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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

CARPENTRY
THEORY UNIT 13009
REINFORCING STEEL and MESH
LEVEL 3 CREDIT 1

Purpose

People credited with this unit standard are able to explain factors
relating to:
reinforcing steel and its use in construction;
and placing reinforcing steel and steel mesh on site.
Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 2

CARPENTRY

FABRICATE AND PLACE REINFORCING STEEL

References: NZS 3604 : 1999 AS/NZS 4671:2001 AS/NZS 1554.3:


NZS 4202 : 1995 NZS 3109 : 1998 NZS 3124 : 1987
AS/NZS 3679.1.
NZ Cement and Concrete Research Ass, bulletin 1B04
Manufacturers brochures and catalogue (Wiremakers, Pacific
steel)
www.steelreinforcing.co.nz
BRANZ Bulletin Preventing corrosion of reinforcing steel in
concrete , Number 351
House Building A Practical Guide R.J Wilson
(New title, Building Your Own House)
BRANZ Building House Guide 2004 BRANZ
Building a House (Footing systems) C.Simpson, B.Hodgson
Markham Distributing Product Catalogue

At the end of this unit you must be able to:


1 Describe the properties and functions of reinforcing steel (mesh and bars) in relation
to:
i. footings and pads ii. strip foundations iii. foundation walls
iv. concrete slabs v. columns vi. beams
vii. cantilevers viii. retaining walls
2 Describe the fabrication principles for fabricating reinforcing steel to:
(i) drawings
(ii) specifications
(iii) Standards
3 Describe the principles of placing reinforcing steel.
(i) Placing
(ii) Steel ties
(iii) Fixing in place

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 3

INTRODUCTION:

Concrete can be made very strong in direct compression but has only about one tenth the
strength, when tension is applied. Reinforcing steel provides tensile strength to the
concrete so that all loads applied to the concrete are safely sustained.

The function of reinforcing steel is to provide structural stability to a building, the


tensile strength qualities of steel reinforcing are combined with the compression
strength of concrete. The total reinforcing in each component must safely withstand the
dead loads, live loads, wind pressures, and seismic forces.

Reinforcing also reduces shrinkage cracks in concrete during the curing process.

BUILDING BASICS

Compression - compressive forces act to Tension - tensile forces act to stretch the
shorten material material

Shear - a combination of compression


and tensile forces produces shear
where adjacent layers of the
material slide past one another

COMPRESSION TENSION

SHEAR

Applied load Beam Horizontal shear - is produced


when layers of the beam slides as a
result of tension and compression.

upward reaction at support

Applied load Beam Vertical shear - is produced in a


beam when applied load and the support
reaction work against each other to
fracture the material.

upward reaction at support

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 4

1 TYPES AND FUNCTIONS OF REINFORCED STEEL

The two main grades of reinforcing steel are structural or mild steel bars grade 300 MPa
and high yield or tensile grade 500 MPa.

Types of reinforcing steel

1. Round bars (plain) (R) Available in Grade 300 and 500

2. Deformed bars (D) Grade 300 and 500 both of which can be
welded.

(H) Grade 500 may be known as high yield or


high tensile steel.

3. Sheet mesh Various size sheets made from plain


or deformed reinforcing wire.

4. Fibre Fibre materials are either made from steel shavings


or polypropylene (Durafiber).

REINFORCING BARS

Round bars grade 300(plain) are used for secondary reinforcing and distribution
reinforcing, such as stirrups and spirals.

Deformed bars grade 300 (ribbed) are formed with ribs or protrusions rolled on
to the surface giving a greater bond with the concrete. The added bond
generally allows laps to be made without hooks, thereby simplifying bending,
fabricating, and placing of the reinforcing.

Plain and Deformed bars grade 500 (High tensile or high yield) have a higher
tensile strength than mild steel or structural grade, allowing the engineer to reduce
the quantity of tensile reinforcing. This minimise the cutting, bending, fabricating,
and fixing of reinforcing and makes concrete placing and compacting easier.

