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Integral Railway B ridges in Germany

Article in Structural Engineering International August 2011

DOI: 10.2749/101686611X12994961034534


4 144

2 authors:

Steffen Marx Gnter Seidl

Leibniz Universitt Hannover SSF Ingenieure AG


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Integral Railway Bridges in Germany
Steffen Marx, Prof. Dr.-Ing., Jacobs School of Engineering, University of California, San Diego, USA and Gnter Seidl, Dr, Eng.,
SSF Ingenieure, Berlin, Germany. Contact:
DOI: 10.2749/101686611X12994961034534

Abstract 4,000
In Germany, integral bridges for rail- 3,500 Arched bridges
way lines take a higher level of rele- Filler beam deck

Number of bridges ()
vance. This paper describes the recent 3,000
development of structures with inte- 2,500 Concrete
gral abutments and gives an outlook on
large bridges currently in the making Pre-stressed concrete
on newly built railway lines.
In the German railway network, rein-
forced concrete frames for spans up 1,000
to 20 m have been used for more than
25 years. Lateral launching of frame 500
bridges into existing railway links are
an economical option. Following the 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
good experience with frame construc- Year
tion, even longer frame bridges with
integral abutments were implemented Fig. 1: Bridge types built in Germany from the 1840s (reverence period 10 years)
as an economical variant. The advan-
tages are highlighted by the examples
Introduction and T-beams for medium spans
of viaduct Rednitztal, the flying junc-
(Fig. 2b). In the case of larger span
tion Dresdner Bahn and the composite In Germany, frame bridges have been widths and difficult to access traffic
bridge over River Saaleflut. built since the beginning of railway routes that undercross, such as water
On the basis of these successful expe- traffic. Integral arched bridges have ways, motorways or railway lines, com-
riences, especially regarding low-cost been replaced by frame bridges made posite prefabricated element girders3,4
construction, robust construction of concrete since the 1960s (Fig. 1). were used; these have low weight and
type and simple maintenance, these During the second peak of construc- are easy to integrate in the framing
bridges are also integrated into newly tion of new railway lines between 1970 effect (Fig. 2c).
built railway lines. The starting point and 1990, superstructures with bear- Double-track cross sections were
for the construction of frame bridges ings were mainly designed to satisfy the bridged by pre-stressed concrete
was the very high-quality design of requirements of railway line operators superstructures or multiple web com-
the frames compared with the single- in order to replace the superstructure posite cross sections (Fig. 2d and e).
span girder bridges implemented until independently from the substruc-
then. The bridges on the railway line ture. Construction with uninterrupted
from Erfurt to Halle/Leipzig, which railway links, that is, with only short Requirements on Railway
are currently in progress, are good interruptions to traffic on existing
examples for this implementation.
lines to replace bridges, required new
The viaducts Scherkonde, Unstruttal, construction methods with respect Functional requirements such as load-
Gnsebachtal and Stbnitztal por- to bridge fabrication. In Germany, in bearing capacity and stiffness of the
tray in detail the design and con- the 1980s, integral frame bridges were superstructure are much higher for
struction principles for long frame developed, consisting of superstruc- railway bridges than for road bridges.
bridges. ture and substructure, launched from The vertical loads reach double or four
In conclusion, the advantages of the side into the existing lines.1 The times the valuedepending on the
frame bridges, such as high stiff- launching of the whole bridge necessi- bridge length (Fig. 3).
ness, favourable transmission of tated a monolithic connection between The probability of an event of the pass-
horizontal loads and simple con- the abutment and the superstructure.2 ing of a train with maximum admissible
struction without bearings, are dis- Starting with these structures, the tonnage is relatively strong. On some
cussed comprehensively and quality is frame construction gained acceptance railway links in Germany, more than
assessed on the basis of the gathered as an economically efficient method 300 passenger trains and 100 freight
experience. for short and medium span widths. trains pass per day, subjecting the rail-
The materials used were reinforced way bridges to very high fatigue loading.
Keywords: integral bridges, semi- concrete, pre-stressed concrete and
integral bridges, frame bridges, railway steelconcrete composite. In Germany, Horizontal loads are, however, much
bridges, high speed railway, composite typical cross sections are reinforced more severe than vertical loads.
structures. concrete slabs for short spans (Fig. 2a) Especially, forces from braking and

332 Technical Report Structural Engineering International 3/2011

(a) acceleration can achieve values 14
times higher than on road bridges,
particularly on long railway bridges.
Mostly in case of large bridge piers,
these forces determine the design of
the whole structural system.
In addition to these high loads, high
(b) demands are placed on railway bridges
in view of deformation and vibration
behaviour under traffic loads. Primarily
on high-speed lines, the dynamic traffic
load has to be taken into consideration
as long trains with the same wheel set
distances cause significant excitation
frequency on the bridge. In particular,
(c) high speeds can lead to heavy reso-
nance problems.

