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Coordinated SteadyState Voltage Stability Assessment
and Control

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and Control

Yuri V.Makarov Qiang Wu David J.Hill Dragana H.Popovic ZhaoYang Dong

Department of Electrical Engineering

University of Sydney, NSW2006, Australia

Abstract A framework for mid and long term shown to underlie monotonic- type voltage failures

small disturbance voltage stability assessment and 3]|9]. However, the Hopf bifurcation, character-

control with dissimilar controls is presented. The ized by a pair of eigenvalues crossing the imaginary

parameter space includes parameters for loads, ca- axis, can also occur in power systems with insucient

pacitor support and tap changing transformers. damping this can cause an oscillatory type voltage

A general method is used to locate all the small instability 10], 11],21].

disturbance characteristic points which contains In order to assess SD voltage stability, a number of

saddle-node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation and min- security indices have been proposed in the literature.

imum damping points. The distances from the These indices provide some measure of the proximity

operating point to the global and/or local clos- of a steady-state operating point to voltage instability.

est points in stability boundaries are used as se- The saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are

curity indices. A new function, dened in terms often considered to be the voltage instability points

of multiple (local) minimum distances and the safe 3]|13]. Among these indices, the minimum singu-

distance needed, is used to evaluate the security lar value of the system Jacobian was proposed in 4]

margin and nd the most eective control actions and further discussed in 5]. The index proposed in

to increase the security margin. All these meth- 3] uses `Q angle' for the voltage instability detection.

ods are tested and illustrated in a given example Another method uses the distance in load space be-

system. tween a given operating point and the voltage instabil-

I. Introduction ity surface 7]. A similar index 8], 9], which has been

developed, uses the distance between the operating

Voltage stability has become a major issue for the se- point and the closest critical point on the bifurcation

cure operation of power systems around the world - boundary.

see 1] and references therein.

The corresponding computation methods for these in-

Voltage stability, regarded as a dynamic question, can dices are also studied in 3]|13]. For example, popu-

be divided into small disturbance (SD) voltage stabil- lar approaches to computing the SNB include the `con-

ity and large disturbance (LD) voltage stability 2]. In tinuation method' 6], which involves repetitive power

SD voltage stability analysis it is assumed that the sys- ow calculations along specic load directions , and

tem is described by a steady-state operating point and the `direct method', which formulates the SNB prob-

the system parameters vary slowly and continuously. lem as a set of nonlinear equations 7]. The closest

The system moves smoothly from one operating point bifurcation on a stability boundary can be calculated

to another and the main concern is on the system's using the `iterative method' or the `direct method' 8]

ability to remain at the operating point following a depending on specied system studied.

small random disturbance. Therefore analysis focuses

on linearization , eigenvalues and bifurcations 2]. In In this paper, we study the SD voltage stability prob-

LD voltage stability analysis, it is assumed that the lem in combined parameter space, which not only in-

system is subject to a large disturbance. The main cludes load powers (P or Q) but also includes param-

concern is the existence of a new equilibrium and the eters for capacitor support and tap change transform-

system's ability to approach the new equilibrium. ers. The general method proposed in 14] will be used

to locate all the SD characteristic points within one

Major changes in the system qualitative behavior cor- procedure. The characteristics points include SNB,

respond to bifurcations as parameters change. Among HB and minimum/maximum damping points. Dier-

the bifurcations associated with voltage instability, ent stability boundaries (or their subset) in parame-

saddle-node bifurcations (SNB) and Hopf bifurcations ter space will be computed. By furthering the idea

(HB) are two of the most important ones. SNB insta- in 8] 9], the global and/or local minimum distance

bility, which is characterized by the system operat- from the current operating point to dierent stability

ing equilibria coalescing and disappearing, has been boundaries will be used as the security index. A new

TABLE I: Dierent conditions TABLE II Parameters

! d Category Controls Q05 = 0:5 Q06 = 0:5 B3 = 0:15

6= 0 6= 0 =d0 minmum or maximum damping pt (base value) B4 = 0:1 B5 = 0:1 B6 = 0:18

