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CDB 3072: Process Safety & Loss Prevention

September 2017 Semester



Form a group of 4 members and solve the following 4 questions. As a group, you can discuss with each
other on how to solve the problems but each question must be solved by a different student. State
your name to the question that you have solved and submit the handwritten solutions in a group.

Submission date: 27th October, Friday before 5 pm

Submission point: Academic Block 04 Dr Riszas pigeon hole

A storage tank contains water contaminated with a small quantity of a soluble hazardous waste
material. The tank is 3 m in diameter and 6 m high. At the current time the liquid height is within 1 m
of the top of the tank. Assume the tank is vented.

a. If a 3-cm (internal diameter) feed pipe at the bottom of the tank breaks off, how much liquid
(m3) is spilled if an emergency response procedure requires 30 mins to stop the flow?
b. What is the final liquid level (m)?
c. What is the maximum spill rate of liquid (kg/s)?

Estimate the vapourisation rate resulting from heating from the ground at 10 s after the instantaneous
spill of 1500 m3 of liquefied natural gas (LNG) into a rectangular concrete dike of dimensions 7 m by
10 m. You will need the following data:

Thermal diffusivity of soil = 4.16 x 10-7 m2/s

Thermal conductivity of soil = 0.92 W/mK
Temperature of liquid pool = 109 K
Temperature of soil = 293 K
Heat of vapourisation of pool = 498 kJ/kg at 109 K

It is an overcast day with 9mph wind where a tank has ruptured and a pool of benzene has formed.
The pool is approximately rectangular with dimensions of 20 ft by 30 ft. Estimate the evaporation rate
and the distance affected downwind. Define the plume boundary using 10 ppm. The temperature is
90oF. State all the assumptions made.

The emergency coordinator has decided that the appropriate emergency response to the immediate
release of a toxic material is to alert people to stay in their homes with doors and windows closed until
the cloud has passed. The coordinator has also indicated that homes 4000 m downwind must not be
exposed to concentrations exceeding 0.10 mg/m3 of this material for any longer than 2 mins. Estimate
the maximum instantaneous release of material (kg) allowed for these specifications. Be sure to clearly
state any assumptions about weather conditions, wind speed, etc.