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CBSE-i

CLASS IX

SCIENCE
UNIT-1
Kinematics
All about Matter
Fundamental Unit of Life

Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092 India


Preface
The Curriculum initiated by Central Board of Secondary Education -International (CBSE-i) is
a progressive step in making the educational content and methodology more sensitive and
responsive to the global needs. It signifies the emergence of a fresh thought process in
imparting a curriculum which would restore the independence of the learner to pursue the
learning process in harmony with the existing personal, social and cultural ethos.
The Central Board of Secondary Education, with about 11000 schools affiliated to it and with
over 130 schools situated in more than 20 countries has been catering to the academic needs of
the learners worldwide. The Board has always been conscious of the varying needs of the
learners in countries abroad and has been working towards contextualizing certain elements
of the learning process to the physical, geographical, social and cultural environment in which
they are engaged. The International Curriculum being designed by CBSE-i , has been
visualized and developed with these requirements in view.
The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The
objective of the curriculum is to nurture the independence of the learner, given the fact that
every learner is unique. The learner has to understand, appreciate, protect and build on
values, beliefs and traditional wisdom, making necessary modifications, improvisations and
additions wherever and whenever necessary.
The recent scientific and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of
knowledge at an astonishing pace. The speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have
put forth many challenges to the educators, forcing them to rethink their approaches for
knowledge processing by their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them to
incorporate those skills which will enable the young learners to become 'life long learners'. The
ability to stay current, to upgrade skills with emerging technologies, to understand the
nuances involved in change management and the relevant life skills have to be a part of the
learning domains of the global learners. The CBSE-i curriculum has taken cognizance of these
requirements.
The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education. While
promoting critical and creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal
and collaborative skills along with information and media skills. There is an inbuilt flexibility
as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum in all subject areas to cater to the
different pace of learners.

i
The CBSE-i plans to introduce the curriculum in a phased manner at different levels in schools
affiliated to CBSE at the international level and subsequently, if desirable, to introduce it to
other affiliated schools who are able to meet the requirements of this curriculum. The focus is
to ensure that the learner is stress-free and yet stays committed to active learning. The learner
would be evaluated on a continuous and comprehensive basis consequent to the mutual
interactions between the teacher and the learner and the learner. There are some non-
evaluative components in the curriculum which would be commented upon by the teachers
and the school. The objective of this part or the core of the curriculum is to scaffold the learning
experiences and to relate tacit knowledge with formal knowledge. This would involve trans-
disciplinary linkages that would form the core of the learning process. Perspectives, SEWA
(Social Empowerment through Work and Action), Life Skills and Research would be the
constituents of this 'Core'. The Core skills are the most significant aspects of a learner's holistic
growth and his/her learning curve.
The international curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the
National Curricular Framework (NCF 2005) and the experience gathered by the Board over
the last seven decades in imparting effective learning to millions of learners, many of whom
are now global citizens.
The Board does not interpret this development as an alternative to other curricula existing at
the international level, but as an exercise in providing the much needed Indian leadership for
global education at the school level. The international curriculum would evolve on its own-
building on learning experiences inside the classroom over a period of time. The Board while
addressing the issues of empowerment with the help of the schools administering this system
strongly recommends that practicing teachers become skillful learners on their own and also
transfer their learning experiences to their peers through the interactive platforms to be
provided by the Board.
I profusely thank Shri G. Balasubramanian, former Director (Academics),CBSE, Ms. Abha
Adams and her team and Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations and Research) CBSE
alongwith other Education Officers involved in the development and implementation of this
material.
The CBSE-i website being launched will enable all stakeholders involved in this initiative to
participate through the discussion forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions for
modifying or improving any part of this document are welcome.
Vineet Joshi
Chairman
CBSE
Acknowledgements
Advisory
Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman & Secretary, CBSE
Smt. Chitralekha Gurumurthy, Director (Academics),CBSE
Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations & Research),CBSE
Conceptual Framework
Shri G. Balasubramanian, Former Director (Academics), CBSE
Ms. Abha Adams, Consultant, Step-by-Step School, Noida
Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations & Research),CBSE
Ideators
Dr. Indu Khetrapal Ms. Rupa Chakravarty
Dr. N. K. Sehga Ms. Jaishree Srivastava
Ms. Anita Sharma Dr. Anju Srivastava
Dr. Uma Chaudhary Dr. Kamla Menon
Ms. Meenu Goswami Ms. Anuradha Sen
Ms. Geeta Varshney Dr. Rajesh Hassija
Ms. Urmila Chowdhary Ms. Amita Mishra
Ms. Aditi Misra
Material Production Groups : Classes IX - X
Mathematics : Science :
Dr. K.P. Chinda Ms. Charu Maini
Mr. J.C. Nijhawan Ms. S. Anjum
Ms. Rashmi Kathuria Ms. Meenambika Menon
Ms. Reemu Verma Ms. Novita Chopra
Ms. Nita Rastogi
Ms. Pooja Sareen
History : English :
Ms. Jayshree Srivastava Ms. Sarita Manuja
Mrs. M. Bose Ms. Gayatri Khanna
Ms. A. Venkatachalam Ms. Renu Anand
Ms. Smita Bhattacharya Ms. P. Rajeshwary
Mrs. Neelima Sharma
Ms. Neha Sharma
Geography : Poltical Science :
Ms. Deepa Kapoor Ms Sharmila Bakshi
Ms. Bharti Dave Ms. Srilekha
Ms. Bhagirathi Ms. Archana Soni
Economics :
Ms. Mridula Pant
Sh. Pankaj Bhanwani
Material Production Groups : Classes I - V
Ms. Savinder Kaur Rooprai
Ms. Nandita Pal
Ms. Deepti Verma
Ms. Seema Choudhary
Ms. Monika Thakur
Mr. Bijo Thomas
Ms Ruba Chakravarty
Material Production Groups : Classes VI - VIII
Ms. Guneet Ohri
Ms. Dipinder Kaur
Ms. Sonia Jain
Ms. Seema Rawat
Dr. Meena Dhami
Mrs. N Vidya
Co-ordinators :
Mrs. Sugandh Sharma, Education Officer (Com.)
Dr. Srijata Das, Education Officer (Science & Maths)
Sh. R. P. Sharma, Consultant
Shri Al Hilal Ahmed, Asstt. Education Officer
CONTENTS

Preface
Acknowledgements
1 Aims And Objectives Of Learning Science 1
2 Enquiry Based Learning Core Premises 2
3 Enquiry Based Learning In Science Few Examples 3
4 Template For Development Of Enquiry Based And Skill Based
Learning In Science 4
5 Syllabus (physics) 8
6 Scope Document - Unit-1 (physics) 10
7 Lesson Template Unit 1 Kinematics 19
8 Student And Teacher Support Material (physics) 21
9 Syllabus (chemistry) 42
10 Scope Document - Unit-1 (chemistry) 44
11 Lesson Template Unit-1 (chemistry) 48
12 Student And Teacher Support Material - Unit-1 (chemistry) 53
13 Syllabus (biology) 81
14 Scope Document Unit 1 (biology) 86
15 Lesson Template - Unit 1 (biology) 92
16 Teacher Support & Student Support Material 97
1 Aims and Objectives of Teaching Science

The aims of the Science curriculum are to


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Portray Science as a set of ideas and processes
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Help students develop a coherent knowledge and understanding of the
environment around them
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Promote Science as an activity that can be carried out by all people as a part of their
daily lives and develop scientific attitudes
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Help students appreciate the implications of Scientific study and its limitations
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Encourage students to use the Scientific method and scientific skills to evaluate
ideas and make choices/decisions
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Develop an understanding about the evolving nature of science
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Assist students to understand the need to make responsible decisions on the use of
Science and technology and to consider its impact on the environment
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Nurture scientific talent
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Develop students' interest and knowledge of Scientific ideas for use in choosing
careers and to make a strong foundation for further studies
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To develop curiosity and give students an opportunity to explore the magic of
Science

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 1
2 Enquiry Based Learning - Core Premises

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Learning should be based around the students' questions.
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Pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems rather than
receiving direct instructions from the teacher.
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Teacher is a facilitator in learning rather than acting as a vessel of knowledge.
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Teacher's role is to help the student in the process of discovering knowledge
themselves.
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Students use their background knowledge of facts, concepts and principles along
with process skills to construct new knowledge (Constructivist Approach).
Knowledge is built in a stepwise fashion.
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Students are assessed by how well they develop experimental and analytical skills
rather than how much knowledge they possess.

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Enquiry Based Learning In Science -
3 Few Examples

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Students develop a method to find which antacid tablet are the best at neutralizing
acids.
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Students learn about inertia and movement by studying what affect rolling of
marbles on different surfaces has.
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Students work in groups to build bridges to hold marble weights. By doing so they
discover how to build strong bridges.
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Students learn about buoyancy and laws of floatation by studying what affect
dipping of different bodies in different liquids has on their apparent weight.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 3
Template For Development Of Enquiry
4 And Skill Based Learning In Science

LEARNING OUTCOMES
The students will be able to:
(Three to five achievable outcomes to be written using verbs from the table given in the
presentation)
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Classify..
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List..
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Differentiate..
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Correlate..
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Apply..
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Analyze.
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Synthesize.
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Visualizeetc
Please refer to NCERT - secondary curriculum
WARMING UP
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Some surprise element: a picture, a sample or a small demonstration to initiate the
investigation.
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Enduring Question, (or) Big Idea: Open ended question to focus on long -term
inquiry and enduring understanding we want students to remember fifteen years
from now.
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Introduction to KWL sheet
PRE-LESSON ACTIVITIES TO BUILD BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
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Completing a Web-chart
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Discussion based on Verbal/ Visual input

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Power-point Presentation for background on given concep
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Reading in groups
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Group discussions
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Role Play
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Activities or demonstrations followed by feedback session
LESSON DEVELOPMENT
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Enquiry questions
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Planning of experiments
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Construction of hypotheses
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Hands-on Lab activities/ Classroom Activity
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Activity Sheets
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Worksheets
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Interpretation of simple or variable data
CONCEPT ATTAINMENT
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Completing KWL Sheet
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Completing Concept Map
APPLICATION TO REAL LIFE SITUATIONS
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Examples from students
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Examples sited by the teacher through enquiry questions.
SCIENTIFIC SKILLS
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Observation & recording
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Comparison
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Classification
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Estimation & measurement
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Hypothesis, data collection, analysis & prediction
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Generating scientific knowledge
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Commitment to scientific enquiry

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 5
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Open mindedness; ability to balance alternatives
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Reading & drawing
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Defining and solving problem
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Design & model making
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Team building skill
ACTIVITIES CATERING TO MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE SKILLS
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Oral presentations / Group discussions
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Seminars
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ICT
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Diagrams
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Creating Models
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Projects
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Surveys
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Hands-on activities
EXTENDED LEARNING
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Web search
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Innovations/ investigatory projects
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Extensive reading- newspapers, encyclopedia's etc.
CULMINATING PERFORMANCES ( FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT)
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Self-evaluation
vStudents use rubrics or checklist to self assess their progress towards their
goals.
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Peer evaluation for developing positive attitude .
vSay something positive
vObserve something that can be improved
vBe Specific
vSpeak about the work and not about the person/peer

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Group evaluation
vGroup discussion
vTeam Work
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Teacher evaluation
vVarious assessment tools like quiz, assignments, pen-paper test etc
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Portfolio
vWork done by the student
vModels
vPosters
vSlogans
vCollection of pictures

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 7
5 Syllabus (Physics)

