00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

35 Ansichten10 SeitenAug 22, 2010

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

35 Ansichten

00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

Dai Gil Lee *, Tae Seong Lim, Seong Sik Cheon

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Design Laboratory with Advanced Materials, ME3221, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and

Technology, 373-1, Gusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon-shi 305-701, South Korea

Abstract

The tensile and compressive tests of glass±epoxy composites with 1±200 sÿ1 strain rates which are typical strain rate range during

automobile crash accidents were performed in order to measure the strength variation with respect to strain rate. The tests were

performed using both a horizontal type pneumatic impact tester and a conventional dynamic universal test machine with strain-rate-

increase mechanisms. Also, the impact energy absorption characteristics of glass ®ber reinforced composites were estimated using

the newly proposed progressive impact fracture model. From the experiments and predictions, it was found that the proposed

method predicted relatively well the experimental results. Ó 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Strain rates; Impact energy absorption; Progressive impact fracture model

characteristics were compared with the experimental

Fiber reinforced composites have been used for results obtained by the previous researchers [8±10].

structural materials of aircraft and space vehicles thanks

to their superior mechanical properties. In these days,

their use is being increased in various industrial struc-

tures. As composite materials are increasingly employed 2. Tensile and compressive tests under intermediate strain

in mechanical structures, the dynamic as well as static rates

characteristics of composite structures should be con-

sidered for the reliable structures. Therefore, many re- Generally, the split Hopkinson bar tester was widely

searches on the impact behavior of composite materials used to investigate dynamic properties of materials in

have been carried out [1±10]. the strain rate range between 100 and 1000 depending

In the present study, in order to measure the strength on the gauge length of specimens. However, the strain

variation with respect to strain rate, the tensile and rates of automobile body during car crash accidents are

compressive strengths of glass±epoxy composites were 1±200 sÿ1 , which are the comparable strain rates of

investigated under intermediate strain rates (1±200 sÿ1 ) impact speed of 5±13 m/s during impact tests. Therefore,

which were the strain rates during automobile crash the results of the split Hopkinson bar test have a limited

accidents. The tests were performed using a horizontal applicability for the automotive material characteriza-

type pneumatic impact tester and a conventional dy- tion during automobile crash accident.

namic universal test machine with strain-rate-increase In the present study, the eects of strain rate on the

mechanisms. Also, the impact energy absorption char- strength of glass ®ber epoxy composite materials in the

acteristics of glass ®ber reinforced composites were es- range of 1±200 sÿ1 were investigated using two testing

timated using the newly proposed progressive impact methods. For the range of 1±20 sÿ1 , strain-rate-increase

fracture model, whose basic scheme is to eliminate the mechanisms with two hydraulic cylinders were designed

fractured part of the composite at each divided loading and mounted on a conventional dynamic Instron ma-

stage. chine (Instron 8032). By these mechanisms, test speed

was increased 10 times both for tensile and compressive

tests as shown in Fig. 1. Since the maximum test speed

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +82-42-869-3221; fax: +82-42-869-

of the machine was 25 mm/s, the maximum test speed

3210. was increased to 250 mm/s. For the range of 20±200 sÿ1 ,

E-mail address: dglee@kaist.ac.kr (D.G. Lee). horizontal type pneumatic impact tester was designed as

0263-8223/00/$ - see front matter Ó 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 2 6 3 - 8 2 2 3 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 1 1 7 - 3

382 D.G. Lee et al. / Composite Structures 50 (2000) 381±390

Fig. 1. Experimental setup for tensile and compressive tests with the strain-rate-increase mechanism: (a) photograph of the test equipment;

(b) schematic diagram of the test equipment; (c) section of hydraulic cylinders.

shown Fig. 2. The mass and speed of the impactor were posites whose ®ber volume fraction is 60% are shown in

5.6 kg and 0.25±3 m/s, respectively. Fig. 5. The experiments were performed in the range of

Fig. 3 shows the specimen shapes for the tests. The 1±200 sÿ1 strain rate, whose results are shown in Fig. 6.

gauge lengths of both the tensile test type composite From the results of Fig. 6, it was found that the

specimens and compressive type one were 2.5 mm. For strength of glass±epoxy composites increased about 80%

the tests, a birdcage type jig was designed, which could at the strain rate of up to 50 sÿ1 compared to the strain

insure alignment of compressive loads. And this jig rate of 0.01, which is a normal strain rate during ma-

could apply tensile loads to the specimens by pushing terial testing. Using the measured strength results, the

the outside cage of the jig as shown in Fig. 4. The col- energy absorption of glass ®ber epoxy composites was

umns of the compressive jig were properly lubricated calculated with the progressive impact fracture model.

with grease and their frictional loads were calibrated.

