Q.1.
If a current of 40 A exists for 1 min, how many coulombs of charge have passed through the
wire. If the current consists of electrons only, calculate the number of electrons passed
through the wire, during this period of time.
(electronic charge = 1.6 ×1019 C)
Sol.
Current is the total charge passing through a surface in one second. Hence for this problem,
40C charge will pass through the wire in 1 second. So in 1 min, 2400C charge will pass.
From the electronic charge as give, 1C of charge contains 6.25×1018, thus 1.5×1022 electrons
passed through the circuit.
Q.2.
Point A is set at electric potential 2J, and point B has potential 10 J. Now if an electron is
moved from point A to point B, It will release some energy or it will absorb?. Calculate that
energy. If 5C charge is moved from point B to A, calculate the potential difference in Volts
between points B and A.
Sol.
Since point A is at low potential compared to point B, electron will absorb energy, which is
equal to the difference of the potentials of two points, that is 8J. Mathematically volt is
defined as the potential difference per unit charge. Thus if 5C charge is moved from point B
to point A, hence there are 8J/5C = 1.6V across points A and B.
Q.3.
Find current Io in the following network.
(hint: In closed circuit, total power absorbed by the circuit elements must be equal to the total
power delivered by circuit elements.)
Sol.
First we have to find the power consumed or supplied by all elements. Now current entering
the positive terminal of the element will be considered positive, while current leaving the
positive terminal of the element will be considered negative. Energy conservation requires
that the total power through a closed circuit must be zero, thus
Sol.
a). Since in this circuit, resistor R5 has no voltages across so it contains no current, hence R2
and R3 are in series. R1, R2, R3, and R4 are in series so total resistance will be 10.8kΩ. as
shown in fig below.
+
10.8 KΩ

5.2 KΩ
2 KΩ 4 KΩ
R1
R2
R4
2.1 KΩ R3 1.2 KΩ
Now, R1 and R2 are parallel and R3, R4 are parallel. so solving for the parallel resistors.
1.3 KΩ
0.8 KΩ
resulting resistors are in series, hence final solution will be 2.1 kΩ.
2.5 KΩ
c). In this circuit, since resistant network is on both sides of the battery, so we start from both
sides to solve for total resistance. As it is clear, on the left side R1, R2 and R3 are in series
and on the right side R8 and R9 are in series, solving for resistors in series, we get
R6
5 KΩ
6.4 KΩ R3 2.3 KΩ V R7 4 KΩ 14 KΩ
R5
5 KΩ
R6
5 KΩ
1.7 KΩ V 3.1 KΩ
R5
5 KΩ
if you look closely, we can rearrange this circuit in a bit different but simple way. as shown
in the following fig.
V 6.7 KΩ 8.1 KΩ
V 3.7 KΩ
Sol.
1. Literally, resistance is actually the opposition offered by a certain material, in the
path of current. Its one type is what you can call a permanent resistance, which
arises when charges flow through the atomic structure of the material, that
resistance should be independent of the applied voltages, it is actually a property
of a material. Now it is possible that a bit different type of opposition may arise,
which depends upon the voltages. One example is semiconductor PN junction
(which we’ll discuss in detail in later lectures), current passing through this
junction feels an opposition which depends upon the applied voltages, as the
voltages increases opposition falls down and the current increases slowly with
respect to the voltages, after certain applied voltages, current starts to increase
linearly with voltages, satisfying Ohm’s law. But at low voltages, the relation
between current and voltage doesn’t follow ohm’s law, as for that range of
voltages the resistance is not independent but varies with the voltages. Following
graph schematically shows the current voltage relation for a typical PN junction.
Ohmic Region
Linear
Behavior
Current
Non Ohmic
NonLinear
Region
Behavior
Voltages
2. Insulators are used as a dielectric in capacitors, they actually increases the capacity of
the capacitor. This phenomenon is based upon state electricity, in which electronic region
around the nucleus is deformed while still remain around it, forming a negative and
positive regions. Technically this phenomenon is called polarization. Also read about the
material used in inductors.
Assignment 2 (Fall 2003)
Solution
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301)
MARKS: 30
Due Date: 17/10/2003
*
Note: Brain teasers are not a part of the assignment, they don’t carry any marks. Those who
attempt these questions will be considered for the best students of the week for this course. So do
the best of your efforts to answer those questions.
Q.1.
Find the voltage VAB in the following circuits.