List of units for Class IX - CBSE i


Physics (Foundation and Extension)
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Kinematics :
vMeasurement
vLinear motion - Vectors and scalars, Relative motion
vEquations of uniformly accelerated motion
vGraphical representation of motion
vCircular motion
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Force and motion
vForce definition and types of forces
vVector addition and balanced and unbalanced forces
vNewton's laws - inertia, momentum, action, reaction etc.
vConservation of momentum and the third law
vCollisions
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Gravitation
vUniversal law of gravitation
vGravitational field strength
vEquations of motion in a gravitational field
vEscape velocity and orbital velocity
vElementary ideas of satellite launch

8 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
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Work, Energy and Power
vWork and energy
vPower
vTypes of energy
vEnergy transformations and the law of conservation of energy
vSources of energy - renewable and non renewable
vSolar, wind, geothermal, nuclear and fossil fuels
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Floating bodies
vThrust and pressure
vArchimedes principle
vRelative density
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Sound
vWaves and wave motion - longitudinal and transverse, mechanical and
electromagnetic waves
vGeneration, propagation and detection of sound
vHuman hearing
vUltrasound
vEchoes and SONAR
vStructure of the human ear
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Thermal Physics
vExpansion of solids, liquids and gases
vElementary ideas of Specific heat capacity and latent heat
vTransfer of Thermal energy - Conduction, Convection and Radiation
vImproved insulation and Energy conservation in households and offices

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 9
6 Scope Document - Unit-1 (Physics)

Unit 1a - Physical Quantities and Measurement


This unit is meant to develop skills of estimation, measurement, data handling. It will also help
students to understand the universal nature of Science and the need for accuracy and
precision in scientific measurement.
Learning outcomes - Foundation
At the end of this unit students should be able to
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identify basic Physical quantities - mass, length and time
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estimate quantities for mass, length and time
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list units to measure these quantities
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understand the need for universally accepted units
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recall and use units from the SI system
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explain the need for accuracy and precision and the difference between the two
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understand the use of appropriate scientific apparatus to measure physical
quantities with accuracy
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know the use of appropriate equipment to measure mass, length and time
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read meters of varied least counts correctly - e.g. top pan balance, digital balance etc.
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collect and record data using the correct units of measurement
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convert from one unit to another - e.g. cms to metres, grams to kilograms and
understand the use of appropriate units e.g. using kilometres to measure large
distances and cms to measure small lengths
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identify scalar and vector quantities and define both

10 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Learning outcomes - Extension
At the end of this unit students should be able to
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know the use of vernier calipers and the screw gauge for measuring small lengths
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know the use of a physical balance
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read ammeters, voltmeters, pressure gauges and other lab instruments of varying
ranges and least counts
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identify least counts
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understand errors and that any measured physical quantity occurs as a range
(depending on the instrument used to measure it) and can be expressed in the form
- length of a pencil is (12.3 + 0.1)cm
Suggested activities / processes
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Estimation exercises-
(a) Allow students to estimate the dimensions of various things like the width of
the window, the length and breadth of the school field, the thickness of a
finger, the diameter of a human hair - use these to give them an idea of length
(b) Let students do similar exercises with time and mass measurement. Let them
estimate the mass of an apple, of a pin, a book, a school bag etc. They should
also estimate time taken to run around the field, to clap their hands etc.
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Measurement exercises-
(a) Students should follow a measurement circus where they determine
dimensions of various objects without using rulers or any standard device
used to determine length - they can use their hand span, a book etc as measures
- use this to explain the requirement of standard units which are also universal
(since each person will have different ways of measuring) - introduce the SI
system of units here
(b) Students should follow a measurement circus where they determine mass,
length and time of various objects(different ranges) using a variety of
measuring devices - top pan balance, spring balance, digital balance for very
small masses, stop watches, rulers, measuring tapes, vernier callipers etc.-
develop skills of reading meters, data collection and processing, error analysis

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 11
Problem solving
(a) Choose the correct unit worksheets - Eg; what unit will you use to measure the
height of Mt. Everest - cm, m, km ?
(b) Convert units - with a context - Eg; it is better to express 5000000 cm in m or km
(c) Allow students to research on scientists who have a unit named after them.
They can present their research on A4 paper which can be displayed in class.
Opportunities
vModel for pupils how to decide on the number of observations or
measurements needed.
vCreate opportunities for pupils to explore the purpose of different types of
scientific equipment.
vPlan opportunities for pupils to justify the choice of apparatus, linked to the
precision of the task.
vCreate opportunities for pupils to determine the limitations of the apparatus,
with respect to reliability and accuracy.
vModel safe working practice, e.g. point rulers away from neighbours.
Questions
vHow thick is a human hair? Can it be measured in cm?
vWhy do I need to plan when taking measurement?
vCan scientists find everything out? Can scientists think differently about the
same thing?
vDoes the equipment I use make a difference to my result or my experiment?
vDoes having more data make the answer better?
vDo I need sophisticated equipment to be a scientist?
vWill all readings have an error? What if some are measured by a computer?
vWhy is a 'yardstick' important in science?
vCan measuring instruments be uncertain?
vHow do we know the exact length of a metre or the mass of 1 kg?

12 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
vIs data that is precise accurate? What is the difference between precision and
accuracy?
vCan measurements be indirect?
Suggested Links and resources
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http://physics.nist.gov/Document/checklist.pdf"
http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Topic_42.html;jsessionid=a3SDG3Dj4Rpf?
topic_id=42
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http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=684.0
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http://www.physics.smu.edu/~scalise/apparatus/caliper/tutorial/
http://www.upscale.utoronto.ca/PVB/Harrison/Vernier/Vernier.html
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http://www.tutorvista.com/content/physics/physics-iii/physics-and-
measurement/systems-units.php
Cross curricular links
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History - inaccuracies in accounts due to biased writings, lack of a universal
language, not recorded with details (incorrect date?)
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Mathematics - units of measurement, conversions, standard form
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Geography - units to measure rainfall, Richter scale for earthquakes etc.
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Arts - perspectives, designing
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P.E. - timing races - calculating speed for the first and the final lap in a 1500 m race,
what timing devices are used for Olympic races?

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 13
Unit I b - Motion in one Dimension
This unit is to familiarize students with motion and types of motion. It helps students to
answer questions like - how do things move, why do cars have top speeds, why should you
not drink and drive and how does it affect reaction time and stopping distance? It can be used
to develop data collection and data processing skills as well as graphical and problem solving
skills. Students learn to apply their knowledge to novel situations (movement around bends)
as well as investigate and deduce patterns in physical phenomena and make useful
predictions -patterns may be expressed in symbolic and numerical forms.
Learning outcomes - Foundation
At the end of this unit students should be able to
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differentiate between the movements of various living things, e.g., people walking,
running; birds flying, paddling; fish swimming
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describe motion in one dimension - identifying linear and circular motion
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understand distance moved and displacement and differentiate between the two
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understand and explain uniform and non uniform motion using examples
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explain, using examples, speed and the range of speeds possible - cars, trains,
aircrafts
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define and explain speed, average speed, instantaneous speed and units used to
measure speed
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differentiate between speed and velocity and identify velocity as a vector quantity
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draw and interpret distance- time graphs for uniform motion and use the gradient
to calculate speed
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draw and interpret distance- time graphs for non uniform motion and determine
the gradient, to the tangent to the curve, to determine speed at that instant
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define, explain and understand acceleration and units used to measure acceleration
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identify acceleration as a vector quantity
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draw and interpret speed - time graphs and use the gradient to calculate
acceleration
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use area under the curve for a speed - time graph to calculate distance covered

14 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
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explain stopping distance, thinking distance using numerical examples and relate it
to the time taken and the distance covered by objects moving at different speeds to
stop -(safe driving)
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derive and use equations of motion for uniformly accelerated motion to determine
speed, acceleration, distance travelled etc.
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experiment with objects running down tracks, trolleys to determine speed
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collect data on moving objects and process it for interpretation
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make sufficient observations and measurements to reduce error and obtain reliable
evidence
Learning outcomes - Extension
At the end of this unit students should be able to
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describe quantities as scalar or vector
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understand the differences between scalar and vector quantities
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understand the differences between scalar and vector addition
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add and subtract vectors using a variety of methods (graphical, triangle law,
parallelogram law)
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understand that all motion is relative to an observer
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explain why speeds differ from different frames of reference
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explain examples of relative motion (observers in different trains which pass by
each other - moving in the same direction , in different directions)
Suggested activities / processes
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Preparing a project plan for a practical investigation on measuring time and
calculating speed.
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Timing students as they walk, race on a track and calculating the average speed.
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Using data to draw and read distance - time and speed - time graphs.
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Determining speed, acceleration from distance- time and speed - time graphs
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Using data to understand thinking time and stopping distance and how both vary
for different speeds.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 15
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students research on the top speeds of different cars and present their research
information to the entire class
Problem solving
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solve problems using equations of motion
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solve problems using graphical information
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present data in a tabular form and process data (using statistical tools and graphs)
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solve problems using more than one method (graphical, numerical, using equations
of motion)
Opportunities
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create opportunities for students to use scientific knowledge and understanding to
turn ideas into a form that can be investigated
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model opportunities to decide the extent and range of data to be collected and the
techniques, equipment and materials to use
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create a variety of opportunities for students to represent and communicate
qualitative and quantitative data using diagrams, tables, charts, graphs and ICT
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create opportunities for students to work in groups (for experimental work as well
as problem solving)
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create opportunities for students to form a hypothesis and plan/design their own
investigations
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create opportunities for discussions on safe driving and top speeds of cars
Questions
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Do the same laws apply to all moving objects?
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Can different methods be applied to determine the magnitude of various
quantities?
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Will speeds differ if measured by a stationary /moving object?
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Does velocity change if speed is the same?
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Do speeding and slowing down both indicate acceleration?
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Will every accelerating object speed up or slow down?

16 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
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Can data on an objects motion be plotted on a graph?
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How is it useful to represent motion graphically?
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How can I collect data on moving objects?
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How can data on moving objects help in understanding motion?
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Is it possible for an object to move and yet show zero displacement?
Suggested Links and resources
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http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/hframe.html
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http://physicslearningsite.com/relative.html"
http://surendranath.tripod.com/Applets/Kinematics/BoatRiver/BoatRiverAp
plet.html
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http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Default.html "
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr/explaining_moti
on/repmotion.shtml "
http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/content/keystage3/Physics/pc/learningSimulations/
MESSC/launch.html "
http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/content/keystage3/Physics/pc/learningsteps/DTGLC
/launch.html
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http://www.tutorvista.com/content/physics/physics-iii/physics-and-
measurement/systems-units.php
Cross curricular links
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English/Languages - speaking - present investigation plans, research and present
information - top speed of cars
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Mathematics - apply concepts of drawing, reading and interpreting graphs
(distance - time, speed - time), using gradients and area under the curve to find
speed, acceleration, distance travelled etc.
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P.E. - determining speeds for long and short races, collecting information on speeds
of students

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 17
PROJECTS
Students can make their own "Measurement Book" which can have the following
sections
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Biographies of Scientists who have a unit named after them
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Comparison of units in various systems
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Measurement ladders
Conversion problems

18 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
7 Lesson Template Unit 1 - Kinematics

Steps to be followed Tool/Activity Used Description

1 Topic - Measurement Fun Game- Teacher Teacher may start the class
Warm Up and testing demonstrate and Students with some examples of
previous knowledge classify given objects under objects which needs
basic physical quantities of measurement.
measurement.
(Activity-1)

Building the concept and its This sheet can be used as a Class can be divided into
application to real life starter to the unit or the small groups and can be
situations lesson. The aim of this given the activity sheet, to
exercise is to allow students be completed in10 -15
to estimate magnitudes, , minutes
and through the lesson
Each group is asked to
bring out the large number
present their findings one
of units that exist for any
by one.
one Physical quantity.
Group Activity- develops They are asked, as groups,
multiple intelligence skills. to answer the questions
(Activity sheet-2)

Lesson Development - Group Activity- These experiments are


Hands on activity measurement circus about measurement.
(Activity sheet-3) Students will move from
experiment 1 to 2 and so on
After they have taken
readings for all experiments
fill in the table given. Make
sure to fill the column
headings with correct units.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 19
Formative Assessment - Individual activity - Interesting method to teach
Developing scientific and Activity sheet 4,5, 6 & 7 students estimations,
multiple intelligence skills. Worksheet 7 includes measurements,
Projects to be given for comparisons etc.
research work.

