You are on page 1of 52

Final Project Report (2007-2012)

of
National Bamboo Mission Sponsored
Research & Development Project
on

Hydrologic and Economic Evaluation of Bamboo Plantations in


Gullied Lands under Major Ravine Systems of India

SUBMITTED TO

National Bamboo Mission,


Department of Agriculture & Cooperation,
Ministry of Agri., Govt. of India, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi

BY

Dr. P. K. Mishra Dr. B. Krishna Rao


Director Principal Investigator

IMPLEMENTING AGENCY

CENTRAL SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION RESEARCH & TRAINING INSTITUTE


(Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
218 Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun-248195, Uttarakhand, India
Scientific Team Associated with the Project

COORDINATING & LEAD CENTRE VASAD, ANAND (Gujarat)

Name & Designation Specialization Responsibility


Dr. B. Krishna Rao, Senior Scientist Soil & Water Conservation Principal
Engg. Investigator (PI)
Dr. Gopal Kumar, Scientist Soils Associated
Scientist
Dr. V.C. Pande, Scientist Agricultural Economics Associated
Scientist

ASSOCIATED CENTRE, AGRA (UP)

Name & Designation Specialization Responsibility


Er. A.K. Singh, Senior Scientist Soil & Water Conservation Co-PI
Engg.
Dr. S.K. Dube, Principle Scientist Soils Associated
Scientist
Dr. S. Kala, Scientist Forestry Associated
Scientist

ASSOCIATED CENTRE, KOTA (RAJASTHAN)

Name & Designation Specialization Responsibility


Dr. A.K. Parandyal, Senior Scientist Forestry Co-PI
Dr. Shakir Ali, Senior Scientist Soil & Water Conservation Associated
Engg. Scientist

OVERALL GUIDANCE

Dr. P.K. Mishra

Director
CENTRAL SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION RESEARCH &
TRAINING INSTITUTE
218, Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun-248195 (Uttarakhand) India

ii
iii
iv
Contents

Foreword iii
Acknowledgments iv
Executive summary vi-viii
1. Introduction 1-5
2 Physical Achievements 6-9
2.1 Mahi ravines 6
2.2 Yamuna ravines 7
2.3 Chambal Ravines 8
3 Environmental Suitability and Silvicultural Practices of Bamboo 10-18
Plantation in Various Interventions
3.1 Environmental suitability 10
3.2 Silvicultural Practices 11
4 Bamboo based Interventions for Stabilization and Productive 19-29
Utilization of Gully beds in Ravine Lands
4.1 Bamboo based interventions for reclaiming degraded gully beds 19
4.2 Survival & growth performance of bamboo in different interventions 21
4.3 Hydrological behaviour of the bamboo based interventions 22
4.4 Economics of the bamboo based interventions for gully beds 24
4.5 Intangible benefits of bamboo plantation in degraded gullies 29
5 Bamboo Based Interventions for Stabilization and Productive 30-33
Utilization of Gully Heads and Banks in Ravine Lands
5.1 Bamboo based interventions for gully heads and banks stabilization 30
5.2 Performance of the bamboo based interventions for gully heads and 31
banks
5.3 Bamboo plantation as field bunds, bench terraces, stream bank 31
stabilizer
5.4 Economics of the bamboo interventions for gully heads and banks 33
6 Problems and Prospectus of Bamboo Cultivation in Degraded 34-37
Ravine Lands
6.1 Ecological factors 34
6.2 Socio economic factors 35
7 Technology up scaling 38-39
8 Conclusions 40
9 Publications 41-42
10 Fund utilization 43-44
References 45-46

v
Executive summary

Ravines are the network of gullies running parallel and discharging into river. India is having
3.67 m ha of ravine lands which constitute 1.12% of total geographical area of 328 m ha.
Very extensive degradation of land has occurred along some of the major river systems of the
country in various states in the form of deep gullies. The National Commission on
Agriculture has repeatedly indicated that gullied lands not only create problems where they
exist, but are also the root causes for degradation of adjacent arable lands affecting
production potential in a major way. Most of the gullied and ravine lands are not inferior in
their capabilities but are abandoned due to various other reasons. Being alluvial in nature and
located nearby rivers the ravines are highly susceptible to erosion and quite often face
consequences of severe floods. Ravines have a variety of a gully net works and combinations
with varying conditions of gully beds, gully side slopes, and gully intensities due to which no
uniform and cost effective land development package can be made available or implemented
till now and the problem remains as such. Rehabilitation of ravine lands with various kinds of
vegetation not only provides livelihood support but also helps natural resources conservation
and carbon sequestration in long run. Further the increase in vegetative cover in degraded
ravine lands enhances the flora and fauna, and restores natural ecosystem thereby mitigating
the impacts of climate change in addition to conservation of land and water resources for
sustained productivity.
Bamboo is known to be one of the fastest growing plants in the world, with a growth rate
ranging from 30 to 100 cm per day in growing season. It can grow to a height of 36 m with
diameter of 1-30 cm. India is one of the leading countries in the world in bamboo production.
Researchers have clearly established the importance of bamboo plant as an effective means
for natural resource conservation. Various research findings have reported positive utility of
bamboo plantation for enhancing natural resource conservation. The characteristics of
bamboo make it a perfect solution for the environment and social consequences of tropical
deforestation. Its biological characteristics make it a perfect tool for solving many
environmental problems such as erosion control and carbon sequestration. On account of
extensive rhizome-root system and accumulation of leaf mulch, bamboo serves as an efficient
agent in preventing soil erosion, conserving moisture, reinforcement of embankments and
drainage channels etc. Bamboo as agroforestry system was evaluated and found quite
encouraging.
National Bamboo Mission, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India has clearly
emphasized on the conservation value of bamboo plantations. Keeping these considerations
in view a research and development project entitled Hydrologic and economic evaluation of
bamboo plantations in gullied lands under major ravine systems was carried at CSWCRTI,
Research centers at Vasad (Lead centre) under Mahi ravines, Kota under Chambal ravines,
Agra under Yamuna ravines during 2007 to 2012 with financial assistance from National
Bamboo Mission, Government of India. The present research & development study was
intended to carry out for scientific judging regarding utility of bamboo plantations on
extremely degraded ravenous lands located along three major Indian rivers namely Mahi,
Chambal, and Yamuna. The study primarily focuses on utilizing and judging overall
performances of bamboo plantations for controlling soil erosion on beds and banks of gullies
vi
and streams under real field conditions. The project is initiated to conduct research and
development activities at three specific locations namely, Mahi ravines at Vasad (Gujarat),
Chambal ravines at Kota (Rajasthan), and Yamuna ravines at Agra (UP) encompassing about
15 ha gullied land at each location. This project is implementing in two locations of the each
ravine system.

The experiments conducted under National Bamboo Mission funded project evaluated, three
types of bamboo based interventions in reclaiming degraded gully beds viz; i) Bamboo
plantation with staggered contour trenches ii) Bamboo plantation supported by bori bunds iii)
Bamboo plantation as Live check dams. This project was also evolved bamboo based
interventions for preventing gully head extension and bank erosion and further stabilization
and productive utilization, viz; the techniques for gully heads viz; i) peripheral bund
supported by bamboo plantation ii) closed spaced bamboo plants around the gully head and
techniques for gully banks viz; i) Gully banks stabilization by Anjan grass ii)Steep gully
banks stabilization by closed spaced bamboo plantation at the bottom iii) bank stabilization
by bamboo plantation with staggered contour trenches. Based on the results of the
experiments it is conducted that, higher survival and plant growth were recorded in bamboo
plantation with earthen gully plugs and supportive staggered trenches. These are mainly due
to absorption of rainfall thereby increase in moisture availability. Bamboo plantation based
interventions absorbs more than 80% of rainfall. Lowest runoff, soil loss and nutrient loss
was occurred in bamboo plantation with small earthen check dams followed by bamboo with
trenches. Bamboo based interventions reduced the nutrient losses varies from 50-67%. The
high stem flow amount and funnelling ratio of bamboo plants in comparison to deciduous and
coniferous plants makes better rainfall absorption and hydrologically best suited plantation in
degraded ravine lands. Maximum silt deposition was recorded in gully treating with Bamboo
plantation with earthen gully plugs. Annual return worked to be from the bamboo based
interventions for gully beds are ` 88,780, ` 70,000 and ` 63910, in bori-bund reinforced
with bamboo, trenching and bamboo live check dam treatments, respectively. Benefit
cost ratio works out to be 2.09, 2.05 and 1.96 in bori-bund reinforced with bamboo,
trenching and bamboo live check dam treatments, respectively. It is recommended that,
these interventions can be implemented in degraded gully beds. Bamboo based interventions
for gully heads and banks will give net annual return of ` 700 per 10 m length from 7th year
onwards. It is recommended that these interventions can be implemented around the
periphery of ravine lands, gully heads and banks.

The studies conducted under National Bamboo Mission sponsored Research & Development
project on bamboo based interventions in ravine reclamation proved to be quite promising
both in terms of controlling runoff and soil loss, carbon sequestration and economic returns.
This report described the detail information on execution, natural resource conservation,
production potential and economics of various bamboo based interventions for reclamation
and productive utilization of degraded ravine lands. These techniques are very much useful
for reclamation in ravine lands of various states. This will be useful to scientists,
academicians, and officials of Forest, and Agriculture Department and other user agencies for
improving livelihood through reclamation and productive utilization of ravine lands. In spite
of bamboo potential in degraded ravine lands in terms of controlling runoff and soil loss and

vii
economic returns, it has not been tapped to its fullest, hence wider and alternative utilities of
bamboo is being rediscovered in India with increased attributes and potential towards
ecological and soil conservation utilities in degraded ravine lands. Field visits, farmers days,
training programmes and workshops were organized for sensitization and upscaling of these
techniques among various stake holders like policy makers, State and Central government
Departments, funding agencies, NGOS, Tree growers cooperative Societies and farmers.
However, there is a need to integrate the various stakeholders at various levels (production to
consumption) for evolving workable strategies to promote these bamboo based interventions,
which would not only be instrumental in addressing environmental concerns but also
economic and livelihood security of habitants of these vulnerable lands.

viii
1. Introduction
Ravines are the network of gullies running parallel and discharging into river. India is having
3.67 m ha of ravine lands which constitute 1.12% of total geographical area of 328 m ha
(NCA, 1976). Very extensive degradation of land has occurred along some of the major river
systems of the country in various states in the form of deep gullies. There are 4 major areas of
severe ravine erosion on the map of India (Fig. 1). The largest is the Yamuna-Chambal
Ravine Zone. The ravines flank the Yamuna river for nearly 250 km and in Agra and Etawah
attain a depth of more than 80 m. Nearly 389,000 ha are affected along the Yamuna in
southern Uttar Pradesh. The Chambal ravines flank the river Chambal in a 10 km wide belt,
which extends south-west from the Yamuna confluence to 480 km to the town of Kota in
Rajasthan. In Gujarat, ravine belt covers 0.4 m ha and extends from the southern bank of the
Tapti, banks of the Narmada, Watrak, Sabarmati and Mahi basins.

Fig. 1: Extent of ravine lands in India


(Source: V.V. Dhruvanarayana, 1993)

The National Commission on Agriculture has repeatedly indicated that gullied lands not only
create problems where they exist, but are also the root causes for degradation of adjacent
arable lands affecting production potential in a major way (Fig. 2). Most of the gullied and
ravine lands are not inferior in their capabilities but are abandoned due to various other
reasons. Being alluvial in nature and located nearby rivers the ravines are highly susceptible
to erosion and quite often face consequences of severe floods. Ravines have a variety of a
gully net works and combinations with varying conditions of gully beds, gully side slopes,
and gully intensities due to which no uniform and cost effective land development package
can be made available or implemented till now and the problem remains as such.
Rehabilitation of ravine lands with various kinds of vegetation not only provides livelihood
support but also helps natural resources conservation and carbon sequestration in long run.
Further the increase in vegetative cover in degraded ravine lands enhances the flora and
fauna, and restores natural ecosystem thereby mitigating the impacts of climate change in
addition to conservation of land and water resources for sustained productivity.

