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Circuit Theory - Solved Assignments - Semester Fall 2003

Assignment 1 (Fall 2003)

Due Date: 08/10/2003
Note: Brain teasers are not a part of the assignment, they don’t carry any marks. Those who attempt
these questions will be considered for the best students of the week for this course. So do the best of
your efforts to answer those questions.

If a current of 40 A exists for 1 min, how many coulombs of charge have passed through the
wire. If the current consists of electrons only, calculate the number of electrons passed
through the wire, during this period of time.
(electronic charge = 1.6 ×10-19 C)

Current is the total charge passing through a surface in one second. Hence for this problem,
40C charge will pass through the wire in 1 second. So in 1 min, 2400C charge will pass.
From the electronic charge as give, 1C of charge contains 6.25×1018, thus 1.5×1022 electrons
passed through the circuit.

Point A is set at electric potential 2J, and point B has potential 10 J. Now if an electron is
moved from point A to point B, It will release some energy or it will absorb?. Calculate that
energy. If 5C charge is moved from point B to A, calculate the potential difference in Volts
between points B and A.

Since point A is at low potential compared to point B, electron will absorb energy, which is
equal to the difference of the potentials of two points, that is 8J. Mathematically volt is
defined as the potential difference per unit charge. Thus if 5C charge is moved from point B
to point A, hence there are 8J/5C = 1.6V across points A and B.
Find current Io in the following network.

(hint: In closed circuit, total power absorbed by the circuit elements must be equal to the total
power delivered by circuit elements.)

First we have to find the power consumed or supplied by all elements. Now current entering
the positive terminal of the element will be considered positive, while current leaving the
positive terminal of the element will be considered negative. Energy conservation requires
that the total power through a closed circuit must be zero, thus

24(-6) + 8(6) + 10(4) + 16(2) + 6(Io) + 6(1) + 8(3) + 8(-3) = 0

-144 + 48 + 40 + 32 + 6 Io + 6 + 24 – 24 = 0
-18 + 6 Io = 0
Io = 3A
Find the total resistance RT in the following circuits, please draw each step.

a). Since in this circuit, resistor R5 has no voltages across so it contains no current, hence R2
and R3 are in series. R1, R2, R3, and R4 are in series so total resistance will be 10.8kΩ. as
shown in fig below.

10.8 KΩ

5.2 KΩ

b). Same circuit can be drawn in the following way.

2 KΩ 4 KΩ

2.1 KΩ R3 1.2 KΩ
Now, R1 and R2 are parallel and R3, R4 are parallel. so solving for the parallel resistors.

1.3 KΩ

0.8 KΩ

resulting resistors are in series, hence final solution will be 2.1 kΩ.

2.5 KΩ

c). In this circuit, since resistant network is on both sides of the battery, so we start from both
sides to solve for total resistance. As it is clear, on the left side R1, R2 and R3 are in series
and on the right side R8 and R9 are in series, solving for resistors in series, we get


5 KΩ

6.4 KΩ R3 2.3 KΩ V R7 4 KΩ 14 KΩ


5 KΩ

Resulting 6.4kΩ is parallel to R3, and 14kΩ is parallel to R7, hence


5 KΩ

1.7 KΩ V 3.1 KΩ


5 KΩ

Now resistors on both sides of the battery are in series, so

6.7 KΩ V 8.1 KΩ

if you look closely, we can rearrange this circuit in a bit different but simple way. as shown
in the following fig.

V 6.7 KΩ 8.1 KΩ

Final solution is obvious now, that is 3.7kΩ.

V 3.7 KΩ

Q.5. Fill in the following blanks.

