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Local Literature

We cannot hide the fact that youth of these days are clearly inclined with technology. This gives
the ideas on different aspects of things that are important both for academic and social purposes. With
this, we will present different opinions, essays, and journals authored by Filipinos that could be found on
the internet. Therefore we are presenting internet based articles which are of good basis on the topic
and matters relating to sex education.

As maintained by Agbulos, G. (2017), the point of Sex Ed is not to teach teenagers to have sex. It
is there to give them proper comprehensive knowledge on the topic so that they know how the whole
thing works, and what the dangers that come with it are. This is a positive perception by an honest
writer who believes that sex education should be there because it is a need for the society rather than a
trend copied from other countries just to make the Philippines look trendy. Though sex education is still
opposed by many, we cannot eradicate the fact that it has a big contribution and will have good effects
in case it would be incorporated in our present educational system.

Similarly, Barrientos, R. (2012) emphasizes that sex education will teach teenage Filipinos safe
sex and is a very effective tool in fighting the very prevalent problems. Sex education promotes ideas
such as the right time to marry, the burdens of being a single/teenage mother and the fine line that
separates love and lust. The prevalence of societal problems like teen-age pregnancy and transmissions
of STD/STI, HIV and AIDS could be solved by educating our youth about things that could cause these.
This solution as contended by the author is sex education. This would lead to positive effects and would
be a good stand point to eradicate some of our societal issues.

Likewise, on a journal of Santos, A. (2015), a school principal have told her that before, our
major problem was over the bakod (going over the fence) to cut classes. Now, we encounter
cyberbullying, violence and teen pregnancy. We educators, together with parents, need to adapt to
these changes so we can address them. The journal presented was about the learning of sex education
in schools. It was an article about sex education wherein it is the time for our society to open the minds
of the youth on sex and sexuality. Her article emphasizes the difference between the generations before
and the present generation.
Geronimo, J. (2015) also makes a point when he found that Beck (the representative of the
government during a press conference held on July 7,2016) debunked again the misconception that
young people have more sex when they learn about sexual education in schools. Studies clearly show
that's not the case.It does not promote sex, but helps delay sex. They can do it much more responsibly
that's the key difference there. The contention of Klaus Beck on the journal was emphasized by the
author and was indicated as a theoretical reason why sex education should be learned in the classrooms.

Again, it is possible to see how Masilungan, E. (2014) agrees with the other authors when she
wrote an article which suggests that the Commission on Population, starting with its Popcom Region 8
and eventually picked up by other regions, found the modules a useful tool to advocate for sexuality
education in public schools. It then partnered with DepEd regional or provincial officials to use them in
teaching popdev and human sexuality in their schools. The said article was journalistic in nature and
explained that the public schools would integrate sex education on some chosen subjects but not on
catholic schools who refuse to. Though the integration is limited only to public schools, it is not the end
of the issue because there are still many public schools which exists in the country.

Again, Geronimo, J. (2014), have also established in his journal paper that in the age of social
media, more young Filipinos are engaging in premarital sex. This contention could lead to the reason
why sex education should be needed and why should it be integrated or incorporated in our curriculum.

Again, like the other authors, Andrade, J, (2016) have also written on her journal that Masilang
(DepEd Adolescent Reproductive Health focal person and supervising education program specialist)
debunked the misconception among conservative groups that sexuality education was just about sex,
and said that children would also learn the science of reproduction, physical care and hygiene and
puberty. Also included are discussions on gender and sexuality, correct values and the norms of
interpersonal relations to discourage premarital sex and teenage pregnancy. The contention by
Masilang alone can easily tell us that the purpose of sex education is to promote social welfare especially
among adolescents and not to harm them and instil negative thoughts on them.

Similarly, Marco Sumayao (2011) asserts that thats what education gives us the ability to
consider the effects, costs, and benefits of our actions. Sex education will not lead to a collapse of
morality, but an enlightenment of our humanity and our responsibility for the future. His contention o
the quoted paragraph is an indirect opinion that sex education should be incorporated in our curricula
but reading the whole article which he have created, you would conclude that he is pushing for the
incorporation of sex education as part of the RH Law.

Likewise, Perales, S. (2012) sex education is not merely a unit in reproduction and teaching how
babies are conceived and born. Lets think beyond the rotten box. It has a far richer scope and goal of
helping the youngster incorporate sex most meaningfully into his present and future life, to provide him
with some basic understanding on virtually every aspect of sex by the time he reaches full maturity. The
authors statement on sex education which leads to the opinion that it should be incorporated in our
curriculum gives a wide sense that the societal problems of our country like teen-age pregnancy, HIV and
AIDS cases and the lack of knowledge of the youth about safe sex would easily be solved by sex

Again, Esguerra, C. (2012) also emphasizes on his journal paper as said by Albay Representative
Edcel Lagman that since the young should not be deprived of RH education just because they are
enrolled in private schools, it is expected that many private elementary and secondary schools would opt
to teach reproductive health education to equally educate their pupils and students. This on the other
hand contains some statements that tries to persuade the private schools to incorporate sex education
on their lessons but then because this is a statement, it cannot compel the private schools to do the act.
Nevertheless, it is still positively perceived that schools should really incorporate sex education as part of
the curriculum.

