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A N TI Q U E GE MS AN D RI N G S .

C . W . K I N G, MA . .
,

F E L L O W OF T R I N I T Y C OLLEG E , CA MB RI D G E .

R a n s om (p ) ! ozz e- lza l

C a a b res z s
f . e n la rg ed f .

I n t en u i lab or : at t en n i s n on g lori zt , si q u em
N u m i n a la v a s i n au t au d i t q u e voc at u s A pollo .

VOL . IL -
J L L U S T B AT TO N S .

IMMJ J AN D D AL D K YORK E W RE E T

C O V E N T G A R D E N .

1 87 2 .
A P P E N D I X .

S AV A G E L A PI DARY A RT .

T HE h i s tory of the r s t i n v en t i on of the g lypt i c art r e c e iv es con s i d erabl e


l i g ht from ou r l ear nin g the pr oc ess es followed by tri b es s t i ll in a s tat e of
n atur e for r ed u c in g h ar d s ton es in t o v ar i ou s art i cl es of orn am en t or u t i l i ty.

Man s i n s t i nct u su ally l ead s hi m u n d e r t he s am e c on d i t i on s to r es ort t o t he


, ,

s am e m e an s for e ffe ct in g a c e rt ai n g iv e n pu rp os e an d to pr od uc in t h am
,
g e s e

form s ; n e v e rth el ess on e c annot h elp b ein g s u rpr i sed at n d in g the pr i m aeval
,

A s s yri an an d the I n d i an of the A maz on e qu ally ad opt in g t he cyli nd er as t he


b ad g e of d i s t in ct i on an d fas h i on in g i t in t he s am e way ou t of the m os t
, , ,

in tract abl e s u b s t an c e wi th in th e i r r each B u t the wh ol e of t he s ubj ect i s s o


.

fu ll of in t er es t as w el l as of s p e ci al i n form at i on th at I h ave th ou g ht I am
, ,

d oi n g a s er vi c e t o my r ead ers by br in g in g t og e th er wh at ev e r r ec e n t
tr av ell er s h av e m ad e k n own r es p e ct in g i t as ob s e r v e d by th em e i th e r in t he
,

r em ain s of s avag e art or i n i ts actu al pract i c e at t he pr es en t d ay


, .

S avage L api d ar i es on the Maup es R i ver B raz zl I n ow s aw s everal of the


'

.
,

n . n
A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D RI NG S .

m en wi th th e i r m os t p e c u l i ar an d v alu e d or n am en t a cyl in d r i cal Op aqu e , ,

wh i te s ton e l ook i n g l i k e m arbl e b u t wh i ch i s m e rely q u artz i mp erfe ctly


, ,

c ry s t all i z e d Th es e s ton es are from fou r t o e i g ht i n ch es l on g an d ab ou t an


.
,

i n ch i n d i am e t er Th ey are g r ou n d r ou n d an d at at the e n d s a work of


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r e at l a b ou r an d are e ach p i e rc e d w i th a h ol e at on e e n d t hrou g h wh i ch a


g , ,

s tr in i s in s e rt ed t o s upp o rt i t r ou n d t he n e ck I t app ears alm os t i n cr e d i bl e


g .

th at th ey s h ou l d m ak e t h i s h ol e in s o h ar d a s u b s tan c e w i thou t an y i ro n
i n s tru me n t f r t he p u rp os e o W h at th ey are s ai d t o u s e i s t h e p oin t e d
.

e x i bl e l eaf s h oot of t he l ar g e w i l d pl an tai n tr i tu r at in g w i th n e s an d an d


-
,

a l i ttl e wat e r ; an d I h av e n o d ou bt i t i s as i t i s s ai d t o b e a l ab ou r o f , ,

y ears . Y et i t m u s t t ak e a m uch l on g e r t i m e to p i e rc e th at wh i c h t he
.

T u s hat i a ( ch i ef ) w ear s as the e m bl e m of hi s au th or i ty for i t i s g en e rally of ,

t he l ar g es t s i z e an d i s wor n tran s v er s ely acr os s hi s br e as t ; for w h i c h


,

purp os e t he h ol e i s b ore d l en g th way s fr om on e e n d t o the o th e r an , ,

o p e rat i on wh i ch I was i n fo r m ed s o m e t i m es o ccup i e d t wo l i v es


,
The s t on es
, .

th em s e l v e s are pr ocur ed from a g r eat d i s t an c e u p t he r i v e r pr ob abl y fr om ,

n ear i ts s ou rc e at t he b as e of t he A n d e s : th ey are th e r e for e h i g hly v al u e d ,

an d i t i s s el d om th at t h e o wn e r s c an b e i n d u c ed t o p art w i th t h e m ; t h e

W allace s A maz on p
(

c h i e fs s c arc ely ev e r .
,
.

For c omp ari s on of s i m i l ar pr i m i t i v e pr o c es s es i t m ay b e ad d ed t h at t he ,

N e w Z eal an d e r s b ore j ad e by m ean s o f a s pl i n t e r o f qu artz x e d on t he en d


of a ro d w h i ch i s tu r n ed b et wee n t he h an d s afte r t h e m ann e r of a re s t i c k
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-
,

t e t he i n s tru m e n t u s ed for pr od uc i n g re b y fri ct i on i n a bl ock of s ofte r


. .
,

wood .

Mexi c an J ad e Carvi n gs S q u i er g iv es a d r awin g of wh at h e j u s tly c all s a


.

v ery b eau t i fu l m ini atu r e r epr e s e n t at i on of t he s am e s ubj e ct [the b en e ee n t


d e mi g od Cu c u lc an ] obtain ed fr om t he r u i n s of O c os i n g o forty m i l es t o t he
, ,

s ou th of P al en qu e i n 1 8 5 6 It i s en g rav e d fu l l s i z e of t he or i g in al [obl on g
,
.

3? x 2 9; in ch e s ] w h i ch i s of t he v ar i e ty of b eau t i fu l g r e en s t on e c all ed by
.

t he S pani ar d s Mad r e d z es meralda an d wh i c h was h i g hly e s t ee m e d by t he


an c i e n t I n d i an s u n d e r t he n am e o f Chalc hi u i te I t i s v e ry hard an d wh en .
,

p ol i s h ed r es em bl es t h e n es t k in d of g r e en e n am el S om e e xp e rt s .

pr on ou n c e t he m ater i al g r ee n qu artz b u t S i r R Mu r c h i s on r e c og ni s e s i n , .

i t n e phr i t e or j ad e ,
T he g u r e i s s harply c u t i n h i g h r el i e f an d t he w h ol e
.
,

i s e xq u i s i t ely p ol i s h ed A h ol e i s d r i ll e d t hr o u g h t he s ton e b e t wee n t he


.

p oin t s a a e v i d en tly for t he purp os e of s u s p en s i o n an d we are n o d o u bt


, , ,

r i g ht i n s u pp os in g th at i t was wor n s u p p or t e d on the b r eas t o f s o m e


s ac erd ot al d i g ni t ary p e rh ap s t he h i g h pr i es t o f Cu c u le an
, wh os e i m ag e i t -
,

b ear s I n c onn e c ti on wi th t h i s r el i c wer e fou n d a n u m be r o f o th e rs o f the


.
,

s am e m at e r i al an d s c arc ely i n fe r i o r i n in t e r e s t A m on g s t th e m ma b e
,
y .
A P P E IV D J Y A . o

m en t i on e d a cyli n d er, t wo
i n ch es i n d i am e t e r an d r es embl in g th os e fou n d i n ,

A s s yr i an r u in s w i th h i e r og lyph i c s en g rav ed on i ts ou t e r s urfac e


,
Th ey are ,

r e pr es en ted i n t he acc omp an y in g c u t of e q u al s i z e [v i z H e ad i n pr ol e .


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fac in g fou r p ell et s ; F i s t cl en ch ed pl ac e d on an oth er t he p al m of wh i ch i s


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m ark ed wi th fou r p ell ets ; L am a ly in g d own or s om e s i m i l ar obj e ct] A s ,


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alr e ad y sai d th ese g r ee n s ton e s or Chalc hi u i t es w e r e h e l d i n t he h i g h es t


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e s t i m at i on by t he Me x i c an s an d Ce n tr al A m e r i c an s B er n al D i az repre .

s e n t s Mon t e zu m a as s ay in i n h an d in g th e m o v e r : T o th e s e I wi ll ad d a
g ,

few Chalc h i u i tes of s uch e n orm ou s v alu e th at I c ou l d n ot c on s en t t o g i v e ,

th e h r to an y on e e x c e pt t o s u ch a p owerfu l emp e r or as y ours E ach of .

th es e s ton es i s worth t wo lead s of g ol d I n the rs t m e n t i on ed c arv in g or


.

-

c ameo t he g u r e of Cu c u lc an s eated cr os s l eg g e d up on an el ab or at ely


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w ork ed c u s h i on pres e n ts s o s tr i k in g a r es embl an c e t o t he u s u al typ e of


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B u d dh a th at i t i s d i f cu l t t o as cr i b e the c oin c i d en c e t o t he n at iv e in s t in ct
,

of Man i n c orr e s p on d in g s t ag es of cul tur e The on ly d i ffer en c e i s th at the .

Me x i c an g od s h ows hi s c ou n ten an c e in pr ol e i n t he ac t of s p eak in g an d ,

( Morellet s Cen tr al Amer i ca p



wi th the we ll k n own A zte c featur es
'
-
. .
,

A z tec L apidary S k i ll
A v e ry c omm on or n am en t in the O m e t ep e c
c ar ag u a) g r av e s i s a s tr in g of b ead s s om e t i m es of ch alc ed on y
( N i an d , ,

s om e t i m es of l av a T he p i erc in g of the l atter i s won d e rful


. Man y of the .

b ead s are an i n ch i n l en g th r i n g ed all ov er an d p i erc ed wi th a h ol e as n e


, ,

as o r d in ary thr e ad The wh ol e head i s n o th i ck e r th an t wi n e an d m os t


.
,

br i ttl e H ad w e n ot s een s uch won d ers b efor e we n e v er c oul d h av e d eem e d


.
,

s uch n e work p os s i bl e wi th out t ool s of m etal The ch al c ed on y b ead s are .

v e ry much l ar g e r ; th ey are h an d s om e ly r ou n d ed an d p ol i s h ed an d the h ol e ,

i s c ar efu lly b or ed Ten to ft ee n form ed a n eckl ac e or br ac el et from w h i ch


.
,

w e m ay c on cl u d e e i th e r th at th e y we r e on ly wor n by ch i l d ren or el s e t h at
, ,

feath e rs or oth er p er i s h abl e or n am en t s we r e i n t e r s p e rs ed ( B oyle s R ide .


A cross a Con ti n en t, i i .

Az tec S c u l
p tu re, c wi thou t metal tools B oyl e fou n d up on Mou n t
exe u ted

Mom bach o n ear G r en ad a m an y m on u m en t al p or trai t s t atu es l i fe s i z e


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-
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e x ec u te d w i th g r e at d e l i ty t o n at u r e an d c ar v ed ou t of b as alt a m at e r i al , ,

w h i ch e v e n i n t he an c i e n t worl d was on ly att empte d by the E g ypt i an s


, , .

H e g ur e s s p ec i m en s wh i ch p erfectly b ear ou t hi s d es cr i pt i on an d prai s e


i n hi s R i d e Ac r os s a Con ti nen t i i p 4 3 , . . .

A m on g s t t h e A s s i n ab oi n I n d i an s a n e m arbl e i s u s ed much t oo h ar d ,

t o ad m i t of m in ut e c ar vin g but s u s c e pt i bl e of a h i g h p ol i s h
, Th i s i s c u t .

i n t o p i p es of g rac efu l form an d m ad e s o e xtr em ely th i n as to b e n early


,

tr an s p aren t s o th at wh en i g ni t ed t he g l owin g t ob acc o s h in es thr ou g h an d


, ,

pr es en ts a s in g ul ar app ear an c e wh e n i n u s e at ni g ht or in a d ark led g e , .

13 2
4 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D RI N G S .

A n oth e r fav our i te m ate ri al i s a c oar s e s p e c i es of j as p e r al s o too h ar d t o ,

ad m i t o f e lab or at e o r n am e n t at i on Th i s al s o i s cu t i n to v ar i ou s s i m pl e bu t
.

r a c e f u l d es i g n s e x e c u ted ch i e y by t he s l o w an d l ab o r i ou s pr oc ess of
g ,

r u bb i n g i t d o wn w i th oth e r s ton es The c ho i c e of the m at e r i al for.

fas h i o nin g the fav o ur i t e p i pe i s by n o m ean s g u i d ed by the fac i l i t i es w h i ch


t h e p os i t i on o f t h e tr i be affor d s A s u i tabl e s ton e for s u ch a purp os e
.

w i ll b e p i ck e d u p an d c arr i e d h u n d r e d s of m i l es Mr K an e in for m s m e . .

th at i n c om in g d o wn the A th ab as k a r i v e r wh en d raw in g n ear i t s s ou rc e i n ,

t he R ocky Mou n t ai n s he ob s e r v e d hi s A s s i n ab oi n g u i d es s el e ct the fav o u r i te


,

bl u i s h j as p er from am on g the w at er wor n s ton es i n the b ed of t he r iv e r -


,

t o c arry h om e for t he p u rp os e o f p i p e m an u factur e alth ou g h th e y we r e ,


(

th e n fu lly v e h u n d red m i l es fr om th ei r l odg es W i lson s P re l zi s tori c .
-

Man i i , .