1. The valence of an element having 11 electrons is 1.
2. The relative conductivity of silver is 105 percent and that of gold is 70.5 percent.
3. Circuit is said to be short when there is no load resistance in the circuit.
4. According to Ohm’s law voltages and currents have linear relationship in a circuit.
5. Two resistors are said to be in series if their common node is not connected to
a current carrying circuit element.
Brain Teasers
1. If we look at the Ohmic relation (relation given by Ohm’s law), it assumes a constant
resistance (no dependence on voltages) of circuit elements. Is it possible for any
electronic component to work against the Ohm’s law. If so, explain in some detail.
2. Insulators don’t conduct electric current at room temperature, does it mean that they
are not of any use in electronic circuits?, if no, can you think of any possible use?

1. Literally, resistance is actually the opposition offered by a certain material, in the
path of current. Its one type is what you can call a permanent resistance, which
arises when charges flow through the atomic structure of the material, that
resistance should be independent of the applied voltages, it is actually a property
of a material. Now it is possible that a bit different type of opposition may arise,
which depends upon the voltages. One example is semiconductor PN junction
(which we’ll discuss in detail in later lectures), current passing through this
junction feels an opposition which depends upon the applied voltages, as the
voltages increases opposition falls down and the current increases slowly with
respect to the voltages, after certain applied voltages, current starts to increase
linearly with voltages, satisfying Ohm’s law. But at low voltages, the relation
between current and voltage doesn’t follow ohm’s law, as for that range of
voltages the resistance is not independent but varies with the voltages. Following
graph schematically shows the current voltage relation for a typical PN junction.
Ohmic Region


Non Ohmic



2. Insulators are used as a dielectric in capacitors, they actually increases the capacity of
the capacitor. This phenomenon is based upon state electricity, in which electronic region
around the nucleus is deformed while still remain around it, forming a negative and
positive regions. Technically this phenomenon is called polarization. Also read about the
material used in inductors.
Assignment 2 (Fall 2003)
Due Date: 17/10/2003
Note: Brain teasers are not a part of the assignment, they don’t carry any marks. Those who
attempt these questions will be considered for the best students of the week for this course. So do
the best of your efforts to answer those questions.

Find the voltage VAB in the following circuits.

2.3 KΩ 1.3 KΩ

(A) 12 V VA B

2.1 KΩ 2.5 KΩ

2 KΩ

(B) 6V VAB 1 KΩ

0.5 KΩ

(hint: use the voltage divider rule)

Sol: A
a). resistors R1.3 and R2.5 are in series so
adding the two resistors gives 3.8KΩ.
Required voltages VAB are across this V
resistance. Using voltage divider rule,
VAB = (3.8/8.2).12 = 5.7 V B
b). Resistors R1 and R1.5 are in series, so A
adding them we get 1.5 KΩ. Required voltages
VAB are across this resistance. Using voltage
divider rule, 6V 1.5KΩ
VAB = (1.5/3.5).6 = 2.6 V

Calculate the indicated quantities in the following circuits.

6 KΩ

(A) 24 mA 8 KΩ 8 KΩ

Vo 6 KΩ

3 KΩ 6 KΩ

(B) 12 mA 4 KΩ

2 KΩ

12 Ω 12Ω

(C ) 12 V

5Ω 5Ω


3 KΩ 1 KΩ

(D ) Is 9 KΩ Vo =6V 2 KΩ 5 KΩ
a). To find voltages Vo we need to find the current passing through 6KΩ.
R6 and R6 are in series so their resultant will be 12KΩ, now R8, R12 and
R8 are parallel to each other, their resultant will be 3 KΩ. Using
current divider rule, current I passing through R12 will be
I = (3/12).24 mA = 6mA
This current is passing through 6KΩ resistance, so voltages across it
will be
Vo = 6K.6m = 36V

b). Resultant R of R3, R6 and R2 is 4KΩ, which is parallel to 4KΩ, thus

using current divider rule we find the total current I` passing through
R as
I` = (4/8).12mA = 6mA
This current divides further into two components, one passing through
3kΩ and 6KΩ. Thus current Io passing through 3KΩ will be
Io = (6/9).6mA = 4mA

c). It’s a bridge network, no resistor is in

series or parallel to any other resistor. Since
R12, R12, and R12 is forming a delta network, we 4Ω
can change it into Wye network. Please check
this topic Wye-Delta transformation in FAQs on
your LMS. Corresponding resistors in Wye 12 V 4Ω 4Ω

configuration will be 4Ω, 4Ω and 4Ω, as shown in

the fig. Now its easy to find the total
resistance RT of the network, 5Ω 5Ω
RT = (81/18) + 4 = 8.5 I o

Thus source current I will be 12/8.5 = 1.4 A.

