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Coordinated Steady-State Voltage Stability Assessment

and Control
Yuri V.Makarov Qiang Wu David J.Hill Dragana H.Popovic ZhaoYang Dong
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Sydney, NSW2006, Australia

Abstract A framework for mid and long term shown to underlie monotonic- type voltage failures
small disturbance voltage stability assessment and 3]|9]. However, the Hopf bifurcation, character-
control with dissimilar controls is presented. The ized by a pair of eigenvalues crossing the imaginary
parameter space includes parameters for loads, ca- axis, can also occur in power systems with insucient
pacitor support and tap changing transformers. damping this can cause an oscillatory type voltage
A general method is used to locate all the small instability 10], 11],21].
disturbance characteristic points which contains In order to assess SD voltage stability, a number of
saddle-node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation and min- security indices have been proposed in the literature.
imum damping points. The distances from the These indices provide some measure of the proximity
operating point to the global and/or local clos- of a steady-state operating point to voltage instability.
est points in stability boundaries are used as se- The saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are
curity indices. A new function, dened in terms often considered to be the voltage instability points
of multiple (local) minimum distances and the safe 3]|13]. Among these indices, the minimum singu-
distance needed, is used to evaluate the security lar value of the system Jacobian was proposed in 4]
margin and nd the most eective control actions and further discussed in 5]. The index proposed in
to increase the security margin. All these meth- 3] uses `Q angle' for the voltage instability detection.
ods are tested and illustrated in a given example Another method uses the distance in load space be-
system. tween a given operating point and the voltage instabil-
I. Introduction ity surface 7]. A similar index 8], 9], which has been
developed, uses the distance between the operating
Voltage stability has become a major issue for the se- point and the closest critical point on the bifurcation
cure operation of power systems around the world - boundary.
see 1] and references therein.
The corresponding computation methods for these in-
Voltage stability, regarded as a dynamic question, can dices are also studied in 3]|13]. For example, popu-
be divided into small disturbance (SD) voltage stabil- lar approaches to computing the SNB include the `con-
ity and large disturbance (LD) voltage stability 2]. In tinuation method' 6], which involves repetitive power
SD voltage stability analysis it is assumed that the sys- ow calculations along specic load directions , and
tem is described by a steady-state operating point and the `direct method', which formulates the SNB prob-
the system parameters vary slowly and continuously. lem as a set of nonlinear equations 7]. The closest
The system moves smoothly from one operating point bifurcation on a stability boundary can be calculated
to another and the main concern is on the system's using the `iterative method' or the `direct method' 8]
ability to remain at the operating point following a depending on specied system studied.
small random disturbance. Therefore analysis focuses
on linearization , eigenvalues and bifurcations 2]. In In this paper, we study the SD voltage stability prob-
LD voltage stability analysis, it is assumed that the lem in combined parameter space, which not only in-
system is subject to a large disturbance. The main cludes load powers (P or Q) but also includes param-
concern is the existence of a new equilibrium and the eters for capacitor support and tap change transform-
system's ability to approach the new equilibrium. ers. The general method proposed in 14] will be used
to locate all the SD characteristic points within one
Major changes in the system qualitative behavior cor- procedure. The characteristics points include SNB,
respond to bifurcations as parameters change. Among HB and minimum/maximum damping points. Dier-