2. Topic Linear motion Activity 1 Teacher Teacher cities examples


{vectors and Scalars demonstrates simple from daily life and Let
experiments. every student come out
with his/her creative
Warming up PRE-LESSON
expression. See who makes
ACTIVITIES TO BUILD
the most meaningful
BACKGROUND
statements? Students are
KNOWLEDGE
asked to summarize the
demo and answer
questions.

Lesson development Worksheet 1 & 2 Students learn to interpret


Graphical representation of and draw graphs.
motion

Formative Assessment Worksheet 3, 4 Students develop problem


& solving skills
http://www.ncert.nic.in/
book

20 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
8 STUDENT AND TEACHER SUPPORT MATERIAL

Unit - 1a
These sheets should be used for reference and teachers should develop their own sheets to
encourage an enquiry based approach to Science. The activities and experiments suggested
here are some examples.
Worksheet 1
1. Classify the following under the basic physical quantities Length / Mass/Time
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Estimation of the size of the class room (dimensions)
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Duration of break time in the school
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Heaviness of the school bag
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Size of your trouser /skirt
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Response to a stimulus
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Quickness of the runner
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Weight of a basket full of apples
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Thickness of your hair

Length Mass Time Tool to measure


the quantity

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Suggest a tool to measure each of these quantities.
2. Estimate the mass of the following using any unit you know
G
A Stapler
G
Single human hair

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 21
G
An air conditioner
G
Your Science text book
G
An orange
3. Estimate the time taken by you to walk down to school one morning from home.
4. Estimate the dimensions of the following using any unit
G
The height of your partner
G
The distance between your table and the door
G
The width of the window
G
The thickness of your finger
Teacher notes Worksheet 1
This sheet can be used as a starter to the unit or the lesson. The aim of this exercise is to allow
students to estimate magnitudes, and through the lesson bring out the large number of units
that exist for any one Physical quantity, e.g. metres, feet, centimeters and miles are all units for
length.
Once they have estimated they should be given the opportunity to check, as far as possible,
their estimations. Where it is not possible to physically measure the quantity students should
be given the correct measurement.
Many sheets can be created using this sample and students should be asked to estimate
measurements of quantities around them.
Worksheet 2
Units of measurement SI system
Instructions:
G
You have to determine the dimensions of the following objects.
G
The length of you table, the width of your pencil case and the length of the
classroom.
G
You are not allowed to use any length measuring device (ruler, tape measure etc.)

22 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Physical Quantities and Measurement

G
You may determine the length in terms of your hand span / foot length, a pencil,
paper clips etc.
G
Take multiple readings to reduce the error.
G
Record your observations in a table and answer the questions that follow.
Observation table

Measured length Observation 1 in Observation 2 in Observation 3 in

Length of the table


Width of the pencil
case

Length of
the classroom

Questions
1. What are the problems in recording or observing length this way?
2. Is this a suitable method to measure length?
3. How will you communicate this length measurement to someone far away?
Will it be accepted universally?
4. How can you standardize this measurement so that it means the same to all
observers?
Teacher support sheet
Worksheet 2 - Units of measurement SI system
Instructions to teachers
G
This exercise can be used to develop the concept of an International system of units.
G
The teacher gives students 10 -1 5 minutes to complete the worksheet.
G
Each group is asked to present their findings one by one.
G
They are asked, as groups, to answer the questions asked.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 23
G
These answers are used to introduce the various systems of units and the need to
have a common universally accepted system of units the SI system.
Worksheet 3
Measurement circus
1. This experiment is about measurement.
2. You will have to measure various physical quantities.
3. Please move from experiment 1 to 2 and so on.
4. For every measurement you make, take more than one reading to reduce errors.
5. After you have taken readings for all experiments fill in the table given. Make sure
to fill the column headings with correct units.
Experiment 1 - Measuring thickness of paper
a. Attempt to measure the thickness of a single sheet of paper. Fold the paper in half, in
half again, and so on, to obtain multiple thicknesses. Measure the thickness and
calculate the thickness of a single sheet.
b. Measure the thickness of a pile of a known number of sheets (say, 100 or 200).
Calculate the thickness of a single sheet.
c. Compare these two methods for measuring the thickness of a single sheet. Which is
better?
d. Record your observations.

Experiment 2 A simple balance

24 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
a. Weigh a small parcel (about 500 g), using a 100 g hanger and 100 g slotted masses on
one side, the parcel on the other. Do not add smaller masses to make the weighing
more 'accurate'. It is only a rough measurement.
b. Weigh a letter to the nearest 10 g by the same method, using the 10 g slotted masses.
c. Will this beam be able to weigh a single hair? If not, suggest a more sensitive
balance.
d. Weigh the same letter using a top pan balance
e. Record your observations.
Experiment 3 - Investigating the time of oscillation of a pendulum
a. You have to determine the time taken for the pendulum, which has been set, to
complete one oscillation.
b. Displace the bob of the pendulum by about 5 cm and release it.
c. Determine the time taken by the pendulum to move from one extreme position to
the other extreme position and back once. Record this time.
d. Determine the time taken by the pendulum to complete 20 such oscillations. Use
this to determine to find time for one.
e. Record your observations.
f. Which method is more accurate?
Experiment 4 - Measuring the radius of a marble
a. Pick a single marble and measure the radius using a ruler.

b. Write the difficulties you faced with this method.

c. Take two metre rules to provide a trough in which the marbles sit so that they do not
roll away. Hold the rules next to each other and use the pair of set squares at both
ends of the line of marbles.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 25
d. Use this revised and improved measurement of the marbles to work out the radius
of one.

e. Record your observations in the given format or design your own


format/observation table.

S. obser- Expt. 1 Expt. 1 Expt. 2 Expt. 2 Expt. 3 Expt. 3 Expt. 4 Expt. 4


no. vations method method method method method method method method
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

Obs 1

Obs2

Obs 3

Teacher support sheet - Worksheet 3


Experiment 1
1. A book could be used instead of a pile of sheets of paper. Students should make a
rough measurement of a pile of paper or the thickness of the book (remember the
book is numbered on both sides of the paper).
2. There are excellent books, videos and web sites on Powers of ten. Classroom
displays of large and small distance measurements with pictures of the objects
measured will create a good background to this work.
3. Although the measurement methods here are relatively straightforward, this
provides an opportunity for students to design and carry out their own experiment.
Emphasise that they should measure as accurately as possible and clearly explain
how their method improves the quality of data collected. Get them to try and
estimate the uncertainties in their results and to identify which measurement they
feel has the greatest uncertainty.
4. You could encourage students to write a full plan/method before they begin. Make
relevant teaching points about the importance of clear and unambiguous
instructions. Each group/student could write a procedure which is then passed on

26 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
to a different group/student to carry out. The second group/student can then
evaluate the information that they have been given.
Experiment 2
Technical notes
This simple lever balance is made out of a lath of wood or a metre rule (with the graduations
ignored) drilled with holes at the ends and centre, together with three hooks. It is not meant to
produce accurate results nor is it meant to be an accurate part of teaching the lever law, though
it could be an introduction. Suspend the simple lever by one of the hooks positioned centrally.
It is convenient to support the hook from a clamp attached to a retort stand by a boss. Position
the other two hooks near the ends of the lever at equal distances from the centre.
The sensitivity of the balance can be changed by adding a small load (e.g. blu-tac or a screw) on
the lower edge of the beam, at the centre, to bring down the centre of gravity. Better still, drill
another hole nearer to the top of the lath so that the lath is suspended with a lot of it below the
suspension point.
Teaching notes
1. You could introduce this experiment to students in the form of a problem solving
task, to be designed and perhaps built at home. One context which has been used
successfully is that of finding out how much a parcel and a letter cost to send by post.
The current postal rate leaflets, obtainable from a Post Office or related website,
make this task more realistic.
2. Many teachers tend to try to use the correct words without penalizing students for
getting the wrong ones at the introductory stage. That is, mass is measured in
kilograms relating it to 'massive' objects. A discussion of units and the standard
kilogram in Svres may also come into the discussion when comparing slabs of
butter, bags of sugar and bags of sweets as fractions of a standard kilogram.
Experiment 3
Teaching notes
1 You may need to explain what one oscillation for a pendulum means.
2 A discussion following students' first attempts might lead to the following ideas for
improving their measured value.
Reduce the uncertainty in a measurement of periodic time by:

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 27
G
measuring many oscillations to calculate the average time for one oscillation.
There is some uncertainty when measuring both the start time and also the stopping time,
resulting from the experimenter's reflex time (as much as 0.2 s each, i.e. totalling 0.4 s). The
percentage uncertainty which this 0.4 s represents decreases as the total time measured / no.
of oscillations increases. Students could carry out simple error calculations to discover, for
example, the effect of a human reaction time of 0.2 seconds on timings of 2 s, 20 s and 200 s.
You may wish to get them to estimate the human reaction time or measure it as a separate
activity. There are many web-based activities freely available.
Improve the accuracy of a measurement of periodic time by
G
making timings by sighting the bob past a fixed reference point
3 The periodic time for a swinging pendulum is constant only when amplitudes are small. Its
period of oscillation is then T=2 (l /g)

where
T = Time period for one oscillation (s)
l = Length of pendulum (m)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s-2)

This provides an excellent opportunity for planning, carrying out and evaluating an
investigation using multiple skills. The number of variables is limited but there is enough
scope to allow students to develop an approach and select different lengths and number of
oscillations.
The introductory discussion can put the pendulum into a scientific and historical context by
describing the development of timing devices. Start with the hours of a day as one of the
simplest units of time, easily measured with a sundial. Use this to introduce Galileo Galilei
(1564-1642) and the (possibly apocryphal) story that his understanding of the behavior of
pendulums was spurred by observing the bronze chandelier or incense burner in the
cathedral at Pisa. Galileo's pendulum introduced a method of measuring short periods of time
that improved on the use of the human pulse. You could extend this timeline by describing
further developments in timing devices, right up to the atomic clock (usually containing
caesium) which is accurate to within 10-9 seconds per day.