Since the two parallel resistors are equal, so the source current will
divide equally to the two branches.
Hence the required current will be 0.7A.

d). Resultant of resistors R2KΩ , R1KΩ and R5KΩ is 1.5KΩ .Voltages V9KΩ
across 9KΩ, are divided into voltages V3KΩ across 3KΩ and V1.5KΩ (=6V)
across 1.5KΩ resistance. Thus using voltage divider rule
6 = (1.5/4.5). V9KΩ
This gives,
V9KΩ = 18V
Thus voltages V3KΩ across the resistor 3KΩ will be 12V.
Now the source current IS is divided into a component I3KΩ passing
through 3KΩ, and the other I3KΩ passing through 9KΩ,
I3KΩ = V3KΩ/3KΩ = 4mA
I9KΩ = V9KΩ/9KΩ = 2mA
IS = I9KΩ + I3KΩ = 6mA

Find the total power absorbed by the following network.

6 KΩ 6 KΩ
21 V

12 KΩ

2 KΩ 18 KΩ
Circuit can be rearranged as shown in the fig below


21 V

6KΩ 18KΩ

First we have to find the total current passing 21 V

through the network.
Resistors R6KΩ, R2KΩ and R12KΩ forms a delta network, 0.6ΚΩ
its equivalent wye network is shown in the fig.
Corresponding resistors in wye network can be
determined by using the transformation formulas 3.6ΚΩ 1.2ΚΩ
(Check the FAQs on LMS for this topic).
Total resistance RT can be found easily now.
RT = [(18 + 1.2)(6 + 3.6)/(18+1.2+6+3.6)] + 0.6 18ΚΩ
RT = 7KΩ I o

Since voltages across the network are 21V, so total

current I passing through the network is given by,
I = 21/7K = 3mA
Total power delivered absorbed by the network is
equal to the total power delivered to the system, which is given by
P = VI = 21.3m = 63.10-3 W = 0.063W

The following network is the basic biasing arrangement for the field-effect transistor
(FET). 16V (VDD) are the total voltages applied across the network with respect to the
ground. Using these parameters +
VGS = -1.75V DD

16 V
IG = 0 A
ID = IS I 1 I D

a) Determine the voltages VG and VS. RD 2.5 KΩ

2 MΩ R1
b) Find the currents I1, I2, ID, and IS.
c) Determine VDS. D
d) Calculate VDG.
Hint: I +

Imagine some sort of resistance between the nodes G, D V - S GS

and S. V S
270 KΩ R 2
VG is the voltages at node G, with respect to the ground. R 1.5 KΩ S
If you look closely it is actually the voltages across the
resistor R2, so use the voltage divider rule to find it. 2

VGS is given, hence its easy to find VS, which are the
voltages at node S, with respect to the ground.
Voltages (VG) across R2 is now known, so current I2 can
easily be found. Similarly voltages (VS) across RS is known so current IS can be found.
Currents I1 can be found using KCL. Using same technique you can find IS and ID.
To find VDS and VDG, you first have to find VD, which is the voltages at node D, with
respect to ground. Find voltages across RD first, and then find VD.

