6 views

Uploaded by aryamesa

RANS

- 9783642282751-c2.pdf
- C11-52.pdf
- hydraulic calc by vass
- Tfd & Elem Cfd Part II
- A29_IJMA_2013
- A29_IJMA_2013.pdf
- Sail Shape Optimization With CFD
- Simulation of jet impingement heat transfer
- Air Assist Flare Page 52
- TP Entire Notes
- Science 2
- 00066500
- A 258459
- CFD-lab
- mel705-26
- Turbulent Couette-Taylor flows with endwall effects: a numerical benchmark
- Turbulence Easwari
- Momentum and Heat Transfer in a Turbulent Cylinder Wake Behind a Streamwise Oscillating Cylinder
- Experiment (7) the Round Turbulent Jet
- Cap. 08.pdf

You are on page 1of 36

www.physics.ucla.edu/~jenko

An introduction

to turbulence

in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

March 23, 2015

Turbulence in lab & natural plasmas

Fusion plasmas Space plasmas

Central role of plasma turbulence

Particle acceleration & propagation Cross-field transport

Introductory remarks

no prior knowledge of turbulence is required

but they cannot replace individual study...

Recommended reading

Also:

P. A. Davidson

Turbulence

Some turbulence basics

Turbulence is ubiquitous

as well as an important unsolved

physics problem

According to a famous statement by Richard Feynman

of Physics among many of the leading

physicists world-wide

Millennium Issue

(December 1999)

TURBULENCE:

A challenging topic for both basic and applied research

The Turbulence Problem

anced by the mean energy dissipation

rate at small scales. Richardson and

Taylor also appreciated that generic

properties of turbulence may be dis-

covered in the statistics of velocity dif-

ferences between two locations

separated by a distance r, denoted as

u(x, x+r) = u(x) u(x+r). The statis-

tics of velocity differences at two loca-

tions are an improvement over the

statistics of velocity fluctuations at a

single location for a number of techni-

here. Longitudinal projections of

velocity differences

are often measured in modern experi- This figure represents a one-dimensional simplification of the cascade process with

ments and are one of the main quanti- representing the scale factor (usually taken to be 1/2 because of the quadratic

ties of interest in the analysis of fluid nonlinearity in the Navier-Stokes equation). The eddies are purposely shown to be

turbulence. space filling in a lateral sense as they decrease in size.

(This figure was modified with permission from Uriel Frisch. 1995. Turbulence: The Legacy of A. N. Kolmogorov.

Measuring velocity differences on Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.)

fast time scales and with high preci-

sion was a difficult proposition in the

early 20th century and required the

development of the hot-wire

past a thin heated wire carries heat

away at a rate, proportional to the

fluid velocity. Hot-wire anemometry

made possible the measurement, on

laboratory time scales, of the fluctuat-

ing turbulent velocity field at a single

point in space (see Figure 5). For a

flow whose mean velocity is large,

velocity differences were inferred

from those single-point measurements

by Taylors frozen-turbulence

hypothesis.7

7 If the mean velocity is large compared

with velocity fluctuations, the turbulence

can be considered frozen in the sense

that velocity fluctuations are swept past a

single point faster than they would change

because of turbulent dynamics. In that

case, the spatial separation r is related to

Figure 5. Time Series of Velocities in a Turbulent Boundary Layer

the time increment t by r = Ut, This time series of velocities for an atmospheric turbulent boundary layer with

where U is the mean velocity. See also the

Reynolds number Re ~ 2 107 was measured at a single location with a hot-wire

article Taylors Hypothesis, Hamiltons

Principle, and the LANS- Model for anemometer. The velocity fluctuations are apparently random. (This figure is courtesy of

Computing Turbulence on page 152 . Susan Kurien of Los Alamos, who has used data recorded in 1997 by Brindesh Dhruva of Yale University.)

Number 29 2005 Los Alamos Science 129

WHAT IS THE CHALLENGE?