Mexi can Tu rqu oi s e The s ou rc e from w h i ch t he an c i en t Mex i c an s d er i v ed


th e i r t u rqu o i s e s o l on g e n t i r ely l os t in t he d ark n es s of S p ani s h m i s rul e has
, ,

at l en g th b ee n br ou g ht t o l i g h t ; an d all t he c i rcu m s t an c es of t h e d i s c ov ery


.

t en d t o d e cl ar e t h e e n e r g y e x t e n t an d c omm erc i al ad v an c e m e n t of t he
, ,

p r e e-x i s t in g e mp i r e P r of W . P B l ak e . o f .S an Fr an c i s c o
. had n ot i c ed , ,

b ead s of g r een t u rqu oi s e wor n by the N av aj o I n d i an s who in h ab i t t he ,

n ort h e r n an d wes te rn p arts of t he pr ovin c e of N e w Me x i c o T o th es e th e y .

att ach s u ch v al u e th at t he tr ad e r s w i ll t ak e th em in pl e d g e for an y qu an t i ty


,

of g ood s t h e o wn e r s m ay d em an d w i th th e c ertain ty th at th ey w i ll b e
,

u lt i m at e ly r e d e em e d P r of Bl ak e pr e v ai l ed up on th es e I n d i an s t o s h ow
. .

t he pl ac e wh er e th e y obtain ed t he s t on e w h i ch prov ed t o b e i n the L os ,

Cer i ll os m ou n t ain s t wen ty m i l es s ou th eas t of S an t a F


, The m in e was an
-
.

i mm en s e op e n q u arry l arg e e n ou g h to h ol d t he e n t i r e b u i l d in g s of th e

,

B r i t i s h Mu seu m to u s e t he l e ar n ed e xpl or er s own wor d s at an in te r vi ew I


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had t h e pl eas ur e o f e nj oy in g wi th h i m (S e pt 2 7 The s i d es of t he .


,

e xc av at i on an d t h e h eap s of an c i en t rubb i s h are n o w o v e r g r own w i th


,

i a n t i c p in e s t he g r ow th of the thr ee c e n tur i e s th at h av e el ap s e d s i n c e t he


g g ,

r u i n o f i ts old in d u s tr i ou s work e r s The r ock i s a d e c om p os ed p o rphyry.


,
'

r es embl i n g s an d s t on e i n app ear an c e w i th the turqu oi s e ru nnin g throu g h i t ,

i n v ei n s or l inin g t he s i d e s of cre vi c es w i th a th i n c oat in g I ts c ol our i s


, .

p u r e green e xc ept wh en i t i s d ec om p os ed by weath e r i n g T he p oor I n d i an s


,
.

of th es e t i m es l ac k i n , g s k i ll an d m ean s t o q u arry t he roc k t o foll o w u p t he


v e i n s s t i l l prod u ct i v e of the n es t m at e r i al g rub ab ou t i n the r u bb i s h h eap s
.
, ,

an d are w e l l c on t en t w i th t he r e fu s e o f the or i g in al pr os e cutor s of th e s e

e n or m ou s an d l o n g c on t in u e d O p er at i on s
-
T he fr ag m e n ts s o fou n d t hey .

p ol i s h i n t o i rr eg u l ar for ms p e rforat e an d wear for n ec kl ac es P r of Bl ak e


, , . .

i s of O p i n i o n th at thi s was t he s o h i g h ly v al u e d Chalc h i hu i te o r as t ho , ,


A I P E ND I X

. 0

I n d i an s pr on ou n c e i t Chalei v i te
, . A fu ll acc ou n t of hi s v i s i t t o t he pl ac e
i s giv e n i n t he A mer i c an J ou r n al for 1 8 5 8 .

Chi n es e G lyp ti c Art has prod u c ed n o th i n g s o n ot eworthy al i k e for m att er ,


form an d s tyl e as t he work (s ai d as u s u al i n all s u ch c as es t o c om e fr om
, , , ,

the s ack in g o f t he S u m m e r P al ac e ) v e ry r ec e n tly acq u i r ed by Mr O c tavi u s .

Mo r g an an d wh i ch at on c e arres t ed my att e n t i on am on g s t the in ni t e


,

v ar i e ty of rar i t i es ad or nin g hi s c oll e c t i on I n the r s t pl ac e t he m at e r i al i s


.
,

by far the l ar g es t S p e c i m en of tu rq u o i s e e v e r br ou g ht t o E urop e b e i n g ,

e i g ht in ch es l on b s i x h i g h an d as m an y i n i ts g r eat es t th i ck n es s I t s
g y , .

c ol ou r i s s ap g r ee n t he s urfac e d ivi d ed in t o inn um er abl e m in u te an d r e g u l ar


-
,

t es s era by h ai r l in es of bl ack o x i d e a p ecul i ari ty al so ob s erv abl e in t he


e -
,

turq u oi s es fr om the S in ai t i c m in e The k i d n e y l i k e s h ap e of t h e m as s


.
-
,

c o v ered wi th m am i ll ary pr otub e r an c es has b ee n h app i ly tak en ad v an t ag e


,

o f by t he art i s t for t he prod uct i on of a wo rk b es t ad apt ed t o t he n at i on al

tas te wi th the l e as t p os s i bl e was te of t he s o pr e c i ou s s ubj e ct m att er


,
The .

e n e r al ou tl in e s u g es t ed t he i d ea of a r ou n d ed m ou n tai n t h e pr otub er an c es
g g ,

l e n t th em s el v es for m in or h i ll s for es t s an d v i ll ag es r i s in g i n t i ers on e


, , ,

ab ov e an oth e r w i th d u e g r ad at i on of d i s t an c e an d e v e ry p ort i on e n l iv e n ed

, ,

w i th n um er ou s g ur es en g ag ed i n v ar i ou s occup at i on s The s ubj e ct i s


.

tr eat ed in e x actly t he s am e m ann e r as i n the iv ory c ar vin g s i n wh i ch


s i m i l ar lan ds c ap es in h i g h r e l i e f are s o fr e qu en tly to b e s ee n ; an d from the

c omparat iv e softn es s of t he g em i t i s pr ob abl e t he c ar vin g was effect ed by


,

the s ame m e th od as i n the oth e r s ub s t an c e .


0 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I N G S .

Ar chai c G lyp ti c arti ts favou ri te s u bjec ts O f all t h e n u m er ou s E p i c


s c e n es c ar v e d an d ch ased up on t he Cott e r of Cyp s el u s n o m or e th an t wo
, ,

, ,

r epr es e n t d i r e ctly e p i s od es i n t he Il i ad th es e b e in g t he D u el b e t wee n


H ect or an d Aj ax ,
an d t h e

A g am em n on s l ay in g lph i d am as w h om h i s,

br oth e r Coon i s d e fen d i n g A n d ev e n i n th es e t w o s c en es c ert ai n v ar i at i on s


.
,

'

i n t he d e t ai l s of t he r e pr es en t at i on aord r eas on for s u s p e ct in g th at th e y


we r e n ot b orr ow ed i mm e d i at ely fr om H om er s d es cr i pt i on for A g am em n on

, ,

b or e em bl az on ed on hi s s h i el d t he l i on h ead ed 6309 i n s t ead of t he G or g on


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,


b eg i rt w i th F ear an d T err or w h i ch t h e p oe t g i v es for hi s c og n i z an c e
, .

A s i n t he c as e of t h e s c ar ab e i s o up on th i s Co er t he Arg on au t i c
'

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E xp ed i t i on an d t he T al e of Th eb es h ad s u ppl i ed by far t he l ar g es t
, ,

pr op ort i on of t he s u bj e ct s I t i s tr u e th at t he fth an d t opm os t row of


.

p an el s w e r e exp lai n ed by t he c u s t od i an (for h er e t he in s cr i p t i on s w er e


wan t in g ) as h avin g r e fe r e n c e t o e v en t s fr om t he O d y s s e y s u ch as
Uly s s es i n c on v e r s at i on w i th Ci rc e an d w i th N au s i c aa an d ag ain
, , ,

Th e t i s c arry in g t he V ulc an i an ar m s t o her s on ; bu t t he pr es en c e of


H erc u les w h i ch I au s an i as p ar t i cul arly n ot i c es i n th es e t abl eaux s u f c es t o
,

, ,

s h ow th at s uch i n t e rpr e t at i on c oul d n ot b e t he r i h t on e Th a th r h i p


g e u
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of th es e r e l i e fs an d ch as in g s P au s ani as attr i bu t e s t o E u m el u s of Cor i n th on


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acc ou n t o f th e i r c on fo rm i ty i n s tyl e w i th th os e u p o n an o th e r m o n u m e n t by
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th at an c i e n t s c u lpt or th e n e x i s t in g i n th at c i ty b u t of w h i ch t he w r i t e r
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has u n fort u n at ely l e ft n o fu rth e r d es c r i pt i o n .

A rc hai c G r eek artfrom Olymp 5 0to .L i ttl e as i t was t o b e e xp ect ed


th at i n a p e r i od of s uch v i ol e n t e ffort s (t ak i n g in t o ac c ou n t t he en or m ou s
e xt e n s i on o f t he c u lt i v at i on o f art t he d i ffer e n t n at i o n al ch ar act e r o f t he
,

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, ,

h av e ad v an c e d w i th eq u al s t ep s i n e v ery r eg i on w e n e v e rth el e s s r e m ark ,

c e rt ai n ch an g es u n i v e r s al an d m ani fe s t in g th e m s el v es by n e c es s i ty i n t he
,

pr og r es s of H ell en i c d e v el op m en t Th ey c on s i s t ch i e y i n th es e p oi n t s
.

t he for ms p as s fr om t h e pr i m i t i v e u n d i s t in g u i s h in g ru d en es s i n t o an e x c es s
, ,

of d i s t in ct n e s s ; on t he on e h an d i n t he d i s pl ay o f fo rc e e n e r g y an d , ,

Com pl e t i on on t h e o th e r in t o a d i s pl ay of n e at n es s of work wh i ch d u r i n g , ,

th i s e p och mu s t s t an d i n t he s t ead of g r ac e an d e l eg an c e
,
\ Vork s .

b el on g i n g t o th i s l i n e are n ow d es i g n at ed W ork s i n t he Arch ai c G r ee k ,


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s tyl e b u t form e rly an d err on eou s ly w e r e n am ed E tru s c an



.
,

I n s u c h s c u l pt u r es t he b od i ly for m s are m u s c u l ar i n exc es s t he th i g h ,

an d le g b on es s tr on g ly pr oj e ct in g an d h e n c e all t he ou tl in es h ar d an d
,

s h arp c u t S u ch h ar s h n ess was e xpr es s ed i n a h i g h d eg r ee i n t he w ork s of


.

Callon w h os e s t at u es Q u in t i l i an (I n s t x i i x ) c all s t oo s t i ff an d approxi


,
. . .

m at in g t o t h e E tru s c an g u r es I n a l es s d eg r ee d i d th i s apply t o t he
.

s t at u es of Can ac h os yet Ci c e r o ( Bru t 1 8


,
7 0) s ay s of th e m th at th e y w e r e
.
,

t oo s t i ff t o i m i t at e t h e truth fu l n es s of N at u r e

N e v er th el es s e v e n t he .
,

s tyl e o f t h e A tt i c m as t er s in O ly m 7 5 w as c e n s u r ed for i t s e xc e s s i v e
.
,

s h arp n es s i n t h e d r aw i n g of t he m u s cl es I t was h owe v er pr e c i s ely th i s .


, ,

s e v e r i ty of d r aw i n g th at le d t he s c u lpt or t o th at n atur al truthfu l n e s s

s o m u ch ad m i r e d i n t h e ZE g i n e t an Marbl es i n m os t of t he p i e c e s W i th , .

th i s s ev er i ty of d r aw i n g are u s u ally u n i t ed s h or t an d m as s i v e pr op ort i on s ,

al th ou g h an e xc e s s i v e e l on g at i on i n t he g u r es s om e t i m e s pr es e n t s i t s e l f ;

t he l att e r h ow e v e r m u ch m or e fr e q u e n tly i n p ai n t i n g s th an i n s c u lp tur e


, , .

T he att i tu d e s h av e oft e n s om e th in g v i ol e n t i n th em a ch ar act er g r eatly ,

pr om ot ed by t he p erp etu al r e pr es en t at i on of myth olog i c al c om b at s ; ye t


am i d s t th e i r fu l n es s of l i fe th e r e r e m ain s a c ert ai n s t i ffn e s s a s om e th in
g ,

h ar s h an d an g u l ar Thu s i n t he E g i n et an Marbl es th e r e i s c omb i n e d


.
, ,

w i th a t ru th t o n at u r e th at e xc i t es ou r as t on i s hm en t m an y a s t artl in g ,

p e c u l i ar i ty s uch as t he s tr on g r epr es en t at i on of t he br eas t b on e t he s h arp -


,


d i s t in ct i on of t he m u s c u l u s r ectu s an d t he p oi n t ed form of t he cl os ely

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b en t k n ee T he h ead s are l ar g e t h e br eas t l on g an d br oad t he b od y s h or t


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i n pr op ort i on t he th i g h s l on g c om p ar ed t o t he
, ,

M ii ller ,
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A 71
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, .

1 S h o rt pr o p o r tions we r e n ec essitated b y the s t r ivin g t o re pres ent ev e ry p art o f t he b od y



8 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NGS .

