1479
CONCLUSION ACKNOWLEDGMENT
An attempt has been made to describe the general The author is indebted to the Navy Radio Thst per-
aspects of slot antennas. Such antennas are a "must" sonnel and especially to Captain A. S. Born, R. M.
in high-speed aeronautics and in radio-controlled Silliman, and Lieutenant J. B. Stout for encouragement
missiles. during the early stages of development. Similar
It has been shown that many of the tasks perfo'rmed acknowledgment is due to various members of the
by external antennas can be performed by this flush- radio technical groups of the Army.
type radiator. Subjected to careful scientific investiga- To RCA, special acknowledgment is due to H. HII.
tion, as is possible in peacetime, their usefulness should Beverage, C. W. Hansell, P. S. Carter, R. E. Franklin,
eventually be greatly extended. and W. A. Miller for help and guidance freely given.
(1)
the inherent similarity of the electric and magnetic radi- b kbb
ators becomes apparent, as well as the minor differences Susceptance and reactance:
resulting from the use of available materials and struc-
tures. kaA A
coC=G
bi
; wL= Rn2
kbbl (2)
II. SYMBOLS
a =radius of circular cylindrical volume (meters) Radiation shunt conductance and series resistance:
A =area of base of cylindrical volume (meters2) 1R /nA\2 nA.42
b =height of cylindrical volume (meters) G6 (k12) Rm671=201-) (3)
n =number of turns of coil
ka = shape factor of capacitor =effective area/ac- Re=- - = 20 -; GM (4)
tual area! (A) 67r \l Il 67rn2 1/
kb= shape factor of inductor = effective length/ac- Radiation power factor:
tual length (b)
C = capacitance of antenna (farads) G, 1 kaAb Rm I kbAb
L = inductance of antenna (henries) pe= cC =-6r /,3 wL 6r 1i
(5)
c =radian frequency (radians/second)
X =wavelength (meters) Coupling efficiency, connected as in Fig. 2:
1 =X/2r =radianlength (meters) C L
e= electric permittivity in free space (farads/
C+Ct
k
L+Lt
(6)
meter)
u= magnetic permeability in free space (henries/ Circuit efficiency, connected as in Fig. 2:
meter)
k =relative permittivity of core in capacitor Ge Rm
km = relative permeability of core in inductor
e=
GGt; e=+R
Rm+Rt
(7)
R=1207r=377=wave resistance in free space
(ohms) Circuit efficiency, in general:
G = 1/R =wave conductance in free space (mhos) kc2pe ki2pm
R,, Rm=radiation resistance in series with antenna e=- e=+ (8)
(ohms) kc2p.+pl ki2pm+ pt
G., Gm = radiation conductance in parallel with antenna IV. THE ANTENNA
(mhos)
R1, G, = series resistance or shunt conductance in tuner Fig. shows two antennas occupying volumes alike
(ohms, mhos) in shape and size,one being a capacitor (C) and the
Ct, L = shunt capacitance or series inductance in tuner
(farads, henries) 1 Ab
(electric dipole)
Pm= radiation power factor of inductor antenna
(magnetic dipole) I I
I I _ Gt Ct |. Ge C
A generator
or ItII iCt e
(C)
C = e- (ka + k. - 1) (12) load T T
b Fl
tuner antenna
L - - __ L _
- __ _ __ _
approximately if b <2a. This reduces the radiation Pt ki Pm
power factor in the ratio r nL ~~~RtLt I_ L__
ka 1 generator RL - R
A magnetic core of relative permeability km increases the Fig. 2-Tuned coupling of antenna with generator
or load.
inductance to
A case of a generator, it is assumed that it is so coupled
L = gn b(kb + 1/km - 1) (14) with the tuner as to deliver all of its available power to
the tuner and antenna. In the case of a load, it is as-
approximately if b>2a. This increases the radiation sumed that it is so coupled with the tuner as to receive
power factor in the ratio the maximum power therefrom, which is called the
a "lavailable power."