Datumanong-Mala, N. (n. d.) also makes a point that in the absence of sex education and due to
their immaturity, adolescents may have divergent sexual attitudes and commit irresponsible practices.
Though it is not established that sex education should be included in the lessons, it is still an indirect
statement that leads to the positive perceptions on the effects of sex education on the youth. And this
also tries to explain that youth should be more responsible. The only way to become responsible is to be
knowledgeable and educated on that certain aspect and in this case, it is sex education.

Local Studies

The topic on the acceptability and perceptions of different groups of individuals is also an
emerging issue here in the Philippines. We cannot eradicate the fact that Filipino youths are already
becoming more liberated in terms of sexual activities. This activity itself is not being immoral or
irreligious, rather it is being open to the new concepts of the present society where these youths belong.
Here are some of the studies, dissertations, thesis and surveys conducted in the Philippines which are of
great importance to further analyse and be able to grasp a bigger idea on matters relating to sex

As noted by a survey conducted by the Department of Health (2009), that among the 15-24
year olds, reported HIV infections nearly tripled between 2007 and 2008 from 41 cases to 110 per year,
which is substantial cause for alarm. This survey itself purports that the reason behind why the youth
acquire these diseases is because of the lack of knowledge on the transmission of sexually transmitted
infections and diseases (STIs/STDs). Their early engagement on sex make them more vulnerable victims
of HIV and AIDS. Safe sex is not known to them because of the lack of instruction and education from
their second home, their schools. Although we cannot pin down the schools for this problem, it may not
be too late to incorporate Sex Education on their curricula to be able to avoid these things.

Similarly, De Jose, E. (2013) asserts on his study that of the 365 respondents who have had
experienced PMS (Pre-marital Sex), 80.2% of them engaged in unprotected sex. His study was
conducted in 2013 among schools and universities inside Metro Manila. It was participated by 1,412
undergraduate students. The study was made in order to learn more about the sexual behaviour of these
students and to further analyse their opinions on matters relating to sex. The opinion of the respondents
towards the questions are almost in a half manner. Meaning, sex was considered a positive aspect but
was also considered a negative aspect. It was then concluded that adolescent sex education should first
and foremost strongly advocate abstinence, while at the same time providing comprehensive and
informed knowledge on reproductive health, condom and contraception use, and the negative
consequences of risk behaviour (e.g. unwanted pregnancy, STIs, HIV, etc.) that will help foster a safe,
healthy, and responsible sexual behaviour among young people. (De Jose, E., et. al., 2013)

Likewise, Lucea, M., Hindin, M., Gultiano, S., Kub, J., & Rose, L. (2013) contends that by calling
attention to the perceptions surrounding condom use for young adults in this area (metro cebu), we
provide a starting point towards the awareness of the constraints to widespread condom use and HIV
prevention in general. This awareness can begin to inform the further development and implementation
of comprehensive assessment and prevention strategies that best suit the needs of young adults in the
Philippines. Their study was conducted in Metro Cebu which targeted a population comprised of young,
heterosexual adults with ages 21-30 who lives in Metro Cebu. It included both married and unmarried
persons but are sexually active. The said study gave way to the conclusion that these adults have a little
knowledge on the risks of having sex without the use of any protection. It is then important for the
concerned administrative body of the government to give more emphasis on the young adults and
adolescents to educate them and instil them knowledge about safer sex.

Laguna, E. (2004), also makes the same point that based on her reports, study findings highlight
the fact that misconceptions regarding AIDS still exist in a sizeable proportion of the youth population.
These include issues such as modes of transmission, AIDS as a punishment from God, AIDS as curable
and the general feeling of non-susceptibility to infection. The study that she reported was conducted in
the Philippines covering al sixteen regions of the country. It included in the study 20,000 adolescents and
young adults with ages limited on 15-24. The study was conducted by the 2002 Young Adult Fertility and
Sexuality Study (YAFS3) and was reported for the annual meeting for 2004 Annual Meeting of the
Population Association of America, April 1-3, 2004, Boston, Massachusetts. It concluded that there is still
a relatively high percentage of misconception about HIV, AIDS, STI and STD. The study tries to open the
fact that the youth in the Philippines are still uneducated on the effects, mode of transmission and
nature of the said diseases. Such lack of information on safe sex could lead to the negative effects such as
acquisition of the enumerated diseases or even death.

As claimed by Paunlagui, M. (2004), more than half (57%) of the high school students defined
sexual education as associated with sex, sexual intercourse, gender relation, the body and population.
About 41 percent of the respondents did not define sexuality education. The said study conducted by
the researchers had targeted Region IV because of the reason that this region is the second most
populated region next to Metro Manila on terms of the number of tertiary and secondary schools. The
study was conducted to assess the knowledge of secondary students about sexuality education. The
study found out that there is very low percentage on the matter relating to the knowledge of students
about sex education. There is then a need for the agencies of the government to lead in the education of
students about sex and sexuality.