SIZES AND MARKINGS OF REINFORCING BARS


NOTE: Some reinforcing steel is made overseas and carry different markings. Ensure that
the supplier has had the steel tested by a Telarc registered laboratory so as it complies with
the requirements of AS/NZS 4671:2001. The supplier must provide a certificate that
verifies this.
Round and deformed bars are available in the following diameter:
6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, 16 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, 28 mm, 32 mm, 40 mm
High tensile bars are not available in 6 mm and 8 mm and are not recommended
for stirrups and ties.
Reinforcing steel is available in 6 m lengths to 16 m ( 16 m special order)

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 5
Identifications

AS/NZS 4671 requires all deformed steel bars to have manufacturers identification mark.

Deformed Grade 500 has a


missing protrusion at 1.3m spacing

Plain bars of Grade 500 must


have marks at intervals
of 400 - 750 mm depending on bar size.

Deformed bars have deformations at not less


Seismic Grade 300E
than 450 to the axis of the bar and are usually
reversed in direction to those on the other side.

Seismic Grade 500E

SIZES AND GRADES OF SHEET MESH


(1) Standard Mesh
A plain reinforcing wire (485 MPa) at 150 mm or 75 mm centres both ways and is
electrically welded at the joints.

Mesh code Wire spacing Diameter in (mm)

661 150 x 150 7.5


662 150 x 150 7.1
663 150 x 150 6.3
664 150 x 150 6.0
665 150 x 150 5.3
666 150 x 150 5.0
668 150 x 150 4.0
6610 150 x 150 3.15

333 75 x 75 6.3
335 75 x 75 5.3
338 75 x 75 4.0
Sheet sizes Square area Mesh code
5.850 x 2.570 (15m2) 663, 665, 668 only
4.650 x 1.975 (10m2) all sheets
4.350 x 1.070 (5m2) 665, 668 only

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 6
NZS 3101 requires the laps of mesh sheets to be one full mesh overlap plus 50 mm
minimum.
NZS 3604 requires a lap of 225 mm minimum at all joints.

(2) Wiremakers TOP STEEL uses deformed reinforcing wire 485 (MPa) at 300 mm
centre both ways in different diameters of wire. This mesh is designed as topping
reinforcing.

(3) Wiremakers ECONO MESH also uses deformed reinforcing wire at 300 mm
centres but has the two outermost edge wires at 50 mm centres for reduced
laps.

Sheet sizes: 4.300 x 2.500 (10m2 net)


6.400 x 2.500 (15m2 net)

The diameter of wire used gives equivalent strength to 668 (84/10) and 665 (147/10, 147/15).

(4) Wiremakers CUSTOMESH is purposely designed to suit a particular building.


Various wire diameters are used and sheet sizes are also variable but with a
maximum width of 2.700m.

FIBRES

Concrete has the propensity to crack because it is brittle (.i.e. easily cracked destructively
by tensile or pulling stresses, although it can readily support compressive loadings)

Adding fibres can develop capacity in concrete to withstand the tensile stress which if not
absorbed may result in uncontrolled cracking.

Use the following proven and economical products to construct and lay slabs free
of cracking.

Types of fibres: (Markham Distributing Product Catalogue)

(1) Durafiber polypropylene fibre for concrete

(2) Fiber carbon steel fibre for concrete

(3) Continuous fibre pull - truded rods and polypropylene mesh

NOTES:

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 7

POSITION OF MAIN TENSILE STEEL IN BUILDING MEMBERS.

1. SIMPLE BEAM 2. CANTILEVERED BEAM

main bar hook or bent at right angles main tension bar

main tension bar

3. CONTINUOUSLY SUPPORTED BEAM

shear plane shear plane

cranked main extra stirrups main bars


bar follows at shear stress top and bottom
tensile areas areas of beams

METHOD 1 METHOD 2

4. FLOOR SLAB

(i) reinforcing near the top face to control shrinkage (ii) reinforcing in the middle for maximum strength
(25 - 30 mm steel mesh cover)

Large areas of concrete such as ground floor slabs,


have reinforcing steel placed to help reduce the
cracking of the concrete due to shrinkage.

5. FOOTING TO FOUNDATION WALLS

2 main bars 4 main bars



75 mm cover

link stirrup
Strip foundations often have reinforcing in areas
which would normally be under compression.

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 8

6. RETAINING WALL 7. COLUMNS

reinforcing
placed in all
tension stress
areas


4 bars
minimum one main bar

boxed concrete column

concrete masonry cores


The placing of steel in retaining walls must be accurate as only a
few millimeters displacement can cause a large drop in the strength
of the wall.

