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PTE Writing

Writing

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PTE Writing

Test Structure
Part II: Writing (total time 40, 50 or 60 minutes)

Item Type Number of tasks Task Description Skills assessed Text/ Time to
Recording answer
length
Summarize 2-3 (Partial credit) After reading a passage, write a one- Reading Writing Text up to 10 minutes
written text sentence (5-75 words) summary of 300 words
the passage.
Write essay 1-2 (Partial credit) Write an essay of 200-300 words on a Writing Up to 4 20 minutes
given topic. sentences

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PTE Writing

Summarize written text

( 2 3 Questions)

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Summarize written text ( 2 3 Q)


Instructions:

Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in
the box at the bottom of the screen. You will have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your
response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response
presents the key points in the passage.

Important:
Answer length: 5 75 words

Time: 10 minutes

Answer format: Single sentence

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PTE Writing

Summarize written text ( 2 3 Q)

THREE QUESTION TYPES:

TYPE 1: Contrasting main ideas/topic sentences

TYPE 2: Multiple main ideas/topic sentences

TYPE 3: Multiple details

a. Descriptive paragraphs
i. Superlatives
ii. Wh - Questions

b. Reports

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1. Contrasting main ideas/topic sentences

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Summarize written text (contd.)


1. Contrasting main ideas/topic sentences

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1. Contrasting main ideas/topic sentences

As a social practice developed for various functions, a dowry is still seen as a usual part of marriage in some
traditional cultures, although not as common as it used to be.
USE TRANSITION WORD TO SHOW THE CONSTRAST.
The practice of dowry was common in ancient world and medieval Europe, whereas it is not so popular today.
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FUNCTION TRANSITIONS
for example next such
Illustrate
for instance to illustrate such as
at this point furthermore in fact
Explain
because how in this case
as a result of because of one reason is
Give Reasons
because due to since
accordingly consequently therefore
Show Result
as a result otherwise thus
although conversely instead nevertheless rather unlike
Contrast
however in contrast on the contrary on the other hand whereas while
also finally moreover

Add another first, second, third not onlybut also

as well as furthermore too


although except for however
Limit
but even though yet
certainly indeed most importantly
Emphasize
clearly in fact surely

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Summarize written text ( 2 3 Q)


Practice using compound and complex sentences
Your response must be expressed within one sentence, so you will need to use a complex or
compound sentence to be able to summarize the main point of the passage and also briefly
mention the supporting detail. For example, look at the clause structures used in these
summaries to link supporting ideas to the main point:
Pronoun which
Introduces a relative
clause, creating a
complex sentence

Conjunction and joins


two simple sentences
together to produce a
compound
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Sentence variety
1. Complex vs. compound sentence

A complex sentence contains an independent clause and at least one dependent clause.

1. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence and makes a complete thought.
2. A dependent clause can not stand alone, even though it has a subject and a verb.

e.g.,

Evergreen trees are a symbol of fertility because they do not die in the winter.

When the cost goes up, customers buy less clothing.

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Sentence variety
1. Complex vs. compound sentence

A compound sentence has at least two independent clauses joined together with a
coordinator such as for, and, but, or, yet or so.

1. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence and makes a complete thought.

e.g.,

I always wanted to be somebody, but I should have been more specific.


(Jane Wagner)

Becky wishes she could be younger, for everyone else in the program is half her age.

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Summarize written text ( 2 3 Q)


Other sentence varieties

1. Noun + Clause / Appositives

Sydney is a beautiful city. It is in New South Wales.


Revision: Sydney, a beautiful city, is in New South Wales.
My room, which is very small, has three occupants including me.

2. Prepositional Phrase

In my room, the air conditioning does not work properly and also makes a lot of noise.
For a limited time, Woolworths is having a sale.

3. Start Sentences with Transitions

Although, Though, Despite

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2. Multiple topic sentences/main ideas

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2. Multiple topic sentences/main ideas

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2. Multiple topic sentences/main ideas

The media scrutiny of public figures, who often misuse their publicity, should be
supported because their income is sourced from the public and their lifestyle has an
impact on the issues related to the public.