Gujarat

Fig. 2: Degraded ravine lands along the Mahi River affecting the adjacent cultivated lands in
Gujarat

2
Bamboo is known to be one of the fastest growing plants in the world, with a growth rate
ranging from 30 to 100 cm per day in growing season. It can grow to a height of 36 m with
diameter of 1-30 cm. A culm can reach its full height in matter of two to three months
(United Nation 1972). Considering the above characteristics, it is easy to believe that bamboo
is the fastest growing and highest yielding renewable natural resources (Lessard and
Chouinard 1980). India is one of the leading countries in the world in bamboo production. In
addition to their natural occurrence, bamboos are also planted on private lands particularly in
homesteads, field bunds and other marginal lands available. India is also very rich in bamboo
diversity. There are 124 indigenous and exotic species, under 23 genera, found naturally
and/or under cultivation (Naithani,1993).
Researchers have clearly established the importance of bamboo plant as an effective means
for natural resource conservation. Various research findings have reported positive utility of
bamboo plantation for enhancing natural resource conservation (Lawler, 1993; Yanhui et al.,
1995). Zhou et al. (2005) reported that soil erosion was low in bamboo plot (178.15 kg/ha) as
against other forest plantation types. The characteristics of bamboo make it a perfect solution
for the environment and social consequences of tropical deforestation. Its biological
characteristics make it a perfect tool for solving many environmental problems such as
erosion control and carbon sequestration. On account of extensive rhizome-root system and
accumulation of leaf mulch, bamboo serves as an efficient agent in preventing soil erosion,
conserving moisture, reinforcement of embankments and drainage channels etc. (Zhou et al.,
2005). Bamboo generates plenty of oxygen, lowers light intensity and protects against ultra
violet irradiations and is an atmospheric and soil purifier. The increased permeability of the
soil reduces surface run-off, evaporation loss, allows better water penetration into the soil and
increases drainage capacity of the soil. Sharma et al. (1992) have also reported that bamboo
conserves soil moisture and mitigates the adverse effects of drought on flora and fauna.
Bamboo as agroforestry system was evaluated and found quite encouraging (Behari et al.,
2000; Shanmughavel and Francis, 2000; Deng et al., 2003; Jha and Lalnunmawia, 2004; Nath
& Krishnamurthy, 2008). Average ranges of annual interception and stem flow in bamboo
plantations have been reported as 13 - 15% and 4 - 6%, respectively (Lu SY et al., 2007)
which looks a bit higher than those under natural hard-wood forests, due to special canopy
characteristics. The comparatively dense foliage protects against beating action of rain drops,
and its habit of producing new culms from underground rhizomes allows harvesting without
disturbing the soil (Ben-zhi et al., 2005). Because of dense surface roots, bamboos have vast
potential as a vegetative measure to conserve soil, and thus provide good protection against
sheet and gully erosion. Bamboo, which is a fast growing woody grass species, has been used
traditionally as a gully plug to control deepening of gullies. It is well established that
staggered plantation of bamboo in gully beds plays an active role in controlling erosion by
regulating hydrological flow and soil movement (Kurothe & Nambiar, 2001).
National Bamboo Mission, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India has clearly
emphasized on the conservation value of bamboo plantations. Keeping these considerations
in view a research and development project entitled Hydrologic and economic evaluation of
bamboo plantations in gullied lands under major ravine systems was carried at CSWCRTI,
Research centers at Vasad (Lead centre) under Mahi ravines, Kota under Chambal ravines,

3
Agra under Yamuna ravines during 2007 to 2012 with financial assistance from National
Bamboo Mission, Government of India.
The present research & development study was intended to carry out for scientific judging
regarding utility of bamboo plantations on extremely degraded ravenous lands located along
three major Indian rivers namely Mahi, Chambal, and Yamuna. The study primarily focuses
on utilizing and judging overall performances of bamboo plantations for controlling soil
erosion on beds and banks of gullies and streams under real field conditions. The major
objectives remained to promote the growth of the bamboo sector through as an area based
regionally differentiated strategy as well as to increase the coverage of area under bamboo in
potential areas, with improved varieties to enhance yields. Relevant technological
interventions for potential utility of bamboo for natural resource conservation are also being
attempted through R & D components in the mission

Majority of rivers associated with ravines are highly flood prone. Present study aims to
harness the potential of bamboo for controlling gully erosion. At present there exists
complete data gap to reflect conservation aspects of bamboo which can be sizably bridged
with the results from present study. With a live demonstration planed under present study,
confidence could be built in farmers, agencies, and other stake holders to attempt
development of gullied lands for optimum and profitable use. The categorical objectives from
immediate and long term point of view are briefly described below:

1. Performance evaluation of bamboo for stabilizing degraded gullies of different orders


2. Characterization of rainfall runoff relationships, soil & nutrient losses, and yield attributes
of bamboo species along with economic aspects for gullies treated with bamboo based
technological interventions.
3. Generate reliable and valuable scientific data base for future utilization in developing
advance appropriate agro forestry systems in ravine regions.
4. To create mass awareness for promoting bamboo for stabilizing gullied lands & their
economic utilization.

The intended general hypothesis in the present R&D project is that though staggered
bamboo plantation on gully beds is certainly a good established practice to deliver good
biomass, good moisture regime, and significant stabilization, yet there exists a possibility to
utilize the plantation geometry in a certain alternate manner to enhance conservation effects
and yield better outcomes. To test and achieve quantified comparisons we intend to evaluate
the following technological interventions to arrive at end results,

Utility of bamboo as live check dams in gullies of different orders (shallow, medium, deep)
Utility of bamboo as reinforcement for active gully head, which are potential danger for
adjacent arable lands
Utility of bamboo as bank erosion control measure
Influence of various low cost and simple earthen structures on enhanced conservation value
of bamboo.

4
2. Physical Achievements

The project is initiated to conduct research and development activities at three specific
locations namely, Mahi ravines at Vasad (Gujarat), Chambal ravines at Kota (Rajasthan), and
Yamuna ravines at Agra (UP) encompassing about 15 ha gullied land at each location. This
project is implementing in two locations of the each ravine system. This project was formally
sanctioned at tail end of financial year 2007-08, but field executions are initiated during
2008-09. The Centre wise physical achievements are given separately.
2.1 Vasad-Mahi ravines
This study is carried out to evaluate the utility of bamboo plantations on extremely degraded
ravine lands located along Mahi River in Gujarat. In Mahi ravines this study is carried out in
two locations namely, Khorwad & Vasad villages of Anand Taluka of Anand district,
Gujarat. Khorwad has an established Tree Growers Cooperative Society (TGCS), with 217
hectares of highly degraded lands comprising various categories of gullies/ravines which are
ultimately draining into adjacent Mahi River. In TGCS land a natural watershed (10 ha)
which is denuded and has an extensive gully network has been selected for this study. There
exits plenty of shallow, medium, and deep gullies, where innovative technological
interventions for establishing conservation value of bamboo plantation could be effectively
demonstrated. At Vasad, in research farm, about 10 ha area was selected to systematically
carry out certain specific interventions. This will also facilitate frequent and effective
demonstration of bamboo based technological options to various visitors and trainees.

As per time schedule of major activities, the following physical achievements were made.
Total 8000 saplings were planted in NBM experimental sites at Khorwad and Vasad.
Under the Intervention-1:Utility and hydrologic performance of bamboo plantation in
gully bed stabilization, following treatments were imposed
Under treatment-1; Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) was planted at 4 m x 4 m
spacing in gully beds of W1watershed and staggered trench of size 2 m length, 0.5 m
width and 0.5 m depth was constructed for each plant. Total 620 No.s of trenches
were constructed at NBM experimental sites Vasad and Khorwad.
Under treatment-2; Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) were planted in staggered
fashion with close spaced rows & close spaced plants (at 2x2 m spacing) at W2
Watershed to act as live check dam. Total 21 live check dams were planted along the
gully bed at experimental sites Khorwad and Vasad.
Under treatment-3; 21 earthen check dams made of gunny bags (bori bund) were
constructed along the gully bed. For each bund, two rows(one each at upstream and
downstream edge at 2X 2 m spacing ) of bamboo were planted at experimental sites
Khorwad and Vasad

5
Under Intervention - 2: Utility and hydrologic performance of bamboo plantation for
reinforcement of active gully heads /eroding gully banks, following treatments were
carried
Reinforcement of the gully heads: The active gully heads were identified in
experimental sites at Khorwad and Vasad and these locations peripheral bunds were
constructed. A row of bamboo was planted with 2 m x 2m spacing at downstream side
of the bund.
Earthen peripheral bunds of length 1440 m, ross section area 0.7 m2 were made
around the gully heads at NBM experimental sites Vasad and Khorwad
Reinforcement of the gully banks: The active gully banks were identified in
experimental sites at Khorwad and Vasad and these locations bamboo was planted
with 2 m x 2m spacing along the gully banks for stabilizing the eroding banks
Five broad crested and four sharp crested triangular weir structures were constructed to
measure the runoff and soil loss from various treatments at Vasad and Khorwad sites.
at CSWCRTI, RC, Vasad farm for additional rainfall data collection
Training programme-cum field visits, farmers field day and sensitization workshops
with various stake holders were organized to popularize the bamboo based
interventions in ravines
2.2 Agra-Yamuna ravines
As part of the programme, implemented at the Yamuna ravines at Agra, (U.P.) various
treatment combinations were imposed to generate relevant information on conservation
value of bamboo in the Yamuna ravines systems. Four small catchments of 3 to 6 ha size
were selected. This study is under progress at Research farm Agra and Manikpura village in
Yamuna ravines.
As per time schedule of major activities, following physical achievements were made.
Bamboo saplings were replanted where the mortality was identified and additional
plantation was also done. Total 6500 saplings were planted in NBM experimental sites
at Agra and Manikpura.
Under the Intervention-1:Utility and hydrologic performance of bamboo plantation in
gully bed stabilization; following treatments were imposed
Under treatment-1; 5 earthen check dams made of gunny bags (bori bund) were
constructed along the gully bed. For each bund, two rows(one each at upstream
and downstream edge at 2X 2 m spacing ) of bamboo were planted
Under treatment-2; Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) was planted at 4 m x 4 m
spacing in gully beds and staggered trench was constructed for each plant. Total 80
trenches were constructed

6
Under treatment-3; Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) were planted in staggered
fashion with close spaced rows & close spaced plants (at 2x2 m spacing) to act as
live check dam. Total 10 live check dams were planted along the gully beds
Under Intervention - 2: Utility and hydrologic performance of bamboo plantation for
reinforcement of active gully heads /eroding gully banks, following treatments were
carried.
Reinforcement of the gully heads: The active gully heads were identified and these
locations peripheral bunds were constructed. A row of bamboo was planted with
2 m X 2 m spacing at downstream side of the bund.
Reinforcement of the gully banks: The active gully banks were identified and these
locations bamboo was planted with 2 m X 2m spacing along the gully banks for
stabilizing the eroding banks.
Training programme-cum field visits, farmers field day and sensitization workshops
with various stake holders were organized to popularize the bamboo in ravines

2.3 Kota-Chambal Ravines


At Kota centre, 3 small natural watersheds (area ranging from 2 to 5 ha) comprising various
types of prevailing gullies i.e. small, medium, and large. Out of these three small watersheds,
two are located in the ravines system draining in to the Chambal River. These watersheds are
located in the research farm of the CSWCRTI, Research Centre, Kota and will be called on
farm site (OFS W1 & W2) in the later descriptions. Third watershed (off farm w3) is located
in the ravines system draining in to the Kalisindh River which is a tributary of Chambal
River. This is a typical ravenous village named Kakronda catchment of this gullied area
comprises of farmers land and represents actively extending ravines.
As per time schedule of major activities, following physical achievements were made.
Total 7000 saplings were planted in NBM experimental sites at Research farm, Kota
and Kakronda village.
Under the Intervention-1:Utility and hydrologic performance of bamboo plantation in
gully bed stabilization following treatments were imposed
Under treatment-1; Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) was planted at 4 m x 4 m
spacing in gully beds of W1watershed and staggered trench was constructed for
each plant. Total 1400 trenches were constructed at NBM experimental sites at
Research farm, Kota and Kakronda village.
Under treatment-2; Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) were planted in staggered
fashion with close spaced rows & close spaced plants (at 2x2 m spacing) at W2
Watershed to act as live check dam. Total 10 live check dams were planted along
the gully beds

7
Under treatment-3; 5 earthen check dams made of gunny bags (bori bund) were
constructed along the gully bed. For each bund, two rows(one each at upstream
and downstream edge at 2x2 m spacing ) of bamboo were planted
Under Intervention - 2: Utility and hydrologic performance of bamboo plantation for
reinforcement of active gully heads /eroding gully banks, following treatments were
imposed
Reinforcement of the gully heads: The active gully heads were identified and these
locations peripheral bunds were constructed. A row of bamboo was planted with 2 m
x 2m spacing at downstream side of the bund
Reinforcement of the gully banks: The active gully banks were identified and these
locations bamboo was planted with 2 m x 2m spacing along the gully banks for
stabilizing the eroding banks

Training programme-cum field visits, farmers field day and sensitization workshops
with various stake holders were organized to popularize the bamboo in ravines