NOTES:

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 9

WORK SHEET 1

1. What do the abbreviation R, D, MPa, H, stand for?


_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

2. Where would you place the steel in a floor slab? Give a reason for your answer.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

3. Show by a sketch where the shear plane occurs in a concrete beam.

4. Is it always necessary to use reinforcing steel in Concrete construction? Give reasons


for your answer.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

5. What is the diameter of the wire used in 665 and 668 mesh?
_______________________________________________________________________________

6. Explain what you understand by 335 mesh. What size sheet is this mesh available
in?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

7. Show by a sketch the overlap of mesh sheets.

8. Give four differences between Economesh and standard mesh sheets.


_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

9. Explain how you would identify deformed grade 430 reinforcing bar.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 10
2. FABRICATE REINFORCING STEEL TO DRAWINGS, SPECIFICATIONS

REINFORCING SCHEDULE

Working drawings must be clearly outlined, showing type, size, shape, and position of the
reinforcing so that detailers, fabricators, and fixers can undertake their various operations
thoroughly.

The accurate bending, placing, and fixing of all reinforcing must be carried out as specified
by the structural engineer and must comply with the New Zealand Standards
specifications.

The reinforcing schedule, generally prepared by a steel fabricating firm detailer, must state
accurately:
(i) the location,
(ii) the bar mark,
(iii) the type and size,
(iv) the number of members (components),
(v) number of bars in each,
(vi) the total number of bars,
(vii) the length of each bar (gross, including bends and hooks), and
(viii) the shape and dimension of each bar section and overall length.
Each bundle of bent bars and fabricated cages must be clearly labeled with an
identification tag.

If reinforcing schedules are supplied, they may look something like this:

REINFORCING SCHEDULE
Name Type(MPa) Dia No. of Length Mass/bar Total Description
bars mass

1201 300 R12 108 2000 1.78 192.2 351

516
1202 300 D12 72 4000 3.02 217.4 Straight

1203 300 D12 60 6000 5.32 319.2 Straight

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 11

Common abbreviations used on structural details.

ALT. Alternate L.A.R. Lap at random


B Bottom N.F. Near Face
C Central N.L. No Laps
C.J. Construction joint S.F.L. Structural floor level
d. Nominal bar dia in mm STA. Starter
E.F. Each face T. Top
E.W. Each way T.CVR Top cover
F.F. Far face V.L. Varying lengths
F.F.L. Finished floor level
F.W.A.R Full weld all round

Note: All abbreviations except d are capital letters

BENDING DETAIL

Most reinforcing steel is factory fabricated. Bending is done to either:

(i) Reinforcing schedule supplied by a structural engineer as part of the


working drawings
or

(ii) Detail sheets drawn up by a reinforcing detailer from the engineering


drawings. (see fig. 2 sample, page 16)

Bending of most stirrups can now be done completely automatically using continuous rod

Other bending is done by machine after manual setting up.

All cut and bent steel is tagged for identification on site by the reinforcing fixer.
(e.g. Fig.2, stair 2, flight 6, page 16 )

All bars are bent cold unless the engineer directs otherwise.

Bending tolerances

Cranks, stirrups and ties where member less than 200mm deep to + 0 - 5mm,

more than 200mm deep, + 0 - l0mm.

Other steel + 0 - 15 mm.

Length of straight bars + 0 - 15 mm.

Although 6m lengths of reinforcing are standard on building sites, factory fabricators


use up to 16m lengths.
Unitec New Zealand Applied Technology Institute Revised 2006
Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 12

See fig. 1 for details on minimum bend diameters of reinforcing.