Frame Bridges
These high demands lead to some par-
ticularities in the design of integral
and semi-integral railway bridges. On
the whole, the integral load-bearing
(d) behaviour proves itself to be extraor-
dinarily advantageous compared with
superstructures on bearings, as the
bridges complete load-bearing behav-
iour is activated and participates dur-
ing load distribution and reduction of
deformation and vibration.
With regard to the longitudinal load-
bearing behaviour, in Germany, inte-
(e) gral and semi-integral bridges are
Fully integral bridges are monolithi-
cally connected to the supports and
abutments in all axes of the substruc-
ture. The temperature dilatations have
to be entirely compensated by cen-
tric tensile or compressive forces in
the superstructure (eges = eT eel = 0).
Through the almost complete defor-
Fig. 2: Typical cross sections for railway frame bridges: (ac) Single-track cross sections;
mation dilatation under constraint, the
(a) made of reinforced concrete for short spans; (b) for medium span widths; (c) for span
occurring forces are independent of
widths over 30 m using composite prefabricated element girders; (d and e) double-track
cross section for span widths up to 45 m; (d) double T-beam with pre-stressed concrete; (e) the bridge length but depend linearly
using composite prefabricated element girders construction method on the axial stiffness of the superstruc-
ture. Tensile and compressive forces
introduced by the superstructure are
absorbed by the abutments, whereas
in the longitudinal direction of the
20 bridge almost no loads are exerted on
Axle load limit (t)

the piers. Therefore, the abutments of

15 integral bridges have a very high hori-
zontal load-bearing capacity. In reality,
a certain flexibility of the abutments
remains which is why on very short
integral bridges almost no horizontal
5 forces from temperature occur.
Road The longer the length, the lower the
1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
influence of the abutments stiffness;
horizontal forces due to temperature
and, consequently, the high effort of
Fig. 3: Increase of axle loads since 1840 their introduction, approximate the

Structural Engineering International 3/2011 Technical Report 333

(a) On the other hand, integral load-
bearing structures have the advantage
of distribution of static and dynamic
loads. The individual construction
elements such as superstructure and
supports can be made much more
slender than in the case of common
Semi-integral with fixed point by struts railway bridges. The high static inde-
terminancy and the related partici-
pation of all load-bearing parts at
(c) load distribution leads to high load-
bearing capacity and total stiffness
Semi-integral with fixed point at the abutment despite slender construction elements.
Moreover, comprehensive parameter
Fig. 4: Semi-integral frame with different fixed points: (a) Distributed over the bridge studies showed that integral load-
length on all piles (b) Fixation by strut bracings at the centre of the structure (c) Connec- bearing structures have high ductility
tion to one abutment and are very robust when overloaded
or subjected to varying soil or mate-
theoretic limit value of N = EAaTT. This leads to horizontal force applica- rial coefficients. In the case of frame
Therefore, fully integral bridges are tion on the other piles only by con- bridges in high-speed railway lines,
primarily suitable for very short and straint forces. To diminish bending the dynamic behaviour of the heav-
also very long bridges; however, axial stiffness they should be extremely slen- ily charged load-bearing structures
stiffness of the superstructures had der. Despite very slender dimensions, is positively influenced, because the
to be kept as low as possible. This these piles are often less endangered monolithic structure integrates the
was achieved by reducing the cross by stability failure than usual piles with substructures in the vibrating system.
sections surface in case of short span bearings at the pile head because of This leads to a significant increase
widths and reducing crack formation their reduced buckling length. in the stiffness and, because of the
by avoiding pre-stressing. direct transfer of vibrations into the
Depending on their height and bend-
ground, to a considerable increase in
On semi-integral bridges the super- ing stiffness, piers with large distance
the system damping. In case of multi-
structure is placed longitudinally to the fixed point can be connected to
span girders, resonance excitation
movable on bearings on one or both the superstructure rigidly.
caused by passing trains is much more
abutments and if necessary also on the
By elaborating a well thought-out con- improbable compared to single-span
bridge piers.
struction process (see section Valley girders on bearings, because vibra-
The load-bearing behaviour, particu- Bridges) or by employing concrete tions of adjacent fields influence or
larly under constraint stresses, can hinges, the constraint forces in the pile even eliminate each other.
be distinguished essentially from the connections can be reduced consider-
behaviour of integral bridges. The ably, just as the amount of reinforce- Examples of Small and
superstructure expands or shortens ment in the supports can be reduced
nearly without hindrance because to a reasonable quantity, through the Medium Span Frame Bridges
the bending-resistant connected piers span-wise calculation of traffic loads5. A look at the span division in Fig. 5
deform largely in the longitudinal The constraint forces have to be partic- shows that the majority of bridges,
direction of the bridge. The piers are ularly analysed for frame bridges. But that is, about three-fourths, have a
exposed to significant constraint forces they can be controlled by a well-devel- span width of less than 15 m. Short and
which depend on their bending stiff- oped design concept and thoughtful medium span widths are demonstrated
ness and deformable length. The piers execution. in the examples in this section. Longer
should therefore be slender and flexible
to avoid large constraint forces. On the
other hand, the substructures should 12,000
distribute the longitudinal forces Steel
caused by braking and accelerating in 10,000 Arched bridges
a safe manner and without large defor-
Filler beam deck
Number of bridges ()