28 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Experiment 4
Teaching notes
1 In step a, students should be able to get a reading but the variation across the class
may be considerable. Check that they have not given the marble diameter as their
result, instead of its radius.
2 This experiment is designed to support the development of practical skills and
confidence, not simply finding the radius itself. Using increasing numbers of
marbles reduces the uncertainty in the diameter measured, but there is no right
number of marbles to be used for the experiment.. It is worth mentioning that errors
may be introduced when more marbles are used, e.g. not all the marbles may be in a
perfectly straight line or may not have perfect shape.
3 This experiment can support the skills involved in devising experimental methods
which improve the accuracy of measurements. If students have carried out other
experiments then they will already have encountered some of these ideas.
This sheet has been taken from and developed from experiments found in
http://www.practicalphysics.org
Worksheet 4
Measuring Lengths:

About 3 cm from the left-hand side of a sheet of paper draw a long, thin, vertical ladder with
22 rungs. Count up to the sixth rung from the bottom, and label it 1 metre. Label the rungs
above 1 metre, going upwards 101 metres (meaning 10 metres), 102 (meaning 100), 103
(meaning 1,000), up to 1016. Label the rungs below 1 metre, going downwards 10-1 (meaning
0.1) metre, 10-2 (meaning 0.01), 10 -5 metre.
Each rung of this ladder represents a length 10 times the rung below and one-tenth of the rung
above. Now write in the following names where their length or size should come on the
ladder.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 29
Nearest star 1013 kilometres = 1016 metres
Sun to planet Pluto 6 x 109 km = 6 x 1012 metres
Sun to Earth 1.5 km x 108 km = --------------- m
Earth to Moon 400,000 km = ---------------- m
Earths diameter 13,000 km = ----------------- m
London to Edinburgh 640 km = ---------------- m
1 kilometre 1 km = ----------------- m
Height of Salisbury Cathedral 12000 cm = -------------- m
Your Height(Guess) = -------------- m
Ribbon of length 50 centimetres = 5 x 10-1 metres
Length of your little finger ? (Measure it) =-------------- m
Diameter of a pencil ? (Measure it) = -------------- m
Thickness of paper 10-2 cm =--------------- metres
Red blood corpuscle 10-3 cm =--------------- metres
Q1 How many times is sun farther from earth as compared to moon?
Q2 How many times the Salisbury Cathedral is taller than you?
Q3 How many times the length of your little finger is bigger than the diameter of RBC?

30 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Worksheet 5

The Smallest Metric Measurements


Directions: Circle the smallest metric measurement in each problem.

1. 500 cm, 5000 mm, 4 m

2. 0.2 L, 240 mL, 50 kL

3. 3000 mg, 250 g, 3 kg

4. 4 L, 5000 mL, 23,000 kL

5. 17 m, 17,040,000 cm, 17, 400,000,005 mm

6. 2000 g, 25,300 mg, 2.5 Kg

7. 3400 g, 4.5 kg, 7,000,843 mg

8. 23 L, 4.3 kL, 6,000,320 mL

9. 820,000 g, 38 kg, 600,002,394 mg

10. 34,948,304 mL, 32,394 L, 55 kL

11. 2 km, 5550 m, 64,430 cm

12. 435,678 g, 4.32 kg, 321,900,484 mg

13. 74,000 cm, 824,000 mm, 2 km

14. 84,000 mL, 3.4 kL, 750 L

15. 23,436 g, 268,980 mg, 2.3 kg

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 31
Worksheet 6
Convert the measuring units as indicated.

1a. 73312 m = ____ km ____ m 1b. 45 km 285 m = ______ m


2a. 54 km 686 m = ______ m 2b. 2 m 88 cm = ______ cm
3a. 2968 cm = ____ m ____ cm 3b. 2097 cm = ____ m ____ cm
4a. 25 m 20 cm = ______ cm 4b. 63 km 557 m = ______ m
5a. 0 m 95 cm = ______ cm 5b. 56169 m = ____ km ____ m
6a. 41 m 41 cm = ______ cm 6b. 720 mm = ____ cm ____ mm
7a. 12 km 745 m = ______ m 7b. 12 km 983 m = ______ m
8a. 809 cm = ____ m ____ cm 8b. 17 cm 2 mm = ______ mm
9a. 74 km 496 m = ______ m 9b. 138 cm 0 mm = ______ mm
10a. 1976 mm = ____ cm ____ mm 10b. 12 km 311 m = ______ m

Worksheet 7
Write the following in standard form (in SI units)
78563 km
0.0000987 mm
297800 km per hour
2700000 kg
0.000675 seconds
247 s
49876 ns
WORK SHEET 8
Possible projects
Students can make their own Measurement Book which can have the following sections
G
Biographies of Scientists who have a unit named after them
? G
Comparison of units in various systems
? G
Measurement ladders
? G
Conversion problems

32 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Motion In One Dimension
Activity 1
A toy car with two motions (also suitable for vectors and vector addition)
Class experiment
This experiment shows that a motion can have different components.
Apparatus and materials
For each student or student group:
G
Toy car
G
Transparent plastic sheet
G
Board or other suitable surface marked with grid lines
Technical notes
The plastic sheet should be thick enough to prevent crumpling as it moves.
For grid lines, a spacing of 5 centimetres is adequate. Label X and Y directions on the board.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 33
Procedure
a On a sheet of paper, draw a grid that is a smaller version of the one under the plastic
sheet. This is a 'map' of the grid.
b Put the plastic sheet over the grid lines.
c Push the car steadily across the sheet in the x direction.
d On your map, mark the start and finish positions of the car. Draw a straight line that
joins the starting and finishing positions. Draw an arrowhead on the line, with its
point at the finishing position.
e With the car stationary on the sheet, pull the sheet in the y direction at a constant
speed. Mark the start and finish positions on the map.
f Now one person should move the car in the x direction across the plastic while
another person drags the plastic sheet in the y direction. Drag it as smoothly as you
can, and not too fast. Don't let the car wheels 'skid'.
g You should find that the car has ended up at a different place on the grid. That is
because it has 'two motions'. It has the motion you give it by pushing it, and the
motion it gets from the moving plastic sheet. Make a new 'map' of the grid. Mark the
starting and finishing positions, and join them with a journey arrow as you did
before.
h You tried to push the car in the x direction. Draw an arrow to show what the motion
would have been like if the plastic sheet had stayed still.
i The sheet moved in the y direction. Draw an arrow, starting in the same place as the
others, to show the journey of the plastic sheet.
j Repeat this, but change the velocity of the car and/or the plastic sheet. You'll need to
make a new map grid for each journey. Draw three arrows again, one for the x-
direction motion, one for the y-direction motion, and one for the combined motion.
k Decide what pattern the arrows make.
l You can try all sorts of different combinations of motion of the car and the sheet. To
keep it simple to start with, try changing only the direction in which you push the
car. Try pushing it in the opposite direction to its original journey (in the 'negative' x
direction). Then try moving the car and the sheet in the same direction. Always
follow the rule that the car must never skid.

34 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Teaching notes
1 This can be as open-ended as you like. You could limit investigation to
perpendicular motions, and guide students to the idea that the combined motion is
shown by the diagonal of the rectangle that the separate motions make. Or students
could try both perpendicular motions and co-linear motions, for which the resultant
motion is a simple sum.
2 They could try a wider range of orientations of motions, but it becomes more
difficult to see that the resultant is shown by the diagonal of a parallelogram.
Worksheet - 1
1. A car travels 100 m in 5 s. What is its average speed?
a. 500 m/s
b. 20 m/s
c. 0.05 m/s
2. What does a horizontal line on a distance-time graph represent?
a. Constant speed
b. Steady increase in speed
c. Stationary object
3. Which line on the graph represents the greatest speed?

distance
C

time

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 35
4. Which line on the graph represents an object travelling with a constant velocity?

velocity B

time

(Refer NCERT Science Textbook for Class IX)


Worksheet 2
1. Figure shows distance-time graph for the motion of two objects P and Q.
(A) State whether the motion of objects is uniform or non uniform.
(B)State whether the speed of P and Q is increasing or decreasing. Justify
your answer.

P Q

12

9
Distance (in metre)

Distance (in metre)

0
1 2 3 4
I II
Time (in second) Time (in second)

36 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
2. Explain with reason, which of the following graphs can possibly represent the
motion of a particle observed in nature.

Displacment

Velocry
Distance

Speed
o Time o Time 12 o 13 Time o Time

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

3. Out of the three speed time graphs shown below


Identify the graph for the following cases:
(A). A ball thrown vertically upwards and returning to the hand of the thrower.
(B). A body decelerating to a constant speed and accelerating.
Speed

Speed

Speed

Time Time Time

4. Can you suggest about the kind of motion of a body from following
displacement- time graphs?
Displacement (m)

Displacement (m)

Displacement (m)

Time (s) Time (s) Time (s)


(i) (ii) (iii)

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 37
5. Can you suggest real life examples about the motion of a body from the following
velocity time graphs?
Volocity

Volocity

Volocity
Time (s) Time (s) Time (s)
(i) (ii) (iii)

6. Draw velocity- time graphs for the following situations:


(A) When body is moving with the uniform velocity.
(B) When body is moving with variable velocity, but uniform acceleration.
(C) When body is moving with variable velocity, but uniform retardation.
(D) When body is moving with a variable velocity and variable acceleration.
7. From everyday life give one example for each of the following type of motion ?
{A} acceleration is in the direction of motion
{B} acceleration is against the direction of motion
{C} acceleration is uniform.
{D} acceleration is non-uniform
(Refer NCERT Science Textbook for Class IX)
Worksheet 3
Problem solving
1 A hiker covers a distance of 1500 m in 20 minutes. What is the average speed of the
hiker? Your answer:_______m/s
2 How many seconds would it take a lorry travelling at a constant speed of 20 m/s to
cover a distance of 30 km Your answer:______ s
3 How many metres does a cyclist travel in 5 minutes when cycling at a steady speed
of 6 m/s? Your answer:______ m

38 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
4 A car has an average speed of 30 m/s for a motorway journey of 51 km. A speed of 1
m/s corresponds to a speed of 2.2 miles per hour.
What is the average speed of the car in miles per hour? Your answer:______ miles/h
How many seconds did it take the car to complete its journey? Your answer: ______s
Did the car exceed the speed limit of 70 miles per hour at any time during its journey?
a. yes
b. no
c. perhaps
5 A car is travelling at a speed of 30 m/s. The driver then applies the brakes so that the
car decelerates steadily for 3 s until the speed of the car reaches 15 m/s. Calculate the
deceleration of the car m/s 2
Your answer:
6 A cyclist is cycling at a constant speed of 3 m/s . The cyclist then accelerates
uniformly at 0.8 m/s 2 for 10 s. What speed is reached by the cyclist in this timeYour
answer:________________
7 The speed-time graph shows the motion of a cyclist on a straight track

10
Speed (m/s)

0 5 10 15 20 25
Time (seconds)
What is the top speed reached by the cyclist? Your answer:______ m/s
After what time does the cyclist start to slow down? Your answer: _______s
What is the acceleration of the cyclist during the first 5 s? Your answer: ______m/s 2
Calculate the deceleration of the cyclist. Your answer: m/s 2

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 39
8 The speed-time graph shows the motion of a car on a straight section of road.

20

18 S
16
Speed (m/s)

14 R T
12 W
10

6 V
4

2 U
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Time (seconds)

Which line on the graph represents the car when it is stopped?