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3. i. Multiple details (Descriptive Paragraphs)
By far the most popular and most consumed drink in the world is water, but it may come as no surprise that
the second most popular beverage is tea. Although tea was originally grown only in certain parts of Asia - in
countries such as China, Burma and India - it is now a key export product in more than 50 countries around
the globe. Countries that grow tea, however, need to have the right tropical climate, which includes up to
200 centimetres of rainfall per year to encourage fast growth, and temperatures that range from ten to 35
degrees centigrade. They also need to have quite specific geographical features, such as high altitudes to
promote the flavour and taste of the tea, and land that can offer plenty of shade in the form of other trees
and vegetation to keep the plants cool and fresh. Together these conditions contribute to the production of
the wide range of high-quality teas that are in such huge demand among the world's consumers. There is
green tea, jasmine tea, earl grey tea, peppermint tea, tea to help you sleep, tea to promote healing and tea
to relieve stress; but above all, tea is a social drink that seems to suit the palates and consumption habits of
human beings in general.

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Summarize written text (contd.)


3. i. Multiple details (Superlatives)
By far the most popular and most consumed drink in the world is water, but it may come as no surprise that
the second most popular beverage is tea. Although tea was originally grown only in certain parts of Asia - in
countries such as China, Burma and India - it is now a key export product in more than 50 countries around
the globe. Countries that grow tea, however, need to have the right tropical climate, which includes up to
200 centimetres of rainfall per year to encourage fast growth, and temperatures that range from ten to 35
degrees centigrade. They also need to have quite specific geographical features, such as high altitudes to
promote the flavour and taste of the tea, and land that can offer plenty of shade in the form of other trees
and vegetation to keep the plants cool and fresh. Together these conditions contribute to the production of
the wide range of high-quality teas that are in such huge demand among the world's consumers. There is
green tea, jasmine tea, earl grey tea, peppermint tea, tea to help you sleep, tea to promote healing and tea
to relieve stress; but above all, tea is a social drink that seems to suit the palates and consumption habits of
human beings in general.
LOOK FOR SUPERLATIVES

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Summarize written text (contd.)


3. i. Multiple details (Superlatives)
By far the most popular and most consumed drink in the world is water, but it may come as no surprise that
the second most popular beverage is tea. Although tea was originally grown only in certain parts of Asia - in
countries such as China, Burma and India - it is now a key export product in more than 50 countries around
the globe. Countries that grow tea, however, need to have the right tropical climate, which includes up to
200 centimetres of rainfall per year to encourage fast growth, and temperatures that range from ten to 35
degrees centigrade. They also need to have quite specific geographical features, such as high altitudes to
promote the flavour and taste of the tea, and land that can offer plenty of shade in the form of other trees
and vegetation to keep the plants cool and fresh. Together these conditions contribute to the production of
the wide range of high-quality teas that are in such huge demand among the world's consumers. There is
green tea, jasmine tea, earl grey tea, peppermint tea, tea to help you sleep, tea to promote healing and tea
to relieve stress; but above all, tea is a social drink that seems to suit the palates and consumption habits of
human beings in general.

Tea, the second most popular beverage and a social drink, is grown in certain parts of Asia with right tropical
climate and specific geographical features so that high quality products can be exported to meet the global
demands.

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3. ii. Multiple details (Wh - Questions)
For millions of years, Mediterranean sea turtles have been coming to the shore of southern Lebanon to lay
their eggs. Every summer, their babies hatch and literally run for their lives on the strip of sand that
separates their nests from the sea. An endangered species, they have had been largely ignored in this part
of Lebanon until two women set out to protect them.

Mona Khalil was inspired by a walk on the beach during a visit to her homeland, when she first saw the
turtles. Upon learning that they were close to disappearing from her country, Khalil decided to "come back
and do something about them."

The next year, 2000, she returned and teamed up with Habiba Fayed, who shares her passion for the
environment. They opened a bed-and-breakfast in the Khalil family home to finance their efforts. Guests
could simply vacation or, in the spirit of ecotourism, they could help the owners protect the turtles' nests
and keep the beach clean.