2.3 KΩ 1.3 KΩ
A
(A) 12 V VA B
B
2.1 KΩ 2.5 KΩ
2 KΩ
A
(B) 6V VAB 1 KΩ
B
0.5 KΩ
2.3KΩ
Sol: A
a). resistors R1.3 and R2.5 are in series so
adding the two resistors gives 3.8KΩ.
3.8KΩ
Required voltages VAB are across this V
resistance. Using voltage divider rule,
VAB = (3.8/8.2).12 = 5.7 V B
2.1KΩ
2KΩ
b). Resistors R1 and R1.5 are in series, so A
adding them we get 1.5 KΩ. Required voltages
VAB are across this resistance. Using voltage
divider rule, 6V 1.5KΩ
VAB = (1.5/3.5).6 = 2.6 V
B
Q.2.
Calculate the indicated quantities in the following circuits.
6 KΩ
(A) 24 mA 8 KΩ 8 KΩ
+
Vo 6 KΩ
3 KΩ 6 KΩ
Io
(B) 12 mA 4 KΩ
2 KΩ
12 Ω 12Ω
12Ω
(C ) 12 V
5Ω 5Ω
Io
3 KΩ 1 KΩ
+
(D ) Is 9 KΩ Vo =6V 2 KΩ 5 KΩ

Sol.
a). To find voltages Vo we need to find the current passing through 6KΩ.
R6 and R6 are in series so their resultant will be 12KΩ, now R8, R12 and
R8 are parallel to each other, their resultant will be 3 KΩ. Using
current divider rule, current I passing through R12 will be
I = (3/12).24 mA = 6mA
This current is passing through 6KΩ resistance, so voltages across it
will be
Vo = 6K.6m = 36V
d). Resultant of resistors R2KΩ , R1KΩ and R5KΩ is 1.5KΩ .Voltages V9KΩ
across 9KΩ, are divided into voltages V3KΩ across 3KΩ and V1.5KΩ (=6V)
across 1.5KΩ resistance. Thus using voltage divider rule
6 = (1.5/4.5). V9KΩ
This gives,
V9KΩ = 18V
Thus voltages V3KΩ across the resistor 3KΩ will be 12V.
Now the source current IS is divided into a component I3KΩ passing
through 3KΩ, and the other I3KΩ passing through 9KΩ,
I3KΩ = V3KΩ/3KΩ = 4mA
I9KΩ = V9KΩ/9KΩ = 2mA
Thus
IS = I9KΩ + I3KΩ = 6mA
Q.3.
Find the total power absorbed by the following network.
6 KΩ 6 KΩ
21 V
12 KΩ
2 KΩ 18 KΩ
Sol.
Circuit can be rearranged as shown in the fig below
IS
6KΩ 2KΩ
12KΩ
21 V
6KΩ 18KΩ
Q.4.
The following network is the basic biasing arrangement for the fieldeffect transistor
(FET). 16V (VDD) are the total voltages applied across the network with respect to the
ground. Using these parameters +
V
VGS = 1.75V DD
16 V
IG = 0 A
ID = IS I 1 I D
and S. V S
270 KΩ R 2
VG is the voltages at node G, with respect to the ground. R 1.5 KΩ S
If you look closely it is actually the voltages across the
I I
resistor R2, so use the voltage divider rule to find it. 2
S
VGS is given, hence its easy to find VS, which are the
voltages at node S, with respect to the ground.
Voltages (VG) across R2 is now known, so current I2 can
easily be found. Similarly voltages (VS) across RS is known so current IS can be found.
Currents I1 can be found using KCL. Using same technique you can find IS and ID.
To find VDS and VDG, you first have to find VD, which is the voltages at node D, with
respect to ground. Find voltages across RD first, and then find VD.
Sol.
since IG = 0, so current I1 and I2 are equal, hence resistors R1 and R2
are in series, and the total voltages across them are 16V, thus current
passing through them will be 16/(2.106 + 270.103)=7.106A = 7µA. Now
voltages VG are actually across the resistor R2, thus it is given by
VG = 270K . 7µ = 1.89V
since VGS = 1.75V,
VGS = VG  VS = 1.75
VS = VG + VGS = 3.64V
VS is now known, hence IS is given by
IS = VS/RS = 3.64/1.5K = 2.43mA
also ID = 2.43mA
ID is now known, we can find Voltages VRD across RD as
VRD = RD.ID = 2.5K . 2.43m = 6.08V
Now the total voltages across this branch containing the resistors RD,
RS and FET, are 16V, so voltages VD at terminal D of FET with respect to
the ground, is given by 16  VRD = 16 – 6.08 = 9.92V. Thus
VDS = VD – VS = 9.92 – 3.64 = 6.28V
VDS = VD – VG = 9.92 – 1.89 = 8.03V
Q.5.