What is the highest speed reached by the car? Your answer: ______m/s
Which line on the graph shows the car's speed decreasing with time?
Calculate the acceleration represented by line R Your answer: ______m/s 2
Calculate the distance travelled by the car in 30 s Your answer: _______m
Calculate the average speed of the car during the first 16 s of its motion.
Your answer:_______ m/s

This worksheet has been developed from www.physicsclassroom.com

40 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
GRAPHIC ORGANISER
RECAPITULATION

Physical Quantities (Quantities which can be measured)

Length Mass Time


S.I Unit Meter (m) Kilogram(kg) Second(s)

G
Standard tools like ruler, balances and clocks/watch to be used
G
More number of readings will reduce the error in measurements
G
Other units for measuring
Length kilometer(km), centimeter(cm) and millimeter(mm)
Mass gram(g), milligram(mg)
Time hour(hr), millisecond(ms), microsecond(s)

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 41
9 SYLLABUS (CHEMISTRY)

List of units for Class IX CBSE I


Chemistry (Foundation and Extension)
UNIT I All about Matter
G
States of matter
G
Inter conversion of states of matter
G
Diffusion
G
Factors affecting the rate of diffusion
G
Kinetic particle theory
G
Temperature remains constant during a change of state
G
Heating and cooling curves
G
Evaporation causes cooling
G
Factors affecting the rate of evaporation
UNIT II MATERIALS
1. Materials around us
G
Kinds of materials( on the basis of shape, size, texture, state)
G
Materials that are good conductors of heat
G
Materials that are poor conductors of heat
G
Specific heat capacity
2. Materials in our clothing
G
Clothes that are good insulators
G
Clothes that keep us cool ( white Vs Black clothes)
G
Cotton Vs synthetic fabrics

42 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
UNIT III ELEMENTS
G
Structure of atoms
G
Arrangement of electrons in atoms
G
Electronic structure and the periodic table
G
Isotopes and isobars
UNIT IV COMPOUNDS
G
Elements combine to form compounds
G
Valency
G
Formulae of compounds
G
Ionic bonding
G
Properties of ionic compounds
G
Covalent bonding
G
Properties of covalent compounds
G
Metallic bonding
G
Balancing chemical equations
UNIT V MIXTURES
G
Homogenous and heterogenous mixtures
G
Colloids and suspensions
G
Difference between a mixture and a compound
G
Separating mixtures
G
Criteria for purity
UNIT VI CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS
G
Relative atomic mass
G
Relative molecular mass
G
Avogadros constant
G
Mole
G
Moles and gases
G
Moles and solutions
G
Moles and chemical equations
G
Limiting reagent

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 43
10 SCOPE DOCUMENT - UNIT-1 (CHEMISTRY)

TOPICS AND SUBTOPICS


G
States of matter
G
Inter conversion of states of matter
G
Diffusion
G
Factors affecting the rate of diffusion
G
Kinetic particle theory
G
Temperature remains constant during a change of state
G
Heating and cooling curves
G
Evaporation causes cooling
G
Factors affecting the rate of evaporation
THE LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of this unit students should be able to
Foundation
G
Identify the states of matter
G
State the physical properties of the states of matter
G
Define and explain melting, boiling, freezing, condensation, evaporation,
sublimation
G
Define melting point, boiling point
G
Understand that the freezing point of a substance is the same as its melting point

Recall the units for measuring temperature - K,


G F,
C

G
Is able to interconvert these units
G
State the kinetic particle theory of matter

44 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
G
Explain the physical properties of a state of matter on the basis of the kinetic particle
theory e.g. density of solid >density of liquid >density of gas
G
Explain the anomalous expansion of water.
G
Apply knowledge of inter conversion of states of matter to everyday phenomena e.g.
reason for water drops around a glass of water, ice crystals around an ice cream tub in
the freezer, the water cycle.
G
Explain that the temperature remains constant during a change of state.
G
Sketch heating and cooling curves (temperature Vs time) to represent conversion of
one state into another.
G
Explain that evaporation of a liquid occurs at all temperatures.
G
Explain that evaporation requires energy and is therefore an endothermic process.
GSuggest factors that can increase the rate of evaporation high temperature, wind,
low atmospheric humidity.
EXTENSION
G
Other two states of matter-Plasma and Bose- Einstein condensate.
G
Effect of change of pressure on the different states of matter. (Refer NCERT, Science,
class IX, subtopic 1.42)
G
Presence of non volatile dissolved salts causes an increase in boiling point and
lowering of the freezing point of a volatile liquid.
Suggested activities
Demonstrations By The Teacher
G
Show objects in various states some solid objects, some liquids, some gases. Students
observe the physical properties of objects in the different states
G
Show simple experiments such as boiling of water, melting of ice, vaporization of
alcohol, sublimation of iodine.
G
Put some cologne on a students hand and blow. It feels cool when it evaporates.
The best experiments of diffusion Crystals of KMnO4 diffusing into water, perfume
G
diffusing into the air, etc

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 45
Experiments Performed By The Students
For each of these experiments the students must write their observations and
conclusion of the experiment
G
An experiment on compressibility liquids and gases.
G
Allow students to heat distilled water and measure the temp. at regular intervals of
time to show that temperature remains constant during a change of state.
G
Perform a similar experiment with ice melting.
G
Modify the above experiment by adding salt to water and then note the temperature
at which it boils. Does it still remain constant?
G
Experiment using a glass tube plugged at one end with cotton soaked in
concentrated HCl and at the other end with cotton soaked in NH4OH. See the white
ring of ammonium chloride near the end with aqueous ammonia.
End Of Unit Questions
At the end of the unit there must be some questions to assess the students understanding of
the topics and ability to apply knowledge.
G
Give various scenarios to students - to dry up a wet party dress- cold, heat, wind,
rainy season etc for factors affecting rate of evaporation. Link this to drying hair
using a drier.
G
Reasoning questions based on diffusion.
G
Questions based on the kinetic particle theory.
G
Graph interpretation for heating and cooling curves.
G
Questions based on diffusion.
LINKS
http://www.docbrown.info/page10/page10.htm
https://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/chemistry/
http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/gcse/
http://www.gcsescience.com/science-chemistry-revision.html

46 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Cross Curricular Links
G
Physics Differences between solids, liquids and gases, Effect of heat on the states
of matter, heating and cooling curves.
G
Mathematics graphical representation
G
Biology diffusion and osmosis in plants and animals

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 47
11 LESSON TEMPLATE UNIT-1 (CHEMISTRY)

Unit: All about Matter


G
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of this unit student will be able to:
G
Identify the different states of matter.
G
Classify the change of state taking place during the melting, freezing, condensation
and sublimation processes.
G
Identify and apply diffusion boiling and evaporation phenomenons.
G
Apply knowledge of inter conversion of states of matter to everyday phenomena
G
Deduce that the temperature remains constant during a change of state.
G
Identify factors affecting evaporation and diffusion.
For more refer to NCERT secondary curriculum.
Warming Up
G
Student will be shown variety of things like a needle, a piece of wooden stick, milk,
cold drink. a burning incense stick and a syringe having bromine gas. Allow
students to categorise them into three states of matter.
G
Observing and classifying the various objects in the class room as solid, liquid and
gases.(physical classification-based on physical properties)
G
Introduction of KWL sheet.
Pre-lesson Activities To Build Background Knowledge
G
Activity for recollecting the physical properties of the three states of matter such as
compressibility, volume, shape etc ( Worksheet-1)
G
Role play of different states of matter as per previous knowledge of the students
(Based on physical properties and inter particle force of attraction)

48 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
G
Power point presentation of inter conversion of states and relating them to different
phenomenon such as melting, boiling, evaporation etc.
G
Group discussion Physical properties of solid, liquid and gases.
Lesson Development
Enquiry questions
G
What is common in all the above examples?
G
What is responsible for the existence of matter in three different states?
G
Comparative study of three states of matter by relating them to a classroom of
students with a strict teacher in classroom, a lenient teacher standing outside the
classroom and with no teacher in a class.
G
Construction of hypothesis- State of matter changes with change in temperature.
G
Planning of Experiments
G
Hands on Lab activities/ Class room activity, done with activity sheets-
G
Take ice in a beaker and start heating- Inter conversion of states of matter. ( refer
NCERT, Science, class IX, Activity 1.12)
G
Study the effect of change of temperature on the physical state of matter.(WS-2, WS-
3 and WS-4)
G
Drawing of heating and cooling curves on the graph sheet.(Using the data from WS-
2 and WS-3)
G
Evaporation and factors like Humidity, temperature, surface area and wind
velocity affecting rate of evaporation. ( refer NCERT, Science, class IX, Activity 1.14)
G
Diffusion-Study of diffusion using crystals of potassium permanganate (KMNO4)
and water (WS-5) ( refer NCERT, Science, class IX, Activity 1.3, 1.4,and 1.5)
G
Study factors like molecular mass, temperature etc. affecting rate of diffusion (WS-6)
Interpretation of simple and variable data-
G
Effect of molecular mass, temperature, stirring on rate of diffusion.
G
Effect of temperature on the physical state of matter.
G
Class discussion on evaporation and factors affecting rate of evaporation.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 49
G
Applications of cooling caused by evaporation.
G
Similarities and differences between melting and freezing, boiling and
evaporation, evaporation and condensation, evaporation and sublimation.
Concept Attainment
G
Completing KWL Sheet
G
Completing Concept Map
G
Three states of Matter-Physical Classification which are inter convertible by change
in pressure or change in temperature.
G
Activities ensuring concept attainment
G
Question cube (WS-7)
Application To Real Life Situations
G
Comparision and Identifying reasons for the differences between-
G
Solid, liquid and gas
G
Evaporation and Boiling
G
Melting and Sublimation
G
Rate of Evaporation
G
Rate of diffusion
G
Examples from students
G
Examples sited by the teacher through enquiry questions.
Science Process Skills
G
Observation and recording
G
Comparision
G
Classification
G
Estimation & Measurement
G
Hypothesis, data collection, analysis and prediction
G
Generating scientific knowledge

50 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
G
Commitment to scientific enquiry
G
Open mindedness; ability to balance alternatives
G
Reading and drawing
G
Defining and solving problems
G
Design and model making
G
Cooperative spirit and team building skill
Activities Catering To Multiple Intelligence Skills
G
Oral presentations/Group discussions- Role play by students on different states of
matter and group discussion on factors affecting rate of evaporation.
G
ICT- Animations of diffusion and change of state
G
Hands on activities- Lab experiments, Model making
Extended Learning
G
Web search-
G
http://www.docbrown.info/page10/page10.htm
G
https://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/chemistry/
G
http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/gcse/
G
http://www.gcsescience.com/science-chemistry-revision.html
G
Innovations/Investigatory projects Effect of impurities on boiling point and
freezing point of a liquid.
G
Extensive reading-Newspapers, encyclopedia, books etc.
Culminating Performances (formative Assesment)
G
Self evaluation
G
Students use rubrics or checklist to self assess their progress towards their goals
G
Peer evaluation for developing positive attitude
G
Say something positive
G
Observe something that can be improved
G
Be specific

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 51
G
Speak about the work and not about the person/peer
G
Group evaluation
G
Group discussion
G
Team work
G
Teacher evaluation by
G
Using various assessment tools
G
Class work
G
Home work/ Assignments
G
Oral presentation or answers etc.
G
Portfolio
G
Work done by the student
G
Models
G
Posters
G
Slogans
G
Collection of pictures

52 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
12 STUDENT AND TEACHER SUPPORT
MATERIAL - UNIT-1 (CHEMISTRY)

(These sheets should be used for reference and teachers should develop their own sheets to
encourage an enquiry based approach to Science. The activities and experiments suggested
here are some examples. Some concepts have been repeated and can be used for students of
varying abilities)

Sample Of Kwl Sheet


K-I know (before the lesson)
W-I want to know (before the lesson)
L- I have learnt (after the lesson)
H- How have I learnt?
States of Matter

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 53
Sample of Building Background Knowledge Sheet
Build background knowledge and use that knowledge of the students to become better and more
informed readers of hard text or learners of difficult concepts. This method is particularly useful in
introducing a topic because it fosters curiosity and builds in immediate feedback about learning. A good
BBK takes very little work on the teachers part and a lot of preparation before hand in gathering
appropriate material.

54 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Worksheets
Compressibility Of Matter
Aim: To show that gases are more compressible than liquids
Apparatus: Syringe (100mL, two), Rubber cork
Procedure:
1. Insert the nozzle of each syringe into a rubber cork and pull out the piston from
boyh syringes.
2. Fill one of the syringes with water.
3. Let the other syringe have air inside it.
4. Insert pistons in both the syringes
5. Try to push the pistons into both the syringes with almost equal force.
6. Observe what happens.