P rototypes f o G em d es ig n a To ad d
-
a few m or e of t he n um er ou s e x amp le s

th at t he e x am i n at i on of t he Cl as s i c s for th i s s p ec i al obj e ct would eas i ly



s u pply t he n e O rl e an s g e m d e cl ar e d t he R ep ose of H e rcul es

, , by t he ,

m o tto e n g r av ed i n t he el d was u n d oubt ed ly c op i ed fr om th at m as t erp i e c e


,

o f Ly s i ppu s m ad e for t he c i ty of T ar e n tu m Th e g em e x ac tly an s wer s t o


.

t h e d es cr i pt i on Ni c e t as has l e ft of t he c ol os s al s t atu e w h os e thumb was ,

e q u al t o t he wai s t hi s leg t o the s t at u r e of a c om m on m an



, S eat ed o n .

(
an os i e r b as k e t all u s iv e t o t he cl ean s in
g of t h e A u g ean s t abl e) hi s r i g h t ,

leg an d arm s tr e tch e d t o t he u t mos t hi s l e ft k n ee b en t an d s u pp ort in g h i s


,

elb ow h i s h ead r ecl inin


, g on hi s l eft h an d hi s c ou n t en an c e in d i g n an t an d
,

Rem oved t o t he Cap i t ol by F ab i u s Max i mu s an d th e n c e t o t he



p en s iv e .
,

H i pp od r om e of Byz an t i u m by Con s t an t in e i t s t ood th er e u n t i l d es tr oy ed


,

by t he Fran k s up on th e i r c apture of the c i ty in 1 2 04 A n oth e r far fam ed .


-

wor k by t he s am e s t atu ary H e rcul e s d es p oi l ed of hi s weap on s by Cu p i d


, ,

w as t h e or i g in al of a fr e qu en tly r e p eat ed typ e up on g em s T he A l e x an d e r .


s tan d in
g by t h e s i d e of hi s Buc eph al u s m ay al s o well b e s upp osed t ak en
,

from on e of t he s am e m as ter s m an y work s r e pres en t in g th at here from hi s



b oyh ood up war d s The Th es eu s c on t em pl at in g hi s fath er s s wor d mu s t
.

, ,

fr om i ts g reat p opular i ty as a s ig n et d ev i c e h av e r e pr od u c ed t o the own er


, ,

s om e m as t erp i e c e of t h e h i g h e s t c e l ebr i ty i n th ose t i m e s ; an d w h at has

b e tt er cl ai m s t o b e c on s i d e r ed t he prototyp e th an the Th eseu s of Parrhas i u s ,

a b oy who s ee m ed t o t he g r e at p ai n t e r E u phran or t o h av e b ee n fed up o n


!
r o ses

in its g r eate st p ossi bl e b r ead th The o th er app ar e nt p ec u l i ar iti es are prob ably d u e to t he
.

e x ac t r en d r in g o f t h e fo r m s d ai ly b e fo r e t h e i r ey e s
e I n t he G reek s o f t h os e ag es al way s
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en g ag e d i n vio l en t e x e rc is es l ivin g fr u g ally i n a h ot cl i m ate t he mu scl es an d b on e s wo u l d


, , ,

stand ou t as stron g ly an d as u nn atu r ally to t he mod er n taste as i n a B edo u in o f the pre se nt


d ay I h ave add u c ed t h e s e r em ark s o f t h e m ost pr o fo u nd as we l l as s ag ac io u s o f mod er n
. , ,

arch aeo l o g ists i n s u pp o rt o f m y o wn o bj ec tions to K ohl e r s t h eo ry u p on t he C l as s i c at ion o f



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S c ar ab e i wh i ch at r s t si g h t app ear s so v e ry pl au s i bl e ( p
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FI RJXRGI (9 1 1 1 3 to
APP END I X .

E S TI MA TI ON OF CA ME I I N THE MI DD L E A GE S .

A L T H OU G H an t i qu e c am c i wer e h el d in h i g h er v al u e d u r in g t he wh ol e c our s e
of t h e Mi d d l e A e s th an at an o th e r p e r i od of th e i r e x i s t e n c e th ei r
g y ,

es t i m ati on was b as ed on r eas on s t he b e l i e f i n wh i ch i t i s h ar d ly p os s i bl e at

th e pr es e n t d ay t o r eal i s e . The v al u e s e t u p on th e m had n o r e fer en c e t o


th e i r m e ri t as work s of art an d n ot much t o the pr e c i ou s n atur e of th e i r
,

m ateri al : i t was en t i r ely d ep en d en t up on t he m ed i c in al p owe r wh i ch ev e ry


bod y r mly b el i e v e d t o b e in h er en t i n th em T hi s p ower was d er iv ed fr om
.

thei r or i g in of wh i ch t wo d i ffe r e n t acc ou n t s (b u t each e qu ally s at i s fac t ory )


,

w er e th en curr en t . The r s t m ad e th e m t o b e t he work s of th e Ch ild r en of


I s r ael in t he W i l d er n es s ( wh en c e th ei r p opul ar n am e P i e rr es d I s rael
,

t he oth e r s p on t an eou s pr od uc t i on s of N atu r e who had d en ot ed th e i r pu rp os e


, ,

by the g ur es tr ac ed up on th em by her own n g e r i n accor dan c e wi th the


,



u ni v e r s ally r e c e i v ed D octr in e of S i g n at u r es . But th i s cur i ou s s ubj ect
c ann ot b e b e tt er i llu s tr at ed th an by the foll owin g qu otat i on of the wor d s of
10 A N TI Q UE GE MS A N !) RI NG S .

on e of t he m os t cl ear h ead e d as w ell as b es t i n fo r med of all ou r rn ed i aeval


-

w r i t e rs Mat th e w P ar i s ; an d w ho b e i t ob s e r v ed i s s p eak in g o f fac t s


, , ,

w i th i n hi s o wn k n o w l ed g e .

The Great Cameo of S t Alban s Th i s pre c i o u s s t on e c on s i s t i n g th at i s to


. .
, ,

sa o f s ar d on y x c alc e d on y an d on yx b e s i d es wh at i s c on c eal e d w i th i n bu t
y, , , , ,

w h i ch as a whol e i s v u l g arly c all ed a k aad man was g iv e n t o G od an d t he ,

Ch u rch of S t A lb an s by a d e v out s on of th at ch u rch an d a broth e r o f


.

t he C hapte r of bl es s ed m e m ory vi z IE th e ld fath e r of S t E d ward k in g of


, ,
.
, ,
.
,

t h e A n g l es ; who on e d ay c om in g t o S t A lb an s wh en h e c am e in to th e
,
.
,

Ch apt e r br ou g ht w i th h i m t he afor e s ai d s ton e an d k in d ly an d g rat e fu lly


, ,

m ad e g i ft of t he s am e t o t h e church afte r l au d in g t he g em an d d e cl ar in g ,

all i ts vi rtu es H e had al s o r e q u i r e d th at th e abb ot an d c onv en t s h ou l d


.

p r on ou n c e forth wi th s e n t e n c e o f e xc omm u n i c at i on ag ain s t all wh o at an y


t i m e s h oul d c arry away th at g em Th i s g em wh i ch i s b oth h an d s om e an d .
,

of l ar g e s i z e w h e n a s u i tabl e pl ac e was b e in
, g pr ovi d ed for i t on t he inn e r
s hr in e m ad e i n t he t i m e of A bb ot W al t e r by t he ad vi c e of th os e d i r e c t in g
, ,

t he g ol d s m i th s work was r es e r v ed an d d e p os i t ed in t he tr e as ury in or d e r


, ,

th at i t m i g ht e x e rc i s e the ofc e of i ts vi rtu e u p o n tt in g occ as i on s For i t


b es t ows i t s p atr on ag e up on wom en i n l ab our an d on i n v ok in g wi th fai th the ,

n am e of S t A lban pr o t om artyr of En g lan d i t s u ffe r s n ot wom e n i n l ab ou r


.
, ,

t o b e s u bj e ct u n t o an y d an g e r B u t i t i s r ep orted th at s h oul d i t b e r em ov ed
.

e i th e r by forc e or fr au d from t he afor es ai d ch u rch t he s t on e wi ll e n t i r ely ,

l os e i ts v i rtu e Mi d wiv es k n ow as well as the w om an h e r s elf i n l ab ou r th at


.

th i s s t on e i s t o b e pl ac ed u p on t he ch es t b et wee n t h e breas t s of t h e p at i e n t , ,

an d t o b e m ov ed d ow n l i ttl e by l i ttl e an d at i n te r val s t o war d s t he l owe r


, ,

p ar t of the b od y ; for the ch i l d ab ou t t o b e b orn r etr eats from the appr oach
of t he s t on e Th e r e i s en g rav ed u p on t he s ai d s t on e a c e rtain pr e c i ou s
.

i m ag e h ol d in g i n hi s r i g h t h an d a s p ear u p w h i c h a crawl in g s erp en t i s


, ,

m ou n t i n g an d i n hi s l e ft a ch i l d i n cl oth in g h ol d in g t o i ts s h oul d e r a k i n d
, ,

of t ar g e t (an ci le an d i t s oth e r h an d t o ward s t he s ai d i m ag e e x actly as i s


) , ,

r e pr es en t ed u p on the prec ed in g p ag e I t has s ev e r al c ol our s ; vi z t he . .


,

el d brown h avin g al s o a b or d er (li mbu s ) aft e r t he fas h i on of a rain b ow


, ,

c omp os ed of a s k y blu e (d er eu s ) an d r e d d i s h c ol our s ; o f the g u res too p art


-
,

i s of a s k y blu e p art of a r ed d i s h c ol ou r
-
,
Mor eov er i n form i t i s obl on g i n .
,

nr eas u re me n t h alf a foo t r mly h e l d in i ts s e t t in g (cas ton e) by s i x cl


,

U p on th e wh i ch s e tt in g t he n am e of t he o wn e r v i z S an ct i A lb ani an d , .
, ,

the n am e o f th e m os t p i ou s d on or v i z Reg i s A n g loru m IE thelfri d i are


.
, , ,

e n g rav e d i n ni e ll o .

I t h ow e v e r h app e n e d on c e on a t i m e th at th i s g em was l e n t to
, ,

a c e rt ain p o w e rfu l l ad y n e ar t o he r d el iv e ry an d aft e r s he had b e e n s afe ly ,


A PP E N DI X . 1 1

br ou g h t t o b e d an d e xp e c ted to b e s o fre q u e n tl y an d th at the g em w ou l d


, ,

t h e i r b e of s i m i l ar s e rv i c e t o he r s he frad u le n t ly r et ain e d an d k e pt b ack t he,

s am e ass e rt in
, g r e p eat ed ly w i th a li e w h e n i t was r ecl ai m ed th at s he had , ,

s e n t i t h or re ag ain
r A n d afte r t h e d e c eas e of t he s ai d l ad y her d au g hte r
.
, ,

in uen c ed by t he s am e m oti v e k e pt p os s es s i on th e r eo f for m an y y ear s ,


.

H o we v e r afte r l o n g l aps e of t i m e s he c on fe s s ed the truth on her d eath b ed


, ,
-
,

an d th at wh i ch s he h ad frad u len t l k e pt b ack s h e v w


y g a e u
p i th r e p en tan c e
an d pr ay e r fo r p ar d o n But t he abb ot i n w h os e t i m e t h i s r es t i t u t i on was
.

r n ad e i n as m u c h as i t was n o t m ad e publ i cly b oas t e d th at i t w as he wh o


, ,

had pres en t e d i t t o t he c hurch .

The s ame r es u l t i s wo n t t o h app en in m an y oth e r c as es th at w h at i s .


,

r ed eem e d or r es t ored o r s p on tan eou s ly r e s i g n e d i s attr i bute d t o t he


, , ,

acqu i s i t i on or t he z eal of hi m e x i s tin g at t h e t i m e Th e ab ov e m e n ti on ed .


-

s ton e t o e th e r w i th i t s s i l v e r s e tt i n
, g g w e i g h s ve s h i ll in s an d t wo p e nni e s
g ,

6 2 d wt s R oman ) .
, ( M S S C o tton N ero

D l fo l 1 4 5 an d publ i s h e d
. . . . .
, .
,

i n A rc haeolog i a x x x

,
Matt P ari s w r i te r of t he ab ov e g iv es a

. .
, ,

s p i r i t e d s k e tch o f t he Cam eo d rawn t o h alf t he actu al s i z e I ts s ubj ect i s


, .

cl early enou g h Con s tan t in e d i ad enred s t an d i n g in the g u i s e of J u p i t e r a


, , ,

Vi ct o ry on hi s h an d an d p i e rc in g th e O ld S erp en t w i th hi s s p ear But


,
.

t he g ood m on k m i s l e d by t h e trad i t i o n al e mpl oym en t of the p i ec e has


, ,

c on v e rt ed t he Vi ct ory in t o t h e b aby i n w h os e s er vi c e i t was s o l on g


e m pl oy e d .

IV .

Ag ate f or Cameo .

