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433-522 Internet Technologies

Tutorial: Physical Layer

1. Consider the following 3 network topologies for differ.


connecting N nodes:
Answer: Similarities: - stack of layered
protocols - similar functionality in the layers -
linear ring layers above transport layer relate to
B C applications
Differences: - TCP/IP does not distinguish
between services, interfaces and protocols -
A B C D A D TCP/IP does not clearly separate physical and
full mesh data link functions - OSI supports
B C connectionless and connection-oriented
communication at the network layer, while
TCP/IP supports only connectionless
A D communication at the IP layer - OSI supports
only connection-oriented communication at the
In the general case of an N node network: (a)
transport layer, while TCP/IP supports both
How many links are there in each network? (b)
connection-oriented and connectionless
What is the maximum delay between any pair
communication at the transport layer
of nodes, assuming each link has a delay of
10ms, and the shortest path is used between 4. A noiseless 4 kHz channel is sampled every 1
nodes? (c) What is the minimum number of msec. What is the maximum data rate?
links that need to be cut in order to isolate one
or more nodes? (d) Which topology would you Answer: A noiseless channel can carry an
use to connect military command centres? arbitrarily large amount of information, no
matter how often it is sampled. Just send a lot
Answer: of data per sample. For the 4 kHz channel,
(a) Linear: N 1 links Ring: N links Full make 8000 samples/sec. If each sample is 16
mesh: N (N 1)/2 links (b) Linear: 10(N 1) bits, the channel can send 128 kbps. If each
ms Ring: 10N/2 ms Full mesh: 10 ms (c) sample is 1024 bits, the channel can send 8.2
Linear: 1 link Ring: 2 links Full mesh: N 1 Mbps. The key word here is noiseless. With a
links (d) Full mesh - cost not important, but normal 4 kHz channel, the Shannon limit would
reliability is essential not allow this.
2. Consider a telephone signal that is bandwidth 5. Television channels are 6 MHz wide. How many
limited to 4 kHz. (a) At what rate should you bits/sec can be sent if four-level digital signals
sample the signal so that you can completely are used? Assume a noiseless channel.
reconstruct the signal? (b) If each sample of the
signal is to be encoded at 256 levels, how many Answer: Using the Nyquist theorem, we can
bits/symbol are required for each sample? (c) sample 12 million times/sec. Four level signals
What is the minimum bit rate required to provide 2 bits per sample, for a total data rate
transmit this signal? of 24 Mbps.

Answer: (a) By Nyquists Theorem: min 6. Is the Nyquist theorem true for optical fibre or
sampling rate = 2 4 103 samples/s = only for copper wire?
8 103 samples/s (b) 256 possible values per
sample requires log2 256 = 8 bits/sample (c) 8 Answer: The Nyquit theorem is a property of
bits/sample 8 103 samples/s = 64 kb/s mathematics and has nothing to do with
technology. It says that is you have a function
3. Identify 2 ways in which the OSI reference whose Fourier spectrum does not contain any
model and the TCP/IP reference model are the sines or cosines above f , then by samping the
same. Identify 2 ways in which these models function at a frequency of 2f , you capture all

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433-522 Internet Technologies

the information there is. Thus, the Nyquist directly overhead toward the southern horizon,
theorem is true for all media. with a maximum excursion from the vertical of
2. It takes 24 hours to go from directly
7. Radio antennas often work best when the
overhead to maximm excursion and then back.
diameter of the antenna is equal to the
wavelength of the radio wave. Reasonable
antennas range from 1 cm to 5 meters in 10. Is an oil pipe a simplex system, a half-duplex
diameter. What frequency range does this system, or a full duplex system, or none of the
cover? above?
Answer: Start with f = c. We know that c Answer: Like a single railroad track, it is half
is 3.0 108 m/s. For = 1 cm, we can get 30 duplex. Oil can flow in either direction, but not
GHz. For = 5 m, we get 60 MHz. Thus the both ways at once.
band covered is 60 MHz to 30 GHz.
8. A laser beam 1 mm wide is aimed at a detector 11. In a constellation diagram, all points lie on a
1 mm wide 100 m away on the roof of a circle centered on the origin. What kind of
building. How much of an angular diversion (in modulation is being used?
degrees) does the laser have to have before it
Answer: If all points are equidistant from the
misses the detector?
origin, they all have the same amplitude, so
Answer: If the beam is off by 1 mm at the amplitude modulation is not being used.
end, it misses the detector. This amounts to a Frequency modulation is never used in
triangle with base 100 m and height 0.001 m. constellation diagrams, so the encoding is pure
The angle is one whose tangent is thus 0.00001. phase shift keying.
This angle is about 0.00057 degrees.
12. Ten signals, each requiring 4000 Hz, are
9. Consider a satellite at the altitude of multiplexed onto a single channel using FDM.
geostationary satellites, but whose orbital plane How much minimum bandwidth is required for
is inclined to the equatorial plane by an angle . the multiplexed channel? Assume that the
To a stationary user of the earths surface at guard bands are 400 Hz wide.
north latitude , does this satellite appear
motionless in the sky? If not, describe its Answer: There are ten 4000 Hz signals. We
motion. need nine guard bands to avoid any interference.
The minimum bandwidth required is
Answer: The satellite moves from being 4000 10 + 400 9 = 43, 600 Hz.