mations. The braking force of semi-

8,000 Frame
integral road bridges is usually evenly
distributed on all piers (Fig. 4a). For Concrete
the extremely high horizontal forces on 6,000
Pre-stressed concrete
railway bridges this structural solution
is not sufficient. Especially high semi- 4,000
integral railway bridges necessitate
the design of a defined fixed point, 2,000
which absorbs horizontal loads almost
entirely because of its high stiffness.
The fixed point can be implemented by 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
connection to an abutment or by spe-
Span (m)
cific strut bracings at the centre of the
bridge (Fig. 4b and c). Fig. 5: Distribution of maximum span width of each construction method

334 Technical Report Structural Engineering International 3/2011

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

18,00 m 26,96 m 26,98 m 26,77 m 26,58 m 26,38 m 18,00 m

Fig. 6: Viaduct Rednitztal, longitudinal section of frame system with a total length of approximately 170 m

viaducts are discussed in detail in sec- Huge horizontal forces, especially from with a rectangular end section. By
tion Valley Bridges. braking trains, required a foundation introducing transverse frames mono-
with low deformation and pile supports lithically coupled to the superstructure
Reinforced Concrete Frame and difficult bearing constructions, and double piles at the end of a fram-
Structures including connections (Fig. 7). The ing module (see Fig. 10), enormous
decisive horizontal forces are directly material quantities were saved during
In the following, the construction meth-
transferred into the ground with small the construction compared with the
ods and load-bearing behaviour are
deformation paths by a monolithic usual structure types.
explained on recently built examples
connection of the substructures to the
of the first long-frame bridges with a When only low construction heights
superstructure (Figs. 8 and 9). For slow
total length over 100 m in Germany. are possible for superstructures, the
stresses such as temperature and sup-
The advantages of a closed frame sys- clearance of the undercrossing route
port settlement, the simple subgrade
tem become very clear when looking can be achieved by a vault in the longi-
reaction modulus was applied, and
at the example of the railway bridge tudinal section. An example of this is a
for horizontal traffic loads, a dynamic
Rednitztal near Nuremberg, which frame structure in Berlin, as part of the
subgrade reaction modulus up to three
has been under operation since 1999. railway line over the Glienicker Weg.
times higher was applied.
Initially planned as continuous gird- The cross section is a T-beam as repre-
ers on bearings, a frame system with Other examples of this type of con- sented in Fig. 2b. The superstructure is
seven spans and a total length of 18,00 struction are the viaducts Mainbachtal slender, with a span width of 26,20 m
+ 26,96 + 26,98 + 26,77 + 26,58 + 26,36 and Schwabachtal.7 An extraordinary and a variable construction height of
+ 18,00, circa. 170 m was designed as an example in this context is the junc- 1,00 to 1,75 m to L/26 at the centre
alternative (Fig. 6). tion bridge Dresdner Bahn in Berlin. of the span and L/15 at the abutment
The extremely oblique crossing was (Fig. 11). The frame was founded on
resolved by a long fly-over structure spread footings because of the good