E l i z ab eth an u se of t h e wor d n owh e r e n d s a
The
b e tt e r i ll u s t rat i on th an i n F al s t aff s h u m or ou s obj u rg at i on of t he d i min u t ive

pag e w i th wh om he had b ee n fu r ni s h ed by the s p ort i v e pr in c e i n p lac e of a


s e r vin
g m a-
n I.am n ot o n ly w i tty m y s e lf bu t t h e c au se th at w i t i s i n o th e r ,

m en . I d o h ere walk b efor e th ee l i k e a s ow th at has ov e r wh el m ed all he r


l i tter but on e I f t he pr in ce pu t th ee i n to my s erv i c e for an y oth er r eas on
.

th an t o s et me o ff why th e n I h av e n o j u d g m e n t, ,
Th ou w h or e s on .

m an d rak e t hou art tt e r t o b e wor n i n my c ap th an t o wal k at my h eel s I


,
.

was n e v e r m ann ed w i th an Ag ate t i l l n ow but I w i ll s et you n e i th e r i n g ol d ,

n o r s i l v e r b u t i n v i l e app ar e l an d s e n d you b ack ag ai n t o y our m as t e r for a


, ,


j e we l ; t he j u v en al t he pr in c e y our m as ter wh os e ch in i s n ot yet ed g e d , , .

(K i ng Henry I V P t 2 i i .
,
. . .

The fas h i on abl en es s of th i s or n am e n t as well as the m od e of weari n g ,

i t i s c ur i o u s ly e x e m pli ed by the foll owin g en tr i es i n the l i s t of N e w Y ear s


,
12 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I N G S .

G i ft s pr esen ted t o Q u een E l i z ab e th fr om the fourteen th t o the th i rty s i x th


,
-

y ear of her r e i g n p u bl i s h e d by Ni ch ol s from the S l oan e MS 8 1 4


, .
, .

A nn o It em a j u ell b ei n g a Ram m e of A g ath e wi th a s t on e


, ,

p e n d an te h an g i n g u p on a ch ey n e of g ol d e t he s am e s e tt w i th s m al e ,

d yam on d es G iv en by Mr B en ag e t hreas ou rer of t he ch amb e r


. .
, .

Ite m a j u el l of A g ath e g ar ni s h ed w i th g ol d w i th a t ortowes


, ,

or toi se) s e tt w i th s m al e s arck s of ruby es


( t p G iv e n by Ch arl es S myth e . .

Ite m a g yrd ell of g ol d e c on tayn i n g XV I A g ath e b e d d es an d XV


, , ,

t orch e s of p erl e an d I I p erl es i n e v e ry t orch e


, G iv e n by the Cou n t i es of .

L yn c oln e .

It em a p ayre of b rac elet ts of g ol d e g arni s h ed wi th I V j ac en t s an d


, ,

I V ag ath es G iv en by the L ad ye H oward e


. .

I tem a p ayr e of b rac e le t ts of g ol d e s ett wi th A g ath e b ed d es an d


, , ,

oth er s t on es
g r av e n G iv e n by t h
. e L a d ye S t affor d s .

It em a j u ell b e in g a cr i st all s ett in g ol d w i th twoe s toryes app eari n g on


, ,

b oth e s i d es w i th a s m al e p e rl e pen d au n te G iv e n by Mrs B lau n c he Parrye


, . . .

I t e m a j u ell b ein g an A g at h e b ed d e g ar n i s h ed w i th g ol d e an d a
, ,

lou ll g arlan d e g ar ni s h ed ab owt e w i th V I I s parc k s of r u by es w i th an ophall


i
ie
, ,

i n t he m i d es t G iv e n by th e Cou n tyes of O xford e


. .

It em a c ark an e t an d a p ayr e of b rac elet ts of g ol d e sett w i th amati s tes


, ,

an d c arn ewe (c arn eli an b ed d e


) Th e c ark an e t c on tain ed XV II I p i e c e s
. and ,

t h e b racelet t s XV I p i ec es G i v en by t he Cou n t i es of L yn colen e


. .

Ite m a j u ell of g ol d e b ein g an A g ath e of Nept u n e s et wi th V I v e ry


, , ,

s m al e ruby es I I v e ry s m al e d yam on d es an d II I c ow rs e p erl es wh er eof on e


, , ,

b i gg e r th an t he r es t G iv en by t he L ad ye B u rg heley
. .


Ite m a j u el l of g ol d e b ein g a S c orp i on of A g ath e g ar ni s h ed w i t h
, , ,

s m all s arc k s of ruby es an d d i am on d s


p G iv en by t he L ad y W al s in g h am
. .


I tem a p ayr e of b rac elet ts of g ol d e c on tainin g XX I I p i e c es ; i n
,


each of th e m are A ath b ed d e an d X II of th e m g ar n e t an d t wo s m al e p e rl es
g , ,

i n a p i ec e G i v e n by the L ad y B ar on es Burl ey
. .

It em a b rowc h e (brooc h) of A g ath w i th a s onn e an d a s m al e


, ,

owe r i n i t w i th V s pri g g es O f foth ers of g ol d e g ar ni s h ed w i th s m al e r u by es


, ,

an d rooes of s m al e p erl es on t h e toppes wi th I II m en e p erl es p en d an t , .

G iv en by t he L ad ye Marqu i s of N orthamp ton e .

It em a owe r of g ol d e g ar ni s h e d wi th s parc k s of d i am on d s
, ,

rubyes an d ophales w i th an A g ath e of her Majes ti s ph i s n omy an d a p erl e


, ,

p en d an te wi th d evi c e s p ain t e d on i t G iv e n by Ei g ht Mas k ors i n Chr i s tm as


.


week e .

A c on tract i on o f lau rc ll s eems i ntend ed .


APP E ND I X . 13

UND E R W H A T N A ME \VA S TH E T U R Q U O I S E K NO W N TO T HE
A NC I E N TS ?

I T is in c on c e i v abl e th at s o l ov ely a s t o n e as the blu e T u rq u oi s e th e g e m ab o v e ,

all o th e r s o f P e r s i a c ou l d h av e b een u n k n ow n to Pl in y or th at b ei n g
, ,

k n own i t s h oul d h av e be en p as s e d by s o s li g lrt i n g ly as i n t he fe w word s he


,

b es to ws u p on the Callai s
Th es e fe w w or d s m or eov er h av e all the ai r
.
, ,

o f a qu ota t i on fro m s om e m u ch m or e an c i e n t Greek w r i te r an d of r e fe rr in


g ,

t o a s to n e n o t p as s in g by th at n am e amo n g s t the Rom an s an d th er e for e n o ,

l on g er i d en ti e d T he on ly s ol u t i on for t he d i fcu lty i s t o s upp os e the


.

an c i e n t s c o n s i d e r ed t he Turqu o i s e on ly a v ar i e ty of t he S apphi ru s ou r L ap i s ,

l az ul i ; an d th i s e xpl an at i on w h i ch on ly r e c e n tly o cc u rred t o m e s eem s


, ,

c ap abl e of b ein g s u b s t an t i at ed by m an y ar g um e n t s .

I n the rs t pl ac e Pl i n y s tat e s th at t he n es t S apphi ru s was fou n d i n


,

Med i a i e t he pr ovin c e b ou n d ed on the n orth by the Cas p i an t he act u al


, . .
, ,

l oc al i ty of the N i s h apur m in e H e ad d s
n u s u am t am on
q .
p e rlu c i d aa f ,

w h i ch s ee m s t o i m ply th at t h e nros t ad m i re d s ort p os s es s e d s om e s l i g h t


d eg r ee of tr an s l u c en cy bu t n ot tr an s p ar en cy wh i c h i s tr u e of t he
, ,


T u r q u oi s e but n ot of t he L ap i s l az u l i
,
L as tly hi s S apphi ru s c yan ei
-
.
,


c ol ori s was acc ou n te d t he m al e of t he s p ec i es
-
,
cy an eu s s i g n i fyi n g a v ery
d ark bl u e for Ko ch cos i s an ep i th e t fr e qu en tly appl i ed by t he p oe ts t o h ai r
,
/

an d e y e br ows an d by pro s e w r i t e r s t o n i e ll o
,
i n fact i t was e x actly e qu i -
,

v al en t t o u s hag I th er e fore v e n tur e to d e n e ou r T u rq u oi s e as t he


i

female or l i g h t bl u e S apph i ru s of the an c i e n ts S om e th i n g t o t he s an re


,
-
, .

e at t he b ott om of E pi phan i u s r e m ark th at alth ou h t he



e ffe ct m a li l
y g g d
o ,


s p o tt e d S a phi ru s w as s tyl ed

p t he R oyal y e t th at t he s ort w i th ou t an
y ,

s p ot s at all was t h e m os t v al u abl e .

S tron g s u pp ort t o th i s e xpl an at i on i s fu rni s h e d by a c on v er s e arg u m e n t


d r awn fr o m t he s t at em e n t of B e n Man s u r th at t h e fo u rth s ort O f hi s ,

T u rq u o i s e t h e
S e rrn u n i
,
i s s p otte d wi th g ol d d u s t an in c on t e s tabl e
,
-

pr oof th at he an e xp er i en c ed l ap i d ary d i d c on fou n d s om e p e c u l i ar l i g h t


, ,

s h ad e of t he L az u l i w i th t h e t ru e Turqu oi s e N o w i f th i s ac c ur at e m i n e ra .
,

log i s t c oul d m ak e s u ch a m i s t ak e a s i m i l ar c on fu s i o n m ay we ll b e s u pp os ed
,

t o e x i s t i n t he d e n i t i on s o f a th ou s an d y e ars b e for e A n d aft er all t he .


, ,

e rr or w as n o v e ry g r av e o n e ; t he actu al n at u r e of t h e t w o g em s ch em i c ally ,

It is v ery pr o b abl e th at the r oot o f Cal l ai s is t he S a ns cr i t ho le , wh i ch b ear s as man y


v ar i et i es o f mean in g as t he G reek u h a
s s .
1 1 A NTI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NG S .

n ly s ed b e i n g al m os t i d e n t i c al I f th er e fo r e B en Man s u r put s d ow n
a a , .
, ,

a p e c u l i ar s h ad e of t he L azul i as a Turq u o i s e t he G ree ks w i th P l in y m a


y , , ,

q u i te as n at u r ally b e s u pp os ed t o h av e ac t e d on the c on v er s e s y s t em ,

e s p e c i ally as t he fan c i ful d octr in e th e n pr ev ai l in


g ab ou t t he s e x es of g em s
n atur ally s u g g e s t e d the ad m i s s i on of t he t wo m os t opp os ed d eg rees of t h e
s am e c ol our in t o t he s am e s p ec i es as i t s m al e an d fe m al e c om p on e n t s .

P e rh ap s too th i s very c on fu s i on of the t wo m in eral s has s u g g es t ed t o t he


, ,

P e r s i an s t he s in g ul ar an d p opul ar i d ea of i n l ay in g the Turq u oi s e w i th g ol d ,

an d th u s s upply in i t w i th t h d c r at i on b e s t owed by N atur e up on i ts


g e e o

m as c ul in e c ou n t e rp art .

I h av e h ear d i t ass e rt ed th at P l in y in t en d ed t he Turqu oi se by hi s


Cy an u s d es cr i b e d i n t he s h ort c h apt e r pr ec ed in g hi s n ot i c e of
,

t he S apphi ru s B u t o n c om p ar in g hi s w or d s w i th th os e of Th eo
.

p h ras t u s
(i n t he S e c on d P art of hi s Tr eat i s e Ch ap i t i s p erfe ctly , .

cl ear th at the Rom an i s on ly tran s l at in g t he old G r eek s d es cr i pt i on of t he

v are/ s p ai n t ul tramari n e u n d e r t h e s tr an g e h alluc in at i on th at hi s o r i in al


, ,
g
was r e fe rr i n g t o a pr e c i ou s s ton e l I t i s pr ob abl e t h at i n m ak in g hi s .
e
,

e xtract s he had n ot n o t i c e d t h at Th eophras tu s m e n t i on ed t he a


,
rt i cl e n o t
am on g s t hi s g e m s bu t am on g s t s ub s tan c es u s e d in t he art s ochr es c e ru s e
, , ,

an d t he l i k e Bu t Th e ophr as tu s w i th t he pr ec i s i on to b e e xp ect ed fr om
.
,

A r i s t otl e s ch i efe st d i s c i pl e d e s cr i b e s t he s am e m in e r al (i n t he F i r s t P ar t

o f hi s Tr eat i s e
) w h e n e m pl oy e d i n i ts n at i v e s tat e as a pr ec i o u s s ton e by i t s
, ,

n ati ve S em i t i c n am e of S app hi ru s bu t w h en he has to c on s i d er i t as c onv erted


i n t o a p i g m en t he c al ls i t b y t he t rad e n am e of K n aves I n fact he wr i tes
'

.
, ,

as on e w ou l d d o at pr e s e n t t e r m in g t he s am e th in g in i ts n atur al s t at e
,

L ap i s l az u l i in i ts prep ar e d for m ultr am ar in e


-
, ,
.

N i s hap u r a qu ozs e The Turqu oi s e m in es li e i n t he E lbru z m ou n tain


'

-
.

r an g e forty m i l es wes t of t he t own of Ni s hapur T he Turqu oi s e i s fou n d


, .

in v e in s n od u l es an d m as s es b oth i n p orphyr i t i c ear th an d roc k d eeply


, , , ,

t in g ed w i th i r on A v e ry c u r i ou s ph en om en on i s fre qu en tly n ot i c ed h e re
.

t he cr u d e m att e r of t he g em n e v e r c on s ol i d at ed but occ u rr in g i n s oft ,

u lv u ru le n t m as s e s Th e s e m i n es are n o w farm e d ou t t o t h e h i h e s t b i d d e r
p .
g ,

an d n o l on g e r r e s e r v e d for t he e x cl u s i v e b en e t o f the Cr own .