=0 = 6 0 6= 0 Hopf bifurcation point T1 = 30s T2 = 25s

=0 =0 0 SN bifurcation point Network E1 = 1:3 E2 = 1:0 Y = ;j 1

parameters s = 0 t = 2 Tq5 = 60s

Tq6 = 50s Vr = 1:0

Pg2 = 0:1736 Pd5 = 0:6021 Pd6 = 0:1374

function dened in terms of multiple (local) minimum

distances and the safe distance needed is used to not

only evaluate the security margin, but also nd the

most eective control actions to increase the security

margin. The obtained optimal direction in combined

parameter space reveals some preliminary insight on

the coordination and combination of load control, ca-

pacitor control and tap control. Previous work on

coordination has been limited to similar controls.

II. General Method for SD Analysis

We consider mid and long term voltage stability with

emphasis on load dynamics and tap changer dynam- Figure 1: A 6-bus example system

ics. Transient dynamics of generators and SVCs are

neglected and replaced by their equilibrium equations.

Hence general power system models relevant to these where ei is the ith standard unit vector in Rm i 2 R

studies take the form

and 2 R represents the varying parameter.

x_ = f(x y p) ;; (a) (1) In order to nd all SD characteristic points along this

0 = g(x y p) ;; (b) direction, the general method in 14] formulated it as

a constrained optimization problem. The objective

where (1a) represents the dynamics in power system function is the square of the real part of an eigenvalue

x 2 Rn is the dynamic state, ie. the state variable of of interest, ie. 2 with eigenvalue = + j !. The

load model and tap changer ratio. y 2 RL are the al- complete problem is then:

gebraic variables, typically the bus voltage magnitude

and phase angle. p 2 Rm are the controlled parame- Minimize 2

ters which include parameters for load power, capac-

itor support and tap changers. Equation (1b) comes Subject to FG(x y p0 + ) = 0

from the standard network relationship together with JsT l0 ; l0 + !l00 = 0 (5)

a set of equilibrium equations. JsT l00 ; l00 ; !l0 = 0

Suppose the system current operating is at point p0, lT l ; 1 = 0

at which the corresponding values of x0 y0 are given

by where l = l0 +jl00 is the left eigenvector corresponding

to = +j!. The last line in (5) excludes the trivial

FG (x y p) = f(x y p) = 0

g(x y p) = 0 (2) solution of eigenvector.

The problem (5) may have a number of solutions and

To analyze SD stability, (1) can be linearized around all the solutions correspond to dierent SD character-

the operating point to give istic points such as SNB, Hopf bifurcation and mini-

mum damping points. 14] Table I show the condition

for dierent solutions.

x_ = Jfx Jfy x (3)

0 Jgx Jgy y

III. Computing the SD Voltage Stability

Eliminating y gives x_ = Js x where Js is the Boundaries and Margins

reduced system matrix given by Jfx ; Jfy (Jgy );1 Jgx ] We dene the stability boundary , as the set of bifur-

with the assumption that Jgy is regular. cation points in parameter space Rm . It is a standard

Suppose we specify a pattern of parameter variation, generic assumption to consider as a smooth hyper-

ie. specify a ray in parameter space based on p0 7], surface in Rm 8]. Depending on choice of bifurcation

X points, there are the SNB boundary s and the HB

p = p0 + with = i ei (4) boundary h . There are simple geometric interpreta-

i2Rm tions for these choices of . s is the boundary of the

TABLE III: Characteristic points

Eigenvalue 1 Eigenvalue 2

0.02 0.02

Eigenvalue ! d Category

0:d

0.01 min damping 0.01 hopf

No. 1 6.75 ;0:0018 0:0101 0000 mini damping

Imaginary part

Imaginary part

No. 2 3.31 0:0000 0:0093 0:0029 Hopf

0 0 SNB No. 2 7.23 0:0000 0:0000 ;0:0000 SNB

stability boundary

0.01 0.01 3

2.5

0.02 0.02

0.02 0 0.02 0.02 0 0.02

Real part Real part 2

Figure 2:

