29 views

Uploaded by Sai Vithal

- WkdWbVlYVnNkR1J2YldGcGJueG5hV3h0WVhSb2MzeG5lRG94TTJFMk5tTmlNV05tTTJJ
- QMTP - Notes
- Powerpoint
- lec6ses2ex1-solvelogs.pdf
- Estimating Pi(x)
- Algebra Cheat Sheet
- math
- AQA Core 3 Revision Booklet
- Influence of salinity gradient on the vessel characters of the mangrove species Rizophora mucrolata
- 6 3 Logarithms
- Midterm1 Solutions
- SMath Studio
- Chapter-3-Elementary Complex functions.pdf
- comp3ans08.pdf
- OCWExponLog
- E. Omey A New Sequence
- Matematika eksponent.docx
- Add Maths Form 5 - First monthly test
- 141ch7InverseFunctions.ppt
- Module 22 - Complex Analysis 2 (self study)

You are on page 1of 5

College Algebra

Instruction: Logarithms

A logarithm is the power to which some fixed number, called a base, must be raised in

order to obtain a specified number called the argument. Logarithms of specified numbers will

have different values, depending on which base is used. The three most commonly used bases

are 2, 10, and e. Scientific calculators can evaluate the logarithm of numbers using base 10 and

base e.

To introduce the student to logarithms, this lecture will begin by considering logarithms

in exponential form. Consider the exponential function below:

x = by

In this equation, b raised to the y power yields x. The number b, therefore, is the base and y is

the logarithm (base b) of x. This equation can be written alternatively:

y = log b x

This form of the equation depicts y as the logarithm (base b) of x (the specified number or

argument).

Evaluating logarithmic expressions sometimes requires a calculator. For introductory

purposes, this lecture will evaluate logarithms that do not require a calculator. For example:

log 2 8

This expression reads, "logarithm (base two) of eight." The logarithm is 3 because 23 = 8.

Mathematicians use special notation for common logarithms--logarithms (base 10)--and

for natural logarithms--logarithms (base e). Usually the logarithm's base is written as a subscript

to the "log" symbol. With common logarithms the base is not written but simply understood to

be ten. Thus log100 reads, "logarithm (base ten) of one hundred." With natural logarithms, the

"log" symbol is replaced by "ln" and the base is understood to be e. Thus, ln 2 reads, "logarithm

(base e) of two" or "natural log of two."

Further examples:

1) log 3 81

Logarithm to the base 3 of 81 is 4 because 34 = 81. Therefore, log 3 81 = 4.

2) log π 1

Logarithm to the base π of 1 is 0 because π 0 = 1. Therefore, log π 1 = 0.

3) log 4 2

1 1

Logarithm to the base 4 of 2 is because 4 = 2. Therefore, log 4 2 = .

2 2

4) ln e

Natural log of e is 1 because e1 = e. Therefore, ln e = 1.

5) log .01

1

Logarithm to the base 10 of .01 is –2 since 10–2 = . Therefore, log .01 = –2.

100

Example Exercises 3.6

Example 1

Evaluating Logarithms without a Calculator

⎛ 1⎞

Evaluate log 4 ⎜ ⎟ without using a calculator.

⎝ 16 ⎠

Recognize the argument 1 16 as a power of the base 4.

1 1

= 2 = 4−2

16 4

1 ⎛ 1⎞

Since = 4−2 , log 4 ⎜ ⎟ = −2 .

16 ⎝ 16 ⎠

Example 2

Evaluating Logarithms without a Calculator

5

16 24 1

0.0016 = = = 4

10, 000 24 ⋅ 54 5

4

1 ⎛1⎞

0.0016 = =⎜ ⎟

54 ⎝ 5 ⎠

4

⎛1⎞

Since 0.0016 = ⎜ ⎟ , log 1 ( 0.0016 ) = 4 .

⎝5⎠ 5

Example Exercises 3.6

Example 3

Evaluating Logarithms without a Calculator

1

4 = 64 = 64

3 3

1

1

Since 4 = 64 , log 64 ( 4 ) =

3

.

3

Example 4

Evaluating Logarithms without a Calculator

42 = 16

43 = 64

3

⎛ 1⎞

( 16 )

3

3

64 = 4 = 3

= ⎜ 42 ⎟ = 42

⎝ ⎠

3 1

3

Since 64 = 4 2 4 = 64 3 , log16 ( 64 ) = .

2

Practice Set 3.6

Evaluate the following expressions.