For the measurement of loads, the dog bone type

load cell with four strain gauges was manufactured. And 3. Progressive impact fracture model [9]

the load was measured using a DC type strain ampli®er

(AS2103, NEC, Japan). The measured data were In the present study, the dynamic external load and

transferred to the IBM-PC using an A/D converter. The the energy absorption during the impact of composite

measured strength data of the glass ®ber epoxy com- were calculated using the progressive impact fracture

D.G. Lee et al. / Composite Structures 50 (2000) 381±390 383

tensile and compressive tests: (a) schematic diagram of the test

equipment; (b) photograph of the main part.

Fig. 4. Jig for tensile and compressive tests: (a) schematic diagram of

the disassembled jig; (b) tensile test; (c) compressive test.

which was the same formulation for the case of a ball on

a ¯at or convex plane surface.

P kh a1:5 : 1

The actual values of kh were obtained by the static in-

dentation tests. The indentation amount was measured

both by a dial gauge and by an linear variable dier-

Fig. 3. Specimen dimensions for dynamic tensile and compressive ential transformer (LVDT) and the test results were

tests: (a) tensile test specimen; (b) compressive test specimen. ®tted using Eq. (1). The nose radius of the loading cyl-

inder for the composite Charpy specimens was 1.5 mm

and that for the composite impact beams was 25 mm.

model, whose basic scheme is to eliminate the fractured

During the impact tests, the same size radius tups were

part of the specimen at each divided loading stage. The

used. The Hertzian contact during impact was modeled

calculated results were compared with the instrumented

as a serial connection of high stiness nonlinear spring

Charpy test results (5.21 m/s of tup velocity) and the

of stiness kh to the bending linear spring of stiness kb

composite impact beam test results for passenger cars

as shown in Fig. 7.

(13 m/s of tup velocity). The Hertzian contact between

Using DÕAlembert principle and geometric compati-

the composites and the impactor was included in the

bility, Eqs. 2(a)±(c) were obtained.

analysis to predict more accurately the initial slope and

peak load during impact. Since the Hertzian contact my kh a1:5 0; 2a

occurred earlier than the bending fracture, it in¯uenced

only the initial dynamic force. The relationship between kb d kh a1:5 ; 2b

the Hertzian contact force P and the indentation a

during the impact of a cylinder on a ¯at or convex plane y a d; 2c

384 D.G. Lee et al. / Composite Structures 50 (2000) 381±390

epoxy composites: (a) tension (e_ 50 sÿ1 ); (b) compression (e_ 50 Fig. 6. Strengths of the glass±epoxy composites w.r.t. strain rates:

sÿ1 ). (a) tension; (b) compression.

contact and the bending, respectively. After the ®rst fracture of composite specimen, the

For the simply supported center loading of a beam, Hertzian contact was no longer considered. Therefore,

the bending stiness kb can be obtained from the me- the impact test of composites was approximated as a

chanics of materials method. simple spring mass system model as shown in Fig. 7(e)

whose governing equation is shown in Eq. (4).

48EI

kb ; 3

L3 my kb y 0: 4

where E, I and L represent the YoungÕs modulus, the

second moment of inertia and the span length, respec- The analytical solution of Eq. (4) is as follows.

tively. r r !

Using the numerical calculations of Eqs. 2(a) and (b), m kb

yv sin t : 5

the values of a and d were ®tted as sinusoidal curves to kb m

be dierentiable n times with respect to time.

The initial dynamic external load was obtained by If the tensile or compressive stress in the composite

multiplying the second derivative of y by the impactor specimen is more dominant than the interlaminar shear

mass m as shown in Eqs. 2(a)±(c). When the external stress, the outer hatched regions of Fig. 8(a) would un-

load reached the critical value which could bring about dergo failure, while the delamination failure would oc-

the tensile fracture or the compressive fracture or del- cur when the interlaminar shear stress is more dominant

amination failure as shown in Fig. 8. as shown in Fig. 8(c). Also, the tensile and compressive

The critical loads for the tensile and compressive parts of specimens would not fail simultaneously be-

fractures with respect to strain rates were obtained in the cause the glass ®ber epoxy composite has a larger tensile

previous chapter, and for the delamination failure the strength than compressive strength as shown in Fig. 6.