the bifurcations associated with voltage instability, ent stability boundaries (or their subset) in parame-
saddle-node bifurcations (SNB) and Hopf bifurcations ter space will be computed. By furthering the idea
(HB) are two of the most important ones. SNB insta- in 8] 9], the global and/or local minimum distance
bility, which is characterized by the system operat- from the current operating point to dierent stability
ing equilibria coalescing and disappearing, has been boundaries will be used as the security index. A new
TABLE I: Dierent conditions TABLE II Parameters
 ! d Category Controls Q05 = 0:5 Q06 = 0:5 B3 = 0:15
6= 0 6= 0 =d0 minmum or maximum damping pt (base value) B4 = 0:1 B5 = 0:1 B6 = 0:18
=0 = 6 0 6= 0 Hopf bifurcation point T1 = 30s T2 = 25s
=0 =0 0 SN bifurcation point Network E1 = 1:3 E2 = 1:0 Y = ;j 1
parameters s = 0 t = 2 Tq5 = 60s
Tq6 = 50s Vr = 1:0
Pg2 = 0:1736 Pd5 = 0:6021 Pd6 = 0:1374
function dened in terms of multiple (local) minimum
distances and the safe distance needed is used to not
only evaluate the security margin, but also nd the
most eective control actions to increase the security
margin. The obtained optimal direction in combined
parameter space reveals some preliminary insight on
the coordination and combination of load control, ca-
pacitor control and tap control. Previous work on
coordination has been limited to similar controls.
II. General Method for SD Analysis
We consider mid and long term voltage stability with
emphasis on load dynamics and tap changer dynam- Figure 1: A 6-bus example system
ics. Transient dynamics of generators and SVCs are
neglected and replaced by their equilibrium equations.
Hence general power system models relevant to these where ei is the ith standard unit vector in Rm  i 2 R
studies take the form
and  2 R represents the varying parameter.
x_ = f(x y p) ;; (a) (1) In order to nd all SD characteristic points along this
0 = g(x y p) ;; (b) direction, the general method in 14] formulated it as
a constrained optimization problem. The objective
where (1a) represents the dynamics in power system function is the square of the real part of an eigenvalue
x 2 Rn is the dynamic state, ie. the state variable of of interest, ie. 2 with eigenvalue  =  + j !. The
load model and tap changer ratio. y 2 RL are the al- complete problem is then:
gebraic variables, typically the bus voltage magnitude
and phase angle. p 2 Rm are the controlled parame- Minimize 2
ters which include parameters for load power, capac-
itor support and tap changers. Equation (1b) comes Subject to FG(x y p0 + ) = 0
from the standard network relationship together with JsT l0 ; l0 + !l00 = 0 (5)
a set of equilibrium equations. JsT l00 ; l00 ; !l0 = 0
Suppose the system current operating is at point p0, lT l ; 1 = 0
at which the corresponding values of x0  y0 are given
by where l = l0 +jl00 is the left eigenvector corresponding
 to  = +j!. The last line in (5) excludes the trivial
FG (x y p) = f(x y p) = 0
g(x y p) = 0 (2) solution of eigenvector.
The problem (5) may have a number of solutions and
To analyze SD stability, (1) can be linearized around all the solutions correspond to dierent SD character-
the operating point to give istic points such as SNB, Hopf bifurcation and mini-
mum damping points. 14] Table I show the condition
     for dierent solutions.
x_ = Jfx Jfy x (3)
0 Jgx Jgy y
III. Computing the SD Voltage Stability
Eliminating y gives x_ = Js x where Js is the Boundaries and Margins
reduced system matrix given by Jfx ; Jfy (Jgy );1 Jgx ] We dene the stability boundary , as the set of bifur-
with the assumption that Jgy is regular. cation points in parameter space Rm . It is a standard
Suppose we specify a pattern of parameter variation, generic assumption to consider as a smooth hyper-
ie. specify a ray in parameter space based on p0 7], surface in Rm 8]. Depending on choice of bifurcation
X points, there are the SNB boundary s and the HB
p = p0 +   with  = i ei (4) boundary h . There are simple geometric interpreta-
i2Rm tions for these choices of . s is the boundary of the
TABLE III: Characteristic points
Eigenvalue 1 Eigenvalue 2
0.02 0.02