1.5

B

C

Q0 at bus 6

A

0.5

1

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

boundary or a certain subset, as discussed in the next Figure 3: Stability boundaries. where axes are the re-

section. active power demand at buses 5 and 6. The dotted lines

are the HB boundary the dashed one is SNB boundary

The point p 2 is dened as the closest bifurcation Point A is (Q05 = 0:5 Q06 = 1:04) Point B is (Q05 =

point to p0 in a Euclidean sense. Then the distance 0:5 Q06 = 1:1) Point C is (Q05 = 1:8 Q06 = 1:07).

in the parameter space from the operating point p0

to p will be a good indicator of system security 8].

The computation of this index can be formulated as a down-stream load dynamics. It has the form:

problem of constrained optimization :

x_q = Qs(V ) ; Qd (7)

Minimize jj(p ; p0)jj Qd = T1q xq + Qt (V )

JsT l ; j!l = 0 Pd = T1p xp + Pt(V )

lT l ; 1 = 0

where Pd Qd are the load real and reactive power

where is a diagonal matrix of scaling for dierent xp xq are the corresponding load states Tp Tq

parameter p jj : jj is the Euclidean norm ! is the are the load recovery time constants Qs (V ) Ps(V )

imaginary part of the eigenvalue associated with point and Qt (V ) Pt(V ) are the steady-state and tran-

p . Given that = 0, ! = 0 corresponds to a SNB sient load characteristics respectively. Normally

while ! 6= 0 corresponds to a HB. they are functions of node voltage V . Let

Qs (V ) = Q0V s Qt(V ) = Q0 V t , and Ps(V ) =

The solution for this optimization problem normally P0 V s Pt(V ) = P0 V t, where Q0 P0 represent the

nds locally the closest bifurcation p , which is not reactive and real power demand.

necessarily the global one. Generally there exist multi-

ple close bifurcation points for a general system 8]. In The time-frame for mid and long term voltage stabil-

order to to locate a global minimum distance (termed ity is one-minute to tens of minutes. Therefore genera-

critical) as well as the local ones (termed sub-critical), tor dynamics are neglected and a steady-state voltage

a method involving in use of a genetic algorithm can source is used to represent the generator. Also, within

be used 15]. the time span of minutes a reasonable approximation

of tap change operation is given by

IV. Numerical Results

The 6-bus example system shown in Fig 1 is used. n_ = ;T1 (V ; Vr ) (9)

This system was also studied in 16], 17]. This sys-

tem includes two generators and two tap change trans- where n is tap ratio T is time constant V is the

formers connected to two dynamic load center. controlled voltage and Vr the reference voltage.

The load is modeled with a generic dynamic load B3 ; B6 in Fig 1 stand for the capacitor connected to

model 18] that captures the aggregate eect of all bus 3 - 6.

(a) Point A, disturbance 2% (b) Point A, disturbance 22.5% critical points critical points

1.05 1.5 3 3

Voltage at bus 6

Voltage at bus 6

2 d1 2

d1

Q0 at bus 6

Q0 at bus 6

1 d2

1 1 1

0 0

0.5

0.95 1 1

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 1000 2000 3000

time (seconds) time (seconds)

2 2

(c) Point B, disturbance 2% (d) Point C, disturbance 0.5% 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 0 1 2

Q0 at bus 5 Q0 at bus 5

1.2 1

Figure 5: The critical/sub-critical point. `o' is the

Voltage at bus 6

Voltage at bus 6

1

0.9 operating point and `x' are the global or local minimum

0.8

distance points in stability boundaries.

