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CHAPTER 3

Air Pollutants Emission


Measurement
Learning By the end of this lecture,
Outcome student should be able to:

Understand the specific measurement of air


pollutants respective to the source and ambient
Estimating air pollutants emission

Outline
3.1 Air Pollutants Measurement
3.2 Ambient Oriented Measurement
3.3 Source Oriented Measurement
3.4 Emission Factor
3.0 RECAP
Recaps: Emissions, Transport & Receptors

Atmosphere
Transport
Dilution
Modification

Receptor
Emission Sink
Effects on:
Sources Pollutant removed
Human Health
Measurement without harmful
Materials
Control effect to others
Global Climate
3.1 Air Pollution Measurement

SOURCE
Pollutants emitted AMBIENT
must follow the set Within the
STANDARD breathable limit
to ensure minimal set by regulatory
6 PRINCIPAL POLLUTANTS (EQA)
impact to recipient. Carbon Monoxide (CO) bodies
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
Ozone (O3)
Particulate Matter (PM10 / PM2.5)
Heavy Metals

Emission Receptor
3.1 Air Pollution Measurement

Emission Standard Air Quality Standard


Degree of emission allowed Threshold value where no damage
Measured from known source of air could occur
pollution (i.e. stacks, air duct, Measuring in populated area (i.e. city)
scrubber) Rates of various point must be
Rates of specific sources is measured measured
Philosophy: Cleanest Air Possible Philosophy: Cleanest Air Possible

Emission Receptor
3.1 Air Pollution Measurement

Sample must be representative


of the atmosphere at a given
place and time, and that can
HOW TO OBTAIN be evaluated as a mass or
volume concentration.
RELIABLE DATA? What to measure?
Where to sample?
How to calculate?
Health and safety
3.1 Air Pollution Measurement

Recall your knowledge from Analytical Chemistry

How do we measure the


concentration released?
3.1.1 Concentration Determination

Reference Method Equivalent Method


Standard method set by EPA simpler, easier and cheaper test
Accurate yet expansive similar result with the reference
method

Concentrations may be measured by real time instruments, of which most is


operated optically
Interference in optical measuring instruments and the problem is not trivial
The average concentration over some period of time so that we can
compare it with the applicable ambient standards, which all have some
measuring period

1
Average concentration cavg
t cdt
3.1.1 Concentration Determination
Particulate Matter, TSP, PM10, & PM2.5

Particulate Matter, TSP, PM10, & PM2.5


Filters weight gain is divided by the
measured cumulative air flow through the
filter to determine particle concentration

Increase in filter weight


Average concentration cavg
Air flow rate x time
3.1.1 Concentration Determination
Particulate Matter, TSP, PM10, & PM2.5

Particulate Matter, TSP, PM10, & PM2.5


Example:
A PM2.5 sampler ran for 24 hours at an average flow rate of 16.7 L/min. The
tare weight of the fresh filter was 0.1400 g, and the gross weight of the
filter, dried to the same humidity as the fresh filter, was 0.1405 g. What was
the average PM2.5 concentration in the air drawn through the sampler?

Increase in filter weight


Average concentration cavg
Air flow rate x time
3.1.1 Concentration Determination
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)


West-Gaeke method - a known volume of air is bubbled through sodium
tetrachloromercurate, which forms a complex with SO2. Then, the solution is
treated with pararosaniline to form intensely coloured pararosaniline methyl
sulfonic acid, which concentration is determined in a colorimeter
3.1.1 Concentration Determination
Ozone & Nitrogen Oxides via Chemiluminescent

Ozone (O3)
The air is mixed with ethylene, which reacts with ozone in a light emitting
(chemiluminescent) reaction. The light intensity is measured with a
photomultiplier tube

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)


NOx converted into NO and later reacted with O3 to form NO2 + O2 + light.
The light intensity is measured with a photomultiplier tube

Concentration =Light
3.1.1 Concentration Determination
Heavy Metals

Heavy Metals (Pb)


A TSP filter is extracted with nitric and hydrochloric acids to dissolve the lead.
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) is then used to determine the
amount of lead in the extract
3.1.2 Determining Pollutant Flow Rates