results obtained from the previous short beam shear Therefore, the times tt and tc required for which the

tests were used [9,10]. bending stress in the composite specimen reached the

D.G. Lee et al. / Composite Structures 50 (2000) 381±390 385

Fig. 7. Schematic diagram of impact between the impactor mass m and the beam with stiness kb and the Hertzian stiness kh : (a) real model;

(b) approximated model; (c) dynamic equilibrium using DÕAlembert principle; (d) external loads of the spring due to the Hertzian contact;

(e) approximated model after ®rst fracture occurred.

tensile strength and compressive strength, respectively 10% strain during the fracture as depicted in Fig. 5,

and the time ts required for which the interlaminar shear which was similar to the other previous research results

stress were calculated as follows: [3,6], it was assumed that the real fracture of the com-

r posite specimens would initiate at 1.1tc rather than at tc

m ÿ1 4rt Z

tt sin p ;
6a to make the eliminated part by fracture ®nite. As the

kb vL mkb

fractured part of the composite specimen was eliminated,

r the YoungÕs modulus, neutral axis, second moment of

m ÿ1 4rc Z

tc sin p ;
6b inertia of the composite specimen and the velocity of the

kb vL mkb

impactor was updated in each iteration. To start the next

r iteration step, it is essential to determine the lower force

m ÿ1 4sd wh

ts sin p ;
6c (Fb ) as shown in Fig. 9. Since the displacement of the

kb 3v mkb

impactor at the end of the ®rst step is equal to that of the

start of the second step, the following relationship holds:

where rt , rc and sd represent the tensile, compressive

and interlaminar shear strengths of the glass±epoxy kb

Fb Fa :
7

composite, respectively. Also, Z represents the sectional ka

modulus (second moment of inertia/vertical length be- As explained above, the iterative procedure resulted in

tween neutral axis and fractured region), w and h the the dynamic load and the energy absorption versus time.

width and the height of specimen, respectively. Eqs. 6(a) The iterative equations for the velocity, displacement

and (b) were derived from the bending stress relation, and energy absorption of the
i 1th step were shown

and Eq. 6(c) was derived from the interlaminar shear as follows:

stress relation. The next step is to choose the minimum

Fi Fi1

time among tt , tc and ts . If tt were selected, then the vi1 vi ÿ Dti1 ;
8a

composite specimens would undergo the fracture of the 2m

base part. If tc were selected, then the upper part frac- vi vi1

ture of the composite specimen would occur. If ts were di1 di ÿ Dti1 ;
8b

2

selected, then it would go through the interlaminar

fracture as shown in Fig. 8(c). Since the dynamic stress± 1

Ei1 Ei ÿ m
v2i1 ÿ v2i :
8c

strain curves of composites show slight ductility within 2

386 D.G. Lee et al. / Composite Structures 50 (2000) 381±390

fracture model for the composite specimen.

placement of the impactor was compared to the critical

displacement of the impactor dc , which was de®ned by

the Pythagorean theorem as follows:

s

2 2

Ls L

dc ÿ ; 9

2 2

length, respectively. If the displacement of the impactor

were larger than this critical value, the composite spec-

imen would no longer support external load, but slip

Fig. 8. Progressive impact fracture model of the composite specimen through the jig. At that time, the iteration would be

during impact load: (a) tensile fracture; (b) compressive fracture; terminated.

(c) interlaminar shear stress dominant fracture.

Table 1

Composite specimens for the impact test

Composite type Length (mm) Section (mm) Experiment

Glass ®ber epoxy composite specimen 55 Instrumented Charpy, m 12.07 kg,

v 5.21 m/s, nose radius: 1.5 mm

embedded with Kevlar 29 ®ber v 5.21 m/s, nose, radius: 1.5 mm

type) m/s, nose radius: 25 mm

m/s, nose radius: 25 mm

D.G. Lee et al. / Composite Structures 50 (2000) 381±390 387

Mechanical properties of the composite specimen test results for each glass±epoxy composite specimen.

Glass±epoxy Then the estimated energy absorption characteristics of

composite (UGN 150) glass±epoxy composite specimens w.r.t. ®ber volume

Longitudinal tensile modulus (GPa) 43 fractions were compared to the previous test results by

Longitudinal tensile strength (GPa) 2.0 the instrumented Charpy impact test [10].