0.8

0.6

0.4 0.7

0 1000 2000 3000 0 20 40 60 80

stability boundary

time (seconds) time (seconds)

7

Q0 at bus 5

4

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

y = V5 V6

2

5

6 ]T and controlled parameter p = Figure 6:

tap ratio n1

Q05 Q06 T1 T2 B3 B4 B5 B6]T where Q05 and Q06

are the reactive power demands at bus 5 and 6. Table

II shows the base values for all controlled parameters

and values for other network parameters. that in TABLE II) . Such treatment is done in the

sequel wherever n is of interest. The SNB boundary

A direction for is specied computed in the Q05 ; n1 plane is shown in Fig 6.

= 0:1 0:1 65 ;0:03 ;0:02 ;0:03 ;0:036] V. Coordinated Control Actions to In-

crease Security Margins

ie. load Q and T increase proportionally while ca-

pacitor supports decrease proportionally. The general In order to operate the power system securely with

method locates all characteristic points along this di- respect to voltage instability, the security margin ob-

rection as shown in Table III. Fig 2 shows the corre- tained from (6) must exceed some threshold. Other-

sponding eigenvalue movement. wise, corrective action should be done to increase this

The stability boundaries are calculated using the margin.

method stated in Section II. Fig 3 shows the dier- In order to discover how and where to take the cor-

ent stability boundaries in the Q05 ; Q06 plane. The rective control, sensitivity methods are often used to

two dotted lines are the Hopf bifurcation boundaries identify those elements whose inuence is more pro-

while the dashed one is the saddle-node bifurcation nounced. For example, the sensitivity of reactive gen-

boundary. Dynamic simulations are also performed eration with respect to load power is calculated for

to verify these stability boundaries. Points A B and optimal reactive support allocation in 19]. Sensitiv-

C are chosen from the Q05 ; Q06 plane and the sim- ity of load power margin to controls is computed in

ulation results are shown in Fig 4. It can be seen 8].

that the Hopf bifurcation boundary near point A is a In this paper, we adopt the geometric idea of comput-

sub-critical one. ing an optimal direction in a parameter space which

Using the optimization procedure in (6), the closest was rstly proposed by 20] and further developed by

point the SNB boundary could be found as shown in 9]. The computation of an optimum direction is based

Fig 5a. The obtained critical distance d1 is 1.1660 on the sensitivity of minimum Euclidean distance to

while sub-critical one d2 is 1.2903. Fig 5b shows the stability boundaries with respect to controlled param-

situation for h . Note that similar results are ob- eters. A new index function is proposed to cope with

tained for the Q05 ; B5 plane. the situation where multiple minimum distances exist.

When the tap ratio n is of interest, the n dynamics in Consider vector p in the 8-dimension parameter space,

(9) can be disabled and n is dealt with as a controlled p = Q05 Q06 n1 n2 B3 B4 B5 B6]. A given direc-

parameter (the base value for alln is 1.0 s = 2:5, tion = 0:1 0 0:1 0 00 00] and a locally closest

t = 2:8 other parameters take the same values as point is found around the specied direction using (6)

sensitivity

Q05 Q06 n1 n2 B3 B4 B5 B6

Figure 8: Optimal direction ~o in a 2-dimension plane,

Figure 7: Sensitivity of minimum distance w.r.t. pa- d0 is the safe distance needed.

rameters Q05 Q06 n1 n2 B3 B4 B5 and B6 . The height

represents the absolute value of the sensitivity with a scale Similarly the optimum direction to increase d2 is

of 0 075

1

. The sensitivities for Q05 Q06 n1 and n2 are neg-

ative while those for B3 ; B6 are positive.

:

@p1 @p2

as

The overall optimum direction ~o is the linear combi-

p = 1:78 0:97 2:97 1:23 ;1:76 ;0:37 ;0:49 ;0:20] nation of ~a and ~b with a multiplier of the distance

mismatch (di ; d0) , ie.

with minimum distance d = 3:2030. The sensitivity

is computed numerically. Fig 7 shows the sensitivity

of this minimum distance with respect to controlled ~o = (d1 ; d0) ~a + (d2 ; d0) ~b (13)

parameters. It is observed that among the controlled

parameters, Q05 n1 and B5 are the most inuential Substitute (11),(12) into (13) gives

parameters to aect the security margin. That means,

the best control action for this situation would be the @d1 + (d2 ; d0) @d2 ] ~i

~o = (d1 ; d0) @p

combination of decreasing load demand at bus 5, tap 1 @p1

+ (d1 ; d0) @d 1 + (d2 ; d0) @d2 ] ~j (14)

ratio of tap changer 1 and increasing capacitor support @p

@Fd 2

@p2

= @F@p1 ~i + @p2 ~j

d

at bus 5.