Measured pollutants are commonly presented in concentration (ppm or


mg/m3)

In some cases, emission rate is required to be used in predicting pollution


dispersion

The mass flow rate of pollutant is the product of the concentration in the
gas and the molar or mass flow rate of the gas
3.1.2 Determining Pollutant Flow Rates

Example The SO2 train sampling indicates that the concentration of SO2
in a stack is 600 ppm (mole). The Pitot tube and manometer in the same
figure indicate that the flow velocity is 40 ft/s. The stack diameter is 5ft.
The stack gas temperature and pressure are 450oF and 1 atm. What is
the SO2 flow rate? Given molar density at 0.001503 lbmole/ft3.
3.1.2 Determining Pollutant Flow Rates

Example The SO2 train sampling indicates that the concentration of SO2
in a stack is 600 ppm (mole). The Pitot tube and manometer in the same
figure indicate that the flow velocity is 40 ft/s. The stack diameter is 5ft.
The stack gas temperature and pressure are 450oF and 1 atm. What is
the SO2 flow rate? Given molar density at 0.001503 lbmole/ft3.

Solution
Determine the gas molar flowrate (velocity x area x density)
40 ft/s x (5/2)2 x 0.001503 lbmole/ft3 = 1.18 lbmol/s

Multiply by SO2 concentration using the formula


1.18 lbmol/s x 600 x 10-6= 7.08 x 10-4 lbmol/s

If required, convert to mass flow rate by multiplying with molecular weight


7.08 x 10-4 lbmol/s x 64 lb/mol= 4.53 x 10-2 lb/s
= 163 lb/h = 20.6 g/s = 74.1 kg/h
3.2 Ambient Oriented Measurement

? Where to measure?

Location of ambient air sampler must be


representative of the air pollution of the area.
Power supply?
Sheltered?
Constant temperature environment?
Easy access to monitoring personnel?
Protection from vandalism?
Free rental?
3.2 Ambient Oriented Measurement
Where to measure?

For the following diagram, deduce the possibility of placing the air sampler for air
quality monitoring CO measurement (EPA): Issue in choosing a sampler site.
Where to measure?
Generally the ambient air sampler should be located at the place to which the
public has free access where the pollutant concentration is highest.
This means that all indoor spaces, which the public has no access are excluded.

Parking
lot

Government
building
3.2 Ambient Oriented Measurement
Where to measure?

If the sample was taken from inside parking


structure, the result will show great violation of
NAAQS, specially CO.
* National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) =
standards established by the US Environmental Protection
Agency.

Parking
lot

Government
building
3.2 Ambient Oriented Measurement
Where to measure?

Ground level would shows higher


concentration for sediment pollutants
(i.e.PM10)
Easy to be tampered (vandalism)

Parking
lot

Government
building
3.2 Ambient Oriented Measurement
Where to measure?

A block away, the


concentration will
be even lesser

Parking
lot

Government
building
3.2 Ambient Oriented Measurement
Where to measure?

Air monitoring
CO concentration station
exceed standard Downtown air-
monitoring station

Parking
lot

Government
building
3.2 Ambient Oriented Measurement
Where to measure?
Estimate the suitable locations for air quality monitoring equipment
to be placed. Justify your answer accordingly.
3.3 Source Oriented Measurement

? Where to measure?

Variation in velocity and concentration


are common in source measurement.
Multiple point measurement and
averaging is necessary
3.3 Source Oriented Measurement
Average Concentration

Variation in velocity and concentration are common in source measurement.


Multiple point measurement and averaging is necessary

Point A Point B

A
B
3.3 Source Oriented Measurement
Average Concentration

Variation in velocity and concentration are common in source measurement.


Multiple point measurement and averaging is necessary

Point A Point B

A
B
3.3 Source Oriented Measurement
Average Concentration

Point A Point B
Gas Velocity (m/s) A Gas Velocity (m/s)

1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2


B 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2
1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.1
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.9

Concentration (mg/m3) Concentration (mg/m3)

1.1 1.1 1.2 1.9 1.1 0.7 0.8 1.0


0.9 1.2 1.6 1.8 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.4
0.9 0.9 1.3 1.7 1.0 0.7 1.0 1.0
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.5

c avg
Total mass

V Ac Vc

Total volume V A V
for equal areas

What are the cavg at Point A and B?