since IG = 0, so current I1 and I2 are equal, hence resistors R1 and R2
are in series, and the total voltages across them are 16V, thus current
passing through them will be 16/(2.106 + 270.103)=7.10-6A = 7µA. Now
voltages VG are actually across the resistor R2, thus it is given by
VG = 270K . 7µ = 1.89V
since VGS = -1.75V,
VGS = VG - VS = -1.75
VS = VG + VGS = 3.64V
VS is now known, hence IS is given by
IS = VS/RS = 3.64/1.5K = 2.43mA
also ID = 2.43mA
ID is now known, we can find Voltages VRD across RD as
VRD = RD.ID = 2.5K . 2.43m = 6.08V
Now the total voltages across this branch containing the resistors RD,
RS and FET, are 16V, so voltages VD at terminal D of FET with respect to
the ground, is given by 16 - VRD = 16 – 6.08 = 9.92V. Thus
VDS = VD – VS = 9.92 – 3.64 = 6.28V
VDS = VD – VG = 9.92 – 1.89 = 8.03V

In the following network, calculate the value of source voltages VS given that
I4 = 0.5 mA.
6 KΩ 3 KΩ

I1 I2 I5

Vb 2 KΩ


3 KΩ Va 6 KΩ

I3 I4
4 KΩ

(hint: use the KVL, KCL and divider rules.)

Since I4 is 0.5mA, so Va = 6K . 0.5m = 3V. voltage across 3KΩ is also Va
so I3 is given by 3/3K = 1mA. Now at node y, I2 = I3 + I4, so I2 = 1.5mA,
hence Vb = (1.5m)(2K)= 3V.
Total resistance RXZ between the nodes x and z is given by
and total voltages across x and z,
VXZ = Va + Vb = 6V
Thus using voltages divider rule, consider the circuit consisting of
one loop with series resistors 6KΩ, 4KΩ and RXZ = 2KΩ, with total
voltage VS across them.
VXZ = [2K/(2K + 6K + 4K)].VS = 6V
this gives
VS = 36V


Here is a paradox. According to the ohm’s law voltages V across a resistor R is the
product of its resistance and current I passing through it. Now we know that current can
only pass between the two nodes, if there is some potential difference across them, that is,
there must be some voltages across the nodes to have current between them. In short
circuits, we know that current is maximum (practical infinite), this is because the path
have zero resistance, now in that situation ohm’s law says that voltages across that path
must be zero, as the resistance is zero (V = RI). Now if there is no voltages across that
path, current must also be zero, but current is maximum in that situation.
How would you resolve this paradox.

For the short circuit, current passing through it, is actually
controlled by the external voltage source (e.g. battery). Hence,
although potential difference across nodes, between which the circuit
is short, is zero, current flows through them due to the external
circuit. Short circuit will act as a path with zero resistance. Ohm’s
law will not be applicable between these nodes.

Find the current passing through 1KΩ and 1.5KΩ in the following network.

2KΩ 2.1KΩ 3KΩ

12V 5KΩ

1KΩ 1.5KΩ

Look closely at the circuit, there is a short circuit parallel to the
resistors 1KΩ and 1.5KΩ, so no current will pass through them.

Did you ever think about the basis of Kirchhoff’s Laws?, Can you think of any situation
where you can’t use these laws. Try to give a mathematical argument in support of your

Kirchhoff’s voltage law is actually based upon energy conservation
principle, that is total energy absorbed by the circuit must be equal
to the energy delivered to it. Consider a single loop circuit with some
independent voltage sources. Now energy conservation requires that
total power delivered must be equal to the total power absorbed, so

Pabsorbed = Pdelivered
since same current I is flowing through all elements in the loop

IΣVdrop = IΣVsource

this gives

ΣVdrop = ΣVsource
This is the Kirchhoff’s voltage law.
Similarly, Kirchhoff’s current law is based upon the conservation of
charge principle, that is, number of charges entering a node must be
equal to the number of charges leaving it. Since these laws are based
upon universal principles, so they must be satisfied in any circuit.

----Good luck----
Assignment 3 (Fall 2003)
Due Date: 30/10/2003

Use nodal analysis to find VO in the following circuit.