Again, it is possible to see how Jens agrees with Paunlagui, M. As described by Jens (2011), that
through integration of sex education and family planning programs to Philippine fourth year high school
could help to give knowledge to the youth about the sex and sexuality for the proper development of
their attitudes and behaviour in relation to sex. Based on this scholarly paper, we can easily ascertain
that the younger the students to learn about sex education, the better the outcome. Though there is a
slight integration of the sex education in our present curricula, it still ineffective and not enough source
of information that could really clear the minds of the youth about the matters relating to sex and

However, there are some studies which contradicts to the presented studies above. There may
be some contradictions, but it is still important for us to note what other studies were made in
accordance to the issue relating to the topics about sex education and how they are viewed by the

As Sandejas, J. (2011) purports on his study that 25. 87% disagree to allow their children to be
taught by school teachers about the technical and biological aspects of sex in a co-ed environment, and
possibly tutored by their teachers if they are not up to par with their lessons. This study was based
from 500 respondents from 50 barangays in Metro Manila. Its purpose is to know more about the
knowledge of the residents of the target place about the RH Bill being presented in the congress during
the Aquino Administration. A small percentage of parents disagree on the incorporation of sex education
in the present curricula but nevertheless it is still a disagreement which could lead to negativity of
perceptions from the society.

Likewise, Irala, J., Osorio, A., Lpez del Burgo, C., Belen, V., de Guzman, F., Calatrava, M., &
Torralba, A. (2009) disputes that with regard to knowledge of sexuality, we observe that teens in most
cases (especially among girls) have not talked about sexuality topics with their parents, but that they
would want to know more. The study was conducted in the whole Philippines choosing seven regions
and an approximately 4000 respondents from different schools and universities with ages ranging from
13-18. The study was conducted to know more about the perceptions of students about whom should
they learn the matters relating to sex education. It was further concluded that There is room for further
encouraging parents to talk more with their children about sexuality, especially aspects related to
feelings and emotions in order to help them make better sexual choices. Indeed, teens wish to better
communicate with their parents on these issues. (Irala, J., et. al., 2009)

Alejo, A., De Sosa, L., Echem, R., Gonzales, A., Ibaez, C., delos Reyes, J., Tan, K., Guerrero, R., &
Floriza, M. (2014) also make a point that 76.1% (of the respondents) believes that parents should be the
ones to teach their adolescent children and 91% believe that it is the parents responsibility to teach
their children sexuality education and that teachers play a supplementary role. The study was
conducted among nine schools and participated by 516 students from the said schools. These schools
are limited only on the Mindanao area. The study was conducted to assess the perception of students
about who should they learn sex education from. Most of the respondents believes that it is the parents
that should give the first-hand information and the school being a supplementary and secondary source.

Foreign literature

Human beings are social animals. Their behavior, knowledge, and perception are
influenced by the societies where they are born and nurtured. This statement is also true when
speaking of sex and sexuality (Haeberle, 1981). Sex can be defined in various ways. It can be
defined as the physical and behavioral difference that distinguishes individual organisms
according to their functions in the reproductive process (Encarta, 2009). The Merriam-
Webster dictionary defines it as sexually motivated behavior. Sex can also be denoted to as
the different sexual activities, including penetrative sex, oral sex and mutual stimulation. Sex is
not just physical sexual contact; it can also involve emotions and feelings. Also, Haeberle, et. al.
(1981) added that there are differences in human sexual characteristics whether the individual
is a male or a female. For example, in females, their primary sexual characteristics include the
external genitalia (vulva) and the internal organs that make it possible for a woman to produce
ova (eggs) and become pregnant. In males, on the other hand, the main organ for copulation is
the penis. The sperm cells are produced in the testes, and are stored and nurtured in the
epididymis. As the individual matures, his/her sexual characteristics develop as well. According
to DeLamater & Friedrich (2002), human beings are sexual beings throughout their entire
lives. At certain points in life, sexuality may manifest itself in different ways. Each life stage
brings with it pressures for change and sexual development milestones to be achieved if sexual
health is to be attained or maintained. The stages of sexual development are a human
developmental process involving biological and behavioral components (p.10).(DeLamater &
Friedrich, 2002) Furthermore, the period in human lifespan during which the organs of sexual
reproduction mature is called puberty. This occurs in males between the ages of 13 and 16, and
in females between the ages of 11 and 14. (Encarta, 2009). This period has something to do
with the sexual awakening that comes with biological maturation. This means that students in
ages 11-16 are already in the stage of sexual awakening and biologically mature. This
maturation is evidenced in females by the onset of menstruation, in males by the production of
semen, and in both by the enlargement of the external genitalia. Rapid growth marks a range of
physiological changes. Various secondary sexual characteristics also appear for the first time
during puberty; in males, production of body hair increases markedly, particularly in the pubic,
axillary, and facial regions, and the voice usually changes and becomes deeper in tone; in
females, hair also appears in the pubic and axillary regions, and the breasts become enlarged.
Given that, with the inclusion of sex education in the curriculum, students starting these ages
will be able to understand the changes that they are experiencing. Questions that may arise
given these changes may also be answered during and after the discussion on matters about
reproductive health and puberty.

In addition, Andres (1974) also stated that the experience of sexual capacities that
come with puberty is not the same for boys and girls. He said that for boys, sexual desire
appears in earlier in boys, highly specific, and is centered in the genital organs. For girls, on the
other hand, Andres added that desire is not the proper word to use, since it is better to speak
of sexual stirrings. Furthermore, for girls, love takes priority over sexuality. The factor of
intellectual curiosity is greatly intensified at this time. During the puberty stage, boys and girls
are craving for factual information about sex and sexuality. They may be able to obtain it from
various sources, such as the books, internet, etc. Adolescents may also seek out advices to their
peers which might give them wrong information. Young peoples yearning for knowledge about
sex is not a desire to find out what sex does or should feel like to them, but equally what it is
like for the opposite sex.