1 + 0.9- In general, the efficiency of the coupling circuit is in-
1 b
creased by increasing the coefficient of coupling between
km - 1 1 a the tuner and the antenna, and by decreasing the power
k-- + 0.9- factor of the tuner.
k.kb km b
The coefficient of coupling (k, or ki) between the
The efficiency may be further increased by reduction in tuner and the antenna is defined in the usual way. Its
the effective coil resistance. square is called the "coupling efficiency" because it
The structure of the antenna is a subject by itself, denotes the fraction of the total electric or magnetic
outside the scope of this monograph. energy of the tuned circuit which is in the antenna. It
The same principles may be applied to the design of is expressed in (6) for the simple connection of Fig. 2,
a reactor in which radiation is undesired and low power but has more general significance.
factor ('high Q") is desired. If the reactor is unshielded, The power factor pt of the tuner is taken to include all
the optimum size is a compromise between larger size dissipation in the tuner and antenna, except the desired
to reduce internal series resistance and smaller size to radiation. In Fig. 2, this is lumped in the effective shunt
reduce internal shunt conductance and radiation. The conductance G, or the effective series resistance Ri. It is
optimum size for a single-layer coil with negligible di- connected directly in parallel or in series with the radia-
electric power factor is that for which the radiation tion effective conductance G. or resistance Rm. In this
power factor is a minor fraction of the total, say between connection the circuit efficiency is merely the ratio of
1/6 and 1/2, depending on the nature of the factors the radiation power to the total power in the circuit, as
which determine the internal resistance. In ordinary expressed in (7).
cases, the volume of the coil should not exceed about The more general expression of circuit efficiency is
1/100 of a radian cube, which means the diameter and given by (8), in terms of power factor and coupling
length, if equal, should not exceed about 1/5 radian- efficiency. This gives an indication of the relative im-
length, or 1/30 wavelength. If this size is too small, a portance of all factors.
larger coil with shielding may be required. After the coupling circuit has been designed for the
maximum efficiency at the frequency of resonance, con-
V. THE CIRCUITS sistent with available space, materials, and precision,
Efficient operation of a small antenna requires tuning the total power factor of the circuit will exceed k02p.
to the operating frequency with a circuit which offers or kj2Pm by the amount of the tuner power factor pt and
little additional dissipation. How much the circuit may the added power factor contributed by the generator or
1947 Wheeler: Fundamental Limitations of Small Antennas 1483
load. If the antenna comprises all the reactance of one The power factor of the entire tuned circuit is assumed
kind in the circuit, and the tuner losses are small, the to be 0.01 and the efficiency is computed from (8).
total power factor of the circuit may be that of the an- Efficiency: e = 0.48 X 10-/0.01 = 0.048 X 10-3.
tenna plus an equal value coupled from the gencrator or This represents a loss of 43 db. It is noted that the es-
load. Therefore, a very efficient design may have a sential performance is obtained without reference to
loaded power factor 2p. or 2pm, and a corresponding incidental factors, such as the number of turns, which
bandwidth of the tuned circuit. are supplied by ordinary design procedure.
If the bandwidth desired in the coupling circuit is A capacitive antenna of comparable volume would
either less or greater than that obtained by designing give comparable performance, with some practical ad-
for maximum efficiency at the frequency of resonance, vantages and disadvantages. Its disuse indicates that
the redesign for different bandwidth will be at the ex- the disadvantages usually predominate.
pense of efficiency. Lesser bandwidth may be obtained A loop antenna as small as 1/5 the dimensions of this
by decreasing the coupling with generator or load, de- example, namely, 0.2X0.2X0.1 meter, is used in small
creasing the coupling between tuner and antenna, multi- receivers. The efficiency is approximately 0.4 X 10-6,
ple tuning, or decreasing the antenna size. Greater representing a loss of 64 db at 1 Mc.
bandwidth may be obtained by increasing the coupling Second example: A capacitive antenna over ground is
with generator or load, increasing the power factor of connected with a radio receiver. The antenna is a wire
the tuner, or developing the tuner into a wide-band cir- so its area is undefined. Including lead-in, its effective
cuit. height is 4 meters and its capacitance is 200 micro-
Some types of generator or load do not double the microfarads, the I.R.E. standard. Therefore, its effec-
power factor of the tuned circuit when coupled for nor- tive area is determined by (1).
mal operation. An efficiency generator, for example, Antenna capacitance: C= 200 ,u,fd.
operates best into an impedance much different from its Effective height: b= 4 m.
internal impedance. A current generator of high resist- Effective area: kaA =bC/e= 90 m.2
ance, such as a high-u screen-grid'tube, contributes little Effective volume: kaAb = 360 m.3
damping to a tuned output circuit. On the other hand, Wavelength: X= 300 m. (at 1 Mc.)
a voltage generator of low resistance, such as a low-,u Radianlength: 1= 48 m.
triode tube or cathode-output circuit; more than doubles Radian cube: 1 = 110,000 m.3
the damping in a tuned output circuit. Likewise, there
are load circuits which are essentially voltage-operated, The radiation power factor over the ground plane is
such as a voltmeter or the grid circuit of an amplifier; or computed by doubling (5).
current-operated, such as an ammeter. Either type of Radiation power factor: p. = 0.35 X 10-8.
load may not be designed to utilize the available power, The coupling efficiency is assumed to be reduced to
in which case it may add little to the damping. In view about 0.01 so large variations of antenna will not cause
of the various effects of the associated circuits, the appreciable detuning of the circuit.
radiation power factor of the antenna is not the ultimate
limitation on the bandwidth of efficient operation, but Coupling efficiency: k =0.01.
does indicate the order of magnitude and the trends The power factor of the entire tuned circuit is assumed
with changes of antenna design. to be 0.01 and the efficiency is computed from (8).