Female turtles travel to the exact spot where they were born to dig their nests in the sand, laying an
average of 70 to 100 eggs. This is the moment when the women intervene. They protect the nests from
predators by burying an iron grid in the sand above the eggs. The spaces on the grid are large enough to
allow the baby turtles to emerge after a month and find their way to the sea and to a chance at life.

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Summarize written text (contd.)


3. ii. Multiple details (Wh - Questions) ASK WH - QUESTIONS
For millions of years, Mediterranean sea turtles have been coming to the shore of southern Lebanon to lay
their eggs. Every summer, their babies hatch and literally run for their lives on the strip of sand that
separates their nests from the sea. An endangered species, they have had been largely ignored in this part
of Lebanon until two women set out to protect them.

Mona Khalil was inspired by a walk on the beach during a visit to her homeland, when she first saw the
turtles. Upon learning that they were close to disappearing from her country, Khalil decided to "come back
and do something about them."

The next year, 2000, she returned and teamed up with Habiba Fayed, who shares her passion for the
environment. They opened a bed-and-breakfast in the Khalil family home to finance their efforts. Guests
could simply vacation or, in the spirit of ecotourism, they could help the owners protect the turtles' nests
and keep the beach clean.

Female turtles travel to the exact spot where they were born to dig their nests in the sand, laying an
average of 70 to 100 eggs. This is the moment when the women intervene. They protect the nests from
predators by burying an iron grid in the sand above the eggs. The spaces on the grid are large enough to
allow the baby turtles to emerge after a month and find their way to the sea and to a chance at life.

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PTE Writing

Summarize written text (contd.)


3. ii. Multiple details (Wh - Questions)
For millions of years, Mediterranean sea turtles have been coming to the shore of southern Lebanon to lay
their eggs. Every summer, their babies hatch and literally run for their lives on the strip of sand that
separates their nests from the sea. An endangered species, they have had been largely ignored in this part
of Lebanon until two women set out to protect them.

Mona Khalil was inspired by a walk on the beach during a visit to her homeland, when she first saw the
turtles. Upon learning that they were close to disappearing from her country, Khalil decided to "come back
and do something about them."

The next year, 2000, she returned and teamed up with Habiba Fayed, who shares her passion for the
environment. They opened a bed-and-breakfast in the Khalil family home to finance their efforts. Guests
could simply vacation or, in the spirit of ecotourism, they could help the owners protect the turtles' nests
and keep the beach clean.

Female turtles travel to the exact spot where they were born to dig their nests in the sand, laying an
average of 70 to 100 eggs. This is the moment when the women intervene. They protect the nests from
predators by burying an iron grid in the sand above the eggs. The spaces on the grid are large enough to
allow the baby turtles to emerge after a month and find their way to the sea and to a chance at life.

Mediterranean sea turtles, an endangered sea species, were protected by two women by opening a bed and
breakfast to finance their effort to cover the turtle eggs with an iron grid.

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Summarize written text (contd.)


3. Multiple details (Reports)
The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has released a new report on anthropogenic climate change. The
findings of the report include the following:

The world's average surface temperature has increased by around 0.74C over the past 100 years (1906-2005). A warming of about 0.2C is
projected for each of the next two decades.

The best estimates for sea-level rise due to ocean expansion and glacier melt by the end of the century (compared to 1989 - 1999 levels) have
narrowed to 28 - 58 cm versus 9 - 88 cm in the 2001 report due to improved understanding. However, larger values of up to 1 m by 2100
cannot be ruled out if ice sheets continue to melt as temperature rises.

Sea ice is projected to shrink in both the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Large areas of the Arctic Ocean could lose year-round ice cover by the
end of the 21st century if human emissions reach the higher end of current estimates. The extent of Arctic sea ice has already shrunk by about
2.7 per cent per decade since 1978, with the summer minimum declining by about 7.1 per cent per decade.

Snow cover has decreased in most regions, especially in spring. The maximum extent of frozen ground in the winter/spring season decreased
by about 7 per cent in the Northern Hemisphere over the latter half of the 20th century. The average freezing date for rivers and lakes in the
Northern Hemisphere over the past 150 years has arrived later by some 5.8 days per century, while the average break-up date has arrived
earlier by 6.5 days per century.