In the following network, calculate the value of source voltages VS given that
I4 = 0.5 mA.
6 KΩ 3 KΩ
X
I1 I2 I5
Vb 2 KΩ
Y
VS 1 KΩ
+
3 KΩ Va 6 KΩ
I3 I4

Z
4 KΩ
Sol.
Since I4 is 0.5mA, so Va = 6K . 0.5m = 3V. voltage across 3KΩ is also Va
so I3 is given by 3/3K = 1mA. Now at node y, I2 = I3 + I4, so I2 = 1.5mA,
hence Vb = (1.5m)(2K)= 3V.
Total resistance RXZ between the nodes x and z is given by
RXZ = 2KΩ
and total voltages across x and z,
VXZ = Va + Vb = 6V
Thus using voltages divider rule, consider the circuit consisting of
one loop with series resistors 6KΩ, 4KΩ and RXZ = 2KΩ, with total
voltage VS across them.
VXZ = [2K/(2K + 6K + 4K)].VS = 6V
this gives
VS = 36V
BRAIN TEASERS
Q.1.
Here is a paradox. According to the ohm’s law voltages V across a resistor R is the
product of its resistance and current I passing through it. Now we know that current can
only pass between the two nodes, if there is some potential difference across them, that is,
there must be some voltages across the nodes to have current between them. In short
circuits, we know that current is maximum (practical infinite), this is because the path
have zero resistance, now in that situation ohm’s law says that voltages across that path
must be zero, as the resistance is zero (V = RI). Now if there is no voltages across that
path, current must also be zero, but current is maximum in that situation.
How would you resolve this paradox.
Sol.
For the short circuit, current passing through it, is actually
controlled by the external voltage source (e.g. battery). Hence,
although potential difference across nodes, between which the circuit
is short, is zero, current flows through them due to the external
circuit. Short circuit will act as a path with zero resistance. Ohm’s
law will not be applicable between these nodes.
Q.2.
Find the current passing through 1KΩ and 1.5KΩ in the following network.
12V 5KΩ
1KΩ 1.5KΩ
Sol.
Look closely at the circuit, there is a short circuit parallel to the
resistors 1KΩ and 1.5KΩ, so no current will pass through them.
Q.3.
Did you ever think about the basis of Kirchhoff’s Laws?, Can you think of any situation
where you can’t use these laws. Try to give a mathematical argument in support of your
point.
Sol.
Kirchhoff’s voltage law is actually based upon energy conservation
principle, that is total energy absorbed by the circuit must be equal
to the energy delivered to it. Consider a single loop circuit with some
independent voltage sources. Now energy conservation requires that
total power delivered must be equal to the total power absorbed, so
Pabsorbed = Pdelivered
since same current I is flowing through all elements in the loop
IΣVdrop = IΣVsource
this gives
ΣVdrop = ΣVsource
This is the Kirchhoff’s voltage law.
Similarly, Kirchhoff’s current law is based upon the conservation of
charge principle, that is, number of charges entering a node must be
equal to the number of charges leaving it. Since these laws are based
upon universal principles, so they must be satisfied in any circuit.
Good luck
Assignment 3 (Fall 2003)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301)
MARKS: 30
Due Date: 30/10/2003
Q.1.
Use nodal analysis to find VO in the following circuit.
6KΩ 4KΩ
VO
Sol.
6KΩ V1 4KΩ V2
VO
Consider the above fig. reference node is selected, and node voltages
are labeled as V1 and V2. Directions of unknown currents are chosen
according to the rule, ‘all unknown currents will be considered as
flowing outwards from a particular node’. Writing the KCL equations for
the two nodes,
At node 1
4m + V1/3K + (V1V2)/4K = 0
4V1 + 3V1 – 3V2 = 48
7V1 – 3V2 = 48 (a)
At node 2,
(V2V1)/4K + 2m + V2/4K = 0
V1 – 2V2 = 8 (b)
Solving equations (a) and (b) simultaneously, yields
V1 = 6.54V
V2 = 0.73V
Required voltages VO is given by
VO = V2V1 = 0.73 – 6.54 = 7.27V
Q.2.
Find the voltages V1, V2 and VO in the following network.
2mA
2KΩ
V1 V2
+
6KΩ
Sol.