According to Adewale (2009), the adolescents curiosity and lack of knowledge, may
often lead to premarital sex, which, in effect, will be unwanted pregnancies. Given that
statement, the cases of unwanted pregnancies in the United States and other countries are
skyrocketing for years. Because of this, inclusion of sex education as part of the curricula is
really an effective tool which will help our students to become aware of the disadvantages of
having sex at a very young age.
Evaluating the inclusion of sex education as part of the curricula is important. If a goal of
sex education is to promote safe sex practices, it can only be assumed that programs are having
the desired effects without assessing actual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Much
previous research (Kyes, 1990; Moran, 1991; Kirby, 2002; Abdullah, Fielding, & Hedley, 2003)
found that sex education guides students attitudes toward promoting safer sex practices.
Furthermore, Kyes (1990), reports that viewing a safe sex film does affect positive change in
attitudes toward condoms and an increased willingness, in women, to have their partners use

Important to sex education is the relevance and content of the subject matter. Over the
past decade, Abdullah, Fielding, and Hedley (2003) found an increase in the amount of content
in which schools are educating their students about safe sex. For example, beginning in the mid-
1990s, a widespread campaign for AIDS education in secondary schools promoted consistent
condom use. Results from the AIDS awareness campaigns in schools concluded a positive
impact in the rates of condom use, as well as shaping negative attitudes toward casual sex
(Abdullah, Fielding, & Hedley, 2003). As a result of integrating vital information that at one time
was considered taboo into sex education, positive, safer outcomes for young people are now

The most effective way to teach sex education has proved to be the comprehensive way.
Although many parents believe it will encourage their kids to participate in sexual activity,
evaluations of comprehensive sex education and HIV/STI prevention programs show that they
do not increase rates of sexual initiation, do not lower the age at which youth initiate sex, and
do not increase the frequency of sex or the number of sex partners among sexually active
youth. (McKeon). These strong factual statistics only help the argument of comprehensive sex
education. The comprehensive program still focuses on the abstinence only choice but also
gives information on other contraceptives. The fundamental point of this program is that they
inform children how to obtain and use different forms of birth control if they decide to not
abstain from sex. As implied, if a student only learns the abstinence way he or she will not know
how to protect themselves whereas a student who was taught the comprehensive way will. For
example, say there was a teenage girl who was taught abstinence-only her entire life. She has
now decided she wants to have sex and is clueless on how to get or use any form of birth
contraceptives. If she ends up pregnant or with a HIV/STI how will she know how to seek
assistance? This is a frightening thing to think about. What if because that girl never was taught
comprehensive sex education, she has sex and potentially gambles with the rest of her future?
This is another reason why comprehensive sex education is useful; because it prepares students
for any situation he or she may come across in the future. Through extensive research and
statistics, it is clear to the American society that sex education is an important part to consider
in childrens schooling. Something that can be so detrimental to the youths body and future is
worth teaching about. Kids not only need to know what having sex can do to them, but how to
protect themselves in the most efficient way. The comprehensive approach is undoubtedly the
most effective method and shows working results. To close, keeping kids educated, safe, and
protected, is what comprehensive sex education demonstrates. This practice of sex education is
better than teaching abstinence-only since it covers all features of sex, not only refraining until
marriage. Giving teenagers the knowledge and power to keep safe and protected is the most
important aspect of this topic, which comprehensive sex education accomplishes.

According to Arpita De, a researcher about sex education, sex education in schools is
being given increasing importance as it is known to inform students about issues related to sex
and sexual health. It is considered important for societies that its individuals are well-informed
about sex, sexual practices, child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases. A school plays
an important role in implementing effective sex education to growing children. Various studies
suggest that effective sex education in schools prevents adolescents experimenting with sex.
These sex education programmes also encourage the teenagers to use protection while
indulging in any kind of sexual act.

The LGBT Community(2013) in America also affirmed that the inclusion of sex education
means healthier youth and safer schools. It was then reintroduced by the late Sen. Frank
Lautenberg (D-NJ) and Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) through the Real Education for Healthy
Youth Act in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. This legislation would
authorize grants for comprehensive sex-education programs that are inclusive of lesbian, gay,
bisexual, and transgender, or LGBT, youth. Specifically, it would require comprehensive sex
education to cover sensitive and respectful discussions of gender, gender identity, and sexual
orientation, among other topics. Currently, sex-education standards vary widely across the
country, leaving many American youth uninformed about basic anatomy, healthy relationship
skills, and safer sex practices. All youth deserve education that empowers them to make
healthy, informed decisions about their relationships and their bodies, and the Real Education
for Healthy Youth Act would help make this possible. When considering this bill, Congress
should keep in mind the ways in which this legislation would positively impact LGBT youth. It
only concludes that all American youth, including those who are LGBT, are in dire need of
inclusive sex education to improve their health outcomes and help build safe school
environments where they can thrive. While further action will be necessary to end the teaching
of inaccurate, exclusionary, and ineffective abstinence-only programs, Congress can make
comprehensive, inclusive sex education a reality for more LGBT youth across the country by
passing the Real Education for Healthy Youth Act.