It is "very likely" that precipitation will increase at high latitudes and "likely" it will decrease over most subtropical land regions. The pattern of
these changes is similar to what has been observed during the 20th century.

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Summarize written text (contd.)


3. Multiple details (Reports)
The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has released a new report on anthropogenic climate change. The
findings of the report include the following:

The world's average surface temperature has increased by around 0.74C over the past 100 years (1906-2005). A warming of about 0.2C is
projected for each of the next two decades.

The best estimates for sea-level rise due to ocean expansion and glacier melt by the end of the century (compared to 1989 - 1999 levels) have
narrowed to 28 - 58 cm versus 9 - 88 cm in the 2001 report due to improved understanding. However, larger values of up to 1 m by 2100
cannot be ruled out if ice sheets continue to melt as temperature rises.

Sea ice is projected to shrink in both the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Large areas of the Arctic Ocean could lose year-round ice cover by the
end of the 21st century if human emissions reach the higher end of current estimates. The extent of Arctic sea ice has already shrunk by about
2.7 per cent per decade since 1978, with the summer minimum declining by about 7.1 per cent per decade.

Snow cover has decreased in most regions, especially in spring. The maximum extent of frozen ground in the winter/spring season decreased
by about 7 per cent in the Northern Hemisphere over the latter half of the 20th century. The average freezing date for rivers and lakes in the
Northern Hemisphere over the past 150 years has arrived later by some 5.8 days per century, while the average break-up date has arrived
earlier by 6.5 days per century.

It is "very likely" that precipitation will increase at high latitudes and "likely" it will decrease over most subtropical land regions. The pattern of
these changes is similar to what has been observed during the 20th century.

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PTE Writing

Summarize written text (contd.)


3. Multiple details (Reports)
The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has released a new report on anthropogenic climate change. The
findings of the report include the following:

The world's average surface temperature has increased by around 0.74C over the past 100 years (1906-2005). A warming of about 0.2C is
projected for each of the next two decades.

The best estimates for sea-level rise due to ocean expansion and glacier melt by the end of the century (compared to 1989 - 1999 levels) have
narrowed to 28 - 58 cm versus 9 - 88 cm in the 2001 report due to improved understanding. However, larger values of up to 1 m by 2100
cannot be ruled out if ice sheets continue to melt as temperature rises.

Sea ice is projected to shrink in both the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Large areas of the Arctic Ocean could lose year-round ice cover by the
end of the 21st century if human emissions reach the higher end of current estimates. The extent of Arctic sea ice has already shrunk by about
2.7 per cent per decade since 1978, with the summer minimum declining by about 7.1 per cent per decade.

Snow cover has decreased in most regions, especially in spring. The maximum extent of frozen ground in the winter/spring season decreased
by about 7 per cent in the Northern Hemisphere over the latter half of the 20th century. The average freezing date for rivers and lakes in the
Northern Hemisphere over the past 150 years has arrived later by some 5.8 days per century, while the average break-up date has arrived
earlier by 6.5 days per century.

It is "very likely" that precipitation will increase at high latitudes and "likely" it will decrease over most subtropical land regions. The pattern of
these changes is similar to what has been observed during the 20th century.
A new UN report finds that increasing surface temperatures around the world are causing rising sea levels, shrinking
sea ice and snow cover, and changes in precipitation.

According to a new report provided by IPCC, increase in the surface temperature (BEST WAY TO START AN ANSWER
FOR A REPORT)

Based on a new report on climate change from IPCC, the increasing earth surface Progressive Education Services
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Item Type Number of tasks Task Description Skills Text/ Time to


assessed Recording answer
length
Write essay 1-2 (Partial credit) Write an essay of 200-300 words on a Writing Up to 4 20
given topic. sentences minutes

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You will have 20 minutes to plan, write and revise an essay about the topic below. Your response will be
judged on how well you develop a position, organize your ideas, present supporting details, and control
the elements of standard written English. You should write 200 - 300 words.