Theories that dont apply directly:

nonlinear dynamics

order and disorder. Paul Valry

VISION BY J. VON NEUMANN

Supercomputers can help

to unravel the mysteries

of turbulence in the spirit of

John von Neumann (1949):

well-planned, computational efforts. There are strong indications that

one could name certain strategic points in this complex, where relevant

information must be obtained by direct calculations. This should, in the

end, make an attack with analytical methods possible.

Milestones in turbulence research I

Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912)

1883 Transition from laminar to turbulent flows (Reynolds number)

1895 Reynolds decomposition into mean and fluctuating flows

1904 Recognition of the importance of boundary layers

1925 Mixing length model for turbulent transport

1922 Book Weather Prediction by Numerical Process

Notion of turbulent eddies & (local, direct) energy cascade

1935 Series of papers on the Statistical Theory of Turbulence

Milestones in turbulence research II

Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)

1923 ber Stabilitt und Turbulenz von Flssigkeitsstrmen

(PhD Thesis, LMU Mnchen, Advisor: Arnold Sommerfeld)

1948 Three papers on the statistical theory of turbulence

1941 K41 theory: dimensional analysis, -5/3 law (energy spectrum)

1962 K62 theory: scale invariance is broken, problem of intermittency

1957- Field-theoretic approach: Direct Interaction Approximation

1967 Inverse energy cascade in two-dimensional fluid turbulence

Milestones in turbulence research III

Steven Orszag (1943-2011)

1966 Eddy-Damped Quasi-Normal Markovian approximation

1969- Towards Direct Numerical Simulations via spectral methods

1972 First 3D DNS on a 323 grid by S. Orszag & G. Patterson

1963 Large-Eddy Simulation techniques by J. Smagorinsky

1965 Fast Fourier Transform algorithm by J. Cooley & J. Tukey

1977 Cray-1 at the National Center for Atmospheric Research

Turbulence: The bigger picture

Some grand challenges

Design airplanes, ships, cars etc.

Predict weather & climate

Unravel role of turbulence in space & astrophysics

Predict performance of fusion devices like ITER

Effects of inhomogeneity, anisotropy, compressibility

(role of walls, drive, stratification, rotation etc.)

From fluid to magneto-/multi-fluid to kinetic turbulence

Conceptual approach

Ab initio simulations of complicated problems are not feasible

Seek physics understanding to construct reliable minimal models

INSTITUTE FOR PURE AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS

MATHEMATICS

Los Angeles, California

Turbulence

Image courtesy of David Goluskin

OF TURBULENCE

September 8 December 12, 2014

research

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE: Charlie Doering (University of Michigan), Gregory Eyink (Johns

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE: NAME IN BOLD (INSTITUTION), NAME IN BOLD

Hopkins University), Pascale Garaud (UC Santa Cruz), Michael Jolly (Indiana University), Keith

(INSTITUTION),

Julien NAME IN Beverley

(University of Colorado), BOLD (INSTITUTION), NAME IN BOLD (INSTITUTION)

McKeon (Caltech)

today

Scientific Overview

Turbulence is perhaps the primary paradigm of complex nonlinear multi-scale dynamics. It is ubiquitous in fluid

flows and plays a major role in problems ranging from the determination of drag coefficients and heat and

mass transfer rates in engineering applications, to important dynamical processes in environmental science,

ocean and atmosphere dynamics, geophysics, and astrophysics. Understanding turbulent mixing and

transport of heat, mass, and momentum remains an important open challenge for 21st century physics and

mathematics.

This IPAM program is centered on fundamental issues in mathematical fluid dynamics, scientific computation,

and applications including rigorous and reliable mathematical estimates of physically important quantities for

solutions of the partial differential equations that are believed, in many situations, to accurately model the

essential physical phenomena.

Workshop Schedule

Mathematics of Turbulence Tutorials: September 9 - 12, 2014.

Workshop I: Mathematical Analysis of Turbulence. September 29 - October 3, 2014.

Workshop II: Turbulent Transport and Mixing. October 13 - 17, 2014.