4mA 3KΩ 2mA 4KΩ

6KΩ V1 4KΩ V2


4mA 3KΩ 2mA 4KΩ

Consider the above fig. reference node is selected, and node voltages
are labeled as V1 and V2. Directions of unknown currents are chosen
according to the rule, ‘all unknown currents will be considered as
flowing outwards from a particular node’. Writing the KCL equations for
the two nodes,
At node 1
-4m + V1/3K + (V1-V2)/4K = 0
4V1 + 3V1 – 3V2 = 48
7V1 – 3V2 = 48 (a)
At node 2,
(V2-V1)/4K + 2m + V2/4K = 0
V1 – 2V2 = 8 (b)
Solving equations (a) and (b) simultaneously, yields
V1 = 6.54V
V2 = -0.73V
Required voltages VO is given by
VO = V2-V1 = -0.73 – 6.54 = -7.27V

Find the voltages V1, V2 and VO in the following network.

V1 V2

4mA 3KΩ 12KΩ 2KΩ VO


V1 V2

4mA 3KΩ 12KΩ 2KΩ VO

Considering above fig. we write the KCL equations for the two nodes as
At node 1;
4m + V1/3K + (V1-V2)/6K = 2m
3V1 – V2 = -12 (a)
At node 2;
(V2-V1)/6K + V2/4K + V2/12K = -2m
V1 – 3V2 = 12 (b)
solving (a) and (b) simultaneously we get,
V1 = -6V
V2 = -6V
Since V2 is across the two resistors 2KΩ and 2KΩ in series, so using
voltage divider rule,
Vo = (2/4).(-6) = -3V

Find the voltage VO, in the following circuit.



1KΩ 1KΩ 2mA VO


V2 1KΩ V1

1KΩ 1KΩ 2mA VO

At node 1;
(V1-V2)/1 + (V1-V3)/1 = 2
V1 - V2 + V1 - V3 = 2
2V1 - V2 - V3 = 2 (a)
At super node:
(V3-V1) + V3 + V2 + (V2-V1)= 0
-2V1 + 2V3 + 2V2 = 0
-V1 + V3 + V2 = 0 (b)
Now voltage source 12V between V2 and V3 has put a constrain on
the values of V2 and V3, mathematically,
V2 – V3 = 12V (c)
Solving (a), (b) and (c) simultaneously gives,
V1 = 2V
V2 = 7V
V3 = -5V

Find the voltage across 8Ω resistor in the following circuit.



Consider the above fig. Voltage across resistor 8Ω resistor,

considering the supposed direction of the current, is (v1 - 12), hence
current passing through this resistor is (v1 - 12)/8. Now writing the
KCL equations for the two nodes,
at node 1,
(V1 - 12)/8 + (V1 – V2)/1K = -2 (a)
at node 2,
(V2 – V1)/1K + V2/10 = 2 (b)
solving the two equations (a) and (b), yields,
V1 = -3.81V


V1 V2



V2 = 19.76V
Voltage across 8Ω resistor is (12 – V1) = 12 + 3.81 = 15.81V

Q.5.Find IO in the following circuits.

10Ω V3
V1 V2

(B) 4mA 6Ω 4Ω 12Ω




(A) 20Ω 3A 4A

A). Consider the following fig.
10Ω V2 V3

4mA 6Ω 4Ω 12Ω


At node 1,
V1/6 + (V1-V2)/10 = -4m (a)
AT supernode,
(V2-V1)/10 + V2/4 + V3/12 = 0 (b)
constrain due to voltage source 24V, gives
V2 – V3 = 24 (c)
Solving these three equations, we get
V1 = 1.91V
V2 = 5.06V
V3 = -18.94V
Required current Io passing through resistor 12Ω is
Io = -V3/12 = 18.94/12 = 1.58A

V1 V2


20Ω 40Ω 4A


Considering the above fig, at supernode,

V1/20 + 3 – 3 + V2/40 – 4 = 0
V1/20 + V2/40 – 4 = 0 (a)
Constraint due to the voltage source 16V,
V2 – V1 = 16 (b)
Solving (a) and (b) gives
V1 = 48V
V2 = 64V
required current Io is given by
Io = -V1/20 = -48/20 = -2.4A

----- Good Luck -----

Assignment 4 (Fall 2003)
Due Date: 12/11/2003

Q.1. Use loop analysis to find VO in the following circuits.