8
3. Environmental Suitability and Silvicultural Practices of Bamboo
Plantation under Various Interventions in Ravine Lands
3.1 Environmental suitability
The ravine regions are characterized with very scarce natural vegetation largely due to much
eroded soils having low fertility status as well as very unsuitable climatic and topographic
conditions for most of the economical tree/grass species. Champion and Seth (1968)
classified the natural vegetation of ravines under type 6BC2: Northern tropical ravine thorn
forests. The climate of the ravine region in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and
Gujarat is semi-arid to sub-humid (Agro-climatic zone IV) with annual average rainfall of
600 mm to 800 mm, mostly received from July to October in intense storms. The
temperatures may vary from 3 to 47 C during coldest to hottest months. Humidity may be as
low as 7% and evaporation very high during May and June. (Bhushan and Saxena, 1984;
Singh et al., 1972; Singh et al., 1976; Prajapati et al., 1977; Prakash and Rao, 1986).
Environmental suitability is understandably a relative term as it is difficult to find best
suitable ecological combinations at single place. Luxuriant growth of different species of
bamboo observed in north east part of the country indicate higher climatic and soil suitability.
Though bamboo is not very specific to the soil type as it is observed almost throughout the
India on different soil type, yet for optimum growth, soil and site parameters are listed in
Table 1.
Table1 : Soil and climatic suitability conditions for optimum growth of bamboo
Parameters Optimum range Parameters Optimum
range
Soil texture Loam, sandy loam, sandy Available Phosphorous 25-40
clay loam, clay loam (kg/ha)
Soil structure Crumby/spheroid Available potassium >150
(kg/ha)
Soil Bulk density (g/cm3) 1.3-1.5 Land slope (%) 1-6
Saturated hydraulic 1-4 Soil depth (cm) > 90 cm
conductivity (cm/hour)
Organic carbon (%) > 0.8 %, (No specific Average annual Rainfall > 1200
information) (mm)
Soil pH 5.7-7.2 Average air temperature 8-35
(C)
Electrical Conductivity 0.1-0.75 Relative Humidity (%) >80
(dsm-1)
Available Nitrogen 350-600
(Kg/ha)
For identifying relative land suitability for bamboo, ravine lands can be classified in
following two major groups such as i) gully beds ii) gully banks and gully heads (Figs. 3 &
4). Coarse to fine sands or sandy soils are main characteristics (Fig. 5A) Soils on hump, slope
and bed of ravine was observed to have organic carbon in the range of 0.2-0.3 %, 0.16-0.28
% and 0.1-0.165 respectively. Poor organic carbon and coarse texture itself indicate poor
fertility and very poor water holding capacity of soils. Bed slopes are in the range of 2-5%

9
and bank slopes varying much and most of the locations these are more than 100%. Soil pH
and Electrical conductivity were in the range of 7.6-7.9 and 0.12-0.18 dsm-1. Soil depth is
higher than 1.5 m. Soils are moderately suitable in terms of pH, highly suitable as EC and soil
depth and slope but unsuitable as poor water holding capacity and fertility. Various soil and
water conservation measures, closure of biotic interferences, along with life saving irrigations
and addition of organic matter and fertilizers will make the degraded ravine lands suitable for
economically viable plantations (Fig. 5B).

Fig. 3: Gully bottom and slopes Fig. 4: Gully head

A B

Fig. 5: A. Degraded ravine bed with coarse texture soil, poor in fertility and water holding capacity soil,
B. Bamboo seedling planted in ravine bed at NBM experimental site with micro basin around plant

3.2 Silvicultural practices


Choice of bamboo species for ravine lands

Two important species of bamboo occurring in semi arid lands of India are Dendrocalamus
strictus (Fig. 6 & 7) (Manvel or Solid bamboo) and Bambusa bambos (Figure 8) (Katas or
Thorny bamboo). Besides the above species, Dendocalmus hamiltonii is present in small
patches in semi arid regions of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. No other species of
bamboo has been reported in the ravine lands.

10
Fig. 6: Dendrocamus strictus in Mahi ranvines

Fig.7: Young clump of Dendrocamus strictus Fig. 8: Young clump of Bambusa bambos
Most of the bamboos are hungry, thirsty plants. So unless they are raised in the perfect place
with fertile, friable soil and plenty of timely and reliable rain they need to be provided both
fertilizers and water regularly for best growth. As ravine lands are characteristically devoid of
fertility and are mostly moisture deficient, only the hardier varieties can be grown in these
conditions and it takes longer for these to be raised. The Dendrocalamus strictus is the most
widely planted and most successful bamboo species for planting in the ravines. This is due to
the fact that it is the hardest of all Indian bamboos thus it thrives even in areas which are
under successive period of severe drought. It is a frost hardy species. In the less harsh areas
of ravine region where moisture deficit is not too prominent, Bambusa bambos can be
planted. Details of D. strictus and B. bamboos are given below:
Dendrocalamus strictus
Botanical name Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees
Local name Shal banh (Assam); Latthi bans (Sikkim); Tursing (Mizoram);
Lath bans (Tripura); Karail (Bang.); Salia (Oriya); Thos bans (
Hindi), Male bamboo(English)
Habitat It grows in dry and semi-dry zones along plains and hilly tracks.
Can be successfully introduced for rehabilitation of ravine lands
Distribution China, India, Indonesia, Java, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal,
Singapore and Thailand. Widely distributed in arid and semi-arid
zones of plains and central and south India and commonly
cultivated throughout India in the plains and foot hills. Well
distributed in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Maharashtra,

11
Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Orissa, Karnataka,
Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
Flowering and fruiting Sporadic flowering have been reported in almost every year from
different parts of India. Gregarious flowering cycle varies
from25-45 years.
Identification features A deciduous, sub-arborescent, densely tufted bamboo hollow in
wet, solid in dry climates, 6-20 m tall 2.5-7.5 cm in diameter;
nodes somewhat swollen, internodes 30-45 cm long.
Culm Linear-lanceoclate 2.5-25 x 0.5-3 cm, rounded at the base into a
short petiole;
Culm sheaths Sharply acuminate; twisted point, rough and hairy above, softly
hair below; leaf-sheaths striate, hairy.
Leaves Variable; 7.5-30 cm long, covered on glabrous, striate, rounded at
the top; imperfect blade, triangular hairs on both sides; ligules
narrow.
Silvicultural management This species can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, and also
techniques rhizome/offset planting.
Pest and diseases and Diseases like damping off, wilt, seedling stem infection, leaf
their control blight, leaf rust are seen to attack this species. Application of
Bavistin in combination with Fytolan is effective in controlling
disease. Defoliators cause some damages but they are considered
minor pest.
Uses This is one of the most important bamboo species in India. As
this bamboo has well developed root system, it is excellent plant
for soil conservation specially for developing good vegetative
barriers. Thus it has been found suitable for reclamation of ravine
lands. In India it is extensively used for paper pulping and also
for construction purposes. It is used for agricultural implements,
musical instruments; furniture etc. Tender shoots are commonly
used as food items. Decoction of leaves and nodes and siliceous
matters is used in traditional medicines in India.

Bambusa bambos
Botanical name Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss
Local name Katabah (Arunachal Pradesh); Kotoha/Kotabanh (Assam);
Saneiba (Manipur); Kanday bans, (Sikkim); Thorny bamboo
(English)
Habitat This species prefer sandy loam and fertile soil with tropical to
sub tropical climatic condition up to1200 m altitude.
Distribution Typical species in southeastern Asia, widely cultivating around
farmer's yards and by the sides of rivers. Throughout India.
Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia.This species is
found throughout India up to1200 m altitude.
Flowering and fruiting This species flower gregariously and clump dies after
flowering. The flowering cycle is 3045 years.
Identification features Avery dense tufted bamboo, producing large dense clump of
closely packed culms.

12
Culm Strong, cylindrical, erect, hollow, dark green-colored up to30 m
tall, 15-18 cm diameter, the wall very thick with a lumen;
branching at all node, those form the lower nodes recurved and
bend downward towards the ground with the upper branches
arching and producing a fan like plume, the upper leafy
branches bearing small spines. Nodes slightly swollen and few
lower nodes produce short aerial roots.
Culm sheaths Sheaths coriaceous, glabrous to pubescent with dark brown
velvety hairs.
Leaves Diffuse in complements, 15-30 cm long and 8-15 mm broad,
with about 10 leaves in each complement. Leaf blades linear
and variable in size, lanceolate, narrowed to an acuminate tip,
with mid-vein inconspicuous on the abaxial side and prominent
on adaxial side.
Silvicultural management This species can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, and also
techniques rhizome/offset planting.
Pest and diseases and their Disease like damping off, leaf blight, leaf spot, stem infection,
control rhizome bud rot, rhizome decay, culm rot, basal culm decay,
leaf rust, sooty mould by differed pathogen have been reported.
Proper sanitation and use of fungicides like Bavistin and
Diathen M45 is effective in controlling diseases. Animals like
porcupines, rats, pigs, elephants, squeals, hares, deer, goats etc
also cause considerable damages in bamboo plantation. Proper
fencing and protection is required around the plantation site
especially during the seedling stage.
Uses This bamboo is utilized as raw material for paper, house
construction, panel production and fencing. It is also used for
scaffolding, handy craft, furniture, cooking utensils, etc. shoots
are used as vegetable and leaves as fodder and medicine.

Planting
The success of plantation away from favorable environment depends on proper technique of
planting, propagation methods used, application of fertilizer, manures, watering and
management. Though it is easy to establish bamboo in favorable climate and soil condition
but with proper selection of planting material, planting techniques and management it can be
established in areas which is primarily not suitable. Plantations of bamboo are either raised
from seeds or by vegetative means.
Propagation by seed
Propagation through seeds is the main option for growing bamboo in nontraditional area.
Dendrocalamus strictus and B. bamboos are best suited for nursery techniques. Collection of
seeds, separating seeds from debris, storage, sowing in polythene bags in nursery in good soil
manure mixture, are the primary steps in propagation through seeds. A wet condition but not
waterlogged is highly desired for good germination of bamboo seeds. Seeds start germinating
in 3-4 days and majority of seeds germinate within 15 days. Maintaining shade condition

13
enhances germination percentage. Partial shade is desired for initial seedling growth.
Rhizomes start developing in one to two months and penetrates adjacent polythene bag.
Frequent movement of seedling minimizes rhizome roots intermingling. The main advantage
of seed based propagation is that, plantation can live a whole life unlike vegetative
propagation in which age of new plantation is same as of mother clump and both flower
together. Large area may be covered in short time using seed based planting materials. The
main disadvantage is the availability of seeds as most of the species flower after long time.
Seed based tissue culture may be helpful as large number may be obtained in short span.
Vegetative propagation
Different methods like offset planting, rhizome planting, rooting of culm cuttings and tissue
culture are used.
i. By planting offsets: This is the easiest and commonest method. One season old
culms are cut through with a slanting cut about 90-120 cm from the ground and the
rhizomes are dug out along with the intact roots and are cut off to a length which is
sufficient to include a well-developed bud. These offsets are planted out at a spacing
of 7.0 x 7.0 m, sufficiently deep to cover the first 2-3 nodes. The planting out of
offsets is done after pre-monsoon showers or just before the beginning of rainy
season. The earth above the ground is well rammed around the offsets to prevent
water logging. The top of the culms are cut and sealed with earth or cow dung to
prevent rotting. Weeding is done during the first season.
ii. By rhizome cuttings: Sections of fresh living rhizomes of the preceding year
measuring about 15-30 cm long, containing at least one bud are used as cuttings.
Rhizomes are separated from the mother plant during the onset of monsoon and
planted in pits of 45 x 45 cm. This method is commonly employed by the villagers for
propagation of bamboos.
iii. By stem cuttings: Stem cuttings or culm segments without rhizomes but with buds
when planted horizontally or vertically give a high rate of propagation in case of
bamboo. In some bamboos a notch is cut to admit water into the hollow internode. D.
strictus is successfully regenerated by planting horizontally cuttings 90 cm long from
two-year-old culms (Tewari, 1992). About 40 to 70 per cent of rooting can be
obtained in culm cuttings depending on the period of collection, age of culm and
treatment with growth regulating substances. Cuttings treated with NAA 100 ppm
during February to March gave maximum rooting response (Surendran and
Seethalakshmi, 1985).
iv. By macro-proliferation: In this method four to six times propagules of the original
planting stock can be obtained within eight months by separating culm with some
rhizome and root in each seedling and planting it in fresh polybags. Thus growing
large number of field plantable saplings of Bambusa bambos, B. tulda, D. strictus and
D. hamiltonii can be obtained through macro-proliferation on a large scale (Kumar,
1991). In this technique, each propagule possesses the shoot, root and rhizome parts at