#1 log 2 8

#2 log 3 9

1

#3 log

10

#4 log 3 81

#5 log 9 27

#6 ln e 4.5

#7 log 10 6

#8 log 4 2

#9 log 2 2 x

#10 log125 5

#11 log 7 7 2

#12 log 3 9 2

ANSWERS

#1) 3

#2) 2

#3) –1

#4) 4

3

#5) /2

#6) 4.5

#7) 6

#8) ½

#9) x

#10) ⅓

#11) 2

#12) 4

Study Exercise 3.6

Problems

#1 log 3 81

#2 log 5 5

1

#3 log 2

32

#4 log100

- WkdWbVlYVnNkR1J2YldGcGJueG5hV3h0WVhSb2MzeG5lRG94TTJFMk5tTmlNV05tTTJJUploaded byMelquesedeque Cardoso Borrete
- QMTP - NotesUploaded byBradley Nartowt
- PowerpointUploaded byNguyễnBìnhPhương
- lec6ses2ex1-solvelogs.pdfUploaded byHuzaifa Ali Khan
- Estimating Pi(x)Uploaded byOVVOFinancialSystems
- Algebra Cheat SheetUploaded byVinícius Pedroso
- mathUploaded bysalman saeed
- AQA Core 3 Revision BookletUploaded byjake1731
- Influence of salinity gradient on the vessel characters of the mangrove species Rizophora mucrolataUploaded byLeda Rodriguez Posso
- 6 3 LogarithmsUploaded bytarek mahmoud
- Midterm1 SolutionsUploaded bypmaz
- SMath StudioUploaded bysamirsilvasaliba
- Chapter-3-Elementary Complex functions.pdfUploaded byShreya Kapila
- comp3ans08.pdfUploaded bySahabudeen Salaeh
- OCWExponLogUploaded byblueyes78
- E. Omey A New SequenceUploaded byedwardomey3275
- Matematika eksponent.docxUploaded byNorma Syahidah
- Add Maths Form 5 - First monthly testUploaded bySerene Ser
- 141ch7InverseFunctions.pptUploaded byZazliana Izatti
- Module 22 - Complex Analysis 2 (self study)Uploaded byapi-3827096
- 10008_Manuscript Check List 24 02 2016Uploaded bydarwin putungan
- Chapter 3 Study GuideUploaded byDanny Shea O'Brien
- Exp_and_log.pdfUploaded byFrancis Benedic Jemson Inciong
- basic 2Uploaded byMandeep Moudgil
- HackerrankUploaded byMartin Bajzek
- 6 Log Anti Log AmplifiersUploaded byAnonymous eWMnRr70q
- logampUploaded byAnonymous oQEx3z
- Implicit DifferentiationUploaded bywolfretonmaths
- Analisis de Requerimientos de Energia Para Trituradora AgricolaUploaded byalvaro
- sample bookUploaded byapi-323371003

- dentalsoftware-120219114137-phpapp01Uploaded bySai Vithal
- Blackbook - Copy 2Uploaded bySai Vithal
- Deputation Letter for SIUploaded bySai Vithal
- practice_book_math.pdfUploaded byNoureldinYosri
- practice_book_math.pdfUploaded byNoureldinYosri
- practice_book_math.pdfUploaded byNoureldinYosri
- 241330858 Dental Clinic Management System JonanUploaded bySai Vithal
- Instructions for Students While Writing ExaminationUploaded bySai Vithal
- Define Internet and Its ApplicationsUploaded bySai Vithal
- Journal AssignmentUploaded bySai Vithal
- 05 Chapter 5Uploaded bySai Vithal
- Class 11 Ch 1 Some Basic Concepts of ChemistryUploaded bySai Vithal
- Project Groups BSCIT SEM2Uploaded bySai Vithal

- Photomath ExamplesUploaded byRodrigo Moren
- A Compilation of Mathematical DemonstrationsUploaded byFrank Waabu
- Carlson's TheoremUploaded bySarah Mccormick
- ItfUploaded bysantosh172
- Periodic FunctionsUploaded byBabatunde Taiwo
- Assin_MA331_final.pdfUploaded byOishik Dasgupta
- Complex DifferentiationUploaded byrakshith
- Euler IntroductioUploaded byEmiliano Randolfo Segura
- Complex Numbers - Typical Exam QuestionsUploaded bysriramaniyer
- ch05Uploaded byChristina Hill
- The Top Ten Most Fascinating Formula of RamanujanUploaded byx
- Lab2(a)Uploaded byAli Ahmad
- Two Entries on Bilateral Hyper Geometric Series in Ramanujan's Lost NotebookUploaded byapi-26401608
- 2 - 4 - Lecture 3 Taylor SeriesUploaded byRahulsinghoooo
- HWSUploaded bysantoslf_met
- IIT Kharagpur Lec 29 Fourier Integral Representation of a FunctionUploaded byI_Anonymous123
- Limit & ContinuityUploaded bySharif Jamali
- Mathematics+Results+SummaryUploaded byGreenBean1013
- Calculus Lecture 4Uploaded bySuneth Kelum
- ch-26Uploaded bysyedumair2003
- Integration QuestionsUploaded bynaaventhen
- Gamma and Beta FunctionsUploaded bySelvakumar Janakiraman
- 4 1 TranscendentalUploaded byJakeerHussainShaik
- Unit B Activities and ReviewsUploaded byRyanFaller
- Sec3x IntegralUploaded byFrancisco De León-Sotelo Esteban
- Extension Trigonometry Check UpUploaded byyddap
- Pre CalculusUploaded byKevin Booker
- EXERCISES for Sequences and LimitsUploaded byMireya Pepen
- ComplexUploaded bySeher Wazir Ali Lakhani
- 12 TrigonometryUploaded bytamleduc1810dn