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Jet grout strut underneath

building pit for North-south

line Amsterdam prevents de-
formation of diaphragm wall

Figure 2: overview of the building site (photo Projectbureau Noord/Zuidlijn)

Just in front of the Central Station of Amsterdam, a large excavation was needed, to
connect the existing East-metro connection with the new North-South connection.
This building pit, roughly 3000 m2 has been build with diaphragm walls of 30 to 60 m
length and has been excavated in the dry. In the early stages, 5 layers of concrete
struts were planned to prevent the wall from to much deformation. During the con-
tracting phase, these have been replaced by two concrete struts and a jet grout strut,
just below the excavation.

Figure 1: Keller rig on the Voorplein in Amsterdam

In order to limit the amount of steel struts in the exca-
vation, a jet grout strut was designed and executed. Just
beneath the excavation level a 1 to 3 m thick grout layer
resists the horizontal forces to limit deformation of the
diaphragm wall. Excessive diameter measurements as
well as compressive strength tests have been performed
to assure that the design requirements have been met.

Client: Gemeentewerken Amsterdam

Consultant: Projektbureau Noord/Zuidlijn
Main Contractor:
Combinatie Strukton Betonbouw Van Oord
Subcontractor jet grouting
Smet-Keller Funderingstechnieken VOF
Figure 3: plaxis cross-section over the diaphragm wall.
Scope of the job
521 columns;
Design of the jet grout strut
218 inclinometer measurements The design and tender documents did not prescribe a specific diameter. The layout of
ca. 38 diameter measurements the grout strut should be designed with 5% opening to prevent water pressure building
ca. 30 core drillings up. The minimum thickness of the grout strut was 1.0 m in the middle, 2.0 m near the
200 UCS tests diaphragm wall and 3.0 m around some of the steel piles.

Period of Execution:
Between May 2007 and October 2008 in three phases

Executing Branche Office:

Keller Funderingstechnieken B.V.
Europalaan 16
2408 BG Alphen a/d Rijn
Tel. +31 172 471798
Fax: +31 172 471804
w w w. K e l l e rG r u n d b a u . c o m Figure 4: cross-section over the jet grout strut
Figure 5: top view of as-built (partly)

The layout of the individual jet grout columns was The result of a diameter measurement shows, where the red line is the calibration
designed by the subcontractor and afterwards approved against the displaced volume and the blue line is the calibration of the applied pressure
by the client. In principle a triangular grid was adapted against the displaced volume. The doted line is the actual measurement: the applied
which allowed an average inclination of 0,5 degrees and pressure against the displaced cylinder volume. Because the behaviour in the fluid in
a minimum overlap of 10 cm. Due to several causes the the ground is differs form the behaviour in the air (during both calibrations) the doted
demand was not met and a smaller grid was required. line does not proceed according the calibration line. The device was extensively tested
Furthermore, old sheet piles, old structures, the new above surface to simulate the behaviour, whether or not the device presses into the
piles and a former trial pit had to be taken into account. soil. These measurements confirmed the reliability of the instrument.
The design value of the compressive strength was 4.5
N/mm2 and was negotiated to an average value of 10
N/mm2. The desired E-modulus was 2500 MPa and both
values to be reached after 28 days.
Jet grouting with the DS-system
is a cement soil stabilisation and applicable in all kinds of
soils. With the aid of high pressure cutting jets, the
borehole is eroded with the cement suspension. The
erosion capability can be enlarged by shrouding the jet
with air. In this case Smet-Keller used the DS-system
which uses the energy more efficient and allows bigger
diameter. This enabled it to use a diameter of 3,2 m
which limited the number of columns drastically. The
columns were made in two stages, first cutting the
diameter (and measuring it) and afterwards increasing
the cement content. Before starting the execution,
three trial columns were executed. After fine tuning of
the parameters, the third column was perfect.
Column production
Because all traffic at street level should proceed without Figure 6: result of diameter measurement
any blockages, the whole building pit was divided in
three parts. After the works of one part was finished Compressive strength
(diaphragm wall, piles, grout strut und concrete slab) all One of the main issues during execution was the quality of the grout itself. This was
traffic was diverted and the whole operation started done by performing triple core drillings, which enables getting perfect samples for
again. The actual column production started in May testing and gives a perfect view through the column itself. The drillings were per-
2007 where the last column was finished in October formed both in the heart of the column and at 1/3 of the radius.
2008. In total 521 columns were produced. Representatives of the clients would choose the desired samples on which unconfined
The grouting was performed with two tall rigs which compressive strength tests were performed. In total 30 core drillings and over 200
could drill the maximum depth of 26 m in one time. tests were performed. The average value of all tests landed just over the desired value.
Because of the amount of return spoil, two large spoil Further quality control
silos were installed, enabling regular concrete trucks to Further quality control consisted of the measurement of the inclination of the drilling
transport the spoil to an especially prepared site. The with a mobile inclinometer (218 measurements), the monitoring (100 %) + sampling
silos served as temporary storage facility and limited the (~1 %) of the fresh grout and the monitoring (100 %) + sampling (~5 %) of the return
interference of traffic problems. spoil. Because not every column could be measured or core drilled to prove the
The sequence of the columns was determined by two diameter or strength, it was inevitable to show the client all production details. In this
requirements: in a virgin area, at least two columns way birth certificate of a measured column nearby could be compared with the actual
should be left before the next column could be grouted column. In case of an anomaly or, for example, a large inclination, appropriate meas-
on the same day. After a column was over 24 hours old, ures were taken.
columns on the opposite side could be grouted on the
same day. Behaviour during excavation
During the excavation excessive deformation measurements have been executed.
Diameter measurements
During the execution of the so called Sandwich wall
(another part of the same project) beneath the Central
Station, extensive experience was built up with measur-
ing diameter at large depth. For this project, a new
challenge was found in the diameter of 3.2 m.
The device is screwed on the drilling rig and lowered to
the desired depth. The first step is hydraulically opening
both arms, like an umbrella. After the full opening of the
arms, which was afterwards verified by checking a
damaged plastic bolt, both arms where enlarged, like a
telescope. The values of the measurements where
drawn in a diagram and compared with the calibration of
the device, before and after the measurement. In total
38 measurements where successfully executed.
Figure 7: deformations during excavation