Fig. 7: Combination of stonewall arch

bridge in the background and new frame
bridge in the foreground in the valley
Rednitztal; the stonewall has been replaced Fig. 9: Viaduct Rednitztal: monolithically Fig. 10: Modern crossing structure: framing
after 100 years using reinforced concrete as connected superstructure with pier and module end with double pile and mono-
the construction material abutment lithic transverse frame

Fig. 8: Distribution of braking forces by a direct activation of substructures in the frame system

Structural Engineering International 3/2011 Technical Report 335

Fig. 13: View on River Saale two-span
frame bridge

The horizontal fix point of the bridge

to assure absorption of acceleration
and braking forces with low deforma-
tion was implemented by a bending
stiff connection of the superstructure
with the flat abutment (left side of
Fig. 14).
Fig. 11: Longitudinal section and view on a single-cell frame with 26,20 m span width in Sliding bearings had to be designed
Berlin only in the last two of the 13 support
axes as well as on the high abutment
because of the large displacements.
quality of construction and the dense Viaduct Scherkondetal
soil. An alternative to superstructures
One example of semi-integral struc-
with box sections, which are mostly
tures with a fix point at the abutment
Composite Frame Structures employed for railway bridges with
(Fig. 4c) is the 576,5 m long viaduct
large span widths, a haunched cross sec-
Since 1998, with over 600 structures, crossing Scherkonde Valley (Figs. 14
tion of the middle girder was devised.
the usage of composite prefabricated and 15). Owing to the slender piles
element girders3,4 has proved to be and the favourable valley geometry, This haunch and the bending stiff con-
economically efficient in the construc- it was possible to connect most of the nection of the supports to the super-
tion of road bridges. Since 2001, this piles integrally with the superstructure structure allow a very low construction
method has been implemented for despite the greater length. height of 2,0 m at the centre of the
railway bridges too. One example of a
two-span frame is the bridge over the
(a) 32,50 32,50
River Saale: a single-track, two-span
haunch structure with 2 32,50 m span 1,00 30,50 1,00 1,00 30,50 1,00
widths (Fig. 12). By connecting the
composite prefabricated element gird-
ers to the substructures, the construc-
tion height of the superstructure was
reduced to 1,80 m at the centre of the
span. The framing effect distributes the
braking forces of trains to the founda-
tion much better than systems on bear-
ings, leading to savings in the bored
pile foundation. The slender, haunched
superstructure provides a very pleas-
ant view (Fig. 13) of the structure.
(b) 3,86

Valley Bridges
Frame-like, integral or semi-integral
bridge constructions gain more and
more acceptance on German high-
speed railway lines of the DB AG as
they provide good functionality, long
service life and at the same time low
maintenance costs and high aesthetic
design.5 Currently, on the newly built
line between Erfurt and Leipzig/Halle, 1,75
several viaducts are constructed in
accordance with new design concepts. Fig. 12: River Saale bridge with 2 32,50 m span (a) longitudinal section, (b) cross section
They are described in the following. (unit [m])

336 Technical Report Structural Engineering International 3/2011

00 01a 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13
576,50 13,91
27,00 36,50 36,50 44,00 44,00 44,00 44,00 44,00 44,00 44,00 44,00 44,00 44,00 36,50


Fig. 14: Longitudinal and cross section of the viaduct Scherkondetal (unit [m])

(a) 05 06 07 08

44,00 m 44,00 m 44,00 m

Dilatation joint

6 f120 cm
L = 14,00 m 8 f120 cm 8 f120 cm 8 f120 cm
Fig. 15: Viaduct Scherkondetal L = 14,50 m L = 8,00 m L = 8,00 m