Moreover, the inclusion of sex education in the school curriculum in Cross River State
has been affirmed by the students and their parents(Ogunjimi,2006). Almost all the subjects of
the study 587 (97.71%) students and 174 (96.67%) parents believed that the teaching of sex
education would go a long way to reduce the incidence of unwanted pregnancy.

Sex education is defined as, a lifelong process of building a strong foundation for sexual
health through acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs and values about ones
identity, relation-ships, and intimacy (Sex Information and Education Council). In India, sex
education was taught to further decrease the number of unwanted pregnancies and to stop the
possibilities of students to engage in sex at an early age( Datta, Shib&Majumder,Nilratan, n.d).

Experts of the sex education for American youth researched that an effective sex
education program would offer age- and culturally appropriate sexual health information in a
safe environment for participants, are developed in cooperation with members of the target
community, especially young people, assist youth to clarify their individual, family, and
community values, assist youth to develop skills in communication, refusal, and negotiation,
provide medically accurate information about both abstinence and also contraception, including
condoms, have clear goals for preventing HIV, other STIs, and/or teen pregnancy, focus on
specific health behaviors related to the goals, with clear messages about these behaviors,
address psychosocial risk and protective factors with activities to change each targeted risk and
to promote each protective factor, respect community values and respond to community needs,
and rely on participatory teaching methods, implemented by trained educators and using all the
activities as designed(McKeon,Brigid;2006).

The Dutch are very practical about dealing with issues many other countries (especially
the US) struggle with. Rather than sticking their heads in the sand and advocating abstinence
onlya policy that has been proven to be a dismal failurethey realize that human sexuality is
a perfectly natural part of life, and the more resources with which children are equipped, the
better off they will be. From age 4, all children in Dutch schools receive compulsory age-
appropriate sexuality education classes. And they are not just about the nuts and bolts (so to
speak) of sex. The main emphasis is on building respect for ones own and others sexuality. The
teen pregnancy rate in the Netherlands is very low. When you compare it with the rate of teen
pregnancy in the US, which is the highest in the developed world, 8 times higher than the
Netherlands (interestingly, its the English-speaking countries that have the highest teen
pregnancy rates in the developed worldthe US, followed closely by New Zealand and the UK),
its obvious that the Dutch approach is the one that works. Dutch teens tend to have their first
sexual experience slightly later than their American counterparts. When they do finally have
sex, the majority of Dutch report it as having been a positive, fun experience. Nearly 70% of
American teens say they felt they should have waited longer before having sex. Dutch sex
education classes teach children to respect others boundaries, stressing the importance of sex
in the context of a respectful, loving relationship . One of the earliest lessons revolves around
consent. Children are taught skills on how to say no until they feel they are ready for sex, to
decide what and how much they want, to tell their partner what feels good to them, and to act
responsibly in terms of both contraception and respect for their partner. Amy T. Schalet, author
of Not Under My Roof: Parents, Teens, and the Culture of Sex, a book about the differences
between American and Dutch norms in regard to teenage sexuality, indicates the cultural
differences between the two countries have something to do with a more mature view of
sexuality. Theres a real gender component there, and thats also where the Dutch, I think, do
things differently, she says. They leave room for boys to think of themselves as romantic, of
having feelings. And its not that American boys arent romantic, its that everything in their
culture tells them that they shouldnt be. Dutch sex education also includes topics such as
gender identity and homosexuality. Children here learn early that it is perfectly natural for two
men or two women to be in love. I cant help but think that this type of early training can help
prevent atrocities such as what recently occurred in Orlando. No subject regarding sex is taboo
in these classes, particularly in the later grades, where it is not unusual to find discussions on
subjects such as masturbation and oral sex. And girls are not expected to take a passive role in
sexual negotiations. They are taught they can make choices about their own sexuality, not to
feel pressured by boys or their friends. In fact, Dutch women are known to be very forthright
about what it is they want in bed. Girls learn their sexual desires are perfectly natural, and boys
are encouraged to embrace their emotions and romantic feelings.

Each year, U.S. teens experience as many as 850,000 pregnancies, and youth under age
25 experience about 9.1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (McKeon). Comprehensive
sex education is a method that should be required in all schools and is the most effective way to
keep teenagers safe, well informed, and prepared. Of the approximately 850,000 teen
pregnancies that occur each year, 82% are unintended (Guttmacher), which only goes to show
they are not being taught how to protect themselves when educated. This statistic implies that
school boards who believe this to be the best way to educate teenagers are perhaps naive on
the situation. The United States continues to have one of the highest teen pregnancy rates in
the developed world (Guttmacher). Whether it's safe sex practices or even abstinence, all of
these issues must be dealt with in an educational setting, because when we look at the teen
pregnancy rates, sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, it only makes sense to have
as much education as possible (Martin). Sex has become a reality of life and is not something
that should go uneducated about. If teenagers are taught about sex in a school setting, they are
forced to take the situation more seriously. Schools do not have to set the standard for which
parents believe their kids should have, just inform and prepare the youth on what they should
know about sex. Sex education can also act as a gateway for the sex-talk at home. The most
effective sex education acknowledges the different contributions each setting can make. School
programs which involve parents, notifying them what is being taught and when, can support the
initiation of dialogue at home (AVERT). The schools interaction between the teenagers with sex
education can be purely factual, while at home teenagers can ask more personal questions to
their parents.