Mou n t S i n ai a qn oi s e Th i s T u rq u oi s e d oes n ot e x i s t i n n od u l es l i k e the


.
,

P e r s i an but in s q u ar e frag m en ts d i s s e m in at ed thr ou g h a h ar d ferr u g in ou s


, ,

s an d s ton e w h i ch t ak in , g a n e p ol i s h h as much t he l ook of av e n tur i n e the


, , ,

p ar t i cl es b e in g v e ry c oars e an d t he c em e n t u n i t in g th em r ed d i s h brown
,
-
.

P l in y hadvi d ently g ot into h o pe l ess c on fu sion o win g to th e pr i m ary sens e o f x a b


e , v u s.

A noth e r p o rt ion o f t he s ame ch apte r h e act u ally tr ansl ates ver b ati m an d appl i es to h is p aint ,

c aeru le wm .
APP END I X . 15

In s om e p i e c es the T u rq u oi s e s are e q u ally m i n u t e an d e v e n ly d i s tr i b u t e d as , ,

are t he l i t tl e op al s i n t he hle th e r o f O pal I n o th e r s t he s q u ar e g e m s are



-
.
,

u n i t e d by t he fe rr u
g i n ou s c e men t c xac t lv l i k e t he t es s c rze i n c oar s e m os ai c
,

work . N o s ol i d p i e c es of th i s T u rq u o i e are fo u n d of l ar g e s i z e ; the m o st


s

c on s i d e rabl e n ot r e ach in g t o a q u arte r o f an i n ch sq u are T he c ol ou r .


,

h owev e r i s v ery e q u ably d i ffu s e d an d n e I h av e had t he opp ort u n i ty


,
.

o f e x am i ni n g s p e ci m e n s i n all s tat es i n t he r ou g h m at ri x t he m at r i x ,

p ol i sh ed an d t he T u rq u oi s es th e m s e l v e s r e g u l arl y c u t an d s e t i n r i n g s i n
, ,

t he c oll e ct i on o f Capt ain Mac d on al d n e ph e w to t h d i s co v e r e r o f t he m in e


,
t .

M
( y a 2 6

Capri L ap i s laz u li l he r oll ed l u mp s of L ap i s l az u l i fou n d up on t h e


'
- -
.

b each of Capr i are pr obably of v olc an i c o ri g i n The h oll ow m as s es ej e ct ed .

fr o m t he n ei g hb ou r in g V es u vi u s (ap propr i ately en ou g h c all ed b ombe ) an d ,

w h i c h o fte n y t o i mm en s e d i s tan c es s om e t i m es c on t ai n am on g s t th e i r v e ry
,

h et e r og en e ou s c om p on en t s p i ec es of l i m es t on e em b e d d in g pr i s m s of L ap i s
l az u l i I l ately o b s e rv ed s u ch a l i m es t on e frag me n t e n cl os in g a pr i s m
.

o f L ap i s l az ul i
-
,
ab ou t on e i n c h l on g of g ood c ol ou r al t h ou g h p art i all y
, ,

c alc in e d i n Mr L e e s l ar g e c oll ect i on of V es u v i an m i n e r al s O t h er bl o c k s


, .

.

o f l i k e p roven an c e e mb edd ed l ar g e an d n e E s s oni t e g ar n e t s S uch m as s es .


,

fall in g red h o t in t o t he s ea wou l d b e i m m ed i ate ly d i s in t eg rat e d l e avin g th e i r


-
, ,

pr e c i ou s en cl os ur es t o b e d r iv e n ab ou t at the p leas u re of t he u n d er c u rre n t s -


.

Tables of the L ara A cc or d in g t o t he tr ad i t i o n of t he E l d e r s t h e w or d s


i n s cr i b e d on t h e s e Tabl es w ere ou t c om pl et e ly throu g h t he s t on e s o th at ,

the y m i g ht b e r e ad w i th e qu al fac i l i ty fr om b oth s i d es The mem b ein g .


,

a c i rc u l ar l e tt e r w i th n o pr oj e c t i n g p art s t o att ach i t t o t he c o n t i g u ou s e l d


, ,

was th e re fo r e k ep t in i ts pl ac e by t he e xp ed i e n t of a p e rp e t u al m i racl e
P ras i u s n ati ve Cou n try of
,
Fr as e r s p eak in g fr om p e r s on al ob s e r v at i o n
.
, ,

s t at e s th at i n t he m ou n t ain r an g e b e t we e n I s p ah an an d T e h e ran at K i n n ara


, ,
o

g h e rd are h i ll o c k s c on t ai n in g a q u ant it y o f A m y g d al oi d w i th P rase in g ree n


, ,


c o l ou r ed n od u l e s o f g r e at b e au ty Th i s d i s c o v e ry m ay throw l i g ht u p on
.

t h e tr u e n atur e o f t he S m ar ag d u s P e r s i c u s w h i ch P l in y on ly k n e w fr om t he ,

d es cr i pt i o n g i v e n of i t by D em ocr i t u s T he n od u les in wh i ch i t n o w o c c u r s
t ally wel l w i th the pr o t u b e r an t for m m en t i o n ed by the old G r e e k as on e
o f t he ch ar act e r s of t h e l atte r s t on e as l i k e w i s e d oe s t he g r e at e r op ac i ty o f
,

t h e Pras e . F ras e r 3 l i ttl e furth er on aff o r d s a v al u abl e i ll u strati o n o f


,
. ,

P l in y s e p i th e t
lpd ci i i ppl i d S r d by hi m
r a k th at c on

,
a n a a a e , t o a s s e r
,

o m e r at e of t he s am e r an g e o ft e n c on tain s agate n od u l e s o f a br own c ol ou r



g l
a n atur al c omp ani on sh i p for s ar d s al s o wer e t he m as s e s to b e c ar e fu lly ,

e xam in ed .

L yn c u ri u i i i E s son i te garn et the J ac i n tlz of Collector s


-
The opp ortuni ty .
,
A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NG S .

l on g v ain ly w i s h ed for of e x am inin g a n at iv e cry s t al of t h at rar es t of


,

pr e c i ou s s t on es t he tru e y ell ow J arg oon has c on v in c ed m e c ompl e tely


, ,
'

of m y e rr or i n r efe rr in g t he s t on e s o l on g p opul arly k n own as , J ac in th ,

t o t he Z i rc on fam i ly W h at ev er b e t he s h ad e of oran g e ex h i b i t e d by the


.

an t i qu e s p e c i m e n s all are e qu ally E ss oni t e g ar n e t s or i n j e well er s l an g u ag e



, , , ,

Cinn am on s ton es -
On e s in g l e c on s i d erat i on i s d ec i s iv e : the J arg oon of an y
.
,

c ol ou r i s al way s m in u te (e xc eed in g t wo c arats i n wei g ht i t b ecom e s


,

a c u r i os i ty ) an d c on s e qu e n tly qu i t e in c omp et e n t t o s u pply m at er i al for


,

in t ag l i m an y o f wh i ch are of e x c ept i on ally l ar g e s i z e B es i d es the l att e r


, .
,

are e n t i r el y wan t i n g i n t h e g r an d ch aract er i s t i c of t he Z i rc on i ts won d e rful

ad am an t in e l u s tr e The i n d u b i tably s u p er i or e l e c tr i c i ty of t he E s soni t e ov er


.

t he Re d G ar n e t i s i n d e ed d i fcul t t o e xpl ain b u t d oes n ot s u f c e in i ts elf to ,

r e q u i r e a n e w attr i but i on of t he s p e c i es T he fact m en t i on ed by B oeti u s .


,

th at t h e or i e n tal J ac in th s all c am e fr om Calec u t an d Camb ay i s an oth e r ,

t e s t i m on y t o th e i r r e al n atur e for t he J ar g oon i s p e cul i ar t o Ceyl on If the


, .

Rom an s k n e w t he y e ll ow J arg oon at all th ey mu s t h av e c on s i d e r e d i t ,

a Chrys oli t hu s of the r s t c las s .

The e xtr em e u n c om m onn es s of t he l att er g em app ear s fr om the foll owin g


w
r em ark s of the e xp e r i en c ed H arry h i ch thr ow s o much l i g ht up on t h i s
,
e

r e a tly d i s pu t e d qu e s t i on th at I s h all b e d oin g g r eat s er vi c e t o t he c oll e ct or


g ,

by tran s cr i b in g th em tran s l at ed in fu l l
The m i xtur e of aur or a red w i th
.
-

a l i ttl e br o wn has b een c all ed h yac in th e r ou g e fr om t he n am e o f a v ar i ety -


,

of t he Z i rc o n th at pr e s en t s the s am e c olour B u t we m ee t w i th g ar n e t s .

th at offe r s o p e rfe ct an i m i tati on of i t t h at acc ord in g to Rom ee d e l I s le , ,



,

i t i s n ot p os s i bl e t o d ec i d e fr om t h e c ol ou r al on e wh e th e r as t on e cut an d , ,

set ,
b el on g t o t he Hyac in th or G ar n e t s p e c i es A t pr es en t a th i r d s or t .

w h i ch I h av e t erm ed

of s t on e i s k n own ,
E s s oni t e ( W ern er s K an eel

s t ei n w h i ch s h ar es t he s am e c o l our s o t h at i t h app en s pr e tty oft en th at


p eopl e t o wh om on e s h ows on e or oth er of th es e thr ee s ort s u n h es i tat ing ly
c al l i t a H yaci n the an d s om e t i m es t he v ar i e ty t erm ed H yac i n th e la b ell e
,
- -
.

I s u pp os e am on g s t t he s t on es that g o ab ou t in t he trad e u n d er the n am e


,

Hy ac in t h es s om e m ay b e fou n d th at are of t he n at u r e of the Z i rcon



of

, ,

alth ou g h u p t o t he pr e s e n t t i m e all that I have had the opp or tu n i ty of s eei n g


, ,

are mer e E ss on i tes I on ly k n ow a s i ngle on e th at b el on g s t o t he Z i rc on an d


.
,

wh i ch i s m ad e fr om a cry s tal o f th at s u b s t an c e w h i ch I my s elf c au s ed t o b e


ou t . I t has m u ch r es embl an c e i n as p ect to t he E s s o n i t e but i t m ay b e
j u d g ed from t he t ab le pl ac ed at th e e n d of th i s b ook how g r eatly i t d i ffe r s
i n i ts prop e rt i es .

T ra e i t dcs

c arac tc res phy si q u e s d c s P i c rrc s P rec i en ses ,




p xv
. .
APP END I X . 1 7

T he E s s on i te i s fou n d on ly i n r ou n d ed m as s es b u t H arry as c e rtai n ed by ,

cl eav ag e th at i ts pr i m ary form i s a pr i s m w i th rhonrb i c t erm i n at i o n s an d ,

d i s t i n g u i s h abl e fr om b oth Z i rc on an d G arn e t t h e l att e r of w h i ch h ow e v e r , , ,

i t cl os ely r es em bl es in i ts c h em i c al c on s t i t u e n t s B ei n g less h ar d les s h eav y .


, ,

less br i ll i an t th an e i th e r t he A bb e p ed ant i c ally c hr i s te n ed t he n e wly d i s



-


c ov e r e d g e m ,

E s s oni t e fr om ija a wv i n fe r i or as he h i m s elf i n for m s u s
, , ,

( p. o th e r wi s e t he d e r iv at i on of th i s od d l oo k in g n am e had b attl ed all -

i n v es t i g at i on I t c om es from Ceyl on in m as s es of c on s i d er abl e m ag n i tu d e


. .

Min e ral og i s t s n o w att e m p t t o c on n e t he t i tl e H y ac in th to t he oran g e

Z i rc on e xch an g i n g J ac in th for Hy ac in th in e G arn et


,

b u t th ey h av e n o
r i g h t t o u p s e t a n om e n c l atu r e th at has pr e v ai l e d at l eas t thr ee h u n d r e d
y ear s or t o r es tr i ct the app ell at i on H y ac in th t o a s t on e t h at was pr ob ably
,

qu i te u n k n own throu g h out th at p er i od an d i n d e ed h ar d ly h as an y e x i s ten c e , , ,

at t he pr e s e n t d ay Th at B o e t i u s m ean t by Hy ac i n thu s n oth in g m or e


.

th an ou r j ewel l er s J ac i n t h w h e th er r ed d i s h brown G ar n e t (G u arn acci n o) or


,
-
,

w
y ell o E oni t e s an i fes t from h s
s s i m ,
i d e n i t i o of t s v ar i e t i es
n i
I m ak e .

fou r k in d s of H yac in th s by the r ul e of th e i r c ol our The r s t s or t c ompr i s es


, .

s uch as s h in e l i k e re an d r e s e m bl e t he c ol our o f al c h e r m es d e or n at i v e
y
-
, ,

v e r m i l i on or v ery b i l i ou s bl ood
, Th i s t he Fr en ch call J aci n the la belle
.
- -
,

an d i t c om es v e ry n e ar t o t h e c ol ou r of t h e B oh e m i an G arn e t on ly m or e ,

d i l u t ed an d w i th out an y t in g e of black
, Th i s s ort i s es t eem e d ab ov e all t he
.

r es t an d may b e r e fe rr ed t o t h e cl ass of t he Carb u n cl e I n t he s ec on d k i n d


, .

are r eck on e d s u ch as are c ol ou r ed w i th t h e y ell ow i s h re d o f s affr on an d -


,

e x actly r epr e s en t t h e t in t of g l as s m ad e ou t of an t i m on y or of l e ad thr i c e , ,

fu s ed wi th br i ck s (i n a br i c k k i l n u p on an i r on pl at e an d vi tr i e d Th i rd
-
, .

c las s s uch as e xh i b i t the c ol ou r of y e ll ow am b er s o exactly th at th ey c ann ot


,

b e d i s t in g u i sh ed fr om i t e xc e pt by th e i r h ar d n ess an d w an t of attr act i v e


,

p o we r O n e of th i s k in d i s in my p os s es s i on Th es e are t he c h eap e s t
. .

of all an d are n ot by an y m ean s tr an s p ar e n t by r e as o n of t he atoms an d


, ,

c orp u s cu les th at th e y c on tai n i n th e i r s u b s t an c e an d i m p ed e t he tr an s m i s s i on


o f l i g ht Th i s k i n d I am d i s p os e d t o c on s i d e r as t he L g ncu ri u s of t he
.

an c i en t s r ath e r th an am b e r
, For i t i s s c arc ely cr ed i bl e th at t he an c i en t s
.

s h ou l d h av e r eg ar d e d am b er w h i ch i s s oft an d c om b u s t i bl e as a s t on e or
, ,

g em . I n the fou rth c l as s are pl ac e d th os e th at p oss ess n o red t i n g e at all ,

b u t s h ow t he c ol ou r of w h i t e p ell u c i d amb e r T he s am e c on cl u s i on i s t o

.

b e d e d u c ed fr om t h e r em ark s of Car d an w r i tin g s o m e fty y ears b e for e ,

B oe t i u s * I am accu s t om ed t o w ear a v e ry l arg e on e an d n d i t s ou re


.
,

wh at th ou g h b u t s l i g h tly pr o mot i v e o f s l ee p
, ,
Min e h owe v er i s n o t t he .
, ,

AD . 1 557 .