2κΩ 2κΩ

(A) 12V 3κΩ 4κΩ VO

2k Ω 4kΩ

(B) 12V 2mA 2k Ω VO

Sol. a)
2κΩ 2κΩ

I1 I2

12V 4κΩ VO
3κ Ω

Currents I1 and I2 are assigned in clockwise direction for

the two loops, as shown in the fig above. Now writing the
KVL equation for the two loops,
Loop 1;
2kI1 + 3k(I1 – I2) = 12
5I1 – 3I2 = 12m (a)
Loop 2;
3k(I2 – I1) + 6kI2 = 0
3I1 – 9I2 = 0 (b)
Solving the two equations (a) and (b) simultaneously, we
I1 = 0.6A
I2 = 1mA
Now voltage across 4kΩ is 4kΩ(I2) = 4V
2kΩ 4 kΩ

I1 I2

12V 2kΩ VO

Since current source is shared by the two loops, we make

supermash by removing the current source, as shown in fig.
Now writing KVL for the supermash,
2I1 + 6I2 = 12m (a)
Presence of a current source has put a constraint on the
values of I1 and I2, mathematically
I2 – I1 = 2m (b)
solving the two equations (a) and (b), we get
I1 = 0A
I2 = 2mA
Now voltage across 2kΩ is 2kΩ(I2) = 4V

Q.2. Use loop analysis to find IO in the following circuits.


(A) 2mA 6kΩ 4mA



1kΩ 2mA

1kΩ 1kΩ

1kΩ 4mA 1kΩ

4 kΩ


I1 I2 6kΩ I3


Taking I1 = -2mA and I3 = 4mA. I2 = IO is the required

current to find, as shown in the fig above. KVL equation
for the loop 2 is given by
2k(I2 – I1) + 4kI2 + 6k(I2 – I3) = 12
-I1 + 6I2 – 3I3 = 6m
putting the values of I1 and I3 in above equation
I2 = 2.66mA

12V I1 I2

1k Ω 1kΩ


1kΩ I3 I4 1kΩ

Setting I2 = 2mA. Current source 4mA is a common source for

loop 3 and 4, making a supermesh by joining these two
loops, as shown in fig. Writing KVL equations for loop 1
and supermesh
for supermesh;
I3 + (I3-I1) + (I4-I2) + I4 = 0
2I3 – I1 + 2I4 = 2m (a)
for loop 1;
I1 + (I1-I2) + (I1-I3) = 12
3I1 – I3 = 14m (b)
Also due to the constraint imposed by the current source
I4 – I3 = 4m (c)
Solving the three equations simultaneously
I1 = 4.5mA
I3 = -0.36mA
I4 = 3.6mA
Required current IO = I4 – I2 = 3.6m – 2m = 1.6mA
Q.3. Use both Nodal and Loop analysis to find voltage VO in the
following circuit.


VO 6kΩ

4mA 2kΩ

Nodal Analysis



V1 V2 VO 6kΩ

4mA 2kΩ

At super node;
(V1–V2)/2 + (V3-V2)/4 + V3/6 = 48
6V1 – 9V2 + 5V3 = 48 (a)
At node 2;
(V2-V1)/2 + (V2-V3)/4 + V2/2 = 0
-2V1 + 5V2 – V3 = 0 (b)
Constraint due to the presence of voltage source
V3 – V1 = 12 (c)
Solving three equations simultaneously
V1 = 1.71V
V2 = 3.43V
V3 = 13.71V
Required voltage VO = V3 = 13.71V
Loop Analysis

I1 4kΩ

VO 6kΩ

I3 2kΩ

Consider the above fig.