Sexuality education forms part of the national school curricula of most sub-Saharan
African countries, yet risk-related sexual behaviour among young people continues to fuel the
HIV pandemic in this part of the world. One of the arguments put forward to explain why
sexuality education seems to have had little impact on sexual risk-taking is that existing curricula
have neglected to take into account the complexity of the social, cultural and gender norms that
influence the behaviour of school-going young people in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past few
years, the Department of Basic Education in South Africa has recognised the need to provide
guidance to teachers on the content, pedagogical processes and messages that are relevant to
their specific context. This paper critically reflects on findings from a literature-based study
conducted to identify the cognitive and social factors influencing the behaviour of school-going
young people in South Africa and the risk and protective factors that might be particular to their
circumstances. The findings provide helpful guidelines about the development, content and
implementation of sexuality education curricula more likely to be relevant in contexts of serious
poverty and disadvantage. Although based on the South African literature, the findings may also
offer useful lessons for curriculum designers in other developing countries (Wood, Lesley;
Rolleri, Lori A.,2014).

In the United Kingdom, sex and relationship education (SRE) is compulsory from age 11
onwards. It involves teaching children about reproduction, sexuality and sexual health. It
doesnt promote early sexual activity or any particular sexual orientation. Some parts of sex and
relationship education are compulsory - these are part of the national curriculum for science.
Parents can withdraw their children from all other parts of sex and relationship education if
they want. All schools must have a written policy on sex education, which they must make
available to parents for free. This was executed to surely protect their students from engaging
with sex and to safeguard the potential tendencies of being unaware about sex. This helped
their students especially the teenagers to be sure not to have unwanted pregnancies or
premarital sex.

Another one is that most research on sex education thus far has focused on the relation
between type of sex education and sexual practices, attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge after
receiving a sex education. These studies have focused on students immediately after they have
received their sex education while the students are still presumably in college. There has not
been any research directly focusing on type of sex education received in college and possible
correlations to sex practices in the context of the college social scene. The prior research on
type of sex education reviewed in this section focuses on the history of sex education in the
United States, different approaches to sex education in the school setting, and correlations of
type of sex education to both positive and negative sexual behaviors.

The number of college students receiving sex education in high school in the United
States has increased dramatically in the past thirty years. Although the number of students
taking classes related to sex education has increased over the past thirty years, there is no
consensus on what type of sex education should be taught in schools. The two main types of
sex education taught at U.S. are comprehensive sex education programs and abstinence-only
sex education programs. Comprehensive sex education programs discuss many aspects of sex
such as the biology of sex, ways to prevent pregnancy including abstinence, information about
STDs and

AIDS, ways to deal with pregnancy including abortion, and contraceptive use and availability
(Rose, 2005). Liberals tend to favor comprehensive sex education programs. Abstinence only
sex education programs do not discuss use of contraceptives, the biology of sex, or information
about STDs and transmission of AIDS. The only form of pregnancy prevention taught is
abstinence. Such programs advocate that sex should be held off until marriage. Sex is also
presented in a negative and fearful light in abstinence only education programs (Zanis, 60).
Conservatives tend to favor abstinence only education programs. Sex education is a very
important policy decision in todays complex modern world, as described by Sabia (2006), Sex
education programs are of interest to policymakers. First, sex education is viewed as an
information policy tool to reduce the future costs of teen pregnancies, as well as the costs of
sexually transmitted diseases (p. 783). The success of various sex education programs is critical
to the health and well-being of teenagers as they make their way through the difficult and
awkward stage of adolescence. Taking measures to implement programs that help reduce
unwanted teen pregnancies through education is very important considering all the
disadvantages for teenage mothers, They become less likely to complete high school, less likely
to attend college, more likely to have large families, and more likely to be single parents. They
work as much as women who delay childbearing for several years, but their earnings must
provide for a larger number of children (Kirby, 2007, p. 144). Sex education has also gained
more attention recently since as a result of the struggling economy, many schools have had
federal and state funding cut and have had to cut back on programs that are not absolutely
necessary such as sex education (Sabia, 2006, p. 791). Sex education, however, might very well
be considered a mandatory program for schools when one looks at the troubling teenage
pregnancy numbers in the United States. The U.S. has a high number of teenage pregnancies,
with over 850,000 teens becoming pregnant every year, the highest rate of any modern
industrialized country (Rose, 2006, p. 1209). Adolescent child rearing is also much more
common in the United States than in any other country, as 22% of U.S. women have a child
before the age of twenty (p. 1226). In 2001, nearly 82% of teen pregnancies were unplanned
(Kirby, 2007, p. 144). Teenage pregnancy also affects the U.S. population as a whole since the
annual costs to taxpayers of women giving birth under the age of nineteen was over $9 billion in
the year 2004 alone (p. 145). Clearly sex education is important because these startling
numbers need to be addressed so that the overall sexual health and well-being of young women
can be improved.