D e S u b t i li tatc R ern m,

c ap . vi i .
18 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D RI N G S .

b es t k in d but a v e ry in feri or on e b e in g of a gold en c ol our wh e r eas t he b es t


, , ,

i s red (p u ni c e u s ) an d n e v e r e xc eed s t he b i g n ess o f a l e n t i l e
, B oet i u s .

m e n t i on s t he th en u ni v e r s al b e l i ef in t he vi rtu e of the J ac i n th as an amul e t


ag ain s t t he pl ag u e w h e t h e r s u s p en d e d ab o ut t he n eck or wor n i n a n g e r
, ,

r i n g w h i ch acc ou n t s for i ts r em ark ab le fr equ en cy in m ed i aeval j ewell ery


,
.

i mp May
p ti mo Z enon i s

An astas i s Ghild eri c i , ob . 4 81 ,
ann o se 2 7 , 1 6 5 3,

he fou n d at i on s o f t he o ld d i l ap i d ated h ou s e of t he B u r s ar of S Br i x i u s .
,

T ourn ay wer e b e in g d u g ou t for t he p u rp os e of r e b u i l d in g t he s am e A t


,
.

t he d ep th of s e v e n fe e t a d e af an d d umb m as on Had r i an Q u i n q u i n s tru ck , ,

up on a r ott e n l eath e r b ag c on tainin g ab out on e hu n d r ed s ol i d i from Th eo ,

d os i u s I I t o Z en o d own war d s a l arg e n umb e r of d e n ar i i of all d ates an d


.
, ,

m an y s m all c opp er s of Con s tan t i n e s fam i ly N e x t th ey c am e up on t wo


.

s k ele t on s am i d s t j e wel s for t he p e r s on an d h or s e tr app in g s a g ol d s tyl u s in ,


-
,

c as e a p ai r of t abl e ts s wor d w i th g ol d h i lt i n s h eath h ead of l an c e a


, , , ,

fran ci sca ab ov e thr ee h u n d r ed b ees t hr ead s of g ol d from t he s tu ff of the


, ,

r ob es an ag ate v as e i n fr ag m e n t s a s ol i d pl ain g ol d h oop r in g an d m os t


, , , ,

i m p or tan t of all a s i g n e t r in g w i th the k in g s b u s t in fr on t fac e l eg en d


,
-

, ,


C hi ld eri c i Reg i s .

Th e v ar i ou s or n am en ts s wor d h i lt s c abb ar d &c we r e of g ol d en cru s t ed


,
-
, , .
,

w i th t abl e g arn ets s et e x ac tly aft e r th e m ann e r of t he Byz an t in e cloi son n e


,

e n am el an d form i n g s i mpl e p atte r n s


, Chi et n otes th at th e se g ar n e ts w er e .

w i th ou t n u m b er an d m an y wh e n d r awn fr om th e i r s e tt i n g s p rov ed t o b e
, , ,

c arb u n c u li am et hys t i z on t es
7
t h e tru e i e p u rpl e alm an d in es T he three , . .
, .

h u n d r ed b ees w er e on ly p art of a m u ch l arg e r n umb er d i s p e r s ed i n th e


rubb i s h an d c art ed away b efore th ey we r e n o t i c ed Th ey are each gths of an .

i n ch l on g of g ol d the win g s fol d ed m ad e s k i lfu lly of t wo s l i c es of g ar n e t


, , , ,

i n a cl o i s onn e b or d e r S om e h av e th e ey es m ark ed an d t he b ack s s tr eak ed


.
,

o t h er s are l e ft pl ain C hi et t oo s ag ac i ou s ly e xpl ain s t he d i ffer en c e as


.
, ,

r eferr in g to t h e c ivi c an d ru s t i c s ubj ects of the k in g ! Mor e prob ably t he


d i ffer en c e w as t he m e r e s avin g of l ab o u r on t he p art of t he g old s rn i t h w ho
m ad e th em for attach m en t t o t he r oyal r ob e t he b ett e r n i sh ed occ u py i n g ,

t he mor e c on s p i cu ou s s i tu at i on up on i t E ach has a l i ttl e l oop at t he t ai l .

for fas t en in g i t on t he d r es s h ead d own war d s Chi et acc ou n t s for t he u s e


,
.

o f s u ch a d e c orat i on by t he old b e l i e f th at t he i n se ct s pr u n g ou t of t he

c arc as es of o x en for a g ol d en b u l ls h ead ad m i rably m ad e an d e n cru s t ed wi th


,

w s fo u n d s t i ll att ach e d t o t he h o rs e s br i d l e w

g a r n e t s a,
I t a s s upp os e d t o .
APP E N DI A . 19

b e t he r eg u l ar T euto n i c s y mb ol o f r oy al ty i clolu m reg i s Chi c t cl e v e rly


, .

s h o ws ho w th e s e b e es we r e t r an s fo rm e d by m e d i ze v al i n oran c e of th e i r
g
t r u e i m p ort i n to t he Fr e n ch e u r d e l s A ll th es e r el i c s we r e pr es en t e d
y
- -
.

t o the A r c h d u k e L e op ol d g ov er n o r o f B e lg i u m p art by t he m a i s tr at e s o f
, g ,

T ou r n ay p ar t by the rs t n d e r s an d g i v e n by h i m i n t o t he c h ar g e o f hi s
, ,

phy s i c i an J J Chi e t w ho t wo y ears l at e r d es cr i b ed th e m in a v e ry i n t e


,
. .
, , ,

r es t in g an d v al u abl e s e r i es of d i s s e rtat i o n s c on t ain ed i n a q u arto v ol u m e


i l l u s tr at e d w i th m any g ood c opp e r pl ate s e n t i tl ed An as tas i s C hi ld eri c i
-
,

F ranc oru n R egi s An twerp i ce 1 6 5 5 T he A rch d uk e g av e Q u in qu i m s i x g ol d



. .
,

d ou bl oon s as b e i n g t he r s t n d e r .

S i gn et of Hagg ai I n the r ec e n t e xc av at i on s at t he foot of t he T em pl e


wall th er e w as d i sc ov e r ed at a g r eat d epth am on g s t t he acc u mul at ed d eb ri s
, ,

o f t he an c i e n t s an oval ri n g s t on e i n bl ack j as p e r e n g rav ed i n Ph oeni c i an


, ,


c h ar ac t e rs

, H ag g ai b ar S heb en ai ah B i bl i c al an t i qu ar i es p ers u ad e th em
.

s e l v es t o s e e i n th i s r e l i c the v e ry s i g n e t of t he pr oph e t H ag g ai w ho as hi s , ,

a t r r
r r n i c i s n ot r e c or d e d m ay h av e had a S heb en ai ah for hi s fath e r t he
p o y ,

o n ly o bj e ct i on t o th i s pl e as in g th eory b e in g th at t he s h ap e of t he s i g n et ,

a g em for s e tt in g i n a r in g pr ov es i t n ot p os s i bly an ter i or t o the t i m es of t h e


,

A s rn on ean k i n g d om p os s i bly much l at e r ,


.

R oyal S i gnets i n E mer ald L au r e n t i u s S u ri u s Comm en t R eru m i n O r .

b e g es t Feb
.

. m en t i on s am on g s t t he oth e r j e wel s d e p os i t e d in t he
s i l v er x i s fo u n d w i th i n t h e s arc oph ag u s of Mar i a H on ori i n o fe we r th an
py ,

forty r in g s s et w i th d i ffer e n t s t on es ; t h e m os t r em ark abl e b e in


g an emerald
s et in ol d en r av ed w i th a h ead s u pp os ed t o b e t h at of H on or i u s h i m s e lf
g g
, .

The s ton e was v al u e d at t he t i m e at the h i g h s u m of v e hu n d red g ol d


d ucat s a c onvi n c i n g att es t at i on t o i ts b e in g a r e al em e ral d .
0 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NG S .

Medi cal S tamps Med i c al s tamp s are s m all s t on e t abl et s w i th in s cr i pt i on s


cut up on th ei r fac e an d ed g es g ivin g the n am e of t he m ed i c in es an d th at of
,

t he m ak e r or inv en tor ; an d we r e u sed for s t amp in g t he l i ttl e c ak es (pas

t e ll i ) of c ollyr i um an d the b ox es c on t ainin g th e m (pyx i d es ) i n or d er t o


, ,

g u ar an tee th e i r g en u in e n es s e x actly l i k e t he pr es e n t m eth od of au t hen


,

t i c at i n g p at e n t m ed i c in e s by m ean s of a s tamp It i s c ur i ou s th at m os t of
.

th es e s tam p s b el on g t o eye s al v es S uch pr ep ar at i on s mu s t h av e b ee n i n


-
.

g r e a t r e qu e s t a m on g t h e a n c i e n t s w ho s u f
f e r
, e d c om m o n ly f r om d i s eas es of

t he ey es of w h i ch m or e th an t wo hu n d r e d w e r e s p e c i ed by th ei r ocul i s t s
,
.

Th i s l i ab i l i ty t o s uch c ompl ain ts was d u e pr ob ably to th e i r c u s tom of


al way s g oin g b ar e h ead ed an d p as s in g from th e i r c on n ed an d g l oomy
-
,

r oom s i n t o t he ful l bl az e of a s outh er n s u n w i th ou t an y p rot e ct i on t o t he


,

e y es . I n the H ertz c olle ct i on was a l arg e S ar d en g rav ed w i th a g ur e of,

the g od d e s s Min e r v a s eat ed i n s cr i b ed HE ROP H ILI OPOB A L S A MV M


,
T he s u rfac e .

of t he s t on e was much wor n by u s e an d s h owe d th er eby t he l arg e d em an d


,

th er e mu s t h av e b ee n for th i s pre p ar at i on i n p art i cul ar w h i ch m ay h av e ,

d er iv ed i ts n am e fr om the fam ou s phys i c i an t he fou n d e r of t he Al e x an d r i an


,

s ch ool of m e d i c in e . Th i s i n t ag l i o was pur c h as ed for the Br i t i s h Mu s e u m at


t h e h i g h pr i c e of 8 l alth ou g h the work of i t was m ed i ocr e an d of l at e Ro man
.
,

d at e I n fact t he s ton e i ts elf had fr om ab ra s i on of s urfac e m u ch the app ear


.
, , ,

an c e of a p as t e ; t h e l ett e r s al s o of the in s cr i pt i on w e r e l ar e an d i ll
g
form ed .

T he in s cr i pt i on s on th es e s t amp s are s o cur i ou s an d thr o w s o m u ch ,

l i g h t up on the s ubj e ct of t he p at e n t m e d i c in es of an t i qu i ty th at i t i s wor t h ,

w h i l e t o g i v e h er e an ab s tr ac t of Caylu s s e xc ell e n t d i s s e rt ati on u p on th e m


'

(i. I t w i ll b e ob s e r v e d th at th ey all r e fe r t o c ollyr i a or m e d i c in es t o ,

b e app li ed to t he e y es .
A PP END I X . 21

Th e t wo r s t we r e fou n d at N i m eg uen , an d b or e t he i n s cr i pt i on s ,

M . V LPI . I-
IE R A CL E T I S . S l llA T lOTI CV M
'

D I A R RODO N AD I MI '
.

CY CN A R I V M AD . 1M .

T A L A S S E ROS A .

