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In building frame structures, the buildings weight is typically carried by

vertical elements called columns and horizontal elements called beams.
Lateral resistance is provided either by diagonal steel members (termed
braces) that extend between the beams and columns to provide horizontal
rigidity or by concrete, masonry, or timber shear walls that provide lateral
resistance but do not carry the structures weight.
There are three material of framed structure that common use in construction
1. Reinforced Concrete Frame Construction.
2. Wood frame construction.
3. Structural steel.

1.1 Reinforced Concrete Frame Construction

Reinforced concrete frame structures are a most common type of
modern building internationally.Reinforced concrete (RC) frames (figure
1.1) consist of horizontal elements (beams) and vertical elements
(columns) connected by rigid joints.

1.2 Wood frame construction
Wood frame construction is not widely use in Malaysia but in the
United States, wood frame is the primary method of building homes and
apartments. Increasingly, wood framing is also being used in
commercial and industrial buildings. Wood frame buildings are
economical to build, heat and cool, and provide maximum comfort to

Wood construction is readily adapt able to traditional,

contemporary and the most futuristic building styles. Its architectural
possibilities are limitless. In Malaysia, wood frame commonly used for
roof trusses (figure 1.2) especially for house in rural area and also use
for build hut (figure 1.3).
1.3 Steel Frame Construction

There are numerous ways to use steel frame when constructing

buildings. Steel construction denominates a tremendous variety of
products and constructive elements, each with their own set of
characteristics and strengths. Steel frame structure is mainly use at
industries construction.
1.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Frame Structures

Type of Materials Descriptions

Reinforcement Advantages:
concrete frame a. Low cost construction for long period.
b. Durability is high.
c. Does not need maintaining.

a. Need to plaster after cast.
b. Need more time to construct.
c. The defect is high.
Wood frame Advantages:
a. Easy to erect or handle it.
b. Very light.
c. Less mobility.

a. Not fireproof.
b. Risk of damage by termites and easily decomposed
c. The cost is moderate.
Steel frame Advantages:
a. Fast construction.
b. Many method of jointing between members.
c. They can be made to take any kind of shape.

a. Need a lot of mobility.
b. Easily twisted when the connection is not perfectly
c. Need more maintenance because steel easy to rust.
1.5 Type of Frame

Frames structures can be differentiated into:

1. Rigid frame structure

Which are further subdivided into:

Pin ended
Fixed ended

2. Braced frame structure

1.5.1 Rigid Frame Structure

Rigid frame structures are built at the site which may or may not
be poured monolithically. Rigid frame structures also provide more
stability and resist rotations more effectively. Figure 1.5 and 1.6 below
show the example of rigid frame structure.

Example of pin ended rigid structure:

Example of Fixed ended rigid structure:

Roof beam


In this type of frame, the beam to column connections are

classified as rigid (figure 1.5, figure 1.6). The frame is designed to
transmit beam end moments and shear forces into the columns without
bracing systems to resist lateral loads. The members can be straight or

The frame stability if only provided by the rigid connections and

member stiffness. It looks similar to post and beam but is significantly
stronger and able to hold vertical loads.
1.5.3 Braced frame structure

In this frame system, bracing are usually provided between beams and
columns to increase their resistance against the lateral forces and
sideways forces due to applied load. Bracing is usually done by placing
the diagonal members between the beams and columns.

This frame system provides more efficient resistance against the

earthquake and wind forces. This frame system is more effective than
rigid frame system.
1.6 Beam Structure

Beam is Horizontal structural member used to support horizontal

loads such as floors, roofs, and decks. A beam is also generally
considered to be any member subjected to principally to transverse
gravity or vertical loading.

Depending upon the cross sectional shape, the beams can be

classified as:

Channel section beam

I section beam
Trussed beam

Curved Beam
1.7 Classification of Beam

1.7.1 Continuous beam