(b) 06 07 08
spans, with a regular span width of 05

44 m. Apart from this slenderness of 44,00 m 44,00 m 44,00 m

L/d = 22, which is very high for high-

speed railway bridges, all requirements 12,5 DN 250 BMI
with respect to limiting deformation
and vibration are satisfied. The bridge
has a very stiff and robust total load-
bearing capacity, but offers a pleas-
ant design contrast compared to the
usually plump appearance of many
railway viaducts made of reinforced 5 f120 cm
L = 14,00 m 5 f120 cm
or pre-stressed concrete. In Fig. 16, a 5 f120 cm 5 f120 cm
L = 14,50 m L = 8,00 m L = 8,00 m
part of the implemented load-bearing
structure is compared to a common Fig. 16: Comparison of longitudinal sections of a viaduct on bearings and a viaduct as
construction. frame structure
Of great importance for load-bear-
ing design as well as for the choice Moreover, the construction sequences technical innovation and consistent
of construction technology is the were chosen in such way that the super- implementation of the new concept
minimization of constraint forces of structure was built on a launching truss from design to construction execution.
the supports caused by pre-stress- in sections from a temporary fix point
ing, creep, shrinkage and tempera- at the right abutment in the direction Viaduct Unstruttal
ture changes of the superstructure. of the left abutment. After the last step
The viaduct Unstruttal, with a total
Therefore, the frame piers are founded of launching, the fix point was changed
length of 2668 m and a track gradient
at only one instead of two or more pile to the left abutment in the final stage.
of about 50 m above the valley bottom,
rows, thereby reducing significantly This construction technique has the is one of the largest railway bridges
the rotational stiffness of the founda- outstanding advantage that girder in Europe made of pre-stressed con-
tions and the horizontal displacement compressions caused by elastic short- crete. The load-bearing structure of
resistance of the supports. In light of ening of the superstructure due to the viaduct consists of four continuous
a suitability test, a very low Youngs pre-stressing and the creep and shrink
modulus of the piers concrete and reductions that occur deform the frame
a very high Youngs modulus of the piles first in the direction of abutment
superstructure were considered as the 13 and then, after the change of the fix
criteria for the choice of concrete mix- point, lead to a return deformation.
ture. To minimise the pier inclination
in the final stage, some of the frame Therefore, the horizontal total defor-
piers were constructed obliquely up mation and bending moment at the
to 100 mm in the direction of the support connection was significantly
right abutment and were additionally reduced, leading to a minimum rein-
deflected elastically up to 100 mm by forcement of most of the supports.
using the launching truss before con- The viaduct Scherkondetal has been
creting the individual superstructure awarded the prize for engineering of
sections. the publishing house8 for extraordinary Fig. 17: Arch-shaped strut bracing

Structural Engineering International 3/2011 Technical Report 337

All 41 piles are implemented as very over the crown area without necessi-
slender pier walls which efficiently tating conversion of the framework.
stiffen the deck girder in transverse
direction. However, in the longitudi- Viaduct Gnsebachtal
nal direction of the bridge, they have
The viaduct Gnsebachtal has, analo-
sufficient flexibility to distribute tem-
gous to the viaduct Unstruttal, a semi-
perature deformations.
integral load-bearing structure in
The particularities are the separating which the individual load-bearing sec-
piles. Separated by a structural joint of tions were stiffened by a specifically
0,40 m width, the deck girder ends are stiffened braking span at the centre of
connected monolithically at the tran- each section (Fig. 19). The 1012 m long
sition between the continuous gird- bridge, however, has a much lower
ers and 0,60-m-slender pier wall cross gradient height of 9 to 19 m above the
section. The height of the pier walls bottom of the valley. The integral sec-
of 26 m absorbs the superstructures tions of the structure are much shorter
deformation caused by temperature in order to control the stresses applied
without needing a bearing construc- to the pier heads. For this reason, the
tion. To reduce the total deformations section length was generally limited to
of the pier caps that occur, the piers 112 m. Therewith, an interruption of
at the end of a module were previ- the continuous track by rail expansions
Fig. 18: Section piers of viaduct Unstruttal ously deformed against the shorten- was completely avoided. The execu-
with one integral modulus of 580 m length ing direction of the superstructures tion of the structure using a continuous
after pre-stressing, creep and shrink- track slab over all structural joints was
joint- and bearing-less ten-span gird- age. The gap between the separating advantageous for operation security
ers of 580 m total length each. At the piles was therefore clamped together. and maintenance of the structure.
centre of the continuous girders, arch- After construction and pre-stressing of
The rail stresses arising from load
shaped strut bracings are designed, the superstructure, the clamping was
cases braking and acceleration depend
forming the horizontal fix points in the released so that the superstructures
mostly on the longitudinal stiffness of
longitudinal direction of the bridge now deform almost freely in longitu-
the bridge in the presented design.9
(Figs. 4b, 17 and 18). dinal direction.
Stiffening was implemented, fulfilling
The arch crowns are merged with Work on the foundations of the arch
the necessities imposed by reinforced
the superstructure box sections to abutments was difficult as enormous
concrete, by a shell-like construction
guarantee a very high total stiffness. horizontal loads had to be transferred
element, which was recessed as much
The distances of the arches are deter- into the ground with deformations as
as possible to improve transparency.
mined according to the probable low as possible. Therefore, per founda-
Because of the varying height of the
expansion length of the rail fasteners. tion, axis 21 large-bored piles, partially
bridge, the stiffening sections were
inclined by 1/10, with a diameter of
In the transverse direction of the bridge, very differently loaded. To assure
1,80 m were built.
the arch base points are executed with despite of those differences a sufficient
a spread, entailing a higher transverse The superstructures cross section is stiffness of each section, the stiffening
stability and higher transverse load- a single-cell box section made of pre- shells were carried out with variable
bearing capacity. The arch can now stressed concrete, already used on widths between 10 and 12 m, to obtain
transfer loads from traffic, wind and many viaducts of the German Railway a (Fig. 20).
temperature in the transversal direc- Company. It was constructed mostly
In the transversal direction, the same
tion of the bridges longitudinal axis on a launching truss; only in the area
principle was applied by stiffening the
into the abutment by a force couple. where it merged with the arches, con-
support couples at the end of each
At the edges of the bridge, at the abut- struction was required on the form-
section by recessed reinforced con-
ments on the west and east, three-span work, together with the archs frame
crete walls.
girders are realised, fixed connected to construction. This allowed the use of
the abutment. The regular span width the arch as support for the launching The superstructure consists of a dou-
of the superstructure is 58 m. truss, and the whole truss travelled ble-tracked, double-web pre-stressed