Workshop III: Geophysical and Astrophysical Turbulence. October 27 - 31, 2014.

Workshop IV: Turbulence in Engineering Applications. November 17 - 21, 2014.

Culminating Workshop at Lake Arrowhead Conference Center, December 7 12, 2014.

Participation

This program will bring together physicists, engineers, analysts, and applied mathematicians to share

problems, insights, results and solutions. Enhancing communications across these traditional disciplinary

boundaries is a central goal of the program.

Full and partial support for long-term participants is available. We are especially interested in applicants who

intend to participate in the entire program (September 8 December 12, 2014), but will consider applications

for shorter periods. Funding is available for participants at all academic levels, though recent PhDs, graduate

students, and researchers in the early stages of their careers are especially encouraged to apply.

Encouraging the careers of women and minority mathematicians and scientists is an important component of

IPAM's mission and we welcome their applications. More information and an application is available online.

www.ipam.ucla.edu/programs/mt2014

On the physics of

3D fluid turbulence

Early observations

Leonardo da Vinci (ca. 1500)

The Navier-Stokes equations (1822)

The NSE for incompressible fluids: : kinematic viscosity

(1785-1836) (1819-1903)

dimensionless fields:

nxbe

= non-dimensionalised = V 2 p a characteristic veloci

by introducing

Lx, t = (L/V )t, (p/)

= V SELF-SIMILARITY

v, x = Lx, t = (L/V

g new, dimensionless fields:)t, &

(p/)PIPE

= V 2 FLOWS

p

Osborne Reynolds (1883)

! 1

+ v )v! = p +

ome t v + v )v = p

#v 1 (6)

Re + #v Similarity principle

Re

v = 0! 1 (7)

t v + vv = 0 = p +

)v #v

aduced

dimensionless number, Re of the flow, called

Flow speed increases

characteristic

a dimensionless number, characteristic of the flow, cal

v = 0

VL VL

Re = a Re

e introduced dimensionless

= number, characteristic of the (8) fl

mber

(6) and Reynolds

(7)and number

reveal

NSEs (6) (7) an

revealimportant

V L property

an important of incompressible

property of incompressi

ciple: That flow onflow Re

large =

ty principle: That on scales

large are governed

scales by the

are governed by same

the sa

Conservation laws

Spatial average in a 3D periodic box:

Vorticity:

Ideal

invariants

V ! ! 1 |u|2 dx != !uf dx ! || 2

dx

d 2 1 2d dt 1 2 2

!

dxdy

|u| dx =

V|u| uf

dx =

dx

=

V u dx

uf ||

2

dx

V 2 dx

||

dt Dissipative

V

2

dt V 2 V anomaly V V V

!

lim

0

|| 2

dx 0 u

= $=

Energy dissipation

V rate:

2 = u=u

| dxdy " ! %

#! lim $ ||2 dx $= 0 2

% lim ut ||+ 2uu ! +

0

dx $= 0

V p = u

2

he 2zeroth law is:

u "

0 V "lim

0

|| dx %= 0 %

V

2

# $ %

2 !! u + uu + = u

F () dx

# + u

" $ t= u +22 p %

Turbulence

ut +t uu # is+a p = $limit

singular u 2

u t + uu + p = u

2 In turbulent flows, the

(a dissipative anomaly). energy dissipation rate

has a finite

limit

t + as

uthe viscosity

= u tends

+ to

2 zero!

2

+ u

u = ut + v = u

= (v +x

u y

)k + 2 u

In this + u

sense,

t = u

the Euler and Navier-Stokes

equations

u =are

0 fundamentally different!

u = u + v 5 1 x uy )k

=2 (v

Energy budget scale-by-scale

Low-/High-pass filter

Energy budget scale-by-scale (contd)

Cumulative kinetic energy

between wavenumbers 0 and K:

Scale-by-scale

energy budget equation:

wavenumber K:

Cumulative enstrophy:

Spectral energy transfer

Energy spectrum:

Scale-by-scale

energy transfer equation:

Spectral energy transfer (contd)

The Richardson cascade (real space)

Big whorls have little whorls, little whorls have smaller whorls

that feed on their velocity, and so on to viscosity

The Richardson cascade (Fourier space)

Turbulence as a local cascade in wave number space

Ek

dissipation

inertial range Computational

drive range effort

range

kf k k

Much turbulence research addresses the cascade problem.

(Important note: In this context, think of an Autobahn, not of a waterfall)

Kolmogorovs theory from 1941

K41 is based merely on intuition and dimensional analysis

it is not derived rigorously from the Navier-Stokes equation

Key assumptions:

Scale invariance like, e.g., in critical phenomena

Central quantity: energy flux

1 2 3

E = v d x =E(k) dk

2V

0

However, K41 is fundamentally wrong: scale invariance is broken (anomaly)!

Intermittency & structure functions

Intermittency & non-Gaussian pdfs

financial data

(exchange rates)

Direct numerical simulations

Structure formation and broken scale invariance

Key open issues: Inertial range

Is the inertial range physics universal (for Re )?

randomness and coherence? Key issue: Intermittency!

Biferale et al. 2005

Note:

The observed deviations from self-similarity

can be reproduced qualitatively by relatively

simple vortex models.

Key open issues: Drive range

Often, one is interested mainly in the large scales. Here,

one encounters an interesting interplay between linear

(drive) and nonlinear (damping) physics. Is it possible

to remove the small scales?

Orellano and Wengle 2001

Turbulence:

Further reading

Some literature on 3D turbulence

- 9783642282751-c2.pdfUploaded byREMACHE
- C11-52.pdfUploaded byFrancisco Valdes
- hydraulic calc by vassUploaded byKyzak K. Keork
- Tfd & Elem Cfd Part IIUploaded bytarrega70
- A29_IJMA_2013Uploaded byBilel Ben Amira
- A29_IJMA_2013.pdfUploaded byBilel Ben Amira
- Sail Shape Optimization With CFDUploaded byDmitryGavrilin
- Simulation of jet impingement heat transferUploaded byNagaraju Dora
- Air Assist Flare Page 52Uploaded byhk168
- TP Entire NotesUploaded byhomiez99
- Science 2Uploaded byMunavver Fairooze
- 00066500Uploaded byEhsan Ahmadpour Samani
- A 258459Uploaded byrafaqatwah
- CFD-labUploaded bytechctrl
- mel705-26Uploaded byRahul Tripathi
- Turbulent Couette-Taylor flows with endwall effects: a numerical benchmarkUploaded bycosimobianchini
- Turbulence EaswariUploaded byinfomech
- Momentum and Heat Transfer in a Turbulent Cylinder Wake Behind a Streamwise Oscillating CylinderUploaded byhelover
- Experiment (7) the Round Turbulent JetUploaded byKawar Abid
- Cap. 08.pdfUploaded byEnt Qa Nepal
- 1-s2.0-0895717796001483-mainUploaded bykirubha_karan2000
- An introduction to turbulence modelsUploaded byAlfonso Cubillos
- Mary, 2003Uploaded bymoromartins
- investigaciones experimentales, distribución de partículasUploaded byRamon Astudillo
- Fluid Dynamics Volume 39 issue 1 2004 [doi 10.1023_b-flui.0000024809.10299.65] A. V. Shapeev -- Unsteady Self-Similar Flow of a Viscous Incompressible Fluid in a Plane Divergent Channel.pdfUploaded bySrinivas Jangili
- FULLTEXT02.pdfUploaded bymohit
- Chapter 6Uploaded byKirty Vardhan
- The velocity and temperatureUploaded bysuilanro
- Combined CFD-Mean energy balance methode to thermal comfort assessment of buildings in a warm tropical climateUploaded byMeteodyn_Urbawind
- UEME 3112 Free Turbulent Jet May 2015Uploaded byAdam Leong