2mA
2KΩ
V1 V2
+
6KΩ
Considering above fig. we write the KCL equations for the two nodes as
At node 1;
4m + V1/3K + (V1V2)/6K = 2m
3V1 – V2 = 12 (a)
At node 2;
(V2V1)/6K + V2/4K + V2/12K = 2m
V1 – 3V2 = 12 (b)
solving (a) and (b) simultaneously we get,
V1 = 6V
V2 = 6V
Since V2 is across the two resistors 2KΩ and 2KΩ in series, so using
voltage divider rule,
Vo = (2/4).(6) = 3V
Q.3.
Find the voltage VO, in the following circuit.
1KΩ
12V
1KΩ
+

Sol.
1KΩ
12V
V2 1KΩ V1
V3
+
At node 1;
(V1V2)/1 + (V1V3)/1 = 2
V1  V2 + V1  V3 = 2
2V1  V2  V3 = 2 (a)
At super node:
(V3V1) + V3 + V2 + (V2V1)= 0
2V1 + 2V3 + 2V2 = 0
V1 + V3 + V2 = 0 (b)
Now voltage source 12V between V2 and V3 has put a constrain on
the values of V2 and V3, mathematically,
V2 – V3 = 12V (c)
Solving (a), (b) and (c) simultaneously gives,
V1 = 2V
V2 = 7V
V3 = 5V
Q.4.
Find the voltage across 8Ω resistor in the following circuit.
1KΩ
8Ω
2A
10Ω
12V
Sol.
1KΩ
V1 V2
8Ω
2A
10Ω
12V
V2 = 19.76V
Voltage across 8Ω resistor is (12 – V1) = 12 + 3.81 = 15.81V
Io
16V
Io
(A) 20Ω 3A 4A
40Ω
Sol.
A). Consider the following fig.
24V
10Ω V2 V3
V1
4mA 6Ω 4Ω 12Ω
Io
At node 1,
V1/6 + (V1V2)/10 = 4m (a)
AT supernode,
(V2V1)/10 + V2/4 + V3/12 = 0 (b)
constrain due to voltage source 24V, gives
V2 – V3 = 24 (c)
Solving these three equations, we get
V1 = 1.91V
V2 = 5.06V
V3 = 18.94V
Required current Io passing through resistor 12Ω is
Io = V3/12 = 18.94/12 = 1.58A
B).
16V
V1 V2
Io
20Ω 40Ω 4A
3A
2k Ω 4kΩ
Sol. a)
2κΩ 2κΩ
I1 I2
12V 4κΩ VO
3κ Ω
+
I1 I2
12V 2kΩ VO
IO
2kΩ
(A) 2mA 6kΩ 4mA
12V
1kΩ
1kΩ 2mA
12V
1kΩ 1kΩ
(B)
IO
Sol.
a)
4 kΩ
IO
2kΩ
I1 I2 6kΩ I3
12V
1kΩ
12V I1 I2
1k Ω 1kΩ
IO
1kΩ I3 I4 1kΩ
4kΩ
12V
2kΩ
VO 6kΩ
4mA 2kΩ
Sol.
Nodal Analysis
V3
4kΩ
12V
2kΩ
V1 V2 VO 6kΩ
4mA 2kΩ
At super node;
(V1–V2)/2 + (V3V2)/4 + V3/6 = 48
6V1 – 9V2 + 5V3 = 48 (a)
At node 2;
(V2V1)/2 + (V2V3)/4 + V2/2 = 0
2V1 + 5V2 – V3 = 0 (b)
Constraint due to the presence of voltage source
V3 – V1 = 12 (c)
Solving three equations simultaneously
V1 = 1.71V
V2 = 3.43V
V3 = 13.71V
Required voltage VO = V3 = 13.71V
Loop Analysis
I1 4kΩ
12V
2kΩ
VO 6kΩ
I2
I3 2kΩ
Sol.
Considering the effect of the 44 voltage source in the
figure below,
I = V1/RT
=44/34.36=1.28A
Using the current division rule,
I’3 = R2I/R2+R3
= (16)(1.28)/22
= 0.93 A
Considering the effect of the 38V source in the
figure below,
RT=R3+R1R2 = 6 + 30 16
= 6 + 10.43
= 16.43
’’
I 3 = V2/RT
= 38/16.43
= 2.31A
Total current through the 6 resistance,
I3 = I’’3I’3 = 2.31A – 0.93 A
= 1.38 A (direction of I’’3)
Q.2. Find the current through 2 resistor of the network given below
by using superposition theorem.
Sol.
