut-cut. In the following list derivatives are not included if their forms t o h a v e ( i n t h e s e n s e so f ' t o o e r m i t ' know him is to like him) and as an
agree with those of the verb from which they are derived; thus for become see (l won't have you say such things), object after a number of other
come, lrregular forms that occur by the side of regular forms are not included 'to get', 'to
experience'); to find, verbs, such as to begin (playing or
either, except when the regular forms are rarely used. to know (in the sense of'to experi- to ploy), to intend (going or to gol,
ence': I've never known him lose his etc. Sometimes there is a difference
be, was, been (see 2) ' get, got, got. shut, shut, shut temper)i sometimes after to help of meaning, as after to atop (torking
bear, bore, borne (but born trve, 8ave, grven sing, sang,sung (pleose help me tronslote this). i.e. to cease; to think (i.e. to pause),
on Sunday\ go, went, gone sink, sank,sunk 2. Used with to in other cres: hod to to remember (osking, i.e. in the
beat, beat, beaten grind, ground, ground sit, sat, sat go, begdn to feel, it's time to stop, glod past; to osk him, i.e. in the future).
begin, began, begun grow,8rew, grown sleep, slept, slept to see you; especially in expressions 2. The gerund may refer to a different
bend. bent. bent hang, hung, hung (hanged: s l i d e ,s l i d , s l i d of purpose: he got up to osk o question. person or thing than the preceding
beseech, besought, besought killed by honging) sling, slung, slung With the present or past tense of to verb; in this case the gerund ii
bid (ot ouction), bid, bid have, had, had slink.slunk. slunk be, to + inf. expresses an agreement preceded by a noun (occasionally
bind, bound, bound hear, heard, heard slit, slit, slit or arrangement: we were to meet dt in the genitive) or a possessiveor
bite, bit, bitten hid, hid, hid(den) sow, sowed, sown the stotion: or a command (often personal pronoun: She objected to
bleed, bled, bled hit, hit, hir speak, spoke, spoken relayed): (mother soys) you're not to her son going abrood; do you mind my
blow, blew, blown hold, held, held speed, sped, sped tdlk so loud. (me) smoking?
break, broke, broken hurt, hurt, hurt spend, spent, spent To+inf. may also be preceded by a l. The present participle may beused
breed, bred, bred keep, kept, kept s P r n ,s p u n , s P u n noun or object pronoun after verbs attributivefy: playing children, or
bring, brought, brought know. knew, known spit, spat, spat expressing an act of the will: a) to predicatively: the children were
build, built, built lay, laid, laid split, split, split allow, to ask (he osked me to sit ploying on the lawn. The latter con-
burst, burst, burst lead, led, led spread, spread, spread down), to command, etc.; b) to struction denotes that an action is
buy, bought, bought leave, left, left spring, sprang, sprung want (do you wont me to stay?), to in progress during a limited portion
cilst. cast, cast lend, lent, lent stand, stood, stood wish, to like, to prefer, to hate of time. Note the difference be-
catch, caught, caught let, let, let steal, stole, stolen (l hate you to talk like rhdt); c) some- tween whot are you reading (now'1?,
choose, chose, chosen lie, lay, lain stick. stuck, stuck times after verbs like to believe. to I seldom read French (general state-
cling, clung, clung lose, lost, lost sting, stung, stung declare, to know, to suppose (they ment), and I read The fimes every
come, came, come make, made, made stink, stank, stunk supposedhim to be deod; more usually: doy (repeated action). Also between
cost, cost, cost mean, meant, meanc stride, strode, stridden they supposed (thot) he was deod); I think (:am of opinion) you're
creeP, crePt, crePt meet, met, met strike, struck, struck d) usually after to help (pleose help lsht and whot ore you thinking (of)?-
cut, cut, cut pay, paid, paid string, strung, strung me to translate this).-The group To be+pres. part. ma), express an
deal, dealt, dealt Put, Put, Put strive. strove, striven noun/pronoun +to +inf. may be intention: what ore you doing to-
dig, dug, dug read (long vowel), read swear, swore, sworn linked to a predicative noun or adi, morrow? Intention ora nearfuture
do, did, done vowel), read (short vowel) sweeP, swePt, swePt by for: everybody said it wos modness pay be expressed by to be going
draw. drew, drawn rend, rent, rent swrm, swam, swum for me to go (-that I should go). (to+inf.): , think it's going to roin.