14
the time of tiller separation itself, which ensures rapid establishment and excellent
survival rate.
v. By tissue culture: Tissue culture provides an important tool for faster multiplication
of superior clonal material of bamboos. The nodes bearing axillary bud are used as
explants for this purpose. Single nodes with axillary buds when inoculated on MS
medium with 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.1 to 1.0 mg/l of NAA produce multiple shoots with
good rooting success (Preetha et al., 1991). Considerable work has been done on the
tissue culture of D. strictus. The various explants used are node, seed, seedling, shoot,
excised embryo and other methods like multiple shoot production, rooting and in vitro
flower induction are used (Zamora, 1994).
Land Preparation and Establishment
Before planting the bamboo in ravine lands, the bushes should be removed. A deep ploughing
(about 20 to 30 cm) with tractor or country plough, to loosen soil, improved aeration and
moisture conservation is advisable. In all the interventions (except bamboo planting in
trenches) pits of 35 cm diameter, 35 cm depth has to made. One year old bamboo seedlings of
30 - 40 cm in height raised in nursery or rhizome cuttings should be planted with the ball of
earth, 4 to 6 cm below the ground level at the centre of pit or trench after filling the excavated
soil with 1 to 3 kg of FYM and then top soil firmly compacted to prevent evaporation of soil
moisture. Planting should be done in the early part of the rainy season, but after the soil has
become sufficiently moist. Particularly for rhizome planting special care will be taken for
watering after planting. Solution of termicide (Chloropyriphos) may be prepared using 4 ml
chemical in 1 litre of water and the roots of bamboo saplings may be dipped in the solution
for 30 seconds before planting after removal from the polythene bags. Where termite
infestation is high, 2.5 litres solution may be applied to the soil near the planted sapling.
Post planting care
After rainy season, 8-12 life saving irrigations of 10-12 litres per plant is provided for
survival of bamboo in initial two years. During first year frequent weedings should be done
for improving survival and growth of plants. Special care needs to be taken to ensure that
plants do not suffer prolonged drought during first year of planting. Manuring is essential for
increased productivity. Apart from fertilizers application at the time of planting, after one
month is also needed. The doses need to be repeated five to six months after end of monsoon
or during shoot bud initiation period. Soil working before emergence of new culms helps in
improving the emergence of new culms. Organic fertilizers should be applied during winter
or dry period. The bamboo rhizome needs loose and well aerated soil for good growth and
production of new culms.
Management
D. strictus is managed under the clear felling systems, with all the culms over a specified
minimum diameter being removed. However, care is taken to ensure that favorable conditions
for regeneration before felling operation are started. Decongestion in clumps can be removed
by cutting out such useless portions of the clump viz the central raised portion or the downhill
portion with no chance of extension of new growth and by leaving more culms on the side of

15
new growth on the uphill side etc. The congested clump should be thinned heavily to allow
light and air to pass through. Crooked culms should be cut. After felling, debris and slash
should be removed to prevent rotting or fire damage. Digging of rhizomes, cutting of tops of
bamboos and use of tender bamboos for bundling for fodder is strictly prohibited. All
climbers infesting the bamboo clumps are to be removed.
Felling cycle and Harvesting
Efficient and regular clump management is important to ensure high productivity. Clump
congestion should be minimized. Extraction of the culms start from 4-12 years after planting
from well managed plantation for sustainable production. A 3 to 5 years felling cycle is
adopted for harvesting of Dendrocalamus strictus, as it allows the clumps rest and the
rhizomes are not disturbed too frequently. Congestion can occur by cutting the culms from
the periphery of the clumps, grazing and extraction by neglecting the cutting rules. This can
be avoided by observing the general 'horse shoe' pattern for cutting. Cultural operations like
thinning, cleaning, protection from fire and grazing need to be followed (Gupta, 1964).
Coppice shoots arising from harvested or injured clumps should be removed as these are
thinner than culms and lead to congestion in the clump.
During harvesting all culms older than 4 years should be removed. Harvesting first/ second
year culms, which have very high water content and shrivel up when cut, shall also be
avoided. In each clump a few well grown full length old culms (not older than 4 year) must
be retained. In ravines for optimum production of new culms after harvesting, retaining 5-6
vigour culms per clump on the hump top produces upto 33 culms/ per clump/3 years while at
ravine beds leaving 7-8 vigour culms per clump produce up to 44 culms/ per clump/3 years.
The culms should not be cut at a lower height than the first node above ground level.
Preferably the felling operations shall be carried out from November to January and felling
should be avoided during growing season. Harvesting should be taken up annually or at least
every alternate year. As a general practice young twisted culms are cut so that new culms
grow. All the new culms and 25% of the old culms should be retained. Usually no clump
should be clear felled except after flowering and when seeding has been completed. It is to be
ensured that rhizomes are not dug out and exposed. Studies conducted at CSWCRTI, RC,
Vasad revealed that harvesting of old culms representing 30% of the total number of culms
every year gives the maximum production (Kurothe & Nambiar, 2001).
Pests and diseases
Rats, porcupines, squirrels, hare, deer and monkeys are known to damage young bamboo by
gnawing rhizomes or eating tender shoots or seeds. Goats and cattle, besides eating juvenile
foliage, also cause damage by trampling the rhizomes; monkeys can break young culms by
jumping, and elephants can damage entire clumps in feeding or by trampling.
Young shoots are susceptible to fungal attack. The green young shoot turns brown and comes
off easily when pulled, leaving the area of transformation soft and brown, smelling strongly
of molasses. Preventive measure is drenching the clumps with blue copper in advance. Many
diseases like, damping off caused by Fusarium spp., leaf spots, leaf blight and leaf rusts
caused by species of Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Dactylaria, Dasturella and

16
Helminthosporium, culm rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum, culm-sheath rot by Glomerella
cingulata and little leaf disease by Mycoplasma-like organisms have been reported in bamboo
(Mohanan, 1990). Rust due to Dasturella bambusina affects bamboo. The major insect pests
of D. strictus are Ochrophara montana (affects seeds) Holotrichia consanguinea (affects
rhizomes) Hieroglyphus banian (defoliates) termites (damages the roots) Estigmene chinensis
(culm borer) Cyrtotrachelus dux and C. longimanus (young shoot borers) Myocalandra
exarata (green shoot borer) Chelyophora caratitina (young shoots) Olethreutes paragramm
(young shoots) Calamochrous pentasaris (defoliator) Crocidophora ptyophora (leaf roller)
Messepha absolutalis (defoliator) Pionea flavofimbriata (leaf skeletoniser) Pyrausta
bambucivora (leaf roller) Pyrausta coclesalis (defoliator) Dinoderus sp. and Lyctus africanus
(shoot borer) (Tewari, 1992). Application of fungicides like Dithane M-45, Bavistin and
Captan in the nursery reduces the incidence of leaf spot and leaf blight diseases. The
application of termiticide and rodenticide reduce the damage by white ants and rodents
considerably. For controlling damage by white ants several compounds can be used as
termiticides. These include cypermethin, fenavalanate, permethrin, chloropyriphos, lindane,
imidacloprid and fipronil etc. Application of 50 to 100 gm powder of 2% insecticide
(chlorpyriphos/methyl parathion/folidol) during filling of pits is recommended to avoid
damage to young seedlings. If the termite attack is evident in the bamboo plantation after
establishment, drenching of 50 to 500 ppm solution of chlorpyriphos or 100 ppm solution of
imidacloprid or fipronil or 10-50 ppm solution of indoxcarb insecticide, twice at an interval of
20 days helps in controlling the damage.

17
4. Bamboo Based Interventions for Stabilization and Productive
Utilization of Gully Beds in Ravine Lands
4.1 Bamboo based interventions for reclaiming degraded gully beds
The experiments conducted under National Bamboo Mission funded project evaluated, three
types of bamboo based interventions in reclaiming degraded gully beds (Rao et al., 2011).
These are i) Bamboo plantation with staggered contour trenches ii) Bamboo plantation
supported by bori bunds iii) Bamboo plantation as Live check dams.
Bamboo plantation with staggered contour trenches
Staggered contour trenches of 0.5 m (width) x 0.5 m (depth) x 2 m (length) are dug out at 4 m
x 4 m spacing in ravine beds. Trenches should be excavated, across the slope. The excavated
soil is heaped on downstream side of the trench in the form of a bund for retention of
moisture, prior to start of rains. Seedlings are planted at the centre of trench after filling the
excavated soil up to 30 cm depth and equal volume of soil along with 1 to 3 kg of FYM is
refilled after planting and then firmly compacted (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9: Bamboo plantation with supportive staggered trenches


Bamboo plantation supported by bori bunds
In degraded gullies, series of earthen check dams (bori bunds) with polythene bags has to be
constructed. The earth filled polythene bags of 3 rows at bottom, 2 rows at middle and one
row at top has to be kept to maintain the stable slope (Fig. 10). After keeping these bags, soil
has to be filled on top and sides and grass sodding/sowing is also be done. One end of the
bund the top boris should be removed and kept at upstream and downstream to serve as
outlet. For each bori bund, two rows, one each at upstream and downstream edge bamboo
saplings has to be planted with plant to plant spacing of 2 m. In between the check dams
general bamboo plantation has to be done with 4 m x 4 m spacing in staggered manner.

Fig. 10: Bamboo plantation with small earthen check dams made of sand bags

18
Bamboo plantation as live check dams
When the sufficient funds were not available for reclamation of ravine lands, in those
situations bamboo saplings has to be planted in two staggered rows with 2 m x 2 m (plant to
plant x row to row) spacing in staggered fashion to act as live check dam (Fig. 11) without
any soil and water conservation measures. One check dam to other check dam can be kept at
minimum 10 m distance. In between the live check dams bamboo plantation has to be done
with 4 m x 4 m spacing in staggered manner (Fig. 11). After 4 to 5 years of plantation these
staggered rows will act as live check dam and minimize runoff and soil loss.

Fig. 11: Bamboo plantation as live check dams in degraded gully beds
4.2 Survival & growth performance of bamboo in different interventions
Survival
The bamboo plant survival data from various treatments in different ravine systems varies
from 40- 80%. From the data it is observed that highest survival (upto 80%) were recorded in
gully beds treated with bamboo plantation with supportive staggered trenches followed by
bamboo plantation with earthen check dams. The higher survival in these treatments is
mainly due to increased moisture availability.
Growth
The main period of growth of the bamboo is 2-3 months during which time they attain their
full height and diameter. The development of lateral branches takes place during the second
season of growth. After the first season, solidification and hardening of culms take place.
There is an initial short period of 14-18 days showing maximum rate of growth (22-33
cm/day) accounting for 25 to 56 per cent followed by moderate growth (11 to 16 cm/day) and
subsequently slow growth (9 to 13 cm/day). During the day time, height increment is about
40 percent as against 60 percent during night. Maximum growth per day is 37 cm. The
months of June-July-August is the season of continuous vegetative activity which indicates
that there exist a definite periodicity with regard to growth (Shanmuganathan et al., 1980).
Observations on fertilizer and spacing trials in the nursery of less than two years, indicated
that closer spacing is better and the application of NPK enhance the biomass production by
three times (Patil and Patil, 1990). Fertilizer application also enhances the growth of
seedlings after planting out (Srivastava et al., 2008). The growth of bamboo plants after the
plantation in different ravine systems are presented in the following sections.

19
Mahi ravines: Bamboo saplings were planted during 2007-08 were measured for different
growth parameters in the current year (2011-12). The average height was observed to be
maximum under earthen gully plug treatment (353 cm), followed by staggered trenches (330
cm) (Table 1). Similar trend was observed for clump diameter. Earthen gully plug treatment
recorded the maximum clump diameter (154 cm). This is followed by trench (151 cm) and
live check dam (111 cm), respectively.
Table 2: Bamboo growth under various treatments-Mahi ravines

Treatment Av. Height Av. Clump Number of Av. Collar


clump(cm) diameter (cm) culms/ clump diameter (cm)
Bamboo+Trench 330.3 154.1 12 2.4
Bamboo as Live
checkdam 281 111.4 9 1.94
Bamboo +Earthen
gully plug 353 150.7 15 2.72

Yamuna Ravines: The mean survival and growth parameters of bamboo at Agra research
farm and Manikpura sites of Yamuna ravines are presented in Table 3. It is inferred that T3
(plantation of rows of bamboo in the upstream and downstream side of small earthen gully
plugs) has a significantly higher culm height (126.20 cm), culm diameter (7.56 mm), crown
size (72.86 cm) and maximum of 12 culms /clump compared to others.

Table 3 Bamboo growth under various treatments-Yamuna ravines

Treatments Av. culm Av. culm Av. crown No.of culms


height (cm) diameter (mm) size (cm) /clump
Bamboo+Trench 108.75 7.96 66.82 9.67
Bamboo as Live 99.20 6.20 49.11 6.33
checkdam
Bamboo +Earthen gully 126.20 7.56 72.86 12.00
plug

Chambal Ravines: The mean survival and growth parameters of bamboo at Chambal ravines
are presented in Table 4. From the table, it is also observed that highest survival and growth
parameters were recorded in Treatment 3 (Bamboo plantation with earthen gully plugs)
followed by Treatment 1 (Bamboo plantation with trenches).