Observations:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Conclusion:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 55
Questions
1. A given substance X has a definite volume, no fixed shape and is almost
incompressible. What is the physical state of the substance X.
2. Why can gases be compressed easily?
3. Use the idea of particles to explain why:
a) Solids have a definite shape
b) Solids cannot be poured
c) Liquids fill the bottom of a container
d) You cant store gases in open containers
e) You cant squeeze a sealed plastic syringe that is completely full of water
f) A balloon expands as you blow into it.
4. Which has minimum inter particle distance among three physical states?
5. Account for the following:
(a) The smell of disinfectant reaches to the corridors of hospital even when the
disinfectant substance is kept in the laboratories.
(b) An inflated air balloon collapses when pricked with a pin. Which property of
the gaseous state is shown by this?

56 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Teacher Support Sheet
WORKSHEET-1
Background Information :
Solids
G
Solids cannot flow freely like gases or liquids because the particles are strongly held
in fixed positions.
G
Solids have a fixed surface and volume (at a particular temperature) because of the
strong particle attraction.
G
Solids are extremely difficult to compress because there is no real empty space
between the particles.
G
Solids will expand a little on heating but nothing like as much as liquids because of
the greater particle attraction restricting the expansion and contraction occurs on
cooling. The expansion is caused by the increased energy of particle vibration,
forcing them further apart causing an increase in volume and corresponding
decrease in density.
Liquids
G
A liquid has a fixed volume at a given temperature but its shape is that of the
container which holds the liquid.
G
There are much greater forces of attraction between the particles in a liquid
compared to gases, but not quite as much as in solids.
G
Particles quite close together but still arranged at random throughout the container,
there is a little close range order as you can get clumps of particles clinging together
temporarily.
G
Particles moving rapidly in all directions but more frequently collisions with each
other than in gases due to shorter distances between particles.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 57
G
With increase in temperature, the particles move faster as they gain kinetic energy,
so increased collision rates, increased collision energy and increased rate of
diffusion.
Liquids
G
A gas has no fixed shape or volume, but always spreads out to fill any container.
G
There are almost no forces of attraction between the particles so they are completely
free of each other.
G
The particles are widely spaced and scattered at random throughout the container
so there is no order in the system.
G
The particles move rapidly in all directions, frequently colliding with each other
and the side of the container.
G
With increase in temperature, the particles move faster as they gain kinetic energy.
Observations expected by the student:
G
The piston can be easily pushed inside the syringe that contained air
G
The piston in the syringe containing water cannot be pushed inside.
Conclusions expected by the student:
G
Gases can be compressed easily. Gases are highly compressible
G
Liquids cannot be compressed. Liquids are incompressible.

58 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Worksheet 2
MELTING (SOLID TO LIQUID)
Aim: To study changes in temperature during the melting of ice
Apparatus: A 250cm3 beaker, burner, stirrer, ice cubes, water bath/trough, thermometer
Procedure:
1. Take a 250cm3 beaker. Fill half the beaker with slightly crushed ice.
2. Place the beaker in a water bath / trough of water at a temperature of approx
50oC
3. Put a thermometer into the beaker. The bulb of the thermometer must be
surrounded by ice.
4. Record the temperature every 1min till all the ice has melted. Record the
temperature for another 2 min. Write your readings in the observation table.
5. Plot a graph of temperature Vs time.

Observation Table:

Time in minutes Temperature in 0C

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 59
Observations:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Conclusion:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Graph:
Questions
1. Which is an incorrect statement?
(a) Cooling is produced during melting
(b) The temperature changes steadily on heating.
(c) The melting point of ice is 00 C.
(d) Once melting starts, the temperature stays at 0C until all the ice has melted.
2. For accurate measurement of melting point of ice one should take :
(a) ice made of sea water
(b) ice made of pure water
(c) Ice made of pond water
(d) ice made of rain water
3. Melting is an
(a) an endothermic process
(b) an exothermic process
(c) both
(d) None

60 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
4. When heat is supplied to a solid substance
(a) the kinetic energy of the particles increases.
(b) the kinetic energy of the particles decreases.
(c) the potential energy of the particles increases.
(d) the potential energy of the particles decreases
5. Account for the following:
(a) Different substances require different amount of heat energy for melting?
(b) At the melting point, even though heat is constantly supplied, the
temperature does not rise till all the solid has changed into liquid

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 61
TEACHER SUPPORT SHEET
(WORKSHEET-2)
Background Information:
This activity is to be performed by the students when they are studying melting topic under
the heading inter conversion of states of matter. Before doing this activity the teacher is
required to explain the following points:
G
Changes of physical state i.e. gas <==> liquid <==> solid are also accompanied by
energy changes.
G
Heat is required to change a solid into a liquid. As energy is absorbed, it is an
endothermic process. The particles of the solid gain heat energy and change it into
kinetic energy of the particles. The particles of the solid start vibrating more
vigorously. This weakens the force of attraction between the particles. This leads to
expansion in the solid. Eventually, the solid changes into a liquid when the
attractive forces are too weak to hold the particles together in an ordered way. The
temperature at which this happens is called the melting point. At the melting point,
even though heat is constantly supplied, the temperature does not rise till all the
solid has changed into a liquid. This is because the energy that is being provided is
used for a change of state. The KE of the particles remains constant at the melting
point.
G
The amount of heat needed to melt or boil a substance is different for every
substance. Thats because the particles in each substance are different, with
different forces between them. The stronger the force, the more heat energy is
needed to overcome them.
G
The reverse takes place during the freezing of water.

62 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Observations expected by the student:
G
The temperature changes as a block of ice is steadily heated.
G
Once melting starts, the temperature stays at 0C until all the ice has melted. This is
because all the energy absorbed in heating at these temperatures (the latent heats or
enthalpies of state change), goes into weakening the inter-particle forces without
temperature rise.
Graph expected by the student:

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 63
Worksheet-3
Boiling Of Water
Aim: To show that temperature of liquids remain constant during a change of state.
Apparatus: Beaker, stirrer, thermometer, wire gauze, burner, tripod stand, iron stand and
water
Procedure:
1. Take a 250cm3 beaker. Fill half the beaker with about 150 mL of water.
2. Suspend a thermometer into the beaker. The bulb of the thermometer must be
surrounded by water.
3. Heat the beaker containing water with constant stirring.
4. Record the temperature every 1min till all the water starts boiling. Record the
temperature for another 2 min. Write your readings in the observation table.
6. Plot a graph of temperature Vs time.

Observation Table:

Time in minutes Temperature in 0C

64 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Observations:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Conclusion:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Graph:

Questions
1. While determining the boiling point of water, the thermometer should be kept in
such a way that its bulb remain:
a) dipped in water
b) just above the surface of water.
c) Touch the bottom of container.
d) Near the cork of container
2. When should the reading be noted to get the correct boiling point?

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 65
3.

The table shows the melting points and boiling points of some substances. Which
substance is a gas at 0oC?
[Substance] Melting Point oC and Boiling Point oC
A. 119 and 446
B -127 and -33
C -39 and 354
D 15 and 126
4. Ice is slowly heated and a graph is drawn between temperatures of the ice/water
with time which portion of the graph shows latent heat of absorption?

temp
b
a

time

5. Why does the temperature remain constant during boiling of a liquid, although the
heat is being continuously supplied to the liquid ?

6. The boiling point of pure distilled water is

66 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Worksheet 4
SUBLIMATION (SOLID TO GAS)
Aim: To study the effect of temperature on iodine crystals.
Apparatus: A 100cm3 conical flask, burner, stirrer, iodine crystals, crushed ice, water
bath/trough
Procedure:
1. Take a 100cm3 conical flask . Keep some crystals of iodine in it. Close its mouth with
cotton wool.
2. Place the 100cm3 conical flask in a trough of water at a temperature of
approximately 60oC
3. Observe what happens to the crystals of iodine.
4. Now put the 100cm3 conical flask in a trough having crushed ice.
5. Note the change in physical state.
Observations:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Conclusion:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 67
Questions
1. Frost evaporates directly back to water vapour (gas) and this happens in the 'dry'
and extremely cold winters of the Gobi Desert on a sunny day. This physical
process is
(a) Sublimation
(b) Evaporation
(c) Melting
(d) Boiling
2. sublimation is a
(a) Physical change
(b) Chemical change
(c) Both physical and chemical change
(d) Neither physical nor chemical change.
3. When heat is supplied to a solid substance
(a) the kinetic energy of the particles increases.
(b) the kinetic energy of the particles decreases.
(c) the potential energy of the particles increases.
(d) the potential energy of the particles decreases
4. Account for the following:
(a) At room temperature bottles of solid iodine show crystals forming at the top of
the bottle above the solid.
(b) Solid carbon dioxide changes directly to gaseous state when kept at room
temperature.

68 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
TEACHER SUPPORT SHEET
WORKSHEET-4
Background Information:
This activity is to be performed by the students when they are studying sublimation under the
heading interconversion of states of matter. Before doing this activity the teacher is required to
explain the following points:
G
Sublimation: This is when a solid, on heating, directly changes into a gas without
melting, AND the gas on cooling re-forms a solid directly without condensing to a
liquid. They usually involve just a physical change.
G
Theory in terms of particles: When the solid is heated the particles vibrate with
increasing force from the added thermal energy. If the particles have enough kinetic
energy of vibration to partially overcome the particle-particle attractive forces you
would expect the solid to melt. HOWEVER, if the particles at this point have enough
energy at this point that would have led to boiling, the liquid will NOT form and the
solid turns directly into a gas. Overall endothermic change, energy absorbed and
'taken in' to the system.
G
On cooling, the particles move slower and have less kinetic energy. Eventually,
when the particle kinetic energy is low enough, it will allow the particle-particle
attractive forces to produce a liquid. BUT the energy may be low enough to permit
direct formation of the solid, i.e. the particles do NOT have enough kinetic energy to
maintain a liquid state. Overall exothermic change, energy released and 'given out'
to the surroundings.
G
Even at room temperature bottles of solid iodine show crystals forming at the top of
the bottle above the solid. The warmer the laboratory, the more crystals form when
it cools down at night.
I2 (s) I2 (g) (physical change only)
Observations expected:
G
When we place the beaker in a water bath maintained a temperature of 400C, violet
vapours of iodine crystals can be seen which is due to sublimation.
G
When we cool the same vapours of iodine by placing the beaker in a trough having
ice, crystals of iodine are formed.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 69
Worksheet 5
Introduction- Diffusion
Aim: To understand the term diffusion.
Apparatus and Chemicals: A beaker with water, crystals of potassium permanganate.
Procedure:
1. Take a 250cm3 beaker. Fill half the beaker with water.
2. Place some crystals of potassium manganate(VII) in a beaker of water
3. Leave the beaker undisturbed for some time or one day.
4. Observe change after five minutes and then after four hour.