3.3.3 Average Concentration
Example
Particulates are sampled at two Point A Point B
different sampling points A and B. Sector
No. Velocity Concentration Velocity Concentration
The cross section of the duct at (m/s) (mg/m3) (m/s) (mg/m3)
sampling point are divided into 16
sectors of equal area. 1 10 500 9 450
a) By comparing the average 2 12 550 10 500
concentration of particulates 3 14 650 8 550
for both sampling points, 4 13 600 7 350
deduce if the average values 5 15 660 9 400
calculated are the same or 6 11 525 11 375
different. Comment on your 7 13 600 8 525
answer. 8 14 650 7 500
b) If the Environmental Quality 9 12 525 6 450
Act (EQA) allows the discharge 10 13 600 9 430
of the particulates to be 0.5 11 12 550 10 550
g/m3, determine whether the
12 14 650 7 575
particulates discharge from this
13 11 525 8 520
stack is meeting the standard.
14 10 500 11 510
Justify your answer.
15 13 600 9 490
16 12 550 8 500
3.3.4 Source Oriented Measurement
Common Problems and Proposed Solutions

Problems and solutions:


Insects sucked into particulate sampler; Bug screens exclude all but the smallest
particles
Possibility of gases to condense or reacts with solids; heated probes are normally
used
Acid gases like SO2 will react with alkaline solids on a filter, increasing solids weight
Grab samples must not react with containers
3.4 Emission Factor

Instead of measuring
How can we estimate the
concentration of pollutants
released?
3.4 Emission Factor

Why emission factors are important??


Emission testing is expensive.
For simple, well-defined sources, tedious but not difficult.
For poorly defined sources, reliable test results are difficult.

To overcome the problem, emission factor is introduced.

Can be useful for estimating specific pollutants release based


on fuel/process
3.4 Emission Factor

mass/time lb/ton mass/time

Emission rate of bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion without control equipment
Emission Factors (lb/ton) of coal burned a
Furnace type
All particle PM10 SOx NOx CO

PC, wall-fired, dry bottom 10A 2.3A 38S 21.7 0.5

PC, wall-fired, wet bottom 7A 2.6A 38S 34 0.5

PC, tangenial-fired, dry bottom 10A 2.3A 38S 14.4 0.5

Cyclone 2A 0.26A 38S 33.8 0.5

Spreader stoker 66 13.2 38S 13.7 5

Hand-fired 15 6.2 31S 9.1 275

* PC =pulverized coal
a The emission factor is expressed by lb/ton. To obtain emission factors in kg/MT, divide the value by 2

* The value of A represent the weight percentage and S represent the sulfur content of the respective
pollutant depending on type of fuel
3.4 Emission Factor

Common solid fuels used for electricity generation and their analysis

Ultimate analysis, weight %, dry basis, typical Heating value (Btu/lb)


Material value
C H O N S Ash Dry basis Wet basis

Wood 52.3 6.3 40.5 0.1 <0.1 0.8 9,050 -

Peat 57.0 5.5 31.0 1.5 0.1 4.8 9,300 -

Lignite 55.0 4.4 13.0 1.0 1.7 24.9 9,727 6,372

Subbituminous 72.5 6.1 17.2 0.7 0.4 3.1 13,006 8,741

Bituminous coal 75.8 5.0 7.4 1.5 1.6 8.7 13,600 11,964

Antharacite coal 82.1 2.3 2.0 0.8 0.6 12.2 13,258 -


Example 4.4.

Using the tables, estimate the emissions (tonne/hr) from a 500-MW power
plant at full load, from the combustion of bituminous coal if no control devices
are used. The thermal efficiency is 35 percent. The power plants boiler is
assumed to be of the PC, wall-fired, dry bottom type.

Solution

Fuel source = bituminous coal


Energy generated = 500 MW
Efficiency = 35%
Boiler type = PC, wall-fired, dry bottom type

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Heating value of bituminous coal

Therefore;

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