Table 4 Bamboo growth under various treatments-Chambal ravines


Treatment Average, ht, Collar No of culmns/Clump
cm diameter
Bamboo+Trench 340 2.7 7
Bamboo as Live checkdam 310 2.6 6
Bamboo +Earthen gully plug 360 2.84 7.5
The better growth in bamboo plantation with conservations measures are mainly due to
absorption of rainfall thereby increase in moisture holding status.

20
4.3 Hydrological behaviour of the bamboo based interventions
Throughfall and stemflow
Canopy interception losses of rainfall affect the amount of water reaching the soil in several
ways, and are therefore of relevance to many hydrological investigations. Several authors
studied throghfall and stemflow partitioning in different forest species but it is found difficult
to measure them in grass species like bamboo. Keeping these considerations in view, an
attempt was made to measure portioning of rainfall as throghfall (Figure 4), stemflow (Figure
5) and interception loss of bamboo plantation in degraded ravine lands under semi-arid
climatic conditions of Central Gujarat, India. The low cost plastic stemflow collar with
attached raingauge was successfully used to record the stemflow amount and intensity
without involving much manpower and is found economical and simple than costly and
sophisticated instruments. The throughfall varies from 43-72%, stemflow varies from 7-22%
and interception losses varies from 12-50% of the rainfall. The funnelling ratio varies from
22-91. The high stemflow amount and funnelling ratio of bamboo plants in comparison to
deciduous and coniferous plants makes them hydrologically best suited plantation in
degraded ravine lands.

Fig. 12: Measurement of throughfall Fig. 13: Stemflow measurement


Runoff & soil loss
The natural resource conservation potential of bamboo cultivation in degraded ravine lands in
terms of runoff and soil loss is presented here.

Mahi ravines: The experiments were conducted under National Bamboo Mission funded
project under Mahi ravines at Khorwad village and runoff from various bamboo based
interventions was measured (Figure 14). The average annual rainfall of the Khorwad is 870
mm. The total rainfall of Khorwad is 980 mm 840 mm in 2010 and 2011 respectively. Total
rainy days are 32, 34 in 2010, 2011 respectively. The treatment/watershed wise runoff & soil
loss is presented in Figure 15. From the Figure it is observed that lowest runoff (79 mm ,67
mm in 2010, 2011 respectively) and soil loss (5, 4 t/ha in 2010, 2011 respectively)) is
recorded in W3 watershed i.e. treatment T3 (Bamboo plantation with earthen check dams
made of sand bags) followed by W1 watershed (runoff 127, 104 mm, & soil loss 10, 7 t/ha in
2010, 2011 respectively) i.e. treatment T1 (Bamboo plantation with staggered trenches) in
comparison to control watershed W4 (runoff 284, 183 mm, & soil loss 16,12 t/ha in 2010,
2011 respectively). The treatment/watershed wise nutrient concentration and nutrient loss is

21
presented in Figure 16. From the Figure it is observed that lowest nutrient concentration and
nutrient loss is recorded in W3 watershed i.e. treatment T3 (Bamboo plantation with earthen
check dams made of sand bags) followed by W1 watershed i.e. treatment T1 (Bamboo
plantation with staggered trenches) in comparison to control watershed W4. Bamboo based
interventions reduced the nutrient losses varies from 50-67%.

Fig. 14: Measurement of runoff in degraded gullies

W1 : bamboo plantation with trenches , W2 : bamboo as live check dams


W3 : bamboo plantation with small earthen check dams, W4: Control

Fig. 15: Runoff & soil loss behaviour of the treatments

Fig.16: Nutrient concentration and nutrient loss behaviour of the treatments

Yamuna ravines: Rainfall, runoff and soil loss have been recorded in Yamuna ravines. Total
rainfall received during monsoon period of 2011 was 542.2 mm at Research centre, Agra and
553.9 mm at Manikpura village and runoff occurred were 5.87 mm ( 2.60 % ) from T-2,
20.31 mm ( 8.98% ) from control and from Manikpura ravinous watershed it was 9.66 mm
(4.08%). Soil loss recorded was 0.54 t/ha (T-2), 4.08 t/ha (control) and 2.84 t/ha (Manikpura).

22
(Table 5). The runoff and soil loss occurred in T2- live check dam and T4-control only
(Table 5).

Table 5 Rainfall, runoff and soil loss under different treatments under Yamuna Ravines
Particulars T1 T2 T3 T4 Manikpura
(Trenches) (Live check dam) (Earthen CD) (Control)
Total rainfall (mm) 542.2 542.2 542.2 542.2 553.9
Seasonal Rainfall (mm) 226.2 226.2 226.2 226.2 236.3
Rainy Days 34 34 34 34 35
Runoff (mm) 0 5.87 0 20.31 9.66
Runoff (%) 0 2.60 0 8.98 4.08
Soil Loss ( t/ha) 0 0.540 0 3.87 2.84
Silt deposited behind 0 0.348 0 0.410 0.130
structure (t/ha/yr)

Chambal Ravines: Rainfall, runoff and soil loss have been recorded in Chambal ravines.
Total rainfall received during monsoon period of 2011 was 617.5 mm. The treatment wise
runoff and soil loss is presented in Table 6.

Table 6 Rainfall, runoff and soil loss under different treatments under Chambal Ravines

Rainfall-runoff/soil loss T1 T2 T3 Control


Rainfall (mm) 617.5 617.5 617.5 617.5
Rainy days 29 29 29 29
Number of runoff events 5 5 5 5
Runoff (mm) 4.5 6.17 3.4 11.2
Soil loss (t/ha) 3.1 3.4 4.0 5.2

The runoff and sediment behaviour under various treatments in different ravines reveal that
the bamboo plantation based interventions absorbs more than 80% of rainfall. The watershed
treated with bamboo plantation along with earthen check dams made of sand bags (bori
bunds) having more runoff retention capacity than the watershed treated with bamboo
plantation along with staggered trenches due to that lowest runoff & soil loss occurred in that
watershed. The physiographic conditions of these watersheds are more are less similar and
these imply that the varying runoff and soil loss behaviour of watersheds is mainly due to
conservation measures along with bamboo plantations.

4.4 Economics of bamboo based interventions for gully beds


Different bamboo based interventions have been analyzed from economic perspective.
Analysis has been done separately for the three treatments to stabilize the gully bed and gully
head extension. Data used for economic analysis has been drawn from field experiment and
projected for the gullied land at the research farm of the centre. Projections have been based
on real farm data of growth and harvest of bamboo as the harvest of bamboo has not yet
started. For harvest projection, assumption of one third harvest of mature bamboo per clump
from seventh year onwards has been taken based on the study conducted by Kurothe &

23
Nambiar, (2004). The basic data used for estimating cultivation cost of bamboo in Mahi
ravines, is presented in Table 7.
Table 7 Basic data for working out cost of cultivation of bamboo in different treatments
(Base Year for the costs, 2011-12)

Description Mahi Ravines


No. of Plants / ha 625
Mortality Replacement (%) 20
Manure required (Kg per plant per year) 10
Fertilizer required (Kg per plant per year) 0.02
Cost of Fertilizer (Rs / Kg) 9.5
Irrigation Cost (Rs./plant) 2.0
No. of Irrigations / year 12
Seedling price (Rs. / Seedling) 5.0
Labour wages (Rs. / manday) 100
No. of harvestable plants per ha (%) 30
Sale price per bamboo pole (Rs.) 35
The analysis has been done based on actual accrual of costs and bamboo output projected
based on growth data from the fields in different treatments. The constant input and output
prices for the year 2011-12 were considered. The harvest price of bamboo at farm gate was
considered as these were realized at the research farm. This is justified since there is no
organized market and identified marketing channel for bamboo sale in the ravines. A harvest
cycle of 20 years has been considered with a discount rate of 8%. The total cost of bamboo
plantation in ravines is accounted for by: (1) land preparation (2) treatment cost (trench/ bori
bund/ live checkdam) (3) plantation establishment including planting material, (4) protection
and maintenance, which includes irrigation, cleaning of bamboo clump etc. (Tables 8-12).
Major expenditures in the first year are for treatment cost, irrigation followed by plantation
establishment (site preparation and planting). The remaining is spread over the next four
years, primarily for irrigation, cleaning of clump and mortality replacement on the second
year and plantation maintenance and protection from years 2 to 7.
Treatment for gully bed stabilization includes, trenching, live check dam of bamboo
plantation and bori bund reinforced with bamboo plantation on upstream and downstream
side. Capital cost of the treatments is considered in the first year on actual basis. The cost of
bori bund with bamboo plantation is arrived at considering plantation and maintenance cost
of bamboo at 2 m X 2 m spacing in two staggered rows in the upstream and downstream of
the bori bund and the cost of bori bund. The cost of bamboo live check dams made and
bori bund reinforced with bamboo in the given area of the ravine bed has been extrapolated
on per hectare basis. Similarly, the cost of trenching for the unit area has been computed.
The number of harvestable bamboo culms per clump have been projected based on the
growth data of bamboo plantation in the three treatments.
Costs
The costs of bori-bund reinforced with bamboo, trenching and bamboo live check dam
treatments works out to be Rs 96,160/ha, Rs 37,500/ha and Rs 57,588/ha, respectively
(Tables 8-12). The present value of total cost including bambo plantation at 4 m X 4 m
24
spacing over a period of 20 years works out to be Rs 294,156 ha-1, 239,161 ha-1and 231,445
ha-1 in bori-bund reinforced with bamboo, trenching and bamboo live check dam
treatments, respectively. Out of which 42%, 31% and 35% is spent in the first year. Capital
cost on treatment mainly accounts for the differences.
Benefit
Total number of culmns per clump observed in field worked out to be 15, 12, 9 in bori-bund
reinforced with bamboo, trenching and bamboo live check dam treatments respectively
(Table 2). Considering the recommended harvest cycle of 30% mature bamboo culms per
clump, the harvestable bamboo culms per clump are 5, 4 and 3 in these treatments
respectively. The total bamboo clumps have been taken as 625/ha in trench treatment based
on 4 m X 4 m spacing. In case of bamboo live check dam and bori bund reinforced with
bamboo treatments, the area lost under the treatments have been accounted for along with
the bamboo clums per clump available in the treatments while computing the harvestable
bamboo culms. As against 30% culms per clump in general plantation (4 m X 4 m spacing),
harvestable bamboo culms per clump from the treatments (2 m X 2 m spacing) have been
considered as 10% only. Based on this, the available bamboo harvested for sale works out to
be 3126, 2500 and 2312 in bori-bund reinforced with bamboo, trenching and bamboo live
check dam treatments, respectively.
Harvesting commences from 7th year onwards. The sale price per piece of bamboo is
considered at Rs 35/-. Depending upon the growth parameters of bamboo in different
treatments, the harvestable bamboo culms differ and the net annual return from these
treatments vary from Rs. 63,910/- to 88,780/-(Table 11).
The economic indicators for bamboo plantation in different treatments reveal that for a
production span of 20 years the net present worth varies from Rs 222,588/ha in bamboo live
check dam treatment to Rs 319,731/ha in bori bund reinforced with bamboo(Table 12).
Similarly, the benefit cost ratio works out to be 2.09, 2.05 and 1.96 in bori-bund reinforced
with bamboo, trenching and bamboo live check dam treatments, respectively. The
internal rate of return reveals that bamboo performance in trenching gives best rate of return
(20.2%) as compared to bori-bund reinforced with bamboo (19.7%) and bamboo live check
dam treatments (19.3%) among the three treatments.