Observations:
1. After five minutes: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. After four hours: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Conclusion:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

70 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Questions
1. Describe how the appearance of the water in the beaker changed with increasing
time?
2. What is the name of the physical process that takes place in this experiment?
3. A large crystal of potassium manganate(VII) was placed in the bottom of a beaker of
cold water and left for several hours.
a) Describe what would be seen:
i) after five minutes ii) after several hours
b) Explain your answers using the idea of particles.
c) Name the two processes that have taken place during the experiment.
4. a) Which of these are examples of diffusion?
i) a helium balloon rising in air
ii) a hydrogen-filled balloon deflating, due to gas passing through the skin
iii) the smell of perfume from a person standing on the other side of a room
iv) sucking a drink from a bottle, using a straw
v) an ice lolly turning liquid when left out of the freezer
vi) all the tea in the cup changing colour when you add milk
vii) a heavy, coloured gas spreading down through a gas jar
viii) rice going soft when left in hot water
ix) a blue crystal forming a blue solution, when it is left sitting in a glass of water.
b) For one of the examples of diffusion, draw a diagram showing the particles before
and after diffusion has taken place.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 71
TEACHER SUPPORT SHEET
WORKSHEET-5
Background Information:
This activity is to be performed by the students when they are studying the topic diffusion.
Before doing this activity the teacher is required to explain the following points:
G
The natural rapid and random movement of the particles in all direction means that
they readily spread or diffuse. This mixing process is called diffusion.
G
Diffusion is faster in gases than in liquids where there is more space for them to
move.
G
Diffusion is negligible in solids due to the close packing of the particles.
G
Diffusion is responsible for the spread of odours even without any air disturbance
e.g. use of perfume, opening a jar of coffee or the smell of petrol around a garage.
G
When diffusion takes place between a liquid and a gas it is known as intimate
mixing. The kinetic theory can be used to explain this process. It states that collision
are taking place between particles in a liquid or a gas and that there is sufficient
space between the particles of one substance for the particles of the other substance
to move into.
In solids say KMnO4 as the molecules are held together by strong forces of
G
attraction, they dont move and remain fixed at their respective positions. On the
other hand , the particles of liquids are continuously moving and thus possess some
kinetic energy. Because of their kinetic energy, the particles of water overcome the
forces of attraction between the particles of solid crystals .As a result ,the particles
of water move in between the spaces of the particles of solid crystals and the crystal
start dissolving in water. Solution turns pink. With passage of time the colour starts
deepening and spreading into more water. Ultimately the whole solution gets
coloured. The above process of movement of particles ( ions, atoms or
molecules)from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration is
known as diffusion.
G
It would be a good idea to ask the students for a hypothesis on the time or the
number of days it will take for the colour to spread uniformly without any
disturbance.

72 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Observation expected:
The colour spreads because particles leave the crystal and mix through the water particles.
The crystal dissolves.
G
After five minutes the purple colour starts spreading into water.
G
After several hours only the solution at the bottom becomes dark purple.
Conclusion:
G
Diffusion is responsible for spread of colour of potassium permanganate crystals.

Worksheet 6
Factors Affecting Rate Of Diffusion
Aim:To study that molecules of different molecular masses move/diffuse at different speeds.
(One of the factors affecting rate of diffusion)
Apparatus and Chemicals: A long glass tube (2-4 cm diameter), cotton wool, rubber bung,
concentrated hydrochloric acid and ammonia solution.
Procedure:
1. Take a long glass tube (2-4 cm diameter)
2. Fill at one end with a plug of cotton wool soaked in conc. hydrochloric acid and seal
the end with a rubber bung.
3. Similarly place a plug of conc. ammonia solution at the other end and seal this end
also with a rubber bung.
4. Leave the test tube undisturbed and horizontal for some time
5. Observe the change inside the glass tube.
Observation:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 73
Conclusion:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Questions
1. What do you observe in the tube after it is left undisturbed and horizontal for some
time?
2. How is rate of diffusion of gases related to their molecular mass?
3. Of all gases hydrogen diffuses fastest at any given temperature. What can you tell
from this?
4.
Gas Formula Relative Molecular Mass

Methane CH4 16

Helium He 4

Oxygen O2 32

Nitrogen N2 28

Chlorine Cl2 71

Look at the table above.


a) Which two gases will mix fastest? Explain.
b) Which gas will take least time to escape from a gas syringe?
c) Would you expect chlorine to diffuse more slowly than the gases in air?
Explain.
d) An unknown gas diffuses faster than nitrogen, but more slowly than methane.
What you can say about its molecular mass?
74 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
5. The apparatus shown below was set up. Give explanations for the following
observations.

(a) The formation of white cloud.


(b) It took a few minutes before the white cloud is formed.
(c) The white cloud formed further from the cotton wool soaked in ammonia.
(d) Cooling the concentrated ammonia and hydrochloric acid before carrying out
the experiment increased the time taken for the white cloud to form.

TEACHER SUPPORT SHEET


Worksheet -6
Background Information:
This activity is to be done by the students when they are studying the topic factors affecting
diffusion. Before doing this activity the teacher is required to explain the following points:
G
The smaller the molecular mass, the greater the average speed of the molecules.
G
Therefore the smaller the molecular mass, the faster the gas diffuses.
G
E.g. Mr(NH3) = 14 + 1x3 = 17, moves faster than Mr(HCl) = 1 + 35.5 = 36.5 and that's
why they meet nearer the HCl end of the tube.
G
The rate of diffusion increases with increase in temperature as the particles gain
kinetic energy and move faster.
Observation expected:
The soaked cotton wool plugs will give off fumes of HCl and NH3 respectively, and if the tube
is left undisturbed and horizontal, despite the lack of tube movement, e.g. No shaking to mix
and the absence of convection, a white cloud of NH4Cl forms at about 1/3rd along, from the
conc. hydrochloric acid tube end.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 75
Conclusion:
G
What happens is that the colourless gases, ammonia and hydrogen chloride, diffuse
down the tube and react to form fine white crystals of the salt ammonium chloride.
G
ammonia + hydrogen chloride ---> ammonium chloride
NH3(g) + HCl(g) ----> NH4Cl(s)

76 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Worksheet -7
UNIT END QUESTIONS
1. The melting and boiling points of six substances are given below.
Substance Melting point/0C Boiling point/0C
Nitrogen -210 -196
Carbon disulphide -112 46
Ammonia -78 -34
Bromine -7 59
Phosphorus 44 280
Mercury (II) chloride 276 302

(Room temperature is taken as 200C)


(i) Which element is solid at room temperature?
(ii) Which compound is a liquid at room temperature?
(iii) Which compound is a gas at room temperature?
(iv) Which element will condense when cooled to room temperature
from 1000C?
(v) Which compound will freeze first on cooling from room temperature to a very
low temperature?
(vi) Which of the substance is a liquid over the widest range of temperature?
(vii) Draw diagrams to show how the particles are arranged in bromine and in
ammonia at room temperature.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 77
2. The diagram below shows a burning candle. Draw the arrangements of the
particles at positions (i), (ii) and (iii).

___________(i)
___________(ii)

___________(iii)

Use the idea of particles to explain why:


a) Solids have a definite shape
b) Solids cannot be poured
c) Liquids fill the bottom of a container
d) You cant store gases in open containers
e) You cant squeeze a sealed plastic syringe that is completely full of water
f) A balloon expands as you blow into it.
3. The rate of diffusion of a gas can be measured using this apparatus:

The glass tube is sealed at one end with a plug of plaster. This has tiny holes in it, just large
enough to let gases pass through. Water will rise in the tube if a gas escapes from the tube
faster than air enters it. (Air is mainly nitrogen and oxygen.)

78 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
a) Explain why the water level in the tube rises, when hydrogen is the gas used.
b) What does this tell you about the rate of diffusion of hydrogen compared to air?
c) Explain your answer to b) using the idea of particle mass.
d) The molecules in carbon dioxide are heavier than those in nitrogen and oxygen. So
what do you think will happen to the level of the water in the tube, if the gas in the
tube is carbon dioxide? Explain.
4. The graph below is a heating curve for a pure substance. It shows how the
temperature rises with time, when the solid is heated steadily until it melts,
and then the liquid is heated until it boils.

a) What is the melting point of the substance?


b) What is its boiling point?
c) What happens to the temperature while the substance changes state?
d) The graph shows that the substance takes longer to boil than to melt. Give a reason
for this.
e) How can you tell that the substance is not water?
f) Sketch a rough heating curve of pure water.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 79
5. A cooling curve is the opposite of a heating curve.It shows how the temperature of a
substance changes with time, as it is cooled from a gas to a solid. Here is the cooling
curve for one substance:

a) What is the state of the substance at room temperature (20C)?


b) Use the list of melting and boiling points given below to identify the substance.

6. Using the idea of particles explain why:


a) the smell of burnt food can travel all over the house
b) when two solids are placed on top of each other, they do not mix

80 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
13 SYLLABUS (BIOLOGY)

List of units for Class IX CBSE i


Biology (Foundation and Extension)
1. The Fundamental unit of life
G
What are Living Organisms made up of?
G
Compound Microscope
G
Size of organisms
G
Letter e lab, graph paper
G
Onion peel, Cheek cell
G
Other types of microscopes (Project)
What is cell made up of? What is the structural organization of a cell?
G
Cell theory
G
Cell wall
G
Plasma Membrane
G
Structure of Plasma Membrane
G
Diffusion
G
Osmosis
G
Tonicity
G
Eukaryote and Prokaryote
G
Cytoplasm
G
Cell Organelles
G
Nucleus

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 81
G
Structure of chromosome/DNA/RNA
G
Endoplasmic Reticulum SER, RER
G
Golgi Apparatus
G
Lysosomes
G
Mitochondria
G
Plastids
G
Vacuoles
G
Ribosome
G
Centrioles
G
Microtubules
2. Cell Division
G
Cell cycle
G
Mitosis
3. Tissues
G
Plant tissues
G
Meristematic
G
Permanent
G
Simple Permanent
G
Complex Permanent
G
Animal tissues
G
Epithelial
G
Connective
G
Muscular
G
Nervous
4. Diversity in living organisms
G
How do we classify living things
G
Significance of naming

82 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
G
A standard system for naming organisms
G
Hierarchy of Classification Groups
Main features and examples of:
G
Monera
G
Protista
G
Fungi
G
Plantae
- Thallophyta
- Bryophyta
- Pteridophyta
- Gymnosperms
- Angiosperms
G
Animalia
- Porifera
- Coelenterata
- Platyhelminthes
- Nematoda
- Annelida
- Arhtropoda
- Mollusca
- Echinodermata
- Protochordata
- Vertebrata
- Pisces
- Amphibian

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 83
- Reptilia
- Aves
- Mammalia
5. Why do we fall ill?
G
Significance of Health
G
How does one catch an infection
G
Types of diseases
G
Causes of diseases
6. Diagnosing and controlling diseases
G
Organisms that cause disease
G
Parasites and diseases
G
Immunization
7. Biogeochemical cycles
G
Water
G
Nitrogen
G
Carbon
G
Oxygen
8. Human influences on environment and repair
G
Green House Effect
G
Ozone layer depletion
G
Pollution
G
Alternate sources of energy
G
Ideas on becoming green

84 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
9. Improvement of food resources
G
Crop Variety Improvement
G
Crop Production Improvement
G
Crop Protection Management
G
Animal Husbandry
10. Gene Technology
G
Introduction to genetic modification
G
Application in daily lives
G
Human Genome Project
G
Genetically altered plants and animals

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 85
14 SCOPE DOCUMENT UNIT 1 (BIOLOGY)

Unit 1 THE FUDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE


The unit focuses on the historical component of cell biology. Students learn about the
invention of the microscope and the impact that this invention had on scientific discovery.
Students become familiar with the cell theory. Aside from understanding the actual
components of the theory itself, students should see that scientific theories are not generated
overnight, but require thorough testing, research, and review. Theories are also based upon a
body of knowledge that has been compiled by many individuals, and are not just the work of
one.
Learning outcomes - Foundation
At the end of this unit students should be able to
GUnderstand the basic structure and function(s) of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic
cell.
G
Identify and describe the function(s) of the organelles inside of a eukaryotic cell.
G
Differentiate between a eukaryotic and a prokaryotic cell.
G
Explain the differences between a typical animal cell and a typical plant cell.
G
Understand that multicellular organisms are made up of different types of cells
with specialized functions.
G
Gain practice using the microscope: 1) They will be able to identify its parts and
understand the functions of those parts. 2) They will be able to locate and focus the
specimens present on prepared slides. 3) They will be able to create their own wet-
mount slide and focus on the specimen.
Learning outcomes Extension
At the end of this unit students should be able to
G
Familiarize themselves with the scientists who led to the development of the cell
theory.