VI. EXAMPLES Efficiency: e = 0.35 X 10-3.
First example: A loop antenna is intended for opera- This is a loss of 35 db, chargeable 15 db to circuit dis-
tion with horizontal axis in a radio receiver cabinet in a sipation and 20 db to decoupling for reducing the reac-
small frame building. Its size is 1 meter square by 0.5 tion of antenna changes on the tuning. Part of the lat-
meter axial length. ter (20 db) can be recovered by greater coupling and
providing for retuning on each antenna. Otherwise, it
Wavelength: X= 300 m. (at 1 Mc.) is noted that this antenna is only 8 db better than the
Radianlength: 1= 48 m. loop antenna of the first example.
Radian cube: 13=110,000 m.3 Third example: A loop antenna is intended for opera-
Antenna volume: A b = 0.5 m.3 tion with vertical axis in a television receiver cabinet.
Shape factor: k= 2 Its size is 0.5 meter cube. It is tuned to the desired
The radiation power factor is computed by doubling (5) frequency channel.
to include approximately the effect of the ground plane. Wavelength: X=5 m. (at 60 Mc.)
Radiation power factor: pm = 0.96 X 10-6. Radianlength: 1 = 0.8 m.
Radian cube: 13 = 0.51 m. 3
The loop .is assumed to be one-half the entire inductance Antenna volume: Ab=0.12 m.3
of the tuned circuit (6). Shape factor: kb= 1.5
Coupling efficiency: k2= 0.5. Radiation power factor: p. = 0.0 19.
1484 PROCEEDINGS OF THE I.R.E. December
Since the required bandwidth is about 0.1 of the center Mc., more than enough for a single channel 0.2 Mc.
frequency, or about 5p., there is a loss of only 4 to 7 db, wide. However, if the same antenna were required to
depending on the nature of the circuits connected with cover the entire band of 88 to 108 Mc. without retuning,
the antenna for increasing the bandwidth. a width of 0.2 times the mean frequency, the loss would
Fourth example: A loop antenna is intended for oper- be 12 to 15 db caused by the wide-band circuit.
ation with horizontal axis in a portable f.m. receiver. Its BIBLIOGRAPHY
size is 0.2 meter cube. It is tuned to the desired fre- (1) E. B. Rosa and F. W. Grover, 'Formulas and tables for the cal-
quency. All losses except radiation and load are assumed culation of mutual and self-inductance," Sci. Papers, Bur. of
to yield a tuner power factor of 0.01. Stand., No. 169, p. 121, formula 79 (the end correction for a
solenoid); December 18, 1916.
Wavelength: X=3 m. (at 100 Mc.) (2) J. H. Jeans, "Electricity and Magnetism," p. 249 (capacitance of
disk), Cambridge University Press, London; 1925.
Radianlength: I = 0.48 m. (3) H. A. Wheeler, "Simple inductance formulas for radio coils,"
Radian cube: 13=0.11 m.3 PROC. I.R.E., vol. 16, pp. 1398-1400; (end correction for a
solenoid); October, 1928.
Antenna volume: Ab=0.008 m.3 (4) C. R. Burrows, "Radio propagation over plane earth," Bell Sys.
Shape factor: kb=1.5 Tech. Jour., vol. 16, pp. 45-74; (Introduction, transmission
efficiency in space); January, 1937.
Radiation power factor: pm = 0.0058 (5) Simon Ramo and J. R. Whinnery, "Fields and Waves in Modern
Tuner power factor: Pt = 0.01 Radio," pp. 432, 458 (radiation resistance of small electric dipole
and loop); John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y.; 1944.
Efficiency: e=0.37. (6) H. T. Friis, "Simple transmission formula," PROC. I.R.E., vol. 34,
pp. 254-256 (transmission efficiency in space, expressed in terms
This is a circuit loss of 4 db. The bandwidth is 2 or 3 of effective area); May, 1946.