The debate over which kinds of sex education to use with students began in the early
1960s with the emergence of the Evangelical Christian right wing in the political spectrum. At
first the conservative right did not want sex education taught in schools at all, although this
proved to be an unpopular ideal with the majority of the U.S. population, and by the 1980s,
evangelicals began to call for sex education in schools, but only if it was an abstinence-only
program (Kirby, 2007). Recently, abstinence-only sex education programs have gained
prominence in the United States. Currently, the U.S. is the only country that provides federal
funding for abstinence-only sex education programs (Rose, 2006). In 1999, 23% of sex
education taught in secondary schools was abstinence-only (Sabia, 2006, p. 797). In 1996 alone,
the U.S. Congress authorized $50 million for abstinence-only sex education programs (Zanis,
2005, p. 59). Since 1996, nearly $1 billion in state and federal funding has been used for
abstinence-only sex education (Rose, 2006, p. 1208). In 2005, abstinence only sex education
received $170 million in federal funding, and by 2006, abstinence only sex education programs
received $205.5 million in federal funding (p. 1208). While federal funding for abstinence only
education has increased, federal funding for comprehensive sex education has been cut (p.

Despite the increased funding and attention to abstinence only sex education programs,
abstinence-only sex education has not proved to be very successful in terms of preventing sex
or preventing pregnancy and the transmission of STDs. The United States leads all modern
industrialized countries in teen STD rate, with people between the ages of fifteen and twenty-
four representing about half of the new cases of STDs everywhere, despite the fact that this
same age groups accounts for only 25% of the sexually active U.S. population (Kirby, 2007, p.

Rose (2006) wrote one of the most extensive articles chronicling the rise in abstinence
only sex education programs and the subsequent failures and shortcomings of this type of sex
education. Rose showed that the U.S. has the highest abortion rate of any modernized country
in the world, which is very surprising considering the strong anti-abortion sentiment in the U.S.
One study conducted at a Texas high school actually found that 80% of teens in the study
increased their sex rate after receiving an abstinence only sex education (Waxman, 2004).
Overall, there is little empirical evidence that abstinence-only education programs have any
significant influence on sexual behavior. Some studies on abstinence-only education have found
that this kind of education does prolong the amount of time those receiving abstinence-only sex
education take to have first intercourse, but sexual intercourse was only delayed anywhere from
six to eighteen months (Sabia. 2006). Moreover, teens receiving abstinence-only sex education
were more likely not to use contraceptives during their first sexual intercourse (Sabia, 2006).
Kirby (2007) found that abstinence only education programs were not effective in changing
adolescent sexual behavior and that there is little evidence that abstinence only programs delay
the initiation of sexual intercourse. Rose (2006) sums up the findings on abstinence only sex
education with the following, [Abstinence proponents] provide medical misinformation and
promote fear and ignorance, and also fail to plan, fund, and implement effective social policy
that could more effectively curb teen pregnancy and the spread of STDs (p. 1224).

Comprehensive sex education programs on the other hand have proven to be successful
in more than one facet. Comprehensive sex education has been shown to postpone the
initiation of sexual intercourse, as well as increase the rate of successful use of contraceptive
devices (Kirby, 2007; Sabia, 2006). In a review of 54 sex education program evaluations from
high schools across the country, Kirby (2007) found that comprehensive sex education programs
were associated with a 43% increase in condom use, a 40% increase in use of contraceptives in
general, and a 71% reduction in the rate of adolescents having unprotected sex (p. 155). Most
of the sex education programs studied, however, were comprehensive, and Kirby maintains that
there was not a big enough sample of abstinence-only programs to see if there were any
positive or negative effects of receiving an abstinence-only sex education (Kirby, 2007). Rose
(2006), found that U.S. teens actually want more information about sex from their sex
education, which is what comprehensive sex education provides unlike abstinence only sex
education. Although most teens generally have a basic knowledge of contraceptives, most do
not know how to properly use a contraceptive to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. According to
Kirby (2007), of all teenage girls between the ages of fifteen and nineteen who use oral pill
contraception, only 70% take the pill daily (p. 147). A comprehensive sex education may be
more vital than people think since a greater proportion of U.S. women did not use
contraceptives the first time they had sexual intercourse (25%), nor with their most recent
sexual partner (20%), compared to countries in Western Europe such as France, where only 11%
did not use a contraceptive with their first sexual partner and only 12% did not use a
contraceptive with their most recent partner (Rose, p. 1226). In a study using data from the
National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health from the years 1994-1996, Sabia (2006),
found that exposure to comprehensive sex education is associated with greater use of
contraceptives. Sabia also concluded that comprehensive sex education was less associated
with increased rates of unprotected sex or increased pregnancy rates compared to abstinence
sex education and instances in which sex education is not offered. Access to information about
proper use of contraceptives is critical for children of teen mothers since they are at many
disadvantages in American society, [they] have less supportive and stimulating home
environments, lower cognitive development, worse educational outcomes, higher rates of
behavioral problems, higher rates of incarceration, and higher rates of adolescent childbearing
themselves (Kirby, 2007, p. 144). It is for these reasons that knowledge of contraceptives
should be included in any sex education program according to comprehensive sex education