112,00 m 112,00 m 112,00 m

Fig. 19: Structural concept of the integral bridge in several standard modules

338 Technical Report Structural Engineering International 3/2011

On the other side, the visual slen-
derness of the superstructure is very
good because of the slender supports
and the predominant braking span, as
shown clearly in Fig. 22.

Further Investigations in the Valley

For semi-integral viaducts realized
according to the new design concept,
a comprehensive sensitivity test was
accomplished because of their early
execution and the influence that all
constructional elements exerted onto
each other because of their monolithic
connection. The stiffness parameters of
the concrete and the ground, creep and
shrinkage behaviour and crack forma-
Fig. 20: Architectural expressive horizontal fixing of the superstructure
tion, especially, were varied in many
combinations and the effects of these
combinations were analysed in view
of values of deformation and vibra-
13,83 m 13,83 m
tion as well as rail stresses to obtain
new limit values. It was detected that
the semi-integral structures showed
robust behaviour even to highly vary-
ing input values and showed very high
redundancy in the load-bearing behav-
iour when the load-bearing design was
0,92 m

0,92 m
accurately conceived on the whole, that
is, well harmonised stiffness relations.
3,00 m

3,00 m
2,08 m
2,08 m

A particular challenge for railway

bridges on high-speed lines is the veri-
fication of dynamic behaviour. For
bridges with span widths of more than
40 m, the force application is rather low
because of the superstructures mass
11,80 m
11,80 m

and stiffness. Moreover, in case of large

span widths, often more than one train
axle loads one span so that no distinc-
tive, harmonious application occurs.
In contrast, small span widths up to
Fig. 21: Cross section at lateral fixed piers and standard piers 25 m necessitate a very careful analysis

T-beam with a construction height of

2,08 m, monolithically connected to
the circular reinforced concrete col-
umns. The reinforced concrete col-
umns have a diameter of 1,00 m at the
joints and 1,10 m at the centre of each
section (Fig. 21).
With an average span of 24,50 m, the
superstructure has a technical slen-
derness of 12a rather low value for
pre-stressed T-beams. However, the
stiffness requirements to ensure limit
values of deformation and vibration on
high-speed railway bridges, especially
with non-ballast track, are extremely
high. Experience shows that a slender
implementation is impossible to realize
in accordance with the requirements. Fig. 22: High visual slenderness in spite of low technical slenderness