Th i s s tam p s e r v e d for au th en t i c at in g t he g e n u in en es s of fou r d i ffer e n t


s ort s of s al v e s prep ar e d by a n o d ou b t n oted o cul i s t M Ulpi u s H e racl e s
, ,
.
,

v e ry l i k e ly a fre ed n ran of Traj an s fr om t he fact of hi s b ear i n g t he s am e

fam i ly n am e an d b es i d es i n Rom an t i m es phy s i c i an s wer e g en e rally G r e ek


, ,

or A s i at i c s l av e s by or i g in T he S trat i ot i c u m was a r em ed y for the oph t hal


.

m i a t o w h i ch s ol d i e r s we r e p e c u l i arly s ubj e ct ; the D i arrod on (r os e s al v e)


,
-

for I mp etu s or i n am m ati on s of t he ey es ; Cyc n ari u m a w h i t e oin tm en t


, ,

m ad e of e m oll i e n t in g r ed i e n t s for t he s am e c ompl ai n t ; T alas s eros a on e


, ,

i n t o t he c omp os i t i on of wh i ch b ays alt e n t e r ed The s e c on d s tamp b ore the


n am e of t he s am e p e rs on w i th th ose of fou r ad d i t i on al s al v es zMeli n u m
.

, ,

c omp ou n d ed w i th v er d i g r i s ; Ti pi n u m an e xtr act fr om t he pl an t c all ed ,

T yphe D i arc es for Di ac roc e s s affr on oin t m en t ; an d D i amys os s al v e of


, ,
-
,

mi sy or red v i tr i ol
, .

The th i rd s tamp g iv e n by S p on has t he n am e of an oth e r ocu l i s t


, ,

C CA P S A BI N A N I I DI APS ORI CV M AD C A LI G .

C HE LIDO N AD C LA R .

N A R DI N V M A D I MPE T V M .

CH L O R ON AD C LAR .

Of th es e r s t was a r e m ed y for t he P sora or d ry ophth al mi a an d


, t he , ,

Cali g i nes or d i m n es s of s i g ht t h e s e c on d an e xtract of t he well k nown h e rb


, ,
-

Celid on y t o cl ear the ey es ; t h e N ard i n u m of m an y m in er al s c omb in e d w i th


, ,

n ar d ; t he l as t Glzloron or g r een s al v e of s ulph ate of c opp er to cl ear t he


, , ,

si ht
g .

The fourth s t amp fou n d at G l ou c es t e r r ead s , , ,

Q I VL MV R A N I ME L I N V M A l) CL A R I I AT E M
' '

S TA G lV M O POB A S A L M AT AI) .

The c on d of w h i ch was an e xtr act of the j u i c e of b al s am to b e d ropp ed


se , ,

s laet u nr i n t o t he e y e s an d th e r e for e an as tr in g e n t appl i c at i o n


, , .

The fth b e ar s t he n am e of Q Cae r Q u in t i l i an an d hi s s al v es z S t ac ta . .


,

ad Cl ar D i alepi d an as t rin g e n t d e r iv ed from t he L ep idi u m or wall p e pp e r ;


.
,
.
, ,
-

D i as myrn s al v e of m yrrh ; an d Croc od


,
or s affr on o in tm e n t Th i s was .

fou n d n e ar Cout an c es i n N orm an d y .


22 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I N GS .

T he i xth c am e from D ij on an d b ear s t he n am e of M S u l Ch ar i to I t


s , . . .

s e r v ed to s t amp h i s g all i p ot s of I s oc hrys a ad cl ar or g old en oi n tmen t ; D i ap .


,

s or alr ead y n am e d ; D i arrhod on ad fe r v or or a r e m e d y for t he b u r nin


.
, g .
,

h eat of t he e y e s ; an d D i as myrn as alr ead y d es cr i b ed .


,
.

T he s ev e n th fou n d at B es an con has th e n am e of G S at S ab ini an an d


, , . .
,

hi s s al v e D i acherale t he d e r i v at i on of wh i ch i s n ot k n own , .

The e i g hth al s o fr om B es an con g i v es t h e n am e of L S acc u s Me n an d e r


, , .
,

an d h i s four c ollyr i a Ch e l i d on i u m ad c al Meli n u m d el ao or d i s t i ll ed ; .


,

Thalas s eros d el ae t ; D i aps ori c u m ad s e or ad scabi em the d ry ophth al m i a


. . .
, , .

T he n i n th fr om Man d e u v re b ear s t he n ame of C S u lp Hypn u s an d i s


in s cr i b ed w i t h t he t i tl e s of h i s S t ac t u m O p oh ad 0 zD i alepi d ad A s pr i
. .
, , ,

. .
,
.

for Aspri tu d i n es or wart s on t he ey e l i d s ; L ys i pon u m ad s n ppu rat ion e m


, ,

an e moll i e n t for t h e cur e of g ath e r in g s on t h e l i d s ; an d l as tly hi s Coen en ad

c lari t at e n r or u n i v e r s al oin tm e n t t o cl e ar t he s i g ht
, , .

Th e t e n th i s i n t he Coll e cti on of A n t i q u es P ar i s I t i s u n fortu n ately , .

br ok en bu t the or i g in al r ead in g was p erh ap s D ec i m i P Flav i an i Co llyr i u m


,
.

l en e m ad as pri tu d i n em ocul o an d D ec i m i P Flavi an i Collyr i u m


. .
, .

m i x tum c .

M T och on d An n ec i publ i s h ed in 1 8 1 6 a brochu re up on th es e s t am p s i n


.

wh i ch he d es cr i b ed th i r ty e x am pl es by ad d in g th os e of hi s own c oll ect i on , ,

an d oth er s u n p u bl i s h ed th at had c om e t o hi s k n owl ed g e t o t h e n in e t e e n ,

previ ou s ly d es c r i b ed by S ac i u s Of t he u n publ i s h ed are I V N I T AV R I CROCODPACI .

A N ADCI CA T E T R E V M J u ni T au r i Cre c e d P ac i an u m ad c i c atr i c es e t rheu m ata .

an d I VN I T A V R I CR OCO DD A MI S V S ACDI AT H E S I S E TR E V or J u n i T au r i Cre c e d d i am .


, , .

ys u s ad d i ath es i s e t rheu m ata H e r e d i ath e s i s rheu m ata an d e p i ph o r a are


.
, , ,

v ar i ou s k in d s of ophth al m i a A n oth e r s tam p has DI A MI S V S A DDI A TH E TOL or .


,

D i am ys u s ad d i ath es i s e t omn ern L i ppi tu d i n em t he l as t t wo w or d s oc c urr in g ,

at fu l l l en g th on s om e of th e s e s t amp s as we ll as i n t he abbr e v i at e d for m .


Th e
T i pi n u m for Ti phyn u m w as of the s am e n at u r e as t he L i r i
,

,

n um o i n t m e n t o f l i ly
,
for t he T i phyon i s cl as s ed by Pl in y am on g s t t h e
,


l i l i ac eou s pl an t s The D i ac he rale h i th erto u n e xpl ain e d Vi s c on t i in t e r
.
, ,


r e t s as d i ac e rat os l e n e a s al v e c omp os e d of hart s horr r
p ,
.


The
A u them e ru m of an oth er s t amp i s a s al v e t o b e pr ep ar ed e v e ry
d ay as b e in g l i abl e t o s p oi l by k ee p in g l i k e ou r g ol d en oin tm en t
, , .

( P h ron i m i e u od e s ad as p ri

A n oth e r i s P HRO NI ME VO HE S A D A S PR I E T CJK . .


et a s i n g u l ar s u b s t i t u t i on of the K for t h e C in Ci c atri c es , .

S en ec a (E p l x i v ) allu d es t o th es e m ed i c am e n t s an d t he d i s e as es of t h e
. .

e ye fo r w h i c h t h ey we r e e mpl oy e d H o e as pe ri tas oc u lo ru rrr c on le v at u r ,

h o e p al p ebr aru m c ras s i t u d o t e n u at u r h oc v i s s u b i ta e t h u m or ave rt i tu r hoe , ,


ae u i tu r vi s i t s .
A PP END I X . 23

A n oth e r l ve n am ed up on th es e s t amp s i s the Flog i n u m m ad e fr om


sa ,


t he j ui c e of t he phl ox an d t he S arc ophag u m or c orr os i v e an appl i c at i on
, , ,

for u lc e r s .

A v e ry c om pl et e s t amp of th i s n atur e was d u g u p w i th i n t h e A bb ey


Chu rch B ath i n th e y ear 1 7 8 1
, ,
I t i s a r ectan g ul ar p i e c e of g r een s ton e
.
,

3} in ch e s l on g by h al f an in ch w i d e an d p erfor at e d thr ou g h i ts ax i s
7
,
E ach .

fac e pres en t s a n eatly en g rav ed in s cr i pt i on in t err u pt ed w i th g u r es o f ,

s wan s an d myrtl e s pr i g s an d arr an g ed i n t he foll ow i n g o r d e r


,

1 . T . rvn raxi T H A L A S SA R AD CL ARI TA TE M .

2 . r I V N I AN I CB VS OMA E L
. m M A D CL A R I TA TE M .

3 r . . I VN I A N I D rs xv rr AD v s rs as s C I C ATRI C E S .

4 . r I V N I AN I PHOE BV M A D L V
. E CO M A D E LI C TA A ment ors .

W h i ch s tamp s auth en t i c at ed t he s ev e r al eye s al v es c omp ou n d ed by the -

o cul i s t ,
T J u n i an u s vi z the Thalas seros for cl ear in g t he s i g h t ; t he Chry
.
, ,

s omcel i n u m for t he s am e p urp os e ; t he D i exu m (s upp os e d a pr ep ar at i on of


,

g al l n ut s
) fo r ,t he r e m o v al of old s c ar s ; an d t h e P hceb u m for c at ar act , ,

3
h i g hly r ec omm e n d ed by t he facul t y (Th i s l as t i n t erpr e t at i on I offer as
.

t he r s t r at i on al on e ye t pr op os ed an d obt ai n ed m er ely by s upp os in the


, g
tran s p os i t i on of the E an d I i n D E LI CTA ) .

I n t he A rch aeol og i c al J our n al V ol vi ii i s g ured a n e w s tamp for the


,

. .
, ,

M VI TE L CR E S
s tac ta of M Vi t ell i u s Cr es c en s
. '

AD AR S TA CT CL

An d i n V ol v i i p 35 4 an e xc ell en t p ap er by Mr Alb ert W ay u p on on e


. .
,
.

fou n d in T i pp e rary d es i g n e d for s tamp in g t he D i am ys u s of M J u v en t u ti an u s


, .
,

MI V V E
for old r
s o es , c on t ain s a c ompl e t e c at al og u e of all
D I A MY S V

h i th ert o d i s c ov ered i n G r eat Br i t ai n .


24 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D RI N G S .

V lI .

E ARL Y CH RI S TI A N G L YP TI C A RT .

T HE RE i s s om eth in g v e ry g ran d in S t J oh n s v i s i on (Rev vii 2 ) of the .



. .


an g el as c en d in g ou t of t h e E as t h av in g the s i gn et of the L i v in g G od

, ,

wh er e w i th t o s eal u p on the for eh e ad all t he el ect Mun t er i n hi s .


,

i n t er es t in g tr eat i s e D i e S u i n bi ld er d er Chr i s ten c onj ec tu r es th at th i s seal


, ,

pres en t ed t o t he eye of t he s ai n t ed s ee r th at m on og r am of Chr i s t form ed of ,

t he X an d P c om b in ed afte r war d s s o m u ch i n u s e w i th t he Chr i s t i an s for


,

t he s am e p u rp os e e i th e r s i m ply or m od i e d in t o a cr os s or an an ch or
, , .

B ut J oh n t he D i vi n e as s ur ed ly woul d n ot h av e g iv e n t he t i tl e t he

L ivin g G od (t he r eg ul ar s y n on ym of J ehovah) t o t he S avi our i nvar i ably ,

w i th hi m the
L am b or the S on of Man

I t i s b es i d es s tran g e ho w
.
, ,

Mi i n t er cam e t o ov e rl ook an oth e r p as s ag e (x i v w h i ch actu a lly d e c lar e s


.

w h at was the i mp ress i on m ad e by th i s v ery s i g n et T he L am b s t an d i n g .


,

u p on Mou n t Z i on i s th e r e att en d e d by the h u n d r ed an d forty an d fou r


,

th ou s an d s eal ed by t he an g el who (vi i 3) h ad s eal ed t he s er van t s of G od


, .

in th e i r fo r e h ead . A n d n e w S t J oh n d es cr i b es th i s s am e c om p an y as
.



h av i n g hi s Father s N ame w r i tt en i n th e i r for eh ead s I t wou l d app e ar .

as th ou g h t he pr oph e t we r e h er e all u d in g t o t he pr es en t O r i e n t al m od e

of i n k i n
g the s eal an d s o i m pr in t in g i ts d evi c e u p on t he d oc u m en t t o b e
,

att es t ed ; t h e u s e of wax for s u ch a purp os e b e in g u n k n ow n t o all


Moh am m e d an n at i on s .

T he t i tl e r s t m en t i on e d The L ivi n g G od
,
b ein g o nly the tran s l at i on
,

o f t he r eg u l ar H ebr e w e p i th e t
E l Ch ai ,
m ak es i t m or e t h an pr ob ab l e
-
,

th at th i s e n g ravin g o f th e s eal was t he m i g hty Telrag ru mmato n t he fou r ,


END I X
!

C v
APP
Q

[
.

H e br e w l e tte r s c om p os in g the H oly I n e ffabl e N am e e v er e s t ee m ed s o poten t ,

a tal i s m an i n t he E as t an d w h ose in s cr i pt i o n u pon the far fam e d s i n e t of


g
-
,

S ol o m o n g av e h i m hi s s o c el ebrat e d p owe r o v e r all t he G e n i i A s u fc i en t .

obj e ct i on t o Man t e r s e xpl an at i on i s t he obv i ou s fac t t h at t he th or ou hly


g
Rabb ini c al au th o r of the A p oc alyps e wou l d h av e s c ou t ed as r an k bl as ph e m y
t he th ou g ht of u s in g G r eek l e tt e r s t o fo r m s o h ol y a s y m b ol T he Copt i c .