drink, drank, drunk ride, rode, ridden swrn8, swun8, swunS Verbs of group a) and c) may be in
drive, drove, driven ring, rang, rung take, took, taken the passive voice (cf. F2): I wos osked F, PAST PARTICIPLE
dwell, dwelt, dvtelt rrse, rose, nsen teach, taught, taught to sit downi ore we supposed to stay
l. With to have, forms the (plu)per-
eat. ate, eaten run, ran, run tear, tore, torn here oll dav?
fect tense: where have you been?-
fall, fell, fallen say, said, said tell, told, told
he had known her for mony yedrs.-
feed, fed, fed see, saw, seen think, thought, thought
Note the difference between he hod
feel, felt, felt seek, sought, sought thrive, throve, thriven
D, SOME AUXILIARIES built a new house (himself) and he had
fight, fought, fought sell, sold, sold throw, threw, thrown
a new house built (by somebody else;
find, found, found send, sent, sent thrust, thrust, thrust l. To do is used with an inf. (without
pfuperf. he had had; cf.3).
flee. fled. fled set. set. set tread, trod, trodden to) in questions and in negarive
2. With to be, forms the passive voice:
fling, flung, flung shake, shook, shaken wear, wore, worn sentences with not: whot did I tell
you?-don't twenty people were killed; Rome wos
fly, flew, flown shed, shed, shed weave, wove, woven (do not) go yet. Not,
not built in a doy.
forbid, forbade, forbidden shine.shone,shone weep, wePt, wept however, in questions beginning with
3. After to see, to hear, to feel, to
forget, forgot, forgotten shoe, shod, shod win. won. won the subject: who sow the accident?
(unless they are made negative by find, to get, to have (cf. l), to
forsake, forsook, forsaken shoot, shot, shot wind, wound, wound
make; to like, to want, to wish,
freeze, froze, frozen show, showed, shown wrrng, wrung, wrunS noti who didn't detest him?); nor in
dependent questions: I asked him
to order, the past p. may be
shrink, shrank, shrunk write, wrote, written preceded by a noun or obiect-
where he lived (same exception); nor
2. To be is irregular in the different the 3p. sing. pres. t. when followed with most other auxiliaries, with to Dronoun: he heard his nome called
persons and numbers of the present (cl, he heard somebody coll his name)i
by an infinitive: he dare not enter; be, and (as a rule) with non-auxiliary
and oast tense as well: need he come again? he got (made),himself obeyed (cf. he
to hovei you mustn't tolk like that; it
pres,t. , am got people to obey him, he made
helshelitis you,we, 6. Can, may, shall, will have the stem isn't true; hove you ony marmalode?
people obey him); the King wonted the
they are form only, which is used as a present (but: do you have marmalalde for
past t. ,/he/she/it was you, we, performonce stopped.
tense, including the 3p. sing. The breakfast? i.e. as a rule). Note:
they lvere corresponding forms for the past t, {. Note the following correspondences:
don't be silly (like don't go yet); do
past sublunctive were throughout (there are no past participles) are they called a doctor< doctor wos
come in (urgent request); you do look
(if I were you, as it were, etc,). could, might, should, would. pale (emphasis); you don't believe called; they sent for a doctor-a
3. To have has pres. t, llyoulwelthey Must has one form only; it is used doctor wos sent for; they took core of
me.-l do believe you (contradiction),
have, he/she/it has. as a present, rarery as a past tense. the pdtient-the patient was token
See also Vl.