25
Table 8: Cost components (`/ha) in trenching treatment (2011-12 prices)

S. Items 1 year II year III year IV year V to VI VII to XX


No. years years
I Material
1 Planting material including 20% 1250 250 250
mortality replacement
2 Manure and fertilizers (DAP) 190
3 Plant protection chemical 600
4 Irrigation, 12 Nos. 15000 15000 15000 15000
II Labour
1 Land preparation 6000
2 Cost of trenching 37500
3 Planting and staking 9375 3750 3750
4 Soil working and others 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000
5 Watch & Ward 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000
6 Harvesting - 7th year onwards 12500

Table 9: Cost components (`/ha) in treatment bori bund supported with bamboo (2011-12 prices)

S. Items 1 year II year III year IV year V to VI VII to XX


No. years years
I Material
1 Planting material including 20% mortality 866 365 365
replacement
2 Manure and fertilizers (DAP) 190
3 Plant protection 600
4 Irrigation, 12 Nos. 10397 10397 10397 10397
II Labour
Land preparation 6000
Cost of bori bund reinforced with bamboo 96160
plantation
Planting and staking 6498 2730 2730
Soil working and others 2000 2000 2000 2000
Watch & Ward 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000
Harvesting - 7th year onwards 15630

Table 10: Cost components (`/ha) in treatment live check dam of bamboo (2011-12 prices)

S.No Items 1 year II year III IV V to VI VII to XX


year year years years
Material
1 Planting material including 30% 901 564 564
mortality replacement
2 Manure and fertilizers (DAP) 190
3 Plant protection 600
4 Irrigation, 12 Nos. 10812 10812 10812 10812
Labour
1 Land preparation 6000
2 Live check dam of bamboo 57588
3 Planting and staking 6759 1230 1230
4 Soil working and others 2000 2000 2000 2000
5 Watch & Ward 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000
6 Harvesting - 7th year onwards 11560

26
Table 11: Yield and annual return of bamboo plantations in different treatments
S.No. Treatments Yield (Poles No ha-1) Net Return ( ` ha-1)
1 Bori bund reinforced with bamboo 3126 88,780/-
2 Trenching 2500 70,000/-
3 Bamboo live check dam 2312 63,910/-

Table 12: Economics of bamboo plantations in different treatments (Period 20 years, Discount
rate 8%)
S. No. Treatments Net Present Value Benefit-cost Internal rate of
(`/ha) ratio return %)
1 Bori bund reinforced with bamboo 319,731/- 2.09 19.7
2 Trenching 251,792/- 2.05 20.2
3 Bamboo live check dam 222,588/- 1.96 19.3

4.5 Intangible benefits of bamboo plantation in degraded gullies

The bamboo plantation in ravines provides some indirect benefits also. These include
prevention of soil erosion and loss of soil carbon. Carbon stock build up under bamboo
plantation comprises living biomass and soil organic matter. While the former is depleted
with the harvest of bamboo, the latter is retained in the soil till the bamboo plantation lasts.
Soil conservation benefits of bamboo are a bonus in ravines, which are prone to soil loss but
have not been much studied. The rapid production cycle of bamboo increases carbon
sequestration, because fast growing plants absorb carbon dioxide more quickly and more
often than trees. The annual biomass and carbon sink per hectare of many bamboo species are
comparative to wood tree crops, such as eucalyptus or teak. It can sequestrate CO2 to the
tune of 12 t/ha of plantation (Tripathi and Bajpai).

Soil organic carbon enhancement

This has been estimated from soil samples taken from bamboo plantation sites after 20 years
of plantation. Similar samples were taken from the fallow ravine lands. The analysis revealed
a soil carbon build-up of 41 t/ha over a fallow ravine lands. This carbon build-up sustains in
the soil if plantation is maintained for a longer period, following the recommended harvest
cycle of harvesting 30 per cent mature culms per clump. Imputing a value to this at a shadow
carbon price of US $20/t C (Atkinson et al., 2006) (` 50=US $1), worked out to be
` 41,000/ha, ranging between ` 10,250/ha and ` 82,000/ha at carbon price range of US $5/t
C and US $40/t C, respectively.

Nutrient loss

Soil conservation value has been estimated in terms of nutrients saved from loss to river in
the downstream. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potash content of soil in a degraded ravine
lands of this region ranges between 101-470 kg/ha, 24-95 kg/ha and 216-470 kg/ha,
respectively. This works as a lower and upper bound for the nutrients in the soil conserved as
a result of bamboo plantation. In ravine lands, farm yard manure is applied by the farmers in
small quantity prior to plantation, but the quantity is too small to replace the nutrients lost
through soil erosion. Hence, only chemical fertilizers are used for replacement of nutrients
lost. Further, nitrogen is closely related with carbon in the soil under plantation. Since,
evaluation of soil carbon is done separately, the benefit of this nutrient was not summed up in
the nutrient saved. The value of nutrients, thus, saved through bamboo plantation has been
estimated to be ` 2126 - 5555/ha.

27
5. Bamboo Based Interventions for Gully Heads and Bank Stabilization
5.1 Bamboo Based Interventions for Gully Heads and Bank Stabilization
Active gully heads with peripheral bund supported by bamboo plantation

In ravine lands, to stop the advancement of gully heads, peripheral bunds has to be
constructed with dimensions of 1.7 m bottom width, 0.7 m height, 0.3 m top width making
0.7 m2 section (after settlement) with pipe outlet to dispose the excess runoff safely to the
gully beds. After construction of peripheral bunds, bamboo hedge plantation has to be done at
upstream side of peripheral bunds with plant to plant spacing of 1 m (Fig.17).

Fig. 17: Active gully heads with peripheral bund supported by bamboo plantation

Gully banks stabilization by Anjan grass


Gully banks can also be stabilized by planting or sowing of Anjan grass. This grass has good
soil binding capacity and provides protective ground cover (Fig. 18). Seeds of Anjan grass
@4.5 kg/ha are sown in lines 30 cm apart and N and P2 O5 @ 20 kg/ha each, in the form of
sulphate of ammonia, and single super phosphate fertilizers can be applied for enhancing the
production. The fertilizers are broadcasted. Slip planting of Anjan grass can also be carried
out at plant to plant spacing of 50 cm on contour in a staggered fashion, if the grass slips are
readily available. These grass slips are planted after the onset of monsoon, when good
soaking rains have occurred.

Fig. 18: Anjan grass on gully slopes

Gully banks stabilization and utilization by bamboo plantation with staggered contour
trenches
Staggered contour trenches with 4 m X 4 m spacing are made on gully banks. Bamboo
plantation has to be done at 1 m distance from the trench at downstream side, so that the
stored water in the trench will be available to the plants.

28
Steep gully banks stabilization by bamboo plantation at the bottom
In ravine lands steep gully bank can be stabilized by planting a row of bamboo plant at 1 X 1
m spacing. After growing of the plant these plant will act as reinforcement and thereby
preventing the gully bank erosion (Fig. 19).

Fig. 19: Gully bank stabilization by bamboo plants

5.2 Performance of the bamboo based interventions


The experiments conducted under National Bamboo Mission funded project for gully head
and bank stabilization revealed that gully head extension was observed up to 1.5 m/year in
gully head without peripheral bund and it was not observed in gully head with peripheral
bund supported by bamboo plantation (Table 13). Gully bank extension was observed up to
0.5m/year in gully bank without bamboo plantation and it was reduced by 50% in gully bank
with bamboo plantation (Table 13) (Rao et al., 2011).
Table 13: Gully head and bank extension
Gully head extension, m
Treatment /Location Khorwad 1 Khorwad 2 Vasad
Active gully heads with peripheral bund supported by 0 0 0
bamboo plantation at downstream (T1)
Active gully heads with bamboo plantation (T2) 1.2 0.9 0.6
Active gully heads without peripheral bund and 1.5 1.1 0.8
plantation (T3)
Gully bank extension, m
Active gully banks without bamboo plantation 0.7 0.5 -
Active gully banks with bamboo plantation 0.5 0.2 -
5.3 Bamboo plantation as field bunds, bench terraces, stream bank stabilizer
In addition to the first category of interventions for gully beds and second category of
interventions for gully heads and banks which were mentioned in the above section, bamboo
plantations will also act as other conservation measures such as field/ farm bunds, bench
terraces, stream/river banks.
Bamboo plantation as field bunds
In most of the regions, farmers are practicing raising bamboo on field boundaries (Fig. 20).
This plantation will act as field/ farm bund and will reduce the runoff, soil and nutrients
losses in the field, and increase the moisture and nutrient availability and thereby increase the
production and productivity. The bamboo planted along the field boundaries will also act as

29
live fencing and thereby serve as protection from wild animals and cattle. The bamboo culms
which are produced from field boundaries by the farmers are utilized for their own
requirement and excess is sold for getting additional income.
Bamboo plantation as bio terrace
Cultivation on steep slopes without protection measure often causes serious erosion. By
applying terracing & protected waterways, these steep slopes could be cultivated safely and
profitably. Bench terraces are the platforms like construction which are constructed along the
contours of sloping land above 15% slope. High cost of terracing, loss of area, fall in crop
yield during initial years, absence of appropriate production technology for rainfed benches-
appear to be the major constraints in promoting the idea of terrace cultivation in most of the
regions. A single row of bamboo with plant to plant spacing of 1m will be planted along the
contour in determined vertical interval (Figure 21). These planted rows will act as barrier and
obstruct the runoff and soil loss. Every year some soil will be deposited upstream of the
planted row and after some years these become terrace. The studies on the bamboo as bio
terrace are in preliminary stage. It is also mentioned that bamboo can also be planted on the
terrace risers and these plants will provide stability to the terrace and also provide additional
income from that land.

Fig. 20 Bamboo as field bunds

Fig. 21: Bamboo as bench terrace

5.4 Economics of intervention for gully heads and banks


For gully head, two treatments with bamboo have been tried. One treatment includes planting
bamboo along the bank of the ravines. The other treatment includes earthen bund reinforced
with bamboo plantation on upstream along the gully head. The cost of the treatment
accordingly differ.

30
Cost
a) Bamboo plantation along the gully bank
For 10 m running bank, the cost of treatment works out to be Rs 660/-. This is explained by
the cost of planting and maintaining bamboo plants in 10 m gully bank.
b) Bamboo plantation to reinforce earthen bund
This comprises cost of earthen bund and the cost of bamboo plantation on up stream. For 10
m earthen bund the cost is Rs 700/- (for 0.7 m2 cross section bund) at Rs. 100/m3. The cost of
planting bamboo at 1m spacing works out to be Rs. 660/- for 10 m earthen bund. The total
cost is computed as Rs 1360 per 10 m running length.
Benefit
On an average 17 culms per clump are projected based on the growth data from field.
Considering 10% harvestable bamboo culms per clump (1m X 1m spacing) from 7th year
onwards, 2 bamboo culms per clump are available. So in both treatments, from 10 meter
length of the gully bank and/or earthen bund 20 bamboo culms would be harvested. This will
give a return of Rs 700 per 10 m length from 7th year.

31
6. Problems and Remedial Measures in Bamboo Cultivation in
Degraded Ravine Lands

Despite the bamboo potential in ravines in terms of its conservation value and economic
returns, availability of large area of degraded land, availability of technology & fund, as also
Government thrust, the bamboo has not gained the desired momentum in reclaiming
degraded lands. The main limititing factors in the promotion of the bamboo in ravines are:
6.1 Ecological Factors
Soils
Usually the ravine lands are devoid of economically useful vegetation. Soils are low in
fertility and productivity. Soils have limited fertility as soils in the ravines have low soil
carbon content and soils are invariably low in nitrogen content also. Plants are no magicians
and cannot manufacture nutrients on their own. They have to draw nutrients from soil. This is
also true for bamboos. Irrespective of whether we grow bamboo in a pot, or in a plantation,
we need to provide it with what it needs if we want it to do well. Therefore when they are
raised in the less fertile soils with deficit of moisture, they need both fertilisers and water
regularly for best growth. The ravine lands are characteristically moisture deficient and have
low fertility and it takes longer for even hardier species to be raised there. Though
Dendrocalamus strictus is a very hardy species we need to provide it good soils with plenty
of moisture at least during the establishment phase of seedling. Thus mixing adequate amount
of FYM in the pits before planting of seedlings is mandatory.
Moisture management
Ravine lands are characterized with high moisture stress for most part of the year. In
Chambal ravines highly eroded top soil exposes the calcium carbonate granules below. These
eroded soils have very low infiltration rate and coupled with steep land slope lead to very
limited water retention in the soil. Thus the planted vegetation faces high moisture stress in
Chambal ravines. Though the average annual rainfall is about 750 mm, most of the rains are
received during July to mid- September. For improved survival of bamboo in ravines,
especially in the first year after planting, lifesaving irrigation needs to be provided at least
during summers. The moisture requirement can be met partially by adopting moisture
management measures like staggered trenches and half-moon shaped micro-catchments. Tall
seedlings raised in polythene bags may have root system confined to small area, thus these
seedlings require frequent watering in limited quantities till their roots spread in the soil.
Pruning the tall seedlings from top by removing some leaves reduces the transpiration
requirement of young seedlings thus enhancing their ability to withstand the moisture stress.
Bamboo does not like 'wet feet'. Too much water also can be a problem. Almost all plants
need oxygen for optimum development of their root systems, and bamboos are no exception.
Thus, well drained soil is the major requirement. In the heavy soils, periodic hoeing may be
required to avoid asphyxiation of roots.