86 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
G
Know and understand the three parts of the cell theory.
G
Explore the history of the microscope
G
Learn more about the scanning electron microscope as well as view images created
by an electron microscope
G
Research stem cells to learn how they function, the distinguishing characteristics of
types of stem cells, and how stem cells may be manipulated by scientists to help
bodies heal and regenerate unhealthy or damaged cells.
G
Make a project which challenges them to make original functional analogies
between cell structures and everyday objects.
Suggested activities / processes
G
Create a travel brochure that describes the functions of each organelle within a cell.
Imagine the cell being similar to a small city, an amusement park, a shopping mall,
or a tourist attraction such as a museum, or sports stadium. Using your creativity
and your knowledge about cell organelles, you will produce a travel brochure to
attract visitors to your "city" or chosen destination. This brochure will not only
attract visitors, but it will also serve as an analogy for each of the cell organelles'
functions. Your brochure should use words and pictures that describe the place and
motivate tourists to travel there.
G
Ask the students to come up with terms that describe a cell. Answers will vary,
however students should know that cells are small and that living organisms are
made up of cells. After discussing their responses, it may be beneficial to ask them
how they think a bacteria cell may be different from a plant cell and how a plant cell
may differ from an animal cell.
G
Could be introduced by using a K-W-L chart. Be sure to address any misconceptions
that the students place in the "K" column. Have them keep this chart in their
notebooks until completion of the unit. During the review for the test, the class can
complete the "L" column. This will identify any areas that may need additional
inputs or any lingering misconceptions. Alternatively, the students can complete
the "L" column independently as an alternative form of assessment.
G
Instead of going over each organelle of the cell, have them find the information on
their own. They can keep this information in their notebook or they may turn it in for
a grade.

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 87
Provide the students with the following objectives:
1) Describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Which types of
organisms are prokaryotes? Which types of organisms are eukaryotes?
2) Describe the function(s) of the organelles in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Include organelles found in plant cells that are not found in animal cells.
You should provide the students with a list of organelles that you want them to be familiar
with.
The links below are also quite useful.
1) www.brainpop.com/science/seeall/
2) www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objid=AP11403
3) www.cellsalive.com
Discuss their findings with the class so that students have similar information. Different
texts and websites may vary in their descriptions or definitions. Even though the
meaning is the same, some students may have difficulty comprehending this. Be sure to
provide written information. For example, a concept map and/or two-column notes may
be helpful.
G
Create a Venn diagram that compares prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Categories
for comparison may include size, DNA structure, types of organisms, and
organelles.
G
The following sites focus on cell structure and function.
a. Matching: http://www.quia.com/cm/64649.html
b. Millionaire game: http://www.quia.com/rr/86966.html
c. Matching, memory, flashcards: http://www.quia.com/jg/549390.html
d. Analogies: http://www.quia.com/cm/66904.html
e. Fill-in-the-blank: http://www.quia.com/pop/83348.html
G
Place students in groups of 3 or 4 students. Have them create a cell analogy.
Depending on your students, you may have them come up with their own
categories or you can provide guidance by giving them a specific category. For
example, they can compare the cell to a school, a sports team, a prison, a factory, or a
car.

88 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
G
Students create a poster of the cell. Once completed, they can trade posters with
other students and use it to quiz themselves on the parts of the cell.
G
Create a three-dimensional cell using clay.
G
Create a three-dimensional cell using Jelly and other edible materials.
G
The student pretends that he or she is a nucleus who must post job openings for the
organelles of the cell.
G
Identify parts of the microscope and/or describe the functions of those parts
G
Identify organelles on various cell models. Advanced students should be able to
identify whether a cell they are examining is an animal or plant cell and WHY they
think so. They should also be able to identify if the cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic
based upon the presence of a nucleus.
G
Skin cells: It's easy to examine your skin cells. Wash and dry the underside of your
wrist. Place a small piece of transparent tape on the wrist. Using forceps, remove the
piece of tape and place the sticky side up on a microscope slide. Use a few drops of
methylene blue to stain the cells and apply the coverslip. Have the students
compare the skin cells to their cheek cells.
G
Flashcards: Have students make flashcards for the parts of the microscope. They
can use these cards to quiz one another.
G
Video: United Streaming has a five-minute video clip that discusses use of the
microscope. This can be used before the lab as an introduction or after the lab as
reinforcement. The title of the video is "Simply Science: Science Skills." United
Streaming also offers a 20-minute video entitled, "How to Use a Microscope." The
video is geared for middle school however it could be used in a high school
classroom.
Questions
G
How does using the stains in this lab demonstrate that the cell membrane is semi-
permeable?
G
A cells shape often correlates with its function. How do you explain the shape of the
onion cells versus your cheek cells?

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 89
G
An animal cell contains about 10 to 20 golgi apparatus whereas a plant cell contains
several hundred. Why do you think there is such a difference in the number of these
organelles in each cell?
G
Thinking ahead: Chromosomes are made up of DNA. Sections of DNA make up
your genes. The nucleus of your cheek cell contains 46 chromosomes. The nuclei of
your other body cells contain 46 chromosomes as well. How do your cheek cells
know to be cheek cells when they contain the same chromosomes as your other
body cells? (Tell me what you think.)
Suggested Links and resources
G
Cell Structure and Function
G
Molecular Expressions: Animal Cell
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animalcell.html
This site has great pictures and lots of information about the cell organelle's
structure and function. These images were used in class.
Molecular Expressions: Plant Cell
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plantcell.html
G
This site has great pictures and lots of information about the cell organelle's
structure and function. These images were used in class.
G
Inside a Cell
http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/basics/cell/
This site has descriptions of some cell organelles.
G
Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Life/cell_organelles.html
This site has easy to understand cell definitions for some organelles.
G
Cell Tutorial
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/pev/page3.html
This site has some useful images and description of organelles.

90 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
G
Animal Cell Model
http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/animcell.htm
Take a virtual tour of an animal cell.
G
Plant Cell Model
http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/plntcell.htm
Take a virtual tour of a plant cell.
G
Ask a Biologist
http://askabiologist.asu.edu/research/buildingblocks/cellparts.html
More descriptions of cell structure and function. This site has good graphics.
Online Brochure Examples
G
http://www.islandsource.com/
This site has a variety of brochures to give you ideas on how to make your brochure
inviting and attractive
Cross curricular links
G
Physics and Maths : Size comparisons from metres to micrometers
G
Geography - scale drawings and map scales
G
Chemistry Concept of molecules moving across the cell membrane by diffusion
and osmosis

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 91
15 LESSON TEMPLATE - UNIT 1 (BIOLOGY)

TOPIC: THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE


SUB TOPIC: CELL
G
LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of this unit student will be able to:-
G
Understand the basic structure and function(s) of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cell.
G
Identify and describe the function(s) of the organelles inside of a eukaryotic cell.
G
Analyze cell theory
G
Differentiate between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
G
Explain the differences between a typical animal cell and a typical plant cell.
G
Understand that multicellular organisms are made up of different types of cells
with specialized functions.
G
Understanding the functioning and handling of microscope.
Warming Up
G
Anecdote on discovery of cell and coining of its term.
G
Some surprise element, like some material model of ostrich egg.
G
Viewing cells-from hand lens to electron microscope
G
Story of Zygote to 9th Grader.
G
Pictures of different types of cells ranging from unicellular to multi cellular
organisms.
G
Introduction to KWL sheet (WS-1)

92 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Pre-lesson Activities To Build Background Knowledge
G
Tour of a school to understand the level of organization and coordination in an
institution
G
Brain storming on the importance of the various departments of the school.
G
Power-Point Presentation of different departments of the school to reinforce their
survey.
G
Understanding and observing phenomena of diffusion and osmosis in day to day
life.(spreading of perfumes, pickling)
G
Group discussions-compare cell to the brick of a building
G
Role Play of different types of cells as per the previous knowledge of the students
(red blood cells, root hair cell, nerve cell, ciliated cell, guard cell etc.)
Lesson Development
G
Enquiry questions
G
Why is cell called the Structural unit of life?
G
Why is cell called the Functional unit of life?
G
What is the need of different types of cells?
G
Why arent all cells in our body alike?
G
What are the similarities between functions of animal and plant cells?
G
At what stage does the cell differentiation occur?
G
Where does a cell come from?
G
Comparative study of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by relating them with the
one room apartment and house with many rooms.
G
Planning of experiments
G
Prepare a temporary mount of cheek cells and onion peel.
G
Identifying structures in the cell as viewed under light microscope.
G
Importance and functioning of light microscope (WS-2)
G
Magnification of a microscope (WS-3)

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 93
G
Osmosis- Study of osmosis using raw peeled potato, osmosis across cellophane
(WS-4)
G
Diffusion Food coloring activity ,Smell Jar (WS-5)
G
Construction of hypotheses-based on the experiments of osmosis, diffusion,
students suggest hypotheses on movement of molecules.
G
Interpretation of simple or variable data-the concentration of glucose can vary.
Effect of temperature on membrane permeability can also be studied by placing the
potato lengths at different temperatures.
G
Class discussion on movement of molecules across membrane.
G
Hands-on Lab activities/ Classroom Activity-making a model of cell using jelly
and nuts (WS-6)
G
Similarities and differences between Plant and Animal cells(WS-7)
G
Comparative study of various departments in the school with cell organelles.(WS-6)
G
Role play by the students representing each organelle and comparing with its
analogies (WS-6).
G
Worksheets(WS-8, WS-9)
Concept Attainment
G
Completing KWL Sheet
G
Completing Concept Map
G
Cell exists as an independent entity (unicellular organisms)
G
Skit by the students to highlight the importance of each organism
G
Activities ensuring Concept Attainment
G
Question cube What, When, Where, Who, How, Why (WS-10)
G
Travel Brochure of a cell.
G
Cell analogies with everyday object from newspaper
G
Animal and Plant cell coloring (WS- 11, WS-12)

94 SCIENCE UNIT - 1
Application To Real Life Situations
G
Comparison and Identifying reasons at cellular level for the differences
G
Plant and Animal movement
G
Plant and Animal mode of nutrition (Autotrophic and heterotrophic)
G
Action of antibiotic on bacterial cell wall-in ability to act upon human body cells due
to lack of cell wall
G
Role of different cells in an organisms-refer to cells of circulatory, respiratory
systems, nervous system (WS-13)
G
Examples from students
G
Examples sited by the teacher through enquiry questions.
Scientific Skill Building
G
Observation & recording
G
Comparison
G
Classification
G
Estimation & measurement
G
Hypothesis, data collection, analysis & prediction
G
Generating scientific knowledge
G
Commitment to scientific enquiry
G
Open mindedness; ability to balance alternatives
G
Reading & drawing
G
Defining and solving problem
G
Design & model making
G
Team building skill
Activities Catering To Multiple Intelligence Skills
G
Oral presentations-Role play by students on various type of cells
G
Group discussions-Discussion on role of cell in the body and organelles in the cell

SCIENCE UNIT - 1 95
G
ICT- Animations of Osmosis and Diffusion
G
Power-Point presentation/ Diagrams/ Creating Models -Types of cells and cell
organelle (PPT of osmosis and diffusion enclosed annexure-1)
G
Surveys-Role played and contribution of different departments of the school.
G
Hands-on activities-Experiments , Model Making
Extended Learning
G
Web search-Collect information on various other cells Justifying their structure
with their function
G
Innovations/ investigatory projects-Evolution of cell.
G
Extensive reading- newspapers, encyclopedias etc.
Culminating Performances ( Formative Assessment)
G
Self-evaluation
G
Worksheet
G
Concept mapping
G
Group evaluation
G
Group discussion
G
Team Work
G
Teacher evaluation
G
Quiz
G
Class Work
G
Home Work
G
Oral presentation or answers
G
Portfolio
G
Work done by the student
G
Models
G
Posters
G
Slogans
G
Collection of pictures

96 SCIENCE UNIT - 1