Eigenvalue   ! d Category
0:d
0.01 min damping 0.01 hopf
No. 1 6.75 ;0:0018 0:0101 0000 mini damping

Imaginary part

Imaginary part
No. 2 3.31 0:0000 0:0093 0:0029 Hopf
0 0 SNB No. 2 7.23 0:0000 0:0000 ;0:0000 SNB
stability boundary
0.01 0.01 3

2.5
0.02 0.02
0.02 0 0.02 0.02 0 0.02
Real part Real part 2

Figure 2:
1.5

Movement of the eigenvalues 1


B
C

Q0 at bus 6
A
0.5

feasible region for operation at the stable equilibrium 0

9]. Similar interpretations exist for h . 0.5

With the system model and the general method in


1

Section II, we can nd all the types of characteris- 1.5

tics points in one specied direction in Rm . Then the 2


2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

ray  can be subsequently rotated to reveal the entire Q0 at bus 5

boundary or a certain subset, as discussed in the next Figure 3: Stability boundaries. where axes are the re-
section. active power demand at buses 5 and 6. The dotted lines
are the HB boundary the dashed one is SNB boundary
The point p 2 is dened as the closest bifurcation Point A is (Q05 = 0:5 Q06 = 1:04) Point B is (Q05 =
point to p0 in a Euclidean sense. Then the distance 0:5 Q06 = 1:1) Point C is (Q05 = 1:8 Q06 = 1:07).
in the parameter space from the operating point p0
to p will be a good indicator of system security 8].
The computation of this index can be formulated as a down-stream load dynamics. It has the form:
problem of constrained optimization :
x_q = Qs(V ) ; Qd (7)
Minimize jj(p ; p0)jj Qd = T1q xq + Qt (V )

Subject to FG(x y p) = 0 (6) x_p = Ps (V ) ; Pd (8)


JsT l ; j!l = 0 Pd = T1p xp + Pt(V )
lT l ; 1 = 0
where Pd  Qd are the load real and reactive power
where  is a diagonal matrix of scaling for dierent xp  xq are the corresponding load states Tp  Tq
parameter p jj : jj is the Euclidean norm ! is the are the load recovery time constants Qs (V ) Ps(V )
imaginary part of the eigenvalue associated with point and Qt (V ) Pt(V ) are the steady-state and tran-
p . Given that  = 0, ! = 0 corresponds to a SNB sient load characteristics respectively. Normally
while ! 6= 0 corresponds to a HB. they are functions of node voltage V . Let
Qs (V ) = Q0V s  Qt(V ) = Q0 V t , and Ps(V ) =
The solution for this optimization problem normally P0 V s Pt(V ) = P0 V t, where Q0 P0 represent the
nds locally the closest bifurcation p , which is not reactive and real power demand.
necessarily the global one. Generally there exist multi-
ple close bifurcation points for a general system 8]. In The time-frame for mid and long term voltage stabil-
order to to locate a global minimum distance (termed ity is one-minute to tens of minutes. Therefore genera-
critical) as well as the local ones (termed sub-critical), tor dynamics are neglected and a steady-state voltage
a method involving in use of a genetic algorithm can source is used to represent the generator. Also, within
be used 15]. the time span of minutes a reasonable approximation
of tap change operation is given by
IV. Numerical Results
The 6-bus example system shown in Fig 1 is used. n_ = ;T1 (V ; Vr ) (9)
This system was also studied in 16], 17]. This sys-
tem includes two generators and two tap change trans- where n is tap ratio T is time constant V is the
formers connected to two dynamic load center. controlled voltage and Vr the reference voltage.
The load is modeled with a generic dynamic load B3 ; B6 in Fig 1 stand for the capacitor connected to
model 18] that captures the aggregate eect of all bus 3 - 6.
(a) Point A, disturbance 2% (b) Point A, disturbance 22.5% critical points critical points
1.05 1.5 3 3

Voltage at bus 6

Voltage at bus 6
2 d1 2
d1

Q0 at bus 6

Q0 at bus 6
1 d2
1 1 1

0 0
0.5
0.95 1 1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 1000 2000 3000
time (seconds) time (seconds)
2 2
(c) Point B, disturbance 2% (d) Point C, disturbance 0.5% 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 0 1 2
Q0 at bus 5 Q0 at bus 5
1.2 1
Figure 5: The critical/sub-critical point. `o' is the
Voltage at bus 6

Voltage at bus 6
1
0.9 operating point and `x' are the global or local minimum
0.8
distance points in stability boundaries.
0.8
0.6

0.4 0.7
0 1000 2000 3000 0 20 40 60 80
stability boundary
time (seconds) time (seconds)

Figure 4: Dynamic simulation. Point A is (Q05 = 8

0:5 Q06 = 1:04) Point B is (Q05 = 0:5 Q06 = 1:1) Point


7

C is (Q05 = 1:8 Q06 = 1:07). 5

Q0 at bus 5
4

If, for the sake of simplicity, the analysis is restricted 1

to reactive dynamics only, then referring to gen-


0

eral model in (1), we have x = xq5 xq6 n1 n2]T , 2


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

y = V5  V6
2
5 
6 ]T and controlled parameter p = Figure 6:
tap ratio n1

The SNB boundary in n1 ; Q05 space.