32
Light regime
Ravine lands are usually occupied by thorny bushes and less palatable grasses but ground
cover during rainy seasons may restrict adequate light for planted seedlings. Bamboos need
adequate over head sunlight. Most of the bamboos prefer to grow in full sun. They grow
faster, bushier and produce more shoots in the sun than in the shade. They may at times, grow
in shady sites, but slower, leaner and taller as they reach for the light. During establishment
phase bamboo need better sunlight and are thus prone to higher mortality if raised with
greater competition of grasses and bushes. Periodic weeding and bush cutting during first few
months after planting ensures higher survival and growth of planted seedlings.
Impact of Wild Life/ damage by animals
Ravine lands are usual natural habitats of wild life including wild pigs, porcupine, rodents
and animals belonging to antelope family as ravines provide shelter and drinking water
availability as the ravines are located along some river. The proximity of Chambal ravines
with wild life sanctuaries and National parks like Dara sanctuary and Mukundra hill National
park etc. also enhances the incidences of damage to plantation by wild life. Animals like blue
bulls and other antelopes inflict heavy damage by browsing and trampling the newly planted
seedlings and even well-established young plants of bamboo. Damage by pigs is considerable
especially if frequent irrigation is applied in the plantation. The pigs uproot the young
seedlings and inflict heavy damage to established young plants by damaging the rhizomes.
The porcupine and rodents feed on and damage the rhizomes of bamboo thus damaging
young seedlings as well as established plants. Similarly the prevalent practice of open
grazing system in most of the ravine region, leads to possibility of damage to bamboo
plantations due to grazing, browsing and trampling resulting from high biotic pressure of
stray cattle.
Termite attack
During dry periods incidences of termite attack increase resulting in higher mortality and
reduced growth of the planted seedlings and young plants. Use of insecticides powders like
chloropyriphos, endosulfan or folidol in the soil mixture during filling of pits shall help in
reducing termite incidence. Periodic drenching with the solution of these insecticides helps in
reducing the recurrence of termite attack.
6.2 Socioeconomic Factors
Lack of awareness on importance of bamboo
Despite the high economic potential of bamboo and huge utility of bamboo for the rural
areas, bamboo has not been able to find its desired place in the rural economy in the ravine
regions. In fact no major plantations have been raised in ravine regions. Lack of awareness
about the economic potential and utility of bamboo is the major reasons for the indifferent
attitude of rural people towards planting of bamboo. In certain areas of the region planting of
bamboo is considered inauspicious. The myths related to bamboo planting being ominous
need to be allayed by raising awareness on scientific facts related to bamboo. Bamboo has
been traditionally raised, to a limited extent, in village commons and homestead gardens.
However, it still remains a forest species in respect of industrial use and commercial
33
plantations. There is a need for changing the forestry mindset' to the 'farming mind set.' and
creating awareness on the commercial viability and profitability of the species. In this regard,
extensive awareness and capacity building programmes are required at all levels Viz. farmers,
extension workers, village level societies, tree growers cooperative societies etc. The
Research & Development (R&D) under the sector needs to be complimented with awareness
creation, demonstration and extension support for a multiplier effect. SHGs, VFCs, Tree
growers cooperative societies, Farmers clubs, etc. could be used as vehicle for such extension
programmes.
Non Availability of quality planting stock
Non availability of better quality planting stock is a constraint which restricts the easy
adoption of bamboo for planting in ravine regions. The seed is not easily available in the
region and has to be procured from suppliers located either in farway places. Bamboo
rhizomes are also not easily available for planting in the region. Barring a few nurseries of
the state forest department, seedlings of bamboo are not available in other nurseries. For
raising bamboo plantations in ravines, provisions for raising seedlings have to be made with
proper advance planning. Procurement of seed is also required to be planned well in advance.
Harvesting and Transport restrictions
It is evident, to meet the domestic and International demand of bamboo, the 'raw material' has
to necessarily come from the private sources. The Indian Forest Act. 1927, defines bamboo as
a " forest produce", and the species attracts the felling and transit restrictions under most of
the States Forest Rules. Procedures for taking permits are, more often than not, cumbersome,
time consuming and harassing. These legal restrictions detract farmers / Entrepreneurs from
raising bamboo on their private wastelands on commercial basis and are one of the most
crucial issues in promotion of bamboo sector in the country. The probable option lies in
exemption of Bamboo from the restrictive harvesting and transit rules, as in case of many
other agro forestry species or at feast simplifications of these rules.
Policy for leasing revenue degraded ravine lands for forest plantations
A large portion of degraded ravine lands, which could be profitably used for raising bamboo,
are under the control of the Revenue Department/ Forest Department. Such lands are neither
being developed by the Department nor leased away to the interested entrepreneurs for
development. There is therefore desirable that the State Govts. evolve suitable policies for
leasing of the revenue wastelands to the farmers / SHGs / entrepreneurs / industries for
raising forest plantations for industrial use. Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and, Chattisgarh have
come up with such policy for greening the waste lands. Other States may also follow to
encourage the public private partnership for greening the degraded ravine lands.
Need for Organized Supply Chain Management
Though a vast market exists for the bamboo sector, there is a need for an organized market
with assured minimum price regime to encourage the small farmers to take up bamboo
plantations on their private wastelands. There is a need to promote bamboo based industries
in states having major ravine areas.

34
Need for rationalization of taxation and price fixation
In some States, bamboo raised under private sector is subject to tax by the forest department
and this need to be rationalized. Similarly, the price fixation mechanism by the Forest
Department must be rationalized to ensure suitable remuneration to growers and the bamboo
based industries.
Need for incentives for raising bamboo plantations
Cultivation of bamboo in degraded ravine lands and the agricultural land nearer to these is a
new activity and may be given fillip through extending capital/ interest subsidy to the
farmers/ entrepreneurs for raising bamboo plantations.

35
7. Technology upscaling

The studies conducted under National Bamboo Mission sponsored Research & Development
project on bamboo based interventions in ravine reclamation proved to be quite promising
both in terms of controlling runoff and soil loss, carbon sequestration and economic returns.
This bulletin described the detail information on execution, natural resource conservation,
production potential and economics of various bamboo based interventions for reclamation
and productive utilization of degraded ravine lands. These techniques are very much useful
for reclamation in ravine lands of various states. This bulletin will be useful to scientists,
academicians, and officials of Forest, and Agriculture Department and other user agencies for
improving livelihood through reclamation and productive utilization of ravine lands. In spite
of bamboo potential in degraded ravine lands in terms of controlling runoff and soil loss and
economic returns, it has not been tapped to its fullest, hence wider and alternative utilities of
bamboo is being rediscovered in India with increased attributes and potential towards
ecological and soil conservation utilities in degraded ravine lands. Field visits, farmers days,
training programmes and workshops were organized for sensitization and upscaling of these
techniques among various stake holders like policy makers, State and Central government
Departments, funding agencies, NGOS, Tree growers cooperative Societies and farmers(Fig.
22). However, there is a need to integrate the various stakeholders at various levels
(production to consumption) for evolving workable strategies to promote these bamboo based
interventions, which would not only be instrumental in addressing environmental concerns
but also economic and livelihood security of habitants of these vulnerable lands.

36
Director, CSWCRTI Visit DDG(NRM), ICAR visit

NABARD and NGO officials visit DDG(NBM) Visit

District Collector, Anand Visit, GSWMA officials Visit

Bamboo publications released by MLA, Sarsa, Gujarat Bamboo Popularization by Print Media
Fig. 22: Sensitization and upscaling of bamboo based techniques among various stake holders

37
8. Conclusions

Based on the experiments conducted under this study the following conclusions were
drawn.
Higher survival and plant growth were recorded in bamboo plantation with earthen
gully plugs and supportive staggered trenches. These are mainly due to absorption of
rainfall thereby increase in moisture availability.
Bamboo plantation based interventions absorbs more than 80% of rainfall. Lowest
runoff, soil loss and nutrient loss was occurred in bamboo plantation with small
earthen check dams followed by bamboo with trenches. Bamboo based interventions
reduced the nutrient losses varies from 50-67%.
The high stem flow amount and funnelling ratio of bamboo plants in comparison to
deciduous and coniferous plants makes better rainfall absorption and hydrologically
best suited plantation in degraded ravine lands
Maximum silt deposition was recorded in gully treating with Bamboo plantation with
earthen gully plugs
Benefit cost ratio works out to be 2.09, 2.05 and 1.96 in bori-bund reinforced with
bamboo, trenching and bamboo live check dam treatments, respectively.
Gully head extension was observed up to 1.5 m/year in gully head without peripheral
bund and it was not observed in gully head with peripheral bund supported by
bamboo plantation. Gully bank extension was observed up to 0.5m/year in gully bank
without bamboo plantation and it was reduced by 50% in gully bank with bamboo
plantation
This project evolved three types of bamboo based interventions in reclaiming degraded gully
beds in ravine lands viz. i) Bamboo plantation with staggered contour trenches ii)
Bamboo plantation supported by bori bunds iii) Close spaced Bamboo plantation as
Live check dams and these interventions will give net annual return vary from
` 63,910 to 88,780. It is recommended that the these interventions can be
implemented in gully beds in ravine lands.
This project was also evolved bamboo based interventions for preventing gully head
extension and bank erosion and further stabilization and productive utilization, viz, the
techniques for gully heads are i) peripheral bund supported by bamboo plantation ii) closed
spaced bamboo plants around the gully head. These interventions will give net annual
return a return of Rs 700 per 10 m length from 7th year onwards It is recommended
that the these interventions can be implemented around the periphery of ravine lands.

38
9. Publications

Several publications such as research papers in peer reviewed journal, conference papers,
book, bulletin, folders and popular articles are published based on the knowledge generated
and data collected from the experiments conducted under this project.
Book
Kurothe RS, Gaur ML, Rao BK, Parandiyal AK, Singh AK, (2012). Conservation &
Production Potential of Bamboo in Ravine Lands, CSWCRTI, Dehradun : 160p.

Bulletin

Rao BK, Kurothe RS, Singh AK, Parandiyal AK, Pande VC, Kumar Gopal (2012). Bamboo
Plantation Based Technological Interventions for Reclamation and Productive Utilization
of Ravine Lands, CSWCRTI, Technical Bulletin No. T-62/V-4 : 30p.

Peer reviewed journals

Rao BK, Kurothe RS, Pande VC, Kumar Gopal (2012). Throughfall and stemflow
measurement in bamboo (Dendrocalmus strictus) plantation, Indian Journal of Soil
Conservation, 40(1) : 60-64.
Pande VC, Kurothe RS, Rao BK, Kumar Gopal, Parandiyal AK, Singh, AK, Kumar Ashok
(2012). Economic Analysis of Bamboo Plantation in Three Major Ravine Systems of
India. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 25(1) : 63-73.

Communicated

Rao BK, Kurothe RS, Sharda VN, Pande VC, Gaur ML, Kumar Gopal (2012). Potential and
Prospects of Bamboo Cultivation in Degraded Ravine Lands of India. Current Science
(Is in process).
Bagdi, GL, Kurothe RS, Rao BK, Pande VC, Kumar Gopal (2012). Farmers Perception
towards Adoption of Bamboo in Mahi Ravines: A PRA Study. Communicated for
publication in the Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, Dehradun.
Rao BK, Kurothe RS, Sharda VN, Pande VC, Gaur ML, Kumar Gopal, Tiwari SP (2012).
Bamboo Plantation Based Interventions for Sustainable Natural Resource Management
in Degraded Gully Lands. Communicated to Journal of forestry research.

Technical & Popular articles

Kurothe RS, Rao BK, Pande VC, Kumar Gopal (2011). Bamboo plantation with supportive
soil and water conservation measures in ravines (folder) published by CSWCRTI, RC,
Vasad.
Kurothe RS, Rao BK, Pande VC, Kumar Gopal, Baraiya MJ, (2011). Kotar ma Jameen ane
sanrakshni paddati sathe vans nu vavatar (folder in Gujarati) published by CSWCRTI,
RC, Vasad.

39
Kurothe RS, Rao BK, Pande VC, Kumar Gopal, Baraiya MJ, Bagadi GL, ().
-
(Bamboo based technology for
soil & water conservation in ravines). , (): -.
Kurothe RS, Rao BK, Kumar Gopal, Vishwakarma AK, Pande VC, Bagadi GL (2012).
Technology inventory of CSWCRTI Research Centre - Vasad for period of 2007-2011.
Parandiyal AK (2012) Bans Prakriti ki Anupam Den (folder in Gujarati) published by
CSWCRTI, RC, Kota.