4. To do has 3p. sing. helshe/it does. None of these verbs havean infinitive care of; they gove him o book-he wos
2. Shall/Should; WilUWould.
5. Dare and need usually take no -s in given a booklthe book wos given him
or a form in -ing. a) Shall may express the will (com-
on condition that he should reod it,
mand, promise, etc,) of the
speaker: you shall have the book
A. Declarative: subiect-predicat+ adis. preceding a noun that referring to-morrow. (See also c.) G. PASI TENSE
to inherent qualities such as colour,
object(s)(if any)-adiunct(s) (if any): b) Should may express moral obli- l. The past tense is used to denote an
material, physical state, nationality, gation (:ought
Jock (hos) built his houseon sond. etc., usuafly comes last: a long dark
to): You should action or event that took olace some
B. Interrogative: auxiliary-subiect (ought to) hove been more careful. time ago: I sow your brother yesterdoyi
-inf. or part,<biect(s), etc.t did roodi o steep rocky hill; o pretty It is also used after exoressions of he lived in London before the wor, (To
( V l l D l ) / o c k b u i l dh i s h o u s e . . . ?h; o s French girl, feeling or opinion, in a sense only denote an action or state that began
2. Adjs. derived from or connected slightly different from the more
lack built his house...?-But: lack with verbs follow their noun when
some time ago and has continued
is ill.-is lack ill? matter-of-fact indicative: I om up to the moment of speaking (or
C. Place between subjectand predi- they are distinctly verbal in meaning: surorised thot he should have been spoken of), the (plu)perfect is used:
cate: advefbs soon, never, the problems involved (:thot ore (that he has been) so foolish. After I hove lived here since 1945, CI. Fl.)
involved), but involved (:compli- if it expresses uncertainty: if you
always, allnost, quite, hardly, 2. The past t. may be used in subordi-
cated) constructions,-Note also should see him, give him my regards.
a l s o u s u a l l yp r e c e d et h e ( p r i n c i p a l nate clauses to denote somethint
Russia proper (as opposed to non- c) Will may express the will (wish,
o a r t o f t h e ) v e r b a l o r e d i c a t e :w e desirable or conceivable: it is time
soon found his oddresli I've hardly Russian Soviet Republics)-every- consent) of the subiect: come when you went home; suppose it wosn't (or
had a minute fo myself. (These thing at the proper time. you will; will you do me o favour? weren't: cl, 82) true?
won't (:will not\ You come in?-
and past t. of to be: lohn wos olso x. coNcoRD With an inf. (without to) it forms
there.) A. Normally, a singular subject takes the future tense, though shdll is
D. PLACE OF ARTICLES. a singular verb, a plural subiect also used in the lst o.: I sholl Verbal complexes may be built up
l. The definite article follows all, a pfural verb: the bird sings, birds olways be groteful to youi will you from a) auxiliary +infinitive (incl.
both, half, double, twice: oll the sing. be ot home to-night? (Cf. E3, last cf.Vll C | & Vll D2c; b) tohove
time she wos obroad; double (twice) B. A singular noun denoting a number two sentences.) +past part. (' perfect', cf. Vl I F | )i c) to
the amount, of individuals may take a plural d) Would is used instead of will after be + pres. part, ('progressive', cf.
2. The indefinite article follows verb: the crowd were deeply offected a verb in the Dast tense: he said VllE3); d) to be+past part. ('pas-
half, many, adlectives preceded by (but: on immense crowd was assem- he would not be home before ten. sive', cf. VllF2). Complexes m a y c o n-
so, as, too, how, however, and the tea;. tn the .former case the With not it-expresses a refusal: he tain any of these components, always
adverbs quite and (less regularly) Persons comPosrng tne group are would not tell us where the money in the order given. Only the first
rather: holf o loaf, too short an thought of individually. Sometimes wos. Note its use with (to) like: verb is finite, and may be present or
interval, quite a decent fellow (also: there is little or no difference: the would you like a cigor? lt may also past. The negatiYe not is always
a quite decent fellow). Government has (or have) decided. . . express habit or repetition; when inserted after the finite verb, e.g. this
E. PLCE OF ADIECTIVES. Afways: there were many people in asked to sing she would say thot film would not have been being made
L Adjectives usually precede the the roomi the police are on his track, she wos too tired. now, but for your generous bocking.

printed by by Clowes & Sons,Limited, London and Beccles