Q05 Q06 T1  T2 B3  B4 B5  B6]T where Q05 and Q06
are the reactive power demands at bus 5 and 6. Table
II shows the base values for all controlled parameters
and values for other network parameters. that in TABLE II) . Such treatment is done in the
sequel wherever n is of interest. The SNB boundary
A direction for  is specied computed in the Q05 ; n1 plane is shown in Fig 6.
 = 0:1 0:1 65 ;0:03 ;0:02 ;0:03 ;0:036] V. Coordinated Control Actions to In-
crease Security Margins
ie. load Q and T increase proportionally while ca-
pacitor supports decrease proportionally. The general In order to operate the power system securely with
method locates all characteristic points along this di- respect to voltage instability, the security margin ob-
rection as shown in Table III. Fig 2 shows the corre- tained from (6) must exceed some threshold. Other-
sponding eigenvalue movement. wise, corrective action should be done to increase this
The stability boundaries are calculated using the margin.
method stated in Section II. Fig 3 shows the dier- In order to discover how and where to take the cor-
ent stability boundaries in the Q05 ; Q06 plane. The rective control, sensitivity methods are often used to
two dotted lines are the Hopf bifurcation boundaries identify those elements whose inuence is more pro-
while the dashed one is the saddle-node bifurcation nounced. For example, the sensitivity of reactive gen-
boundary. Dynamic simulations are also performed eration with respect to load power is calculated for
to verify these stability boundaries. Points A B and optimal reactive support allocation in 19]. Sensitiv-
C are chosen from the Q05 ; Q06 plane and the sim- ity of load power margin to controls is computed in
ulation results are shown in Fig 4. It can be seen 8].
that the Hopf bifurcation boundary near point A is a In this paper, we adopt the geometric idea of comput-
sub-critical one. ing an optimal direction in a parameter space which
Using the optimization procedure in (6), the closest was rstly proposed by 20] and further developed by
point the SNB boundary could be found as shown in 9]. The computation of an optimum direction is based
Fig 5a. The obtained critical distance d1 is 1.1660 on the sensitivity of minimum Euclidean distance to
while sub-critical one d2 is 1.2903. Fig 5b shows the stability boundaries with respect to controlled param-
situation for h . Note that similar results are ob- eters. A new index function is proposed to cope with
tained for the Q05 ; B5 plane. the situation where multiple minimum distances exist.
When the tap ratio n is of interest, the n dynamics in Consider vector p in the 8-dimension parameter space,
(9) can be disabled and n is dealt with as a controlled p = Q05 Q06 n1 n2 B3  B4 B5  B6]. A given direc-
parameter (the base value for alln is 1.0 s = 2:5, tion  = 0:1 0 0:1 0 00 00] and a locally closest
t = 2:8 other parameters take the same values as point is found around the specied direction using (6)
sensitivity

Q05 Q06 n1 n2 B3 B4 B5 B6
Figure 8: Optimal direction ~o in a 2-dimension plane,
Figure 7: Sensitivity of minimum distance w.r.t. pa- d0 is the safe distance needed.
rameters Q05  Q06  n1  n2  B3  B4  B5 and B6 . The height
represents the absolute value of the sensitivity with a scale Similarly the optimum direction to increase d2 is
of 0 075
1
. The sensitivities for Q05  Q06  n1 and n2 are neg-
ative while those for B3 ; B6 are positive.
:

~b = @d2 ~i + @d2 ~j (12)