Conference/seminars

Rao BK, Kurothe RS, Sharda VN, Pande VC, Gaur ML, Kumar Gopal, (2011). Hydrologic
and Economic Evaluation of Bamboo Plantations in Mahi Ravines of Gujarat.
Proceedings of 45th Annual Convention of ISAE and International Symposium on Water
for Agriculture.
Singh AK, Dubey SK, Kala S, Mahopatra KP, Gaur ML, Rao BK, (2011). Dendrocalamus
strictus - A potential species for reclamation of Yamuna ravine systems of India.
Proceedings of National workshop on Dry land Development and maximizing crop
productivity held at TNAU, Coimbatore (T.N.) from May. 12th to 13th, 2011.Pp 106-107.
Rao BK, Kurothe RS, Sharda VN, Pande VC, Gaur ML, Kumar Gopal, Tiwari SP, (2012).
Bamboo Plantation Based Interventions for Sustainable Natural Resource Management
in Degraded Gully Lands. Paper presented in National Seminar on Agroforestry: An
Evergreen Agriculture for Food Security and Environmental Resilience organized by
Aspee College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari
(Gujarat) during February 2-4, 2012.
Singh AK, Kala S, Dubey, SK, Mahopatra KP, Rao BK, and Gaur M.L. (2012). Impact of
resource conservation treatments on runoff, soil loss and growth performance of bamboo
for Reclamation of Yamuna Ravine Systems of India Conference proceeding on
Livelihood and environmental security through resource conservation in Eastern region
of India held at OUAT, Bhubnesher from April 5-7, 2012 : pp-35.

40
10. Financial Progress (Fund utilization)

The total budget sanctioned under NBM sponsored research & development project entitled
Hydrologic and Economic Evaluation of Bamboo Plantations in Gullied Lands under Major
Ravine Systems of India is ` 57.04 lacs. In this amount, 56.20 lakhs were allocated towards
project cost, and 0.84 lakhs (@ 1.5%) towards consultancy charges. Out of the sanctioned
amount (Rs. 57.04), the funding agency released ` 28.52 lakhs (50%) of the total as first
installment during end of 2007-08, an amount of ` 14.26 lakhs (25%) as second installment
during mid of 2010-11, and remaining amount of ` 14 lakhs (25%) as third installment during
end of 2010-11. The total budget released was ` 56,78,000.
Initially, out of the approved outlay for the centers (` 56.20 lakhs), project lead centre,
CSWCRTI, Research Centre, Vasad was allocated ` 27.52 lakhs. Other associated centers:
CSWCRTI, Research Centers, Agra, and Kota allocated an amount of ` 14.34 lakhs for each.
In 2011-12, from Kota centre budget, ` 1,18,000 was reallocated to Project Centre, Agra and
`1,69,039 reallocated to Project Lead Centre, Vasad on various activities. After reallocation,
the total budget for lead centre, Vasad was ` 29,21,030 and project centers at Agra was
`15,52,000 and Kota was `11,46,979.
During the project period (2007-12) total amount was released was ` 56,78,000. From this
amount, ` 44,27,609 was spent in 2007-11 and `11,26,669 was spent in 2011-12. Out of
` 11,26,669; `1042669 was spent at various activities at project lead centre and other centres
and ` 84,000 was spent as consultancy charges at CSWCRTI, headquarters, Dehradun. The
total budget spent was ` 55,54,278 up to March, 2012. The remaining balance amount of
` 1,23,722 is the saving amount. In this project, 98% of the total released budget and 97% of
total sanctioned budget was spent.

Vasad
The total budget allocated under NBM sponsored research & development project entitled
Hydrologic and Economic Evaluation of Bamboo Plantations in Gullied Lands under Major
Ravine Systems of India at project lead centre, CSWCRTI, Research Centre, Vasad ` 27.52
lakhs. In 2011-12, from Kota centre budget, ` 1,69,030 reallocated to Project Lead Centre,
Vasad. After reallocation, the total budget for lead centre, Vasad was ` 29,21,030. In this
amount a total ` 23,70,005 were spent in 2007- 2011and ` 5,22,914 in 2011-12. The total
amount spent was ` 28,92,919 up to March, 2012. The remaining sanctioned amount is
` 28,111. The centre was spent 99% of the total allocated budget.
Agra
Initially, the total budget allocated under NBM sponsored research & development project at
project centre, CSWCRTI, Research Centre, Agra was `14.34 lakhs. In 2011-12, ` 1,18,000
was reallocated from Kota centre to this centre (Agra). After reallocation, the total budget
was ` 15,52,000. In this amount a total ` 13,29,155 were spent in 2007- 2011and ` 1,43,628 in
2011-12. The total amount spent was ` 14,72,783 up to March, 2012. The remaining
sanctioned amount is ` 79,217. The centre was spent 95% of the total allocated budget.

41
Kota
The total budget allocated under NBM sponsored research & development project entitled
Hydrologic and Economic Evaluation of Bamboo Plantations in Gullied Lands under Major
Ravine Systems of India at project centre, CSWCRTI, Research Centre, Kota was ` 14.34
lakhs. In 2011-12, from Kota centre budget, ` 1,69,030 reallocated to Project Lead Centre,
Vasad and ` 1,18,000 was reallocated to Agra centre. After reallocation, the total budget was
`11,46,970. In this amount a total ` 7,28,449 were spent in 2007- 2011and ` 3,76,127 in
2011-12. The total amount spent was ` 11,04,576 up to March, 2012. The remaining
sanctioned amount is ` 42,394. The centre has been spent 96% of the total allocated budget.

42
References
Atkinson G, Gundimeda H (2006). Accounting for Indias Forest Wealth. Working paper No. 5/2006,
Madras School of Economics, Chennai.
Behari Bipin, Rashmi Aggrawal, Singh AK, Banerjee SK (2000). Vegetation development in a
degraded area under bamboo based agro-forestry system. Indian Forester, 126 (7) : 710-720.
Ben-zhi Z, Fu Mao-yi, Xie Jin-zhong, Yang Xiao-sheng, Li Zheng-cai (2005). Ecological Functions
of Bamboo Forest : Research and Application, Journal of Forestry Research, 16(2) : 143-147.
Bhushan LS, Saxena SC (1984). Rainfall erosion index for Agra, Indian Journal of Soil Conservation,
12 (2 & 3) : 24-29.
Champion HG, Seth SK (1968). Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India, Manager Publications,
Delhi : pp 402.
Dhruvanarayana VV (1993). Soil and Water Conservation Research in India, ICAR, New Delhi : 449.
Deng Y, Yan Peng, Yukuan Wang, Zongling Yang (2003). Soil Conservation Efficiency of Different
Models Converting from Steep farming Slope Plots in yaan, Schian, China. International
Journal of Sediment Research, 18 (4) : 340-345.
Gupta DP (1964). Treatment of congested clumps and artificial regeneration of bamboo,
Dendrocalamus strictus in Vindhyan forests. Indian Forester, 90 : 832-838.
http://www.hedon.info/1291/news.htm, BambooAn Alternate Way for Livelihood with emphasis to
People, Energy & Environment.
Jha LK, Lalnunmawia F (2004). Agroforestry with bamboo and ginger to rehabilitate degraded areas
in north east India. Journal of Bamboo and Rattan, 2(2) : 103-109.
Kurothe RS, Nambiar KTN (2001). Eco-system restoration and sustainable production in degraded
Mahi ravines and its effect on hydrology and sedimentation. In: proc. National Conference on
Resource Conservation and Watershed Management (RCWM-2001), May 23-25, Dehradun.
Kumar Adarsh (1991). Mass production of field planting stock of Dendrocalamus strictus through
macropopagation a technology. Indian Forester 117(12) : 1046-1052.
Lu SY, Liu CP, Hwang LS, Wang CH (2007). Hydrological characteristics of a makino bamboo
woodland in Central Taiwan. Taiwan Journal for Science 22(1) : 81-93.
Lawler DM (1993). The measurement of river bank erosion & lateral channel change: A review. Earth
Surface Processes and Landforms, 18 : 777-821.
Lessard G, Chouinard A (1980). Ed., Bamboo research in Asia. Proceedings of a workshop held in
Singapore, 28-30 May 1980. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada.
Mohanan C (1990). Diseases of bamboos in Kerala. In Bamboos: Current Research. I. V. R. Rao, R.
Gnanaharan and C. B. Sastry (Eds.). Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop, 14-18,
November, 1988. Cochin. Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi and International
Development Research Centre, Canada : 173-183.
Naithani HB (1993). Contributions to the Taxonomic Studies of Indian Bamboos. Ph.D. Thesis, Vol.
I. H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal.
National Commission on Agriculture (1976). Report of National Commission on Agriculture, Part 5:
Resource Development, Govt of India. New Delhi : 107-322.
Nath S, Krishnamurthy R (2008).Nutrient cycling in plantation stands under laterite soils of South
West Bengal, India, Proc. International Conference on Improvement of Bamboo Productivity &
Marketing for Sustainable livelihood, 15-17April, New Delhi.
Pande VC, Kurothe RS, Rao BK, Kumar Gopal, Parandiyal AK, Singh, AK, Kumar Ashok (2012).
Economic Analysis of Bamboo Plantation in Three Major Ravine Systems of India. Agricultural
Economics Research Review, 25(1) : 63-73.
Patil VC, Patil SV (1990). Performance of the bamboo under varying spacing and fertility levels. In
Bamboos: Current Research. Rao IVR, Gnanaharan R, Sastry CB (Eds.). Proceedings of the
International Bamboo Workshop, 14-18, November, 1988. Cochin. Kerala Forest Research
Institute, Peechi and International Development Research Centre, Canada : 107-111.
Preetha N, Yasoda R, Sumanthi R, Gurumurti K (1991). Continuous Mass Propagation of Bamboo.
Bamboo Newsletter (xi), Bamboo Society of India, Bangalore.

43
Prajapati MC, Agarwal MC, Bhaskar KS (1977). Rainfall features and agricultural droughts at Agra.
Annals of Arid Zone Research, 16(2) : 176-184.
Prakash C, Rao DH (1986) Frequency analysis of rainfall data for crop planning Kota. Indian
Journal of Soil Conservation, 14(2) : 23-26.
Rao BK, Singh AK, Parandiyal AK (2011). Annual Report of the Project Hydrologic and Economic
Evaluation of Bamboo Plantations in Major Ravine Systems of India.
Rao BK, Kurothe RS, Pande VC, Kumar Gopal (2012). Throughfall and stemflow measurement in
bamboo (Dendrocalmus strictus) plantation, Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 40 (1) : 60-64.
Rao BK, Singh AK, Parandiyal AK (2012). Annual Report of the Project Hydrologic and
Economic Evaluation of Bamboo Plantations in Major Ravine Systems of India.
Shanmuganathan K, Kumaravelu G, Stanley Jagadees (1980). On the growth pattern of
Dendrocalamus strictus. Third Southern Silviculturists Conference, 3-5, March 1980.
Dharwad, Karnataka. 6 p.
Shanmughavel P, Francis K (2001). Intercropping trials of four crops in plantations, Journal of
Bamboo and Rattan, 1(1) : 3-9.
Sharma BD, Hore DK, Pandey G, Wadhwa BM (1992). Genetic resources of bamboos in North
Eastern Region of India, Indian Journal of Forestry, (1591) : 44-51.
Singh A, Shah CM, Dayal R (1972). Point rainfall analysis of Soil Conservation Research Centre,
Vasad (Gujrat). Indian Forester 98 (9) : 514-519.
Singh A, Shah CM, Kamannavar HK (1976). Rainfall erosivity analysis of soil Conservation
Research Centre, Vasad (Gujrat). Indian Forester 102 (2) : 126-132.
Srivastava RL, Kumar A, Sharma SK, Emmanuel CJSK, Tomar UK (2008). Initial performance of
tissue culture raised bamboos in Rajasthan and Gujrat. Indian For. 134(7) : 916-922
Surendran T, Seethalakshmi KK (1985). Investigation on the Possibility of Vegetative Propagation of
Bamboos and Reeds by Rooting Stem Cuttings. KFRI Research Report No.31: Kerala Forest
Research Institute, Peechi : 47 p.
Tewari DN (1992). A Monograph on Bamboo. International Book Distributors, Dehra Dun, 498 pp.
United Nations (1972)The Use of Bamboo and Reeds in Building Construction. Department of
Economic and Social Affairs, Document No. ST/SOA/113, United Nations, New York, USA :
95.
Yanhui W, Yongmin L (1995). Hydrological characteristics of a moso-bamboo (Phyllostachys
pubescens) forest in South China, Hydrological Processes, vol. 9, No.7: 797-808.
Zamora AB (1994) Review of Micropropagation Research on Bamboos. In Constraints to Production
of Bamboo and Rattan. INBAR Technical Report No. 5. International Network for Bamboo and
Rattan, New Delhi : 45-64.
Zhou Ben-zhi, Fu Mao-yi, Xie Jin-zhong, Yang Xiao-sheng, Li Zheng-cai (2005). Ecological
functions of bamboo forest: Research and Application, Journal of Forestry Research, Volume
16, Number 2 / June, 2005 : 143-147.

44