In the case where multiple minimum distances are of

interest. The following function can be used Clearly @F d @Fd

@p1 @p2 ] is just the sensitivity of Fd in (10)

with respect to p.

X

Fd = 21 (di ; d0)2 (10) If we apply (10) to our example in Fig 5a assuming

di <d0 d0 = 2:0, then

where di is the ith critical or sub-critical distance d0 @Fd = ;0:8609 @Fd = ;1:1420

is the safe distance needed. @Q05 @Q06

The sensitivity @F@pd will give the optimal direction in The optimal direction is shown in Fig 9 as the arrow

the controlled parameter space. To illustrate, rstly line.

consider the geometric means of @F@pd . Assume a case in

2-dimension space which has two minimum distances VI. Discussion

d1 and d2 as shown in Fig 8. Denote the safe distance

needed d0 and assume d1 < d2 < d0. In the above analysis, the control actions of capacitors

For d1, the sensitivity of @d@p1 = @d 1 @d1

@p1 @p2 ] gives the

and taps are assumed to be continuous however they

optimum direction in p1 ; p2 space to increase d1. are actually discrete. Additionally, there are some sys-

Note according to 9], this direction is anti-parallel to tem restrictions for a specic network, for example

the normal vector at the critical point p as shown in some important load can only be shed in emergency.

Fig 8 and can be expressed as All these imply that it is impossible to take actions

exactly along the theoretical optimum direction ~o ob-

@d1 ~i + @d1 ~j tained from (14). Thus the actual optimal controls

~a = @p @p2 (11) will be taken along the direction which forms mini-

1

mum angles with ~o as illustrated in Fig 10, ie.

where ~i ~j are the unit vectors for axes p1 p2 respec- X

tively. i ! min

most effective control actions 6] V.Ajjarapu and C.Christy, \The continuation Power Flow:

3 A Tool for Steady-state Voltage Stability Analysis", IEEE

Trans. on Power Systems, Vol.7,No.1, pp.416-423,1992.

2 d1

7] H.D.Chiang and R.J.Jumeau, \ Toward a Practical

Q0 at bus 6

1 d2 Performance Index for Predicting Voltage Collapse in

Electrical Power Systems", IEEE Trans.on Power Sys-

0 tems,Vol.10,No.2,May 1995.

1
8] F.Alvarado, I.Dobson and Y.Hu, \Computation of Closest Bi-

furcations in Power Systems", IEEE Trans. on Power Systems,

2 Vol.9,No.2,May 1994.

2 1 0 1 2

Q0 at bus 5
9] I.Dobson and L.Lu, \Computing an Optimum Direction in

Figure 9: Most eective control direction. d1 = 1:1660, Control Space to Avoid Saddle Node Bifurcation and Voltage

Collapse in Electric Power Systems", IEEE Trans.. on Auto-

d2 = 1:2903, d0 = 2:0, 05d = ;0:8609, 06d = ;1:1420 @F

@Q

@F

@Q

matic Control, Vol.37,No.10,October 1992.

10] M.L.Crow, \Dynamics of Voltage Instability and Collapse",

10 Intl Jnl of Electrical Power and Energy

Systems,Vol.16,No.4,pp235-241 1994.

8 1

11] C.Rajagopalan, P.Sauer and M.A.Pai, \Analysis of Voltage

parameter 2

n1

0.5

28th Conference on Decision and Control,Florida,Dec. 1989.