@p1 @p2
as
The overall optimum direction ~o is the linear combi-
p = 1:78 0:97 2:97 1:23 ;1:76 ;0:37 ;0:49 ;0:20] nation of ~a and ~b with a multiplier of the distance
mismatch (di ; d0) , ie.
with minimum distance d = 3:2030. The sensitivity
is computed numerically. Fig 7 shows the sensitivity
of this minimum distance with respect to controlled ~o = (d1 ; d0) ~a + (d2 ; d0) ~b (13)
parameters. It is observed that among the controlled
parameters, Q05 n1 and B5 are the most inuential Substitute (11),(12) into (13) gives
parameters to aect the security margin. That means,
the best control action for this situation would be the @d1 + (d2 ; d0) @d2 ] ~i
~o =  (d1 ; d0) @p
combination of decreasing load demand at bus 5, tap 1 @p1
+  (d1 ; d0) @d 1 + (d2 ; d0) @d2 ] ~j (14)
ratio of tap changer 1 and increasing capacitor support @p
@Fd 2
@p2
= @F@p1 ~i + @p2 ~j
d
at bus 5.
In the case where multiple minimum distances are of
interest. The following function can be used Clearly  @F d @Fd
@p1  @p2 ] is just the sensitivity of Fd in (10)
with respect to p.
X
Fd = 21 (di ; d0)2 (10) If we apply (10) to our example in Fig 5a assuming
di <d0 d0 = 2:0, then
where di is the ith critical or sub-critical distance d0 @Fd = ;0:8609 @Fd = ;1:1420
is the safe distance needed. @Q05 @Q06
The sensitivity @F@pd will give the optimal direction in The optimal direction is shown in Fig 9 as the arrow
the controlled parameter space. To illustrate, rstly line.
consider the geometric means of @F@pd . Assume a case in
2-dimension space which has two minimum distances VI. Discussion
d1 and d2 as shown in Fig 8. Denote the safe distance
needed d0 and assume d1 < d2 < d0. In the above analysis, the control actions of capacitors
For d1, the sensitivity of @d@p1 =  @d 1 @d1
@p1  @p2 ] gives the
and taps are assumed to be continuous however they
optimum direction in p1 ; p2 space to increase d1. are actually discrete. Additionally, there are some sys-
Note according to 9], this direction is anti-parallel to tem restrictions for a specic network, for example
the normal vector at the critical point p as shown in some important load can only be shed in emergency.
Fig 8 and can be expressed as All these imply that it is impossible to take actions
exactly along the theoretical optimum direction ~o ob-
@d1 ~i + @d1 ~j tained from (14). Thus the actual optimal controls
~a = @p @p2 (11) will be taken along the direction which forms mini-
1
mum angles with ~o as illustrated in Fig 10, ie.
where ~i ~j are the unit vectors for axes p1  p2 respec- X
tively. i ! min
most effective control actions 6] V.Ajjarapu and C.Christy, \The continuation Power Flow:
3 A Tool for Steady-state Voltage Stability Analysis", IEEE
Trans. on Power Systems, Vol.7,No.1, pp.416-423,1992.
2 d1
7] H.D.Chiang and R.J.Jumeau, \ Toward a Practical

Q0 at bus 6
1 d2 Performance Index for Predicting Voltage Collapse in
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Figure 9: Most eective control direction. d1 = 1:1660, Control Space to Avoid Saddle Node Bifurcation and Voltage
Collapse in Electric Power Systems", IEEE Trans.. on Auto-
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n1

0.5
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4
0 12] H.G.Kwatny,R.F.Fischl and C.Nwankpa, \Local Bifurcation
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Figure 10: (a) Minimum angle movement. The solid 13] Y.V.Makarov,V.Maslennikov and D.J.Hill, \Calculation of
line represents ~o while the dashed line represent the actual Oscillatory Stability Margins in the Space of Power Sys-
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try Computer Applications Conference PICA'97, Columbus,
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Figure 1:

Figure 2: Figure 4:
1
2
3
4
5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 5:

Figure 6:

Figure 7:

Figure 8:

Figure 9:

Figure 10:

Figure 3: