Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

2.

019 Design of Ocean Systems

Lecture 5

Seakeeping (I)

February 18, 2011

Six-Degree-of-Freedom Motion of a Floating Body in Waves

Waves P
ropagati
ng


z
U yaw
y
ay
sw

heave
pitch

sur
ge
roll

x
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Translation in x: surge 1(t)

Translation in y: sway 2(t);

Translation in z: heave 3(t);

Rotation with x: roll 4(t);

Rotation with y: pitch 5(t);

Rotation with z: yaw 6(t);

Examples of Seakeeping and Wave Load Problems for Ships and


Offshore Structure

Wave bending moments and shear forces


Accelerations

Water on deck
Local motions
Effect of breaking waves

Liquid sloshing in Tanks Slamming


Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Concerns of Seakeeping in FPSO Design

Increasing maximum loads (due to dynamic pressure)

Affecting operation
Production by Risers
Gas-oil, oil/water separation
Normally, heave amplitude < 4m, pitch amplitude < 5 degrees,
roll amplitude < 10 degrees, excursion < (5~8)% water depth
Vibration of superstructures
Fatigue life of hull structures, risers, etc.
Survival in extreme seas
Local extreme structure damage (bottom slamming,

breaking wave impact, green water on deck etc.)

Human safety
Hydrodynamic Forces on a Body in Unbounded Fluid

Ub (1) Uf =0, Ub (t) 6= 0

F F (t) = dUb (t)


ma dt
Uf
ma : Added mass
Depending on body
D
geometry, motion
direction, fluid density
(2) Uf (t) 6= 0, Ub =0
Morrisons formula:
dUf (t) dUf (t) : Fluid density
F (t) = dt + ma dt : Body volume
Froude-Krylov force Added mass effect

(3) Uf (t) 6= 0, Ub (t) 6= 0


n o
dUf (t) dUf (t) dUb (t)
F (t) = dt + ma dt dt
Potential Flow

In typical marine engineering applications such as ships, offshore platforms,

UL
Re = = 10610
Thus, viscous effect can be neglected in general.

Flow can be considered as a irrotational flow (i.e. vorticity ~v = 0)


except under some special conditions where flow separation occurs.

Fluid motion in the ocean is normally assumed as a potential flow:

Velocity: ~v (x, y, z, t) = (x, y, z, t)

Continuity equation: 2 = 0

p(x,y,z,t)
Momentum eqaution: =
t 1
2 || 2
gz

The key is to solve the Laplace equation with certain boundary conditions for the
velocity potential (x, y, z, t)
Linearized (Airy) Wave Theory

Boundary-Value Problem (BVP) for linearized (Airy) wave: y=0

y=-h

Given velocity potential , find free-surface elevation and pressure p:

Solution of 2D Periodic Progressive (Airy) Waves

Potential:

Free-surface elevation: = A cos(kx t)


A = H/2: wave amplitude; k= 2/: wavenumber; =2/T : frequency

Dispersion relation: 2 = gk tanh kh



p
g
Phase velocity:
Vp

T
=

k
=
k
tanh kh

Characteristics of a Linear Plane Progressive Wave

Velocity Field:
Pressure Field:

Wave Energy

d
Wave energy propagation speed: group velocity: Vg = dk
Example: Wave Loads on Vertical Wall

A vertical wall is located at x=0 in in a water of depth h:

(x, t) = A cos(kx t) + A cos(kx + t)

gA cosh k(y+h)
(x, y, t) = cosh kh [sin(kx t) sin(kx + t)]

cosh k(y+h)
p(x, y, t) =
t gy = gA cosh kh [cos(kx t) + cos(kx + t)]gy

p(x = 0, y, t) = 2gA cos t cosh k(y+h)


cosh kh gy

R0
Fx = h
p(x = 0, y, t)dy
2gA cos t
R0 R0
= cosh kh
h
cosh k(y + h)dy h
gydy
2gA gh2

= k tanh kh cos t + 2
MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu

2.019 Design of Ocean Systems


Spring 2011

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.