Age discrimination occurs when a decision is made on the basis of a person's age. In the workplace, these
are most often decisions about being employed in the first place, winning promotions or being unfairly
dismissed. Should discrimination against older workers be made illegal?

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Important:
Recommended length: 200 210 words

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Start by analyzing the task
Before you write anything, note key words in the prompt. Find out the topic, what key points you
should focus on to answer the question and any points of view to present and discuss:

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Analyzing these four areas will help you to approach the task, structure your essay and decide on your
main ideas.
The content of your answer is very important. If you do not write about the topic in the prompt, you
will receive no score points at all for this item type.

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PTE Essay Question Types


Type 1 Agree or Disagree

Type 2 Opinion (argue for and against )

Type 3 Advantages and disadvantages

Type 4 Consider how different groups of people might feel about a particular
situation

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PTE Essay Question Types


Type 1 Agree or Disagree

Question format
Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with this statement.
How far do you agree with this statement?
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Do you agree with the notion ?
Which of these points of view do you agree with most?
Do you agree or disagree?

Sample
'Schools should prepare students for university, rather than for work.' How far do
you agree with this statement? Support your point of view with reasons and/or
examples from your own experience or observations.

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ANSWER FORMAT
Type 1 Agree or Disagree
'Schools should prepare students for university, rather than for work.' How far do you agree with this statement? Support
your point of view with reasons and/or examples from your own experience or observations.

Introduction:
Background sentence about schools. Something like: Nowadays, the schools play an important role in shaping the future of a
child.
Position: Completely disagree: schools should not gear students for university. Alternatively, it will be beneficial to prepare
them for work for both economic and personality reasons.

Body Paragraph 1:
Economic reason
Not everyone can afford university fees since the university fees are exceedingly high. Also, the job after the university
degree is not guaranteed in this over populated earth. So better to learn a trade in the school to go to work directly after
school.

Body Paragraph 2:
Personality
University degree requires diligence and mental capability. Not everyone has the mental capacity to get a degree. If you
struggle in the university and get an average score, then job may be unreachable. So, its better for schools to provide
education to the students so that they become ready for work after school.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, schools should make the students ready for work as it beneficial for wider society in terms of economic and
personality reasons.
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Type 1 Agree or Disagree (Complete Essay)
'Schools should prepare students for university, rather than for work.' How far do you agree with this statement?
Support your point of view with reasons and/or examples from your own experience or observations.

In the modern society, schools play an important role in shaping the future of a child. A majority of population
believe that schools should prepare the students for university. On the contrary, it will be beneficial to prepare the
students for work because of economic reasons and different personality traits.

The work is a feasible option for many economically ailing middle class families. Most of the families cannot afford
the high tuition of the university. In addition, the government cannot guarantee employment after graduation.
Further, many graduates remain unemployed after their graduation due to ever increasing competition for jobs. In
this situation, starting to work after finishing school will be desirable. To prepare students for work after schools,
vocational education should be prioritized.

The university degree requires diligence and mental capability. Not everyone has the mental capacity to get a
degree. If you struggle in the university and get an average score, then the prospective employer may not employ
you due to mediocre performance in the university. Keeping in mind the personality traits of a majority of
population, its better for schools to provide education to the students so that they become ready for work after
school.

In conclusion, schools should make the students ready for work as it beneficial for wider society in terms of
economic and personality reasons.
Word count: 203 words
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You will have 20 minutes to plan, write and revise an essay about the topic below.
Your response will be judged on how well you develop a position, organize your ideas,
present supporting details, and control the elements of standard written English.
You should write 200 - 300 words.