Table 1 MINIMUM FORMER PIN DIAMETERS 'D' FOR BENDING REINFORCING


BARS
(Refer also to figure 1)

Stirrups
Bar Main steel and ties
size
Grade 300
Grade 300 Grade 500 Grade 500
Bend
(Pin)
Dia. Round Deformed
6 30 30 20 30
10 50 50 20 40
12 60 60 30 50
16 80 80 40 70
20 100 100 20 80
150 150 80 150
25
170 170 - -
28
200 200 - -
32 240 240 - -
40
Acknowledgement to Pacific Steel

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 13

Note. In case of stirrups and ties:

1. Minimum bend diameters for deformed bars are twice those for plain
round bars.

2. Where the main bar size is greater than the minimum former pin
diameter, the main bar size will govern.

CUTTING
Bolt cutters cut up to 12 mm diameter steel
Geared Hand cutter cut up to 16 mm diameter steel
Powered guillotine - for all sizes of steel
PLACING BARS

Placement of steel
Distance between bars are:
i. Bar diameter or 25 mm minimum
ii. Distance between layers of steel, 25 mm minimum or bar diameter.
iii. In walls and slabs - main reinforcing bars, a maximum of 400 mm or twice wall
(or slab) thickness apart.
iv. The maximum aggregate size is not to be more than three quarter (3/4) of the
clear distance between bars.

Placing tolerances

All reinforcing must be accurately placed, to within the following tolerances:

i. Spacing of main bars in beams and columns + 10 mm

ii. Distance between layers of main steel + 5mm

iii. Distance between bars along the face of walls


or slabs + 20 mm

iv. Spacing of stirrups or ties in beams and + 20 mm.


columns

Take special care when placing reinforcing, as even 20 mm out of place can badly
decrease the strength of some concrete members.

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 14

STEEL LAPS

Transferring tensile strength from one bar to another will require lapping of bars.

Bar laps vary from 24 - 48 times the bar diameter, depending on the grade and whether it
is round or deformed. NZS 3604 requires a 40 diameter lap for all bars (except High tensile
bars - 58 times).

Example: Grade 300 D12 bar lap = 40 x 12 mm deformed bar

40 x 12 = 480 mm lap

Grade 500 D12 bar lap = 58 x 12 mm deformed bar

58 x 12 = 696 mm lap

Laps in reinforcing must be in accordance with Table. 2, NZS 3109, for example:

Bar Grade 300 steel Grade 500 steel

D10 390 580


D12 470 700
D16 620 930
D20 770 1160

Note: High tensile steel lap, multiply 58 by the diameter of the rod.

Offset laps in beams and columns must not be sloped at more than 1 in 6.

Lap

Welded laps (splices)

Grade 300 bars may be welded but welding of Grade 500 is only permitted with Engineer
supervision.

Butt joints

With the Engineers approval butt joint sleeves may be used, for example, the NMB
bar splice is a steel sleeve fitted over the butt joint and then grouted.

STEPPED FOOTINGS

Refer to NZS 3604: 1999, Fig 6.12 for details of reinforcement to stepped footings in
foundation walls.

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 15

DRAWING SYMBOLS

450 N.B Angle for draughting purposes only

ENDS OF BARS
required lap required lap
length length

Elevation Plan

PARALLEL LAPS
required lap required lap
length length

Elevation Plan

OFFSET LAPS

Note: Bend could be Note: Dot on end of bar


either way

BENDS

If viewed at 900 these hooks would be shown as:

Bottom bar hook in top Top bar hook in bottom

Far face bar Near face bar


HOOKS hook in near face hook in far face

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 16
Fig .2

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 17

3. PLACE REINFORCING STEEL

FIXING AID

Spacing of bars must be carried out in accordance with the specified drawings and
complies with NZS 3109, p11.

Reinforcement must be secured


against displacement of concrete.

All laps and crosses must be tied


with 1.6 mm black tie wire.

Reinforcement must be supported


by plastic chairs or
concrete spacer blocks.

footings and slab on ground


reinforcing must be supported
by concrete spacer blocks.

slab reinforcing on form work


must be supports by
plastic bar chairs.

CONCRETE COVER

Refer to NZS 3109, Table 3, pp.14 for the


minimum cover of concrete to reinforcing steel.

Generally, main reinforcing exposed to the


weather requires 50 mm cover. Increase by
l0mm if in sea water, or other harmful areas.

i. Concrete poured against natural ground - 75 mm cover minimum


ii. Concrete poured against formwork. - 50 mm cover minimum
iii. Concrete poured against formwork - 40 mm cover minimum
and not exposed to the weather.

STEEL BOND

Reinforcing steel requires a bond (adhesive) with concrete.