- IntroUploaded byMatt Santiago
- Magnetic Induction and Electric Potential Solvers for Incompressible MD FlowsUploaded byaryamesa
- A Brief History of Dislocation Theory - HirthUploaded byaryamesa
- magnetic_units.pdfUploaded byMostafaRock
- Magnetic UnitsUploaded byaryamesa
- A K—ε—γ Equation Turbulence ModelUploaded byaryamesa
- A Dynamic Global-coefficient Mixed Subgrid-scale Model for Large-eddy Simulation of Turbulent FlowsUploaded byaryamesa
- Tutorial Guide Gambit 2.2Uploaded bydiegop8706
- Coms HeatUploaded byaryamesa
- voller1987.pdfUploaded bySantiago Madruga
- A continuum method for modeling surface tension☆.pdfUploaded byaryamesa
- Pointwise AcceleratorsUploaded byaryamesa
- Mechanical MetallurgyUploaded byGatesolutions Metallurgy
- A Grid Deformation Technique for Unsteady Flow ComputationsUploaded byaryamesa
- A Guide to Writing Your Team's CharterUploaded byDave Marcus
- Turbulence models and their applicationUploaded byAndreea Bobonea
- Fluid Dynamics Lecture NotesUploaded byaryamesa
- 04-Boundary_Conditions.pdfUploaded byPatrick Silva Oliveira
- boundary conditionUploaded bypadania
- 5e6dfd7ff282e2deabe7447979a16d49b0b1b675Uploaded bySandip Desai
- intro_of_20160224.pdfUploaded byaryamesa
- intro_of_20160224.pdfUploaded byaryamesa
- 10-11-10-0537f.pdfUploaded byaryamesa
- 10-ransUploaded byEmad Pouryazdanpanah
- Openfoam MaxwellUploaded byxandreay
- Agard Cp 164Uploaded byaryamesa
- OpenFOAM2015_16Uploaded byaryamesa
- Basic Computational Numerical Analysis - J. M. McDonough.pdfUploaded byaryamesa
- eth-30357-01Uploaded byaryamesa

- GlobalizationUploaded byAnonymous 9F4lfP7
- AAI ATC Question Paper 2009 PDF of AAI JrUploaded byapullareddy
- Anesth Analg 2011 Schmid 78 83Uploaded byNurse Anesthesia
- 13 F ArshdeepUploaded byragvshah
- Ultrasonic FUS060 en FIUploaded byAli Hadi
- Silvio Napoli at Schindler India - Key PointsUploaded bykiller drama
- Hooke's Law Lab ReportUploaded byNur Syahirah Hanafi
- ABB Medium VoltageUploaded byMarianella Ramírez
- How to Build Rolling Forecasts in BPC 10.0 _ SAP BlogsUploaded byprafullaa
- model ecosystem and food web lab assessment formUploaded byapi-290419496
- Abaqus-6-8-I_MOLDFLOWUploaded byramesh2003ji
- Brochure 6045BR0101Uploaded byingreyes7
- SC200 Service GuideUploaded bytrojan89
- cUploaded bySuriyan Arif
- Concrete Curing Time and Duration -Right Time of Curing ConcreteUploaded byJustin Musopole
- Blue Group Spelling WorkUploaded byTina Weisberg
- Resume 1Uploaded byraghucse38
- Current and Future Database TrendsUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- Accessing the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud 2012-04-24Uploaded bySH MI LY
- Sem 1Uploaded byPrashant Shukla
- Tellus S4 MEUploaded byamitpatel1172
- irctc.co.in Eticketing PrintTicketUploaded byshahzad9898
- Stack and HeapUploaded bysagargupta012
- BE CSE - Detailed SyllabusUploaded bySAIDEEP
- Sulanga Numba WageUploaded byChathura Kumara
- 04-Network Layer-03 By ApcomsUploaded byrsakm20019931
- Data Warehouse NamesUploaded byMatthew Lawler
- IIS Server InstructionsUploaded byBala Manikandan
- Bugsy ScoreUploaded byjhon
- Template Builder for Word TutorialUploaded byPranoy Kakubal