Structural Engineering International 3/2011 Technical Report 339

and adaptation of the construction to These structures are very economical, References
exclude resonance in case of passing almost maintenance free, when their
trains. load-bearing concept is thoughtfully [1] Verfahren und Einrichtung zum Verschieben
von Bauteilen, insbesondere von Brckenbauteilen,
designed. Despite slender dimensions,
The European high-speed models 1989, Patent DE 3419449 C2.
they dispose of very high stiffness.
HSLM A01 to A10 differ from one [2] Gunzelmann H, Stumpf D. Eisenbahn-
another mainly in view of the so called When the advantages of integral load- berfhrung in Neustadt (Weinstr.), Aufweitung
length above buffers or distance of bearing behaviour are harnessed and visu- in unkonventioneller Bauweise, Der Eisenbahn-
wheel sets. This results in a wide range alized in the load-bearing structure, design ingenieur, Heft 10, 1989.
of critical excitation frequencies for processes generate almost automati- [3] Schmitt V, Seidl G. Eisenbahnbrcken in
dynamic calculation. At speeds of more cally well designed, aesthetic structures Stahlverbundbauweise, Stahlbau 79, Heft 3, 2010,
than 250 km/h, this range leads to a point without leading to supplementary costs. 159166.
where the danger of resonance cannot Support in finding an appropriate load- [4] Weizenegger M. Hybrid frame bridge over
be controlled only by adjustment, in gen- bearing concept is given by the Leitfaden river Saale, Merseburg, Germany. Struct. Eng.
eral, an increase of the first resonance. Gestalten von Eisenbahnbrcken (Guide Int. 2003; 13(3): 197181.
This would lead to uneconomic and to the design of railway bridges).10 [5] Marx S, Schacht G. Concrete Hinges
non-favourable construction heights. Historical Development and Contemporary Use,
The requirements for modern railway
Therefore, a model that would allow a 3rd Congress of the International Federation for
bridges, particularly for those on high-
certain excitation of the bridge in case Structural Concrete (fib), Washington DC, May
speed railway lines, are extremely high
of some trains and some speeds has to 29June 2, 2010, 20 p.
and need significant additional effort in
be worked out. However, this excitation [6] Seidl G, Braun A. VFT-WIB-Brcke bei
the design compared to road bridges.
has to be kept so low, by the existing Vigaun Verbundbrcke mit externer Bewehrung,
The design effort for integral bridges is
dampening and an adequate dimension- Stahlbau 78, Heft 2, 8693.
increased once more because of the vari-
ing of constructional elements, that the [7] Braun A et al., Rahmentragwerke im
ous interactions of the individual load-
arising vibration ranges stay below the Brckenbau, Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 101,
bearing elements of integral bridges
fatigue limit of the assembled reinforce- Heft 3, 2006, 187ff.
compared to usual bridges on bearings,
ment or the concrete. [8] Marx S, Krontal L, Btz S, Vehlow A. Die
which allow an almost separate consider-
ation of substructure and superstructure. Scherkondetalbrcke, die erste semi-integrale
Talbrcke der DB AG auf der Neubaustrecke
Conclusions The considerably improved total eco- ErfurtLeipzig/Halle VDE 8.2. Beton- und
nomic efficiency of these structures as Stahlbetonbau 2010; 105; Heft~3: S.~134141.
Integral bridge structures are in prin- well as the excellent design of the bridges, doi:10.1002/best.201090021.
ciple nothing new. All historic arch however, justify this supplementary
[9] Schenkel M, Goldack A, Schlaich J, Kraft
bridges are based on this basic idea and effort entirely. This was demonstrated S. Die Gnsebachtalbrcke, eine integrale
prove by their existence over centuries, in the recent past by the successfully Talbrcke der DB AG auf der Neubaustrecke
even thousands of years, how extraor- implemented integral and semi-integral ErfurtLeipzig/Halle. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau
dinary their function, robustness and bridges of the Deutsche Bahn AG on 2010; 105; Heft~9: 590598.
longevity are. The modern equivalent the existing German railway network as [10] Schlaich J, Schmitt V, Marx S. u. a.: Leitfaden
of arch bridge is a frame structure, well as on the newly built high-speed line Gestalten von Eisenbahnbrcken. 1. Auflage;
or in general an integral structure. Erfurt to Leipzig/Halle. Berlin: DB AG Dezember, 2008.

340 Technical Report Structural Engineering International 3/2011

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