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Syllabus reference 9.4.2

1 Match the statement on the left with the most appropriate answer on the right. Write your answer
in the space provided.

Haber i The German scientist who first developed a Iron (magnetite)

method of synthesising ammonia from its
iron ii Catalyst used to manufacture ammonia. Le Chateliers
The synthesis of ammonia uses the reaction
N2(g) 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) H 92 kJ/mol
to the right iii Increasing the pressure on the system causes the Haber
reaction to move in which direction?
to the left iv Increasing the temperature on the system will temperature
cause the reaction to move in which direction
because the reaction is what? liquefaction
temperature v The rate of the reaction can be increased by atmosphere
increasing what?
liquefaction vi The process for removing the ammonia as it is to the right
3:1 vii The ratio of H2 to N2 used for the reaction. to the left

Le Chatelier viii Removal of NH3 from the reaction mixture exothermic

causes the equilibrium to shift according to
whose principle?
atmosphere ix Source for N2 for the reaction. 3:1

2 List three industrial uses of ammonia.

Its used to make fertiliser, fibres and plastics, nitric acid, household cleaners, detergents.

Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Australia CONQUERINGCHEMISTRY HSC MODULE 3 WS 1

3 Use the following diagram to construct a flowchart to describe the steps in the process for making

generates high pressure

pump of reactant gas
N2 + H2
mixture NH3 + unreacted N2 + H2

heat of reaction coolant out

partially heats

incoming gas
converts NH3 to liquid
catalytic reactor
250 atm
coolant in
final heating of
reactant gas unreacted
N2 + H2
and pumped liquid NH3
back to reactor

4 For the N2, H2, NH3 system, explain in terms of Le Chateliers principle why:
a increasing the pressure of the system would result in a greater yield of NH3
System reacts to reduce pressure so moves to right increasing amount of NH3 product.

b increasing the temperature of the system would decrease the yield of NH3
The reaction is exothermic so increasing the temperature drives reaction to the left, decreasing

the amount of NH3 product.

5 Hydrogen and nitrogen react slowly together naturally. The Haber process causes an increase in
the rate of reaction. List three factors in the process which contribute to this.
High temperature, high pressure, catalyst

Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Australia CONQUERINGCHEMISTRY HSC MODULE 3 WS 1

6 The following table presents the percentage conversion of nitrogen to ammonia in a stoichiometric
mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen under certain conditions of temperature and pressure.


(ATM) 100C 200C 300C 400C 500C 700C

10 50.7 14.7 3.9 1.2 0.2

25 91.7 63.6 27.4 8.7 2.9

50 94.5 74.0 39.5 15.3 5.6 1.1

100 96.07 81.7 52.5 25.2 10.6 2.2

200 98.4 89.0 66.7 38.8 18.3

400 99.4 94.6 79.7 55.4 31.9

1000 98.3 92.6 79.8 57.5 12.9

Use this table and your knowledge of reaction rates to list the conditions which would give:
a the highest yield of ammonia
400 atm, 100oC

b the fastest rate of production of ammonia

1000 atm, 700oC

7 a Use the data from the table in Q6 to plot a graph of % conversion versus pressure for a
temperature of 400C, and determine the % conversion (yield) at 250 atm.

Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Australia CONQUERINGCHEMISTRY HSC MODULE 3 WS 1

b Most modern plants use temperatures of about 400C and pressures of about 250 atm to
produce ammonia. Explain why these conditions (400C and 250 atm) are chosen when they
do not produce the greatest yield.
High temperature favours reactants but poor yield, while low temperature, good yield but

slow reaction so plants adopt compromise conditions for temperature and cost and safety for


8 Complete the following by adding a word or phrase.

Monitoring of the Haber process is essential for efficient and _____________ operation.
Temperature and total _____________ in the reaction vessel must be kept in the optimum
conversion range as _____________ temperature can damage the catalyst. The ratio of H2 to
_____________ build up
needs to be kept at 3:1 to avoid a _____________ of one reactant.
To avoid the risk of an explosion _____________ must be absent. The concentrations of CO,
CO and sulfur compounds must be kept _____________ catalyst
to avoid poisoning the _____________.
A build-up of argon and _____________ lower
could _____________ the efficiency so concentrations of
these species must be monitored.

Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Australia CONQUERINGCHEMISTRY HSC MODULE 3 WS 1