Longitudinal compressive strength (GPa) 1.2

Fig. 12 shows the values a and d calculated by sub-

Major PoissonÕs ratio 0.28

stituting the experimentally obtained coecients into

Eqs. 2(a)±(c). The calculated values of a and d were

In the present work, this model was applied to several ®tted by using sinusoidal functions.

kinds of composites that were experimented as listed in Fig. 13 shows the experimental and estimated results

Table 1. Fig. 10 shows the ¯ow chart of the method. when the ®ber volume fraction is 60.6%.

Also, Table 2 indicates the mechanical properties of

glass±epoxy composites. The tensile and compressive

strengths are the average values which were tested in the 3.2. Glass ®ber reinforced hybrid composite [9]

range of 10±100 sÿ1 strain rate.

In this case, Kevlar 29 ®bers were embedded in the

3.1. Glass±epoxy composite specimens mid plane of the composite specimen. Therefore, Eqs.

6(a)±(c) should be modi®ed to allow the embedded

The static indentation tests were carried out to obtain material because the neutral axis would not coincide

the Hertzian stiness and the values of kh were obtained with the centroid even with the symmetrically stacked

388 D.G. Lee et al. / Composite Structures 50 (2000) 381±390

specimens which were embedded dissimilar materials.

ness of the embedded material and the distance from the

centroid to the middle surface of the embedded material,

respectively as shown in Fig. 14, the neutral axis yN that

is the distance between the base and the neutral axis of

Fig. 11. Static indentation tests of glass±epoxy composites (vf : 60.6%). the partially fractured specimen is represented as fol-

lows:

0 1

t et tEfe e

1ÿ ÿ2 2 12

h~ B

B h~ h~ ~ fg

hE h~ CC

yN B C; 10

2@ t tEfe A

1ÿ

~ fg

h~ hE

where Efg and Efe represent the YoungÕs moduli of glass±

epoxy composites and embedded materials, respectively.

Then, the second moment of inertia I was calculated

by the parallel axis theorem. When the middle surface of

the embedded material is higher than the centroid,

e is positive, otherwise it is negative. Therefore, the

Eqs. 6(a)±(c) were modi®ed as follows:

r

m ÿ1 4rt I

tt sin p ; 11a

kb vLyN mkb

r !

m ÿ1 4rc I

tc sin p ; 11b

kb vL h~ ÿ yN mkb

Fig. 12. Static indentation tests of glass±epoxy composites (vf : 60.6%).

r !

m ÿ1 4sd wh~

ts sin p : 11c

kb 3v mkb

embedded materials. The composite specimen thickness

after eliminating the fractured part by compression was

calculated as follows:

r!

4r I k

h~ yN p csc 1:1tc

c

: 12

Lv mk m

composites, which makes the relative portion of the

embedded material increase because the embedded ma-

terial is located at the middle surface. Accordingly, the

YoungÕs modulus, neutral axis, second moment of in-

Fig. 13. Analytical and experimental results of the external load and ertia of the composite specimen and the velocity of the

energy absorption for glass±epoxy composites (vf : 60.6%). impactor should be updated in each iteration as the

D.G. Lee et al. / Composite Structures 50 (2000) 381±390 389

Fig. 15. Analytical and experimental results of the external load and

energy absorption of the glass ®ber hybrid composites (Kevlar 29,

vf;Kevlar : 8.9%, vf;Kevlar means the volume fraction of the Kevlar 29 ®ber,

i.e., vf VKevlar =Vcomposite ).

Fig. 17. Analytical results of the external load and energy absorption

of the glass ®ber epoxy composite beams: (a) tubular type section;

(b) box type section.

Fig. 16. Coordinate system to obtain the neutral axis of tubular type

composite beams.

p 4 d4 ÿ

I
d0 ÿ di4 ÿ 0 a ÿ sin a cos a 2 sin3 a cosa

64 64

fractured part of the composite specimen was eliminat- ÿ y2 A;
13

ed. Also, the static indentation tests were carried out to

consider the Hertzian contact eect. where y and A can be shown as follows:

Fig. 15 shows the comparison between the Charpy d03 sin3 a

impact test and the progressive impact fracture model. y ;
14a

34pt
d0 ÿ t ÿ d02
a ÿ sin a cos a

A pt d0 ÿ t ÿ a ÿ sin a cosa: 14b

4

In this case, beams with two dierent sections such The second moment of inertia for the box type beam

as tubular and box type as shown in Table 1 were can be obtained in an analogous manner without any

tested. For these beams the centroid coincides with the diculty.