Assessment Criteria:

i. Develop a position
ii. Organize your ideas
iii. Present supporting details
iv. Control the elements of standard written English

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Type 1 Agree or Disagree (Complete Essay)
'Schools should prepare students for university, rather than for work.' How far do you agree with this statement?
Support your point of view with reasons and/or examples from your own experience or observations.

i. Develop a position
In the modern society, schools play an important role in shaping the future of a child. A majority of population
believe that schools should prepare the students for university. On the contrary, it will be beneficial to prepare the
students for work because of economic reasons and different personality traits.
ii. Organize your ideas
The work is a feasible option for many economically ailing middle class families. Most of the families cannot afford
the high tuition of the university. In addition, the government cannot guarantee employment after graduation.
Further, many graduates remain unemployed after their graduation due to ever increasing competition for jobs. In
this situation, starting to work after finishing school will be desirable. To prepare students for work after schools,
vocational education should be prioritized.
iii. Supporting details
The university degree requires diligence and mental capability. Not everyone has the mental capacity to get a
degree. If you struggle in the university and get an average score, then the prospective employer may not employ
you due to mediocre performance in the university. Keeping in mind the personality traits of a majority of
population, it Is better for schools to provide education to the students so that they become ready for work after
school.
iv. Standard elements of English
In conclusion, schools should make the students ready for work as it beneficial for wider society in terms of
economic and personality reasons.
Word count: 203 words
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Type 2 Opinion (argue for and against )
Question format
What is your opinion?
Is it a good or bad phenomenon? What is your opinion?
Express your opinion, and support your answer with reasons and examples.
Do you think are good for ?
Do you think these are beneficial? Discuss.
What do you think?

Sample

Most people in what are known as the developed nations have homes full of gadgets and labor-
saving devices, from vacuum cleaners and dishwashers to the latest in computer technology.
Some people claim that despite all these labor-saving devices, we seem to have less free time.

In your opinion, has technology improved the quality of life or made it more complicated?
Support your arguments with reasons and/ or examples from your own experience and
observations.

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Type 3 Advantages and disadvantages
Question format
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of ... Support your arguments with reasons and/or
examples from your own experience and observations.
Do you think this has more advantages or disadvantages for ? Support your point of view
with reasons and examples from your own experience.
Do you think most people will see this as a positive development? What are the
disadvantages of ? Support your point of view with reasons and/or examples from
your own experience or observations.

Sample

'Nowadays many young people leave home at an early age to either study or work in another
city.'
Do you think this has more advantages or disadvantages for young people?
Support your point of view with reasons and examples from your own experience.

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Type 4 Consider how different groups of people might feel about a
particular situation
Question format
Do governments have a legitimate role to legislate to protect citizens from the harmful
effects of their own decisions to smoke, or are such decisions up to the individual?
Do you think consumers should avoid over packaged products or is it the responsibility of
producers?
In big companies, marketing strategy emphasize offers and discounts. In what ways, does this
impact their reputation?

Sample

Do you think governments and companies should combat climate change or is it the
responsibility of the individuals?

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Type 4 Consider how different groups of people might feel about a particular situation

Do you think governments and companies should combat climate change or is it the responsibility of the
individuals?
Climate change has become one of the biggest predicaments of human civilization. The rampant use of fossil fuel has
increased the level of green house emissions leading to an environmental crisis. The responsibility to combat climate change
should lie on the government because the government has more influence and resources.

The influence of government in fighting climate change is paramount. The primary role of the government is to regulate and
govern various sectors within a country. This role allows the government to exercise greater influence, which in turn paves
way for effective implementation of protective environmental policies. Furthermore, the government can impose hefty
fines for non compliance. This step has been crucial in regulating green house emissions in the Western countries. On the
contrary, the ineffective governments of developing and underdeveloped countries have not been able to implement the
environmental policies strictly. Thus, the western world has less environmental degradation than the others.

The government has access to extensive range of resources to tackle climate change. Firstly, it can use its media network to
create more awareness about the climate change. The use of nationwide blanket awareness campaigns has been successful
in many countries. Secondly, the government can prioritize use of renewable power sources such as wind, solar and water.
These will reduce the level of green house gas emissions. Thirdly, government can provide incentives to reduce the use of
plastics and other non biodegradable materials. The focus on the biodegradable materials will help to conserve our
environment less use of pollution generating resources.

In conclusion, the government plays a vital part in controlling the climate change through implementation of strict policies
and utilization of resources. (Word count: 276 words)

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How to bring COHERENCE to your essay
Meaning: 1. the quality of being logical and consistent.