Slight surface rust provides the best bond between the concrete and steel.
Concrete is highly alkalined, therefore minor rust will be killed by the concrete
Note: ( loose flaky rust, excessive manufacturing scale, grease, mould, oil and the like is not
permitted.)
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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 18

STARTER RODS

Are used where the concrete can not be poured in one section, e.g. concrete floor slabs,
beams or walls on footings.

Steel bars must protrude a minimum of 600 mm from the concrete. This protrusion will
allow the next section of reinforcing steel property to fix to.

NZS 3109 do not permit steel reinforcing bars to be partially embedded in concrete and to be
field bent unless shown on the drawings or permitted by the Engineer.

PROTECTION OF EXPOSED REINFORCING

Steel starters that are left exposed for a period of time can be protected from corrosion by:

(i) Galvanising (hot dip) or

(ii) Coating in protective material such as "Denso tape. (grease coated tape).

STORAGE OF BARS AND MESH

Always store reinforcing on bearers, clear of natural ground or on a concrete or other


hard surface. Soil can adhere to steel left laying on the ground.

A large bundle of bars left laying in water can cause quite severe rusting of the lower bars in
a relatively short time.

WORK SHEET 2

1. What pin diameter would you use to bend stirrups in deformed 300 grade steel
20 mm diameter.
_______________________________________________________________________________

2. From the detail sheet, Fig.2, page 16, explain what is meant by the following terms
and abbreviations!

i. Bot @ 125. _____________________________________________________________


ii. 130 Pin _____________________________________________________________
iii. 2249 o/a _____________________________________________________________
3 A footing is 350 mm wide, is boxed at the sides, and has 2/D12 bars. Give the
minimum and maximum distances between the bars if they are to comply with
placing tolerances.
_______________________________________________________________________________

4 How close can D12 bars be placed in a footing when a number of bars are required to
be placed side by side?
_______________________________________________________________________________

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 19

5 What is the maximum size of concrete aggregate that you could use for the footing in
Question 4? ___________________________________________________________________

3. You have ordered 400 x 180 mm stirrups. What actual size would you have to accept
if it was bent within the tolerances allowed?
_______________________________________________________________________________

6. What is the placement tolerance for :


(a) main bars in a beam _________________________________________________
(b) concrete cover for exterior concrete work. ___________________________________

7. What is an offset lap? Why is it necessary to join steel this way? ___________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
8. What would be a suitable cutter to cut a 40 mm deformed bar? ____________________

9. What is the required lap for the following reinforcing bars:

i. D 12 grade 300 _________________________________________________________


ii. D12 grade 430 ( high tensile) _____________________________________________
iii. R10 hook (in footing) _____________________________________________________

10. Can bars be heated for bending? ________________________________________________


11. What is a crank? _______________________________________________________________
12. Write out in full the abbreviations shown below
D12 at 150 mm EW
FFL L.A.R.

H16 at 125 mm EW, N.L


_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
13. Why is it necessary to tie all reinforcing laps? ____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
14. Why does reinforcing steel not rust when it is completely encased in concrete?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
15. Why is the concrete cover to steel more when poured against natural ground?
_______________________________________________________________________________
16. What is a starter rod? __________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 20

CARPENTRY CALCULATIONS UNIT No 13009

REINFORCING QUANTITIES 1

For competency assessment you will need to:

(a) Calculate the order quantity of reinforcing bars required for footings, foundation
walls, and solid core steps.
(b) Calculate the order quantity of reinforcing mesh for ground slabs.
(c) Calculate the costs of reinforcing bar and mesh.

Reinforcing steel may be round bars (used for stirrups and links) or deformed bars mild
steel and high tensile (yield) steel. Allowance must be made for laps, which is usually 40
times diameter of bar.
e.g. the net length of a D12 will be 6.000 (40 x 12)
= 5.520
Reinforcing mesh is usually in 10m2 or 5m2 sheets with 150 x 150 spacing of the mesh.

PROBLEMS 4/D12 bars


1. 50
(a) If the footing shown on the cross section
is 48.480m long, calculate the ordered quantity
of 6.000 long D12 bars. 300 75 75
(divide the length by 5.52)
75

400
________________________________________________
R6 stirrups
(b) If each R6 stirrups is 1m long, at 600mm centres
calculate the ordered quantity of 6.000 bars, ____________________________________
to cut the required number of stirrups. ____________________________________

2 The cross section wall shown is 45.800m long


and has 2/D12 bars in the top
beam, and 3/D12 bars in the footing.
The vertical steel is 1.200m long overall and
is spaced at 800 centres. Calculate:

(a) The ordered quantity of 6m long D12 bars D10 at 800 mm


for the footing and beam. centres

CROSS SECTION

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 21
(b) The order quantity of 6m long D10 bars
for the verticals.