neutral axis. The second moment of inertia of the These beams were tested with the specially designed

tubular type beam as shown in Fig. 16 was calculated pneumatic impact tester. The impactor mass and

as follows: incident velocity were 13 kg and 13 m/s (30 mph),

Table 3

The comparison of the estimated impact energy absorption with the experimental ones

Composite beam type Results Model Experiment

Tubular type Impactor incident velocity, Vi (m/s) 13 13.1

Impactor ®nal velocity, Vf (m/s) 8.9 8.96

Energy absorption ratio (%) 53.1 53.2

Box type Impactor incident velocity, Vi (m/s) 13 12.9

Impactor ®nal velocity, Vf (m/s) 8.93 8.85

Energy absorption ratio (%) 52.8 52.9

390 D.G. Lee et al. / Composite Structures 50 (2000) 381±390

respectively [8]. Unfortunately the force versus time In order to estimate the impact energy absorption

history during impact was not measured. Instead, the characteristics of ®ber composite materials, the pro-

incident and ®nal velocities of the impactor were ob- gressive impact fracture model was proposed. The

served with the help of optical sensors. Also, the static model predicted relatively well the impact energy ab-

indentation tests were performed to consider the sorption characteristics of composites, however, it was

Hertzian contact eects. unable to predict accurately the dynamic peak load

Fig. 17 shows the estimated force versus time and the during the impact of composite structures, which might

impact energy absorption results of each beam and be improved if the dierent failure strains of composites

Table 3 compares the estimated results with the experi- depending on the strain rate were considered.

mental ones.

Acknowledgements

4. Discussions This work was supported by KOSEF (Korea Science

and Engineering Foundation) under Grant No. 98-0200-

It was found that the progressive impact fracture 01-01-5 and in part by BK21 (Brain Korea 21) Project.

model predicted relatively well the impact energy ab- Their support is gratefully acknowledged.

sorption characteristics of composite structures and the

impact duration, however it was unable to predict the

peak dynamic load during impact of composite struc- References

tures. From the results of the modeling, the compressive

fracture was predicted to be the dominant failure mode [1] Adams DF, Miller AK. An analysis of the impact behavior of

because the compressive strength of glass±epoxy com- hybrid composite materials. Mater Sci Engrg 1975;19:245±60.

posites is lower than the tensile one, while in the tests, [2] Mallick PK, Broutman LJ. Static and impact properties of

laminated hybrid composites. J Testing and Evaluation

the tensile, compressive and shear failures occurred si- 1977;5:190±200.

multaneously. From the experiments and estimation, it [3] Harding J, Welsh LM. A tensile testing technique for ®bre-

may be conjectured that the failure of ®ber composites reinforced composites at impact rates of strain. J Mater Sci

occurs at the moment the strain reaches the critical value 1983;18:1810±26.

rather than when the stress reaches the strength, because [4] Arnold WS, Madjidi S, Marshall IH, Robb MD. Low velocity

impact of inclined CSM composite laminates. In: Proceedings of

the real dynamic fractures of composites occur with the International Conference on Advanced Composite Materials.

slightly ductile behavior at high strain rate. Therefore, it The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1993. p. 617±22.

may be helpful to investigate the failure strain of com- [5] Jenq ST, Sheu SL. High strain rate compressional behavior of

posites with respect to strain rates. stitched and unstitched composite laminates with radial con-

straint. Comp Struct 1993;25:427±38.

[6] Plastinin AV, SilÕvestrov VV. Dynamic compressive strength of

epoxy composites. Mech Comp Mater 1995;31:549±53.

[7] Sun CT, Potti SV. A simple model to predict residual velocities of

5. Conclusion

thick composite laminates subjected to high velocity impact. Int J

Impact Engrg 1996;18:339±53.

In this work, the tensile and compressive strengths of [8] Cheon SS, Lee DG, Jeong KS. Composite side door impact beams

glass ®ber epoxy composite were measured with the for passenger cars. Comp Struct 1997;38:229±39.

strain rate of 1±200 sÿ1 in order to investigate the eect of [9] Cheon SS, Lim TS, Lee DG. Impact energy absorption charac-

teristics of glass ®ber hybrid composites. Comp Struct

strain rate on the strength using strain-rate-increase

1999;46:267±78.

mechanisms. From the experiments, it was found that the [10] Lee DG, Cheon SS. Impact characteristics of glass ®ber compos-

dynamic strength of glass±epoxy composites at the strain ites with respect to ®ber volume fraction. J Comp Mater

rate of 50 sÿ1 was 80% higher than that of the static. (accepted).

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.