Setting I3 = 4mA
for loop 1;
4k(I1-I2) + 2k(I1-I3) = 12
6I1 – 4I2 – 2I3 = 12m
6I1 – 4I2 = 20m
3I1 – 2I2 = 10m (a)
for loop 2;
4k(I2-I1) + 2k(I2-I3) + 6kI2 = 0
-4I1 + 12I2 – 2I3 = 0
4I1 – 12I2 = -8m
I1 – 3I2 = -2m (b)
Solving the two equation simultaneously
I1 = 4.8571mA
I2 = 2.28571mA
Thus voltage across 6kΩ resistor is 6k(I2)=6k×2.28571m =
Assignment 5 (Fall 2003)
Due Date: 05/01/2004

Q.1. Using superposition, determine the current through 6

resistance in the following Circuit.

Considering the effect of the 44 voltage source in the
figure below,

RT=R1+R2||R3 = 30 + 16 ||6 

= 96/22
= 34.36 

I = V1/RT
Using the current division rule,
I’3 = R2I/R2+R3
= (16)(1.28)/22
= 0.93 A
Considering the effect of the 38V source in the
figure below,
RT=R3+R1||R2 = 6  + 30 ||16 
= 6 + 10.43
= 16.43 
I 3 = V2/RT
= 38/16.43
= 2.31A
Total current through the 6 resistance,
I3 = I’’3-I’3 = 2.31A – 0.93 A
= 1.38 A (direction of I’’3)

Q.2. Find the current through 2 resistor of the network given below
by using superposition theorem.

Considering the effect of the 12V source in the figure

I’1 = V1/R1+R2
= 12V / 2 +4
=12/6 =2A
Considering the effect of the 6V source in the figure

I’’1 = V2/R1+R2
= 6V / 2 +4
=6/6 =1A
Considering the effect of the 3-A source in the figure
I’’’1 = R2(I)/R1+R2
= (4)(3A) / 2 +4

= 12A/6 = 2A

Total current through the 2W resistance

I1 = I’’1 + I’’’1 - I’1

= 1A + 2A - 2A

= 1A

Q.3. Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the network in the
shaded area.

First step: Removing RL

Second step: Calculating Vth

In this case since an open circuit exists between the two
terminals, the current is zero between these terminals and
through the 2ohm resistance. The voltage drop across R2 is
V2=I2R2=(0)R2 = 0V
and Vth= V1=I1R1=IR1
=(12A)(4ohm)= 48V
Third step: Calculating Rth

Rth=R1+R2 = 4 + 2 =6 ohm
Fourth step:
After calculating Vth and Rth, re-inserting the load
resistance RL in the circuit in series with Rth and
considering the Vth as a battery in series with
these two resistances

Substituting the The’venin equivalent circuit in the

network external to the resistor R3

------ Good Luck -----

Assignment 6 (Fall 2003)
Due Date: 17/01/2004

Assume that a silicon diode in the figure below requires a minimum of 1mA to be above
the knee of its I-V characteristic.

(1) What should be the value of R to establish 5mA in the circuit?

(2) With the voltage value of R calculated in (1) what is the minimum value to
which the voltage E could be reduced and still maintain the diode current
above the knee?

(1) If I is equal to 5mA we know that the voltage across
the diode will be 0.7V.
E = IR +0.7
R = E - 0.7/I = (5-0.7)/5 x 10-3= 860 
(2) In order to maintain the diode current above knee .I
must be at least 1mA.
I=E-0.7/R 10-3 A
Therefore, since R= 860
E-0.7/860 10-3 A

E (860 x10-3)+0.7
E 1.56 V

Determine the values of VD, IT and VR for the circuits given below.