Conservatives in favor of abstinence-only sex education programs maintain that

comprehensive sex education programs encourage sexual activity because they expose students
to the idea of sex. Therefore by the time they reach a class about sex education, they already
have a basic foundation of sexual knowledge and the idea of sex will be nothing new to them.
In another study on the effectiveness of abstinence-only sex education programs, Zanis found
that sexually active teens who went through an abstinence-only education program reported
having sex within thirty days of completing the abstinence-only education course, further
showing that even before adolescents reach a sex education class, they have knowledge and
experience of sexual activity, and that abstinence-only education will not be effective in
decreasing sexual activities of students who are already sexually active. In the same study, Zanis
found that sexually active students wanted sex education programs that focused more on sex
knowledge such as contraceptive use and procurement, while sexually abstinent students
wanted sex education classes that taught students simply to abstain from sex until marriage.
Franklin and Corcoran (2000) in a review of programs aimed at preventing teen
pregnancy, argued that sex education programs should focus on certain areas in sex education,
specifically on family planning, increasing teen use of contraceptives to prevent teen
pregnancies, and understanding and preventive measures for STDs and AIDS. Franklin and
Corcoran also concluded that in terms of preventing teen pregnancy, sex education programs
work well when they are diversified in what knowledge and skills are passed along to students
including but are not limited to abstinence. Sex education programs according to Franklin and
Corcoran are at their best when both abstinence and contraceptive measures are discussed in
full length, while noting that sex education programs suffer when only one or the other is
discussed and emphasized.

Although there has been some research on the effects of sex education on teens sexual
patterns, there has not been much research on type of sex education and its effects on people
as they enter college and begin to encounter college social life and engage in risky behaviors. Of
course with teens, there are many more factors that affect their sex habits than just the type of
sex education. As described by Sabia (2006) [determinants include] community disadvantage,
family structure and economic disadvantage; family, peer, and partner attitude and behaviors;
characteristics of teens themselves, detachment from school, biology (p. 788). This is also true
of college students and their sexual practices. Sex education is certainly not the only
determining factor for a college students sex life, although it is one that should be studied and
considered since other activities and influences have previously been looked at to see if they
have any effect on the sexual practices and social behaviors of a college student.

One aspect that has been studied for its influence on sexual activity is alcohol
consumption. Anderson and Sorensen (2006) conducted a study on the effects of drinking
alcohol in making the act of engaging in sexual activity easier. This study was conducted
factoring race, class, and gender variables. According to their study, men were more likely to
drink to make it more easy and comfortable to have sex. They also found a high correlation
between needing alcohol to have sex and number of sexual partners over the previous year (p.
3). Whites were more likely to drink more than blacks in order to have sex (p. 3). Andersen and
Sorensen also found that 21% of males and 16% of students from upper class status needed to
drink to have sex compared to 15% and 10% of males and females of lower economic status (p.
3). They also found that 100% of the participants used a contraceptive at least once while
having sex over the previous year, even after having at least one alcoholic beverage (p. 3).
Clearly alcohol does have some effect on the engagement of sexual activity in college students.

Davidson and Moore (1999) conducted a study that looked at the sexual practices of
college women. They wanted to see if there was a correlation between age of receiving first
information on contraceptives and sexual behavior in college. The study found that sex
behavior of college age women was not in any way affected by age of receiving first knowledge
about contraceptives. They showed that receiving information about sexual contraceptives
before the age of thirteen did not affect sexual practices in college compared to girls who
received information about contraceptives after the age of thirteen. Schuster (1997) conducted
a study that looked at the use of condoms among college students at a Midwestern United
States university. The study found that their college students were generally uneducated about
condom use and its preventive effects. College students were also very inconsistent with their
use of condoms. Davidson and Moore (1999) also found that both women and men could
improve their physical and emotional expectations of using a condom if they had more
information about condom use. The study goes on to discuss that college students would
benefit from increased knowledge about condoms and that it could possibly help cut down on
unplanned college student pregnancies. Kirby (2007) found that as adolescents age from the
time they are in high school to when they enter college, they are less likely to use a condom.

There is a lack of research on whether type of sex education affects adolescents as they
enter college and begin to engage in the college social scene. There have not been any studies
conducted on whether sex education affects students likelihood of drinking or engaging in
promiscuous sexual activities. There is no real evidence of how sex education will affect
someones practice of safe sex once that person enters college, which is a much different social
environment from what students typically experience in high school. At most colleges, there is
an increased amount of exposure to partying, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, sexual
activity, and other risky behaviors. This study looks to see how receiving abstinence-only sex
education, comprehensive sex education, or no sex education influences adolescents as they
enter the college world and begin to encounter the college world of partying, alcohol, and
sexual activity.

Kirby D, from the Journal of School Head once researched about the effectiveness of sex
education as part of curricula. He stated that the sex education class is considered the
experimental group; some other class or group of students is considered the control group.
Studies using this design have 2 major strenghts: by comparing the change in scores of the
control group and the experimental group, various types of errors can be eliminated or
controlled; and when students take a pretest, complete the course and then take the posttest,
this resembles their normal testing routine and appears natural. A second but less common
method of analyzing the effects of sex education on curriculum employ a survey design. Thus,
few surveys are discussed in this article. Numerous studies of both high school and college
classes have used experimental designs to measure the impact of sex education courses upon
the knowledge of the students. Their findings are nearly unanimous -- instruction in sex
education does substantially increase knowledge of sexuality. The beliefs that students have
about their own sexual behavior with others do not appear to change. Thus, the concern that
sex education in college will make students less moral is not substantiated by the literature. The
studies of college students strongly indicate that some college sexuality courses do increase
tolerance or acceptance of different types of sexual behavior both for self and especially for
others. The studies of college classes indicate that they do not affect sexual behavior. The
studies fail to support sex education proponents who believe classes may reduce sexual
behavior. They do indicate that units on contraception will increase the use of more effective
contraceptives and decrease sexual activity with poor or no contraception.