2. the quality of forming a unified whole.

When organizing your ideas, think about what type of organization is the best for your topic or essay
type.

Some good examples of organization.

Type of Writing Type of organization


Chronology (historical events, personal narratives, Order by time or order of events/ steps
processes)
Description Order by position, size, and shape of things
Classification Group ideas and explain them in a logical order
Comparison/ Contrast Organize ideas point-by-point or block style

Argumentation/ Persuasion/ Cause and effect Order from most important to least important

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Word List for different categories
Environment
1. degradation - mining, deforestation
2. global warming - emission of green house gases, carbon
footprint
3. climate change - build-up of manmade gases, methane
4. Pollution - harmful pollutants - cancer, respiratory diseases,
environmental and health impact
5. Over use of fertilizers - excess runoff to water bodies
6. conservation - excess consumption of resources, environmental
policy
7. Alternative energy sources - wind, solar, water
8. anthropogenic activities - mining, industrial waste/hazardous
waste, garbage
9. biodegradable plastics
10. biodiversity - ecosystem, environmental management,
environmental sustainability, loss of habitat

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PTE Writing

Write essay (contd.)


Word List for
Health
1. wellness, homemade, healthy, nutrition, calorie
2. fitness, guideline, habit, discipline, laziness, motivation, sensible,
unhealthy
3. cure, prevention, World Health Organization
4. disease, overweight, diagnostic, disorders
5. abstain/ accessible, flavor, convenience
6. physical activity, inactivity
7. anxiety/stress, depression, drinking, smoking, optimism, balance
8. pollution exposure
9. consequence, epidemic
10. Antioxidants, toxins

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Write essay (contd.)


Word List for
Education
1. Analysis, assessment, literacy, critical thinking, creativity
2. Computer based learning, multimedia, advanced, applied,
theoretical, interdisciplinary
3. professional, specialist
4. vocational, apprenticeship
5. improvement, refinement, training, civilization
6. Preparation, proficiency, ability
7. Qualification, credentials, pedagogy
8. Skill enhancement
9. Career development
10. Rational thinking, logical thinking

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Write essay (contd.)


Word List for
Technology
1. Multitasking, innovative
2. Internet surfing, cloud computing, virtual reality
3. efficient, information technology, appropriate technology
4. Integrate, disseminate
5. Enhancement, information storage and retrieval, quantity,
advantage, applications, databases, impact, influence
6. on line, off line, labor saving
7. Business, economy, effective, exposure, capacity
8. globalization, infrastructure, internationalized
9. innovation, advance, develop, progress, revolution
10. breakthrough, mobile, portable devices

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Write essay (contd.)


Word List for
Society
1. Cultural Diversity - Migrant/Migration, Multiculturalism,
integration, refugee, acceptance
2. Racism
3. Humanity
4. general public, rat race, consumer society, sociological
5. Conventional
6. class upper class, upper crust, high society, ruling class
7. civilization, primitive, advanced
8. Prejudice, familiarity
9. Segregation
10. communities, coexistence, solidarity

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Write essay (contd.)


Word List for
Economy
1. Capital, inflation, depression
2. global, investment, finance
3. consumer, demand, supply, agronomics
4. Austerity, boom, capitalist, consumer confidence
5. deflation, economic indicator
6. market forces, sector
7. Free enterprise, industrialization
8. planned economy, capitalism, gross domestic product, per capita
income
9. Post industrialization, deindustrialization
10. Assets, fiscal

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PTE Writing

Write essay (contd.)


Sentence variety
1. Complex vs. compound sentence

A complex sentence contains an independent clause and at least one dependent clause.

1. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence and makes a complete thought.
2. A dependent clause can not stand alone, even though it has a subject and a verb.

e.g.,

Evergreen trees are a symbol of fertility because they do not die in the winter.

When the cost goes up, customers buy less clothing.

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PTE Writing

Write essay (contd.)


Sentence variety
1. Complex vs. compound sentence

A compound sentence has at least two independent clauses joined together with a
coordinator such as for, and, but, or, yet or so.

1. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence and makes a complete thought.

e.g.,

I always wanted to be somebody, but I should have been more specific.


(Jane Wagner)

Becky wishes she could be younger, for everyone else in the program is half her age.

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Write essay (contd.)


Sentence variety
2. Noun + Clause / Appositives

Sydney is a beautiful city. It is in New South Wales.


Revision: Sydney, a beautiful city, is in New South Wales.
My room, which is very small, has three occupants including me.

3. Prepositional Phrase

In my room, the air conditioning does not work properly and also makes a lot of noise.
For a limited time, Woolworths is having a sale.

4. If/When Conditionals

When all three of us are in the room, we feel suffocated.


If the funding for schools are adequate, the performance of students improve.

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Write essay (contd.)


Sentence variety

5. Transition words

Although the view from the room is beautiful, it gets really hot during the summer.

6. V + ing

Dancing is my favorite hobby.


Living in this room for the last six months, I have suffered mentally and physically.

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PTE Writing

Write essay (contd.)


SENTENCE STARTERS
Introduction/ Opening:
1. It is often said that ...

2. Many people claim that ...

3. In this day and age ...

4. Nowadays ...

5. These days ...

6. We live in an age when many of us are ...

7. ... is a hotly debated topic that often divides opinion.

8. ... is often discussed yet rarely understood.

9. It goes without saying that ... is one of the most important issues facing
us today.

10. The following essay takes a look at both sides of the argument.
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Write essay (contd.)


SENTENCE STARTERS (contd.)

Introducing points:
Firstly, let us take a look at ... What is more, ...

To start with, ... On top of that, ...

First of all, it is worth considering ... Another point worth noting is ...

Secondly, ... Another factor to consider is ...


Thirdly, ... Lastly, ...
Furthermore, ...
Finally, ...
In addition,
Last but not least, ...

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Write essay (contd.)


SENTENCE STARTERS (contd.)
Presenting ideas and giving examples:
When it comes to noun/ gerund (e.g. of gerund = Verb + ing = dancing), ...

In terms of noun/gerund, ...

With respect to noun/gerund, ...

Not only ... but also ...

According to experts, ...

Research has found that ...

There are those who argue that ...

For instance ...

For example ...

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Write essay (contd.)


SENTENCE STARTERS (contd.)

Expressing result and reason:


1. As a result, ...

2. As a result of ...

3. ... has led to ...

4. ... has resulted in ...

5. Consequently, ...

6. Therefore, ...

7. On account of ...

8. Due to ...

9. One reason behind this is ...


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Write essay (contd.)


SENTENCE STARTERS (contd.)

Contrasting:
1. Although/ Even though subject + verb, ...

2. Despite/In spite of noun/gerund, ...

3. Despite the fact that subject + verb, ...

4. On the one hand ... On the other hand ...

5. However, ...

6. Nevertheless, ...

7. Even so ...

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Write essay (contd.)


SENTENCE STARTERS (contd.)
Opinion:
1. As far as I am concerned, ...

2. From my point of view, ...

3. In my opinion, ...

4. Personally speaking, ...

5. My own view on the matter is ...

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Write essay (contd.)


SENTENCE STARTERS (contd.)
Concluding:
1. To sum up, ...

2. In conclusion, ...

3. All things considered, ...

4. Taking everything into consideration, ...

5. Weighing up both sides of the argument, ...

6. The advantages of ... outweigh the disadvantages

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PTE Writing

Write essay (contd.)


Paragraph structure
Rule:
1 paragraph = 1 idea

Structure:
1st sentence: Topic sentence/ main idea sentence
2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th sentence: Supporting details

REMEMBER
This RULE and STRUCTURE is only required for the body paragraph, not the introduction and
conclusion.

Body Paragraph 1:
The work is a feasible option for many economically ailing middle class families. Most of the
families cannot afford the high tuition of the university. In addition, the government cannot
guarantee employment after graduation. Further, many graduates remain unemployed after
their graduation due to ever increasing competition for jobs. In this situation, starting to
work after finishing school will be desirable. To prepare students for work after schools,
vocational education should be prioritized.

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