15.650
3 For the house foundation wall shown on the
plan, calculate:
(a) The ordered quantity of 6m long D12
bars for the footing. 7.780 HOUSE PLAN

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

(b) the ordered quantity of 6m long D16 bars 200


for the top of the wall. 1/D16
wall

footing
2/D12 200
400

4 (a) Calculate the number of welded 665 mesh 10m2 sheets for the house floor
shown on plan below. Allow 15% for laps, and round up to full sheet for
ordering.

(b) Calculate the cost of the mesh at $31.95/sht plus GST.

18.200

3.900
HOUSE PLAN

3.900 3.350

4.650 8.900

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 22
CARPENTRY CALCULATIONS UNIT No 13009

REINFORCING QUANTITIES 2

For competency assessment you will need to:

1. Calculate quantities and costs of reinforcing steel to concrete and concrete block
retaining walls.

2. Calculate quantities and cost of reinforcing steel to other concrete block construction.

Reinforcing Steel

It is assumed that reinforcing steel bars will be delivered in 6 m lengths, therefore laps
(40 times diameter) need to be calculated for this length.

Engineers will often require vertical steel bars to be in one piece, fixed to the bottom of the
footing and to the top of the beam, unless otherwise specified. Calculate all vertical steel
bars to be in one piece for the problems below.

PROBLEMS

1 The foundation wall for a house is 14.000 m long by 8.000 m wide, and 1.000 m
high from the footing to the top of the bond beam. The foundation wall is
constructed from 200 mm concrete blocks.
The footing is 350 mm wide and 200 mm high.

(i) Calculate the quantity of D12 bars required for 2/D12 in


the footing, bond beam, and verticals. bond beam
The footing has 4/D12 bars and the bond
beam has 2/D12 bars.
D12 verticals
Verticals bars are spaced at 800 mm centres. in one piece
Allow 150 mm bend into the footing and bond beam.
(Calculate the number of verticals for each wall
separately)

_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________ 4/D12 in
_____________________________________________________ footing
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

(ii) The cost of 250 x 90 mm R6 stirrups - is 58 cents each plus GST and spaced at
Unitec New Zealand Applied Technology Institute Revised 2006
Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 23
600 mm centres.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

2. A house 15.200 m long by 7.200 m wide, is on a concrete block basement wall


2.600m high from the top of footing to top of the bond beam.

The footing is 400 mm wide by 275 mm high and has 4/D12 bars with
300 mm x 150 mm stirrups at 600 mm centres.

D12 verticals bars are spaced at 800 mm centres and due to the height of wall,
starters rods are used (protruding 40 x diameter of bar) above the footing . All
verticals bars are bend at 150 mm into the footing and the bond beam.

The bond beam has 2/D12 with 100 mm. R6 links are spaced at 600 mm centres.

Calculate the ordered quantity and cost of:

(i) D12 reinforcing bars at $9.25 plus GST / per 6 metre length
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

(ii) 300 mm x 300 mm stirrups at $6.16 each plus GST, and 100 mm links at 55
cents each plus GST.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

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Unit. 13009 Theory; Reinforcing Steel Page 24

3 For the retaining wall 14.500 m long shown,

(Add 9 dia for hooks in footing)

(i) Calculate the ordered quantity of D10, D12 and D16 bars.

_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________ D16
_____________________________________________________ bond beam
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________ 2001 blocks profile
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________ D12 at 600mm crs
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________ 500 mm lap
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________ D10, 450 long
_____________________________________________________ at 600 crs

(ii) Calculate the total cost of steel 3/D16 200 mm


bars. horizontally 100 mm
75 mm cover
D10 is $ 6.42 plus GST / per 6 m length 300 200 200
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________

D12 is $ 9.25 plus GST / per 6 m length


__________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
__________________________________________

D16 is $16.43 plus GST / per 6 m length


__________________________________________
__________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________

Unitec New Zealand Applied Technology Institute Revised 2006