4

0
12] H.G.Kwatny,R.F.Fischl and C.Nwankpa, \Local Bifurcation

2 0 in Power Systems: Thiory, Computation and Application",

0.5

1

D.J.Hill (ed), Special Issue on Nonlinear Phenomena in Power

0

1 0

0.5

Systems: Theory and Practical Implications, IEEE Proceed-

0 5

parameter 1

10 Q05 B5

ings, Vol.83, No.11, Nov. 1995.

Figure 10: (a) Minimum angle movement. The solid
13] Y.V.Makarov,V.Maslennikov and D.J.Hill, \Calculation of

line represents ~o while the dashed line represent the actual Oscillatory Stability Margins in the Space of Power Sys-

tem Controlled Parameters", IEEE/KTH Power Tech. Stock-

movement. (b) The solid line is ~o = 0:594 ;0:428 ;0:686] holm,Sweden,June 18-22,1995.

in B5 ; Q05 ; n1 . The dashed line is the projection of ~o
14] Y.V.Makarov,Z.Y.Dong and D.J.Hill, \A General Method

on B5 ; Q05 for Small Signal Stability Analysis", Proc. of Power Indus-

try Computer Applications Conference PICA'97, Columbus,

Ohio,USA,May 11-16,1997. (to appear in IEEE Trans. on

Power Systems)

where i is the ith angle of the dashed line with ~o

in Fig 10. For our example system, in a 3-dimension
15] Z.Y.Dong, Y.V.Makarov and D.J.Hill,\Genetic algorithms in

Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis", Submitted to

Q05 ; n1 ; B5 space, an optimal direction obtained International conference on Advances in Power System Con-

is ~o = ;0:4208 ;0:6855 0:5941]. Suppose n can't trol, Operation and Management APSCOM'97, Hong Kong,

Nov. 11-14, 1997.

be moved (say it is locked temporarily), the optimal

control action would be the projection of ~o to Q05 ; B5
16] S.Abe and A.Isono, \Determination of Power System Voltage

Stability, Part 1:Theory", Electrical Engineering in Japan,

space as shown in Fig 10b. Vol.96,No.2,1976.pp70-77.

VII. Conclusion
17] D.H.Popovic,I.A.Hiskens,Y.V.Makarov and D.J.Hill, \Tap

Locking Strategies for Emergency Voltage Control in Power

Supply Systems", Porc.12th Power System Computation Con-

This paper has described a framework for mid and ference, Vol.!,Dresden, Germany,19-23 August,1996.

long term SD voltage stability evaluation and con-
18] D.J.Hill, \Nonlinear Dynamic Load Models with Recovery for

Voltage Stability Studies", IEEE Trans. on Power Systems,

trol in combined parameter space. The results ob- Vol. 8, No.1, February 1993, pp. 166-176.

tained provide some non-trivial penetration on the fu-

ture studies on the coordination of dissimilar control
19] M.M.Begovic and A.G.Phadke, \Control of Voltage Stability

Using Sensitivity Analysis", IEEE Trans. on Power System,

actions to prevent voltage collapse. Vol.7,No.1,Feb.1992

20] T.Kumano,A.Yokoyama and Y.Sekine, \Fast Monitoring and

Optimal Preventive Control of Voltage Instability", Power

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1] C.W.Taylor, \Power System Voltage Stability", McGraw-Hill, Load", Porc.12th Power System Computation Conference,

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3] L.Wang and A.Girgis, \On-Line Detection of Power Sys-

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Power System, Vol.11,No.3,pp1304-1313,1996.

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IEEE Trans. on Power System, Vol.3,No.1,pp.87-93, 1988.

5] P. Lof, T.Smed, G.Anderson and D.J.Hill, \Fast Calculation

of a Voltage Stability Index", IEEE Trans. on Power System,

Vol.7, No.1,pp54-64,1992.

Figure 1:

Figure 2: Figure 4:

1

2

3

4

5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 5:

Figure 6:

Figure 7:

Figure 8:

Figure 9:

Figure 10:

Figure 3:

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