Considering the effect of the 12V source in the figure
below,
I’1 = V1/R1+R2
= 12V / 2 +4
=12/6 =2A
Considering the effect of the 6V source in the figure
below,
I’’1 = V2/R1+R2
= 6V / 2 +4
=6/6 =1A
Considering the effect of the 3A source in the figure
below,
I’’’1 = R2(I)/R1+R2
= (4)(3A) / 2 +4
= 12A/6 = 2A
= 1A + 2A  2A
= 1A
Q.3. Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the network in the
shaded area.
Sol.
First step: Removing RL
Rth=R1+R2 = 4 + 2 =6 ohm
Fourth step:
After calculating Vth and Rth, reinserting the load
resistance RL in the circuit in series with Rth and
considering the Vth as a battery in series with
these two resistances
Q.1.
Assume that a silicon diode in the figure below requires a minimum of 1mA to be above
the knee of its IV characteristic.
(2) With the voltage value of R calculated in (1) what is the minimum value to
which the voltage E could be reduced and still maintain the diode current
above the knee?
Sol.
(1) If I is equal to 5mA we know that the voltage across
the diode will be 0.7V.
Therefore
E = IR +0.7
R = E  0.7/I = (50.7)/5 x 103= 860
(2) In order to maintain the diode current above knee .I
must be at least 1mA.
I=E0.7/R 103 A
Therefore, since R= 860
E0.7/860 103 A
E (860 x103)+0.7
E 1.56 V
Q.2.
Determine the values of VD, IT and VR for the circuits given below.
(a)
(b)
Sol. (a)
Because the arrow in the schematic symbol is pointing
toward the positive terminal of the source, we know that
the diode is reverse biased. Therefore,
a. The full voltage is dropped across D1.
VD1=VS=5V
b. D1 will not allow conduction. Therefore, IT=0A
c. Since there is no current through R1, there is no
voltage drop across the component (VR1=0V)
Sol. (b)
Because the arrow in the schematic symbol is pointing
toward the negative terminal of the source, we know that
the diode is forward biased. Therefore,
Q.3.
Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of the figure:
Third step:
Q.1.
A silicon diode has a saturation current 1pA. Using the values of n given here and
assuming the temperature is 25oC(“room temperature”) find the current in the diode.
Sol.
We first calculate the thermal voltage at
T= 273 + 25oC= 298
VT =kT/q
= (1.38 x 1023) (298) / 1.6 x 1019
= 0.0257 V
(a) Since the diode is reverse biased, we substitute
V = 0.1 V in the following equation we have
I=IS(eV/nT1)
= (1pA)( e(0.1)/2(0.0257V)1)
= (1pA)(0.1431)= 0.857 pA
(b) Since the diode is forward biased, we substitute
V = 0.5 V
I=IS(eV/nT1) where 1pA1012A
= (1pA)( e(0.5)/(0.0257V)1)
= (1pA)( 2.814 x 1081)
= (1012A)( 2.814 x 108)= 0.2814 mA
Note that the value of the exponential term (2.814 x 108)
in this case is so much large than 1 that for the practical
purpose I=ISeV/nT
Q.2.
Determine which diodes are forward biased and which are reverse biased in each of the
configuration give arguments to verify your point of view.
Sol.
a. In (a) the anode is grounded and therefore at 0V.
The cathode side is positive by virtue of 5V
source connected to it through resistor R. The
cathode is therefore positive w.r.t. the anode
i.e. the anode is more negative than the cathode
so the diode is reverse biased.
b. In (b) the anode side is more positive than the
cathode side (10V > +5V) so the diode is forward
biased. Current flow from 10V source, through the
diode and into the 5V source.
c. In (c) the anode side is more negative than the
cathode side, so the diode is reverse biased. No
current flows in the circuit, so no drop across R.
Q.3.
Determine the peak Load current for the circuit shown in the figure below.
Sol.
The input voltage is given an rms value. This value
is converted to a peak value as follows:
V1(pk) = V1(rms)/0.707
= 150/0.707
V1(pk)
= 212.2 Vpk
Now, the load voltage and current are found,
after fining peak voltage, as
V2(pk) = N2/N1 V1(pk)
= (1/10)(212.2 Vpk)
V2(pk) = 21.22Vpk
Q.1.
Determine the values of IC and IE for the circuit shown in figure below
Q.2.
(a) For the transistor circuit in the figure, what is VCE when VIN =0V ?
(b) What minimum value of IB is required to saturate this transistor if DC is
200?
(c) Calculate the maximum value of RB when VIN =5V.
Q.3.
Find IC and VEC in the following circuit.