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Monday Oct.


Biology Study Guide

Nucleic Acids

Central Dogma of Biology: describes the flow of genetic information in the cell.
Information stored in DNA

Transcription: Synthesis of RNA using a DNA template.

Translation (Protein Synthesis): Hooking amino acids together according to the genetic information in the cells

DNA and RNA: both use nucleotides as the basis for the language they contain.
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid (deoxy means missing an oxygen).
RNA: Ribonucleic Acid

The #1 function of nucleic acids is the storage and transfer of genetic information.

Genetic Information: is stored in DNA in the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA molecule.
This genetic information is used primarily for the building of proteins.
Genetic information dictates the primary 1 protein structure.
This protein structure dictates the final folded shape of a protein.
o After the protein will always fold into the shame 3-D shape.

Genetic information is used to make molecules that have specific functions other than the transport of genetic
Random additional Info - think Nucleic Acids: The genetic information tells the cells how to build enzymes
(proteins) that can tell them to build CHOs, proteins, and lipids.

mRNA: single stranded copy of 1 gene in DNA. Contains the information on how to build proteins.
mRNA is read by the ribosome while it is building proteins.

Ribosomal RNA / rRNA: Is the structural part of a ribosome.

Transfer RNA / tRNA: brings acids to the ribosome during translation.

Catalytic RNA: cut and splice other RNA.

Gene: region of a DNA molecule that contains enough genetic information on a cell to build one type of protein.
There are about 200,000 different genes in Human DNA and in ALL cells.
Theoretically every cell has enough genetic information to tell it how to build 200,000 different proteins. A
typical cell only uses about 10,000 different genes (that results in differentiation or becoming different) or
builds only 10,000 different proteins.

Chromatin: the DNA in the nucleus of a cell with proteins stuck to it.

Protein Functions:
copying DNA DNA polymerase
copying DNA to RNA (RNA polymerase)
spooling DNA?
DNA repair enzyme

Chromosome: 1 DNA molecule folded into a compact bundle.

Only visible in a mother cell before it divides into 2 daughter cells. Takes the chromatin and sorts it out. Only
visible during mitosis (when mother cell sorts out her DNA before splitting).
Every human cell had 23 chromosomes or DNA molecules. We have 2 copies of each of the 23 chromosomes.
So we have 46 chromosomes in each human.
diploid # 2 copies; (of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each
Sex cells (sperm and eggs) have only 1 copy of each kind
Haploid # of chromosomes. (of a cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.

Mitosis Definition: a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of
chromosomes as the parent nucleus.

DNA Replication: another name for DNA copying.

Occurs just before a mother cell divides.
Makes 1 complete copy of all of the DNA.
Has 2xs the normal amount of DNA.
She has enough to split between the 2 daughter cells.

Transcription: the making of a RNA copy from a single gene in DNA.

Only does this when the genetic information is needed.
Transcription makes thousands of RNA copies at a time.

5 kinds of nuleotides: DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) - A T G C only.

A Adenine RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) - A U G C only.
T - Thymine Adenine binds to Thymine in DNA
U Urasil Adenine binds to Uracil in RNA.
G Guinine Guanine binds to Cytosine in both DNA & RNA
C Cytosine