Sol. (a)
Because the arrow in the schematic symbol is pointing
toward the positive terminal of the source, we know that
the diode is reverse biased. Therefore,
a. The full voltage is dropped across D1.
b. D1 will not allow conduction. Therefore, IT=0A
c. Since there is no current through R1, there is no
voltage drop across the component (VR1=0V)
Sol. (b)
Because the arrow in the schematic symbol is pointing
toward the negative terminal of the source, we know that
the diode is forward biased. Therefore,

a. VD1 =0V, leaving the total applied voltage to be

dropped across R1.
b. VR1=VS=5V
c. IT is determined by the source voltage and R1.
IT= VR1/R1
= 5V/1K
= 5mA

Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of the figure:

First step: Replacing RL with a short circuit to find IN.

Second step: As it is shown in the above figure indicating
that the short circuit connection between terminals a and b
is in parallel with R2 and eliminates its effect. IN is
therefore the same as through R1, and the full battery
voltage appears across R1 since
= 0V
IN = V/R1
= 9V/3 = 3A

Third step:

To calculate RN we will short circuit all voltage


As shown in the above figure we have

RN=R1|| R2 = 3 ||6 = 2
Fourth Step:
After calculating IN and RN, re-inserting the load
resistance RL in the circuit in parallel RN and
considering the IN current source parallel with these
two resistances.

------ Good Luck -----

Assignment 7 (Fall 2003)
Due Date: 26/01/2004

A silicon diode has a saturation current 1pA. Using the values of n given here and
assuming the temperature is 25oC(“room temperature”) find the current in the diode.

(a) It is reverse biased by 0.1 V (n = 2)

(b) It is forward biased by 0.5 V (n=1)

We first calculate the thermal voltage at
T= 273 + 25oC= 298
VT =kT/q
= (1.38 x 10-23) (298) / 1.6 x 10-19
= 0.0257 V
(a) Since the diode is reverse biased, we substitute
V = -0.1 V in the following equation we have
= (1pA)( e(-0.1)/2(0.0257V)-1)
= (1pA)(0.143-1)= -0.857 pA
(b) Since the diode is forward biased, we substitute
V = 0.5 V
I=IS(eV/nT-1) where 1pA10-12A
= (1pA)( e(0.5)/(0.0257V)-1)
= (1pA)( 2.814 x 108-1)
= (10-12A)( 2.814 x 108)= 0.2814 mA
Note that the value of the exponential term (2.814 x 108)
in this case is so much large than 1 that for the practical
purpose I=ISeV/nT

Determine which diodes are forward biased and which are reverse biased in each of the
configuration give arguments to verify your point of view.
a. In (a) the anode is grounded and therefore at 0V.
The cathode side is positive by virtue of 5V
source connected to it through resistor R. The
cathode is therefore positive w.r.t. the anode
i.e. the anode is more negative than the cathode
so the diode is reverse biased.
b. In (b) the anode side is more positive than the
cathode side (10V > +5V) so the diode is forward
biased. Current flow from 10V source, through the
diode and into the 5V source.
c. In (c) the anode side is more negative than the
cathode side, so the diode is reverse biased. No
current flows in the circuit, so no drop across R.

Determine the peak Load current for the circuit shown in the figure below.

The input voltage is given an rms value. This value
is converted to a peak value as follows:
V1(pk) = V1(rms)/0.707
= 150/0.707
= 212.2 Vpk
Now, the load voltage and current are found,
after fining peak voltage, as
V2(pk) = N2/N1 V1(pk)
= (1/10)(212.2 Vpk)
V2(pk) = 21.22Vpk

Finally, the load voltage and current and current

values are found as:
VL(pk) = V2(pk) – VF
= 21.22 – 0.7
VL(pk)= 20.52Vpk
and the current will be
IL(pk) = VL(PK)/RL
= 20.52Vpk/5.1
IL(pk) = 4.02 mApk

------ Good Luck -----

Assignment 8 (Fall 2003)
Due Date: 20/02/2004

Determine the values of IC and IE for the circuit shown in figure below

(a) For the transistor circuit in the figure, what is VCE when VIN =0V ?
(b) What minimum value of IB is required to saturate this transistor if DC is
(c) Calculate the maximum value of RB when VIN =5V.

Find IC and VEC in the following circuit.

------ Good Luck -----