G n os t i c s h ow e v e r we re n ot i n u e n c ed by s u c h s c ru pl es an d oft e n e xpr e s s e d
, , ,

t he s acr ed q u ad r i s yll abl e u p on th e i r t al i s man s by t h e fou r c h ar ac t e r s of th at

pr ofan e alphab e t I B O Y th u s p r es e rv i n g the v i rt u e of t he n u mb er Th e i r


, , .


g r an d G os p e l t he P i s t i s Soph i a p erp e tu ally br in g s i n I B O Y as t he
-
, ,

A n ci e n t of t he F i rs t Co v e n an t an d l i k e wi s e as t h e ,

P r i mal Man ; an d

a ai n as
g , H e th a t w r ot e t he B ook of En och d i ct at e d t o h i m by J es u s ou t , ,

of t he Tr e e of K n o wl e d e A d t cl o e t h e l i s t a v e ry an c i e n t tr ad i t i on
g n o s .
, ,

m ak e s th i s S eal of G od t o h av e b ee n t he my s t i c Tau ; th at s ym b ol ,

o r i i n ally
g E g ypt i an b u t in tr, od u c e d in t o t h e B acch i c and M i thr a ic
My s t e r i es wh at e v e r b e i t s tr ue i m p ort I n the p ai n ted g l ass of S t D en y s
, . .

an an g e l i s s h ow n s tam p in t h i s i i l o n t he for e h e ad o f t h e el e ct w i th a
g s
g ,

l e g e n d e xpl ai n i n g t he s u bj e ct as S I G N V M TA V It i s al s o t he b ad g e b orn e .

by S t A n ton y an E gypti an m on k b e i t r e m e mb e r e d an d in t he old p i ct u r es


.
, , ,

of hi m i s al way s c ol ou r ed b lu e .

O n rs t th ou g ht i t app ear s v e ry s tr an g e th at am on g s t t he inn u m e r abl e


,

e xt an t m on um e n t s m or e or l e s s c on n e cte d w i th J e w i s h an d Chr i s t i an
,

d octr in es g lypt i c work s of a p u r e ly orth od ox or i g in s h oul d b e s o e xtr e m e ly


,

r are th at Chab ou illet in h i s c atal og u e of t he e xte n s iv e Fr en ch Cab in e t


, , ,

c an on ly r e ck o n up fou r b el on g in g t o Rom an i m p e r i al ti m es ; an d th os e ,

m or eo v er of t he m os t o r d i n ary typ es the G ood S h eph e r d D o v e F i s h


, , , ,

an d Chr i s m a or Mo n og r am of Chr i s t
,
B u t th i s an om aly i s e xpl ai n ed by
.

s ev e r al c on s i d er at i on s rs t am on g s t wh i ch s tan d s t he h orro r of i d ols


,

i n s t i ll e d in to t he early c o n v e rts by th e i r teach er s th e m sel v e s s tr i ct J ews ,

b oth by b i rth an d ed u c at i on Fo r th i s reas on e v en i n t he s ec on d c en tury we


.
, ,

n d Cl emen s Al e x an d r in u s g i v i n g th i s ad v i c e t o the C hri s t i an s Pae d ag og u s


iii. L e t t he en g r av i n g up on t he g em in y ou r r in g b e e i th e r a d ove or
a s h or a s hip ru nnin g b e fo r e t he win d ; or a mu s i c al lyre the d e v i c e u s e d
, ,

by P olycr at es or a s h i p s an chor w h i ch S ele ucu s had c u t u p on hi s s i g n e t


,

, .

A n d i f t he d e v i c e r e pr es en t a m an shi n g t he wear e r w i ll b e pu t i n m in d ,

of t he A p os tl e s an d of t he l i ttl e ch i l d r e n drawn up ou t o f t he wat e r


,
For .

we mu s t n ot en g rav e u p on i t i d ols w h i ch we are forb i dd e n e v e n to l ook ,

u p on n or a s wor d or b o w for we are foll owe ,


r s of p eac e ; n or a d ri n k i ng c up -
,

fo r w e are s obe r m e n .

I n the ab o v e e n u me rat i on of p e rm i s s i bl e s i g n e t d e v i c e s the ph r as e -


,
26 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NG S .

l i ttl e ch i l d r en d r awn up ou t of t he wat e r c on t ain s a pl ain al lu s i on t o


th e s t ory an d the na me of Mos es attrac tu s ex agu i s alth ou g h c ertai n , ,

z eal ou s r i tu al i s ts h av e es p i e d th er e in an e arly r ec og ni t i on of i n fan t


b apt i s m a pr act i c e t otally u n k n own i n the Chr i s t i an Church of th i s
w r i ter s p er i od

Ev e n a w h ol e c en tury l at er G r eg ory N az i an z en i n
.
, ,

h i s S erm on on B apt i s m w h i l s t ur g in g t h e n e c es s i t y of r e c e ivin g th at



,

s acr am e n t at t he c om m en c em en t of ou r c ar ee r an d t he s in fu l n es s of ,

p os tp onin g i t u n t i l t he l as t s i ck n es s (wh i ch had g r own i n t o t he r eg u l ar


cu s t om throu g h the d es i re of thu s was h in g away at on c e all t he s t ain s of
,

the p as t l i fe ) x es three y ear s of ag e as t h e tt in g t i m e e vi d en tly b e c au s e


,

s om e ac t of or al c on fes s i on was s t i ll r eq u i r ed from all c an d i d at es for


ad m i s s i on in t o t h e b od y of b e l i e v e r s But G r eg ory s w or d s up on th i s p oin t
.

are well w orth tr an s cr i b in g xl


But w h at w i l t th ou s ay .

c on c er nin g th os e s t i ll in fan ts ? A s s ur e d ly yes i n t he c as e of d an g e r ,

thr eat enin g ; for i t i s b e tt e r t o b e s an ct i ed wi th out p erc ept i on th an t o ,

d e p art u n s e al ed an d u n s an c ti ed I n o th er c ases I g iv e i t for my op i ni on


.
,

th at you s h oul d w ai t u n t i l the c ompl e t i on of three years e i th er a l i ttl e ,

b ey on d or a l i ttl e u n d er th at l i m i t w h e n i t m ay b e c omp et en t for t h e ch i l d


,

t o h av e h e ar d s om e r el i g i ou s in s truct i on an d t o mak e an answer e v e n th ou g h , ,

n ot fu lly c ompr eh en d in g i t ; but s t i ll by th i s m ean s t o form an d s an ct i fy

th e i r s oul s an d b od i es by the G r an d My s t e ry H e fu rth e r c en s ures as .



,

a c omm on c u s t om t he d e l ay in g t he r i t e u n t i l t he att ain m en t of thi r ty y ear s


,

A g ain t o c ome s t i ll l at e r d own



of ag e i n i m i tat i on of t he L or d s e x ampl e
,
.
, ,

A u g u s t in e alth ou g h hi s m oth er Moni c a was a s ai n t an d fr om w h at b e


, , , , ,

r ec or d s of her e xtrem ely s crup ul ou s i n all r el i g i ou s m att er s ye t e v e n he


, ,

d i d n ot r e c e iv e b apt i s m b efor e hi s th i rty th i r d y ear an d th en i n c omp an y -


,

w i th hi s own n atur al s on A d eod atu s h i m s elf s i xtee n y ear s of ag e


, , .

The earl i es t form s u n d e r wh i ch t he Chr i s t i an s all owed th em s e l v es t o


r e pr es e n t t he S avi our wer e pur ely emb lemati calt he G ood S hep herd the ,

D ove l an d t he Fi s h
,
a e
The s ou rc e of t he t wo r s t i s s elf e vi d en t i n t he
.
-

fre qu en t u s e of s u ch s i m i l i t u d e s by t he Ev an g el i s t s ; b es i d es wh i ch the
l att e r w as r e c omm en d ed b y i ts K ab al i s t i c v i rtu e p oin t ed ou t by t he G n os t i c ,

d oct or Marcu s as e arly as th e b eg inni n g of the th i r d c e n tu ry for the s u m


, , ,


o f t he l e tt e r s i n i t s G r ee k n am e am ou n t e d t o th at of A lp ha an d Om eg a
t he pro e m in en t t i tl e of t he Chr i s t
- The or i g i n of t he Fi s h .
,

One ofpr etti est d evi c es of the cl as s t h at has c ome to my k no wl edg e s h o ws t he


the ,

Dove wi th o l ive t wi g in b eak p erch ed u p on a wh eat s h eaf (apt embl e m o f t he Ch u rch )


,
-
,
-
,

h avin g fo r s u pp o rte r s a L ion an d a S e rp e nt I t p i c tori ally em bodi s the pr ec e p t to b e wi s e


. e

as s r pe t an d h ar ml ss as d ve
e n s ( J Taylo r )
e o s . . .
A PP END I X . 27

h owe v e r i s m u ch m ore ob s c u r e ; an d i t i s d i f c u l t t o c onj ect u re for wh at


,

r e ason s uch a typ e w as h el d in s o h i g h h on ou r e v en i n t he e arl i es t ag es o f ,

Chr i s t i an i ty T he o n ly s at i s fact ory e xpl an at i o n i s t he o n e o ffe re d by


.

Mtm t e r th at i n the wh i m s i c al t e ri n on olog y of t he T al m u d i s ts t he Me s s i ah


, ,

i s o fte n d e s i g n at ed by t he n am e S i g n o f hi s

T he F i s h T he
.


com in g s ay s A b erb an el i s t he c onj u n ct i o n of S at u r n an d J u p i t e r i n
, ,

P i s c e s O n th i s acc ou n t thr e e s h es i n t e rl ac e d in t o a tr i an g l e b e c am e a
.

pop u l ar or n am e n t i n m ed i ae v al arch i t e ct u r e ; b u t th i s w as l on g aft e r t he


r ec on d i te in t e rpr e tat i on pu t up o n i t by the G r e ek s For w h e n s om e p i ou s .

d r eam er had d i s c o ve r e d (n o d ou bt thr ou g h s p e c i al i n s p i r at i o n ) th at t he


w or d I XO Y E w as m ad e up of t he ini t i al s i n t he t i tl e 1 770 0139 Xm as 9 03 6

me; E wrp the g ur e acq u i r e d i mm e n se i m p ort an c e as h av i n g th u s


,

b e c om e a p i ctor i al Con fe s s i on of F ai th S i mi l arly t he wr i tt en w ord


.
,

c on t ai n in g in i ts l e tt e r s th at m os t vi rtu ou s n u m b er Fi ve t ak es i ts plac e , ,

am on g s t t al i s m an i c for m u la e It i s h o wev e r al m os t d em on s trabl e th at


.
, ,

t he r ev e r en c e for t h e e mbl em s s pru n g fr om a m u ch m or e an t i qu e s ou rc e

th an t he on e ab o v e i n d i c at ed T he Rabb in s i n th e i r m at er i al i s t i c d u ln es s
.
, ,

l ack ed the g eni u s t o i n v e n t e ve n a n am e ; th e y c ou l d o n ly d i s t ort an d


v u l g ar i s e n oti on s b orr owed fr om th ei r m as t er s the Ch al d aean s an d l at e r ,

fr om the Al e x an d r i an Pl at oni s t s .

N e w fr om t i m e i mm e m or i al t he A s s yr i an s had h e l d s acr ed the s h


, ,

of t he E u phr at es (or p erh ap s s h g en e r al ly as d i d t he E g ypt i an pr i e s th ood )


, ,

b el i ev in g th at l epr os y was t he pu ni s h m en t of all who d ar e d to eat th e r eof .

A th e n aeu s qu otes a cur i ou s p ass ag e fr om a G r eek c om ed i an d es cr i b in g t h e ,

p en an c e s ubm i tt ed t o by e v e ry on e who had tr an s g r es s e d th i s law s i tt i n g ,

i n s ackcl oth up on a d u n g h i ll all c ov er ed ov e r wi th b oi l s Fr om t he s am e


, .

m ot i v e t he r eg u l ar offer in g s t o t he g r eat Syr i an g od d es s A terg at i s w er e , ,

l i ttle s h e s of g ol d or s i l v e r thr ow n i n to h er s acr ed l ak e Mani l i u s s u ppl i es


, .

t he r e as on for s u ch d e d i c at i o n d e r iv ed cl e arly fr o m hi s Mag i an au th or i t i es


, .

H i s V e n u s (t he B abyl oni an Myl i tt a) had t ak en t he form of a s h an d hi d ,

Th i s
notion li e s at t he bottom of a v ery r emark abl e si g n et l ately m ad e k no wn to me .

HA
I t s h o ws th e Fis h bet ween the l etter s
ES wh i ch c an on ly b e r ead as H A 3 1 1 6
, 1; 1 00 ;

Xpm r b
wr itten bo s t r ophed o
s. u n, aft e r a c o mmon G nosti c fas h ion E 2 the K abal is t i c ti tl e .
,

o f the S eph ira Mer c y was o ften appl i ed to Chri s t as may b e r ead on the B as i c alt ar
, , ,

fr ont al ( Cl u n y Mu seu m)
Q u is s i c u t H el fo rtis m ed i eu s so t er b en edi ctu s ?
, , ,

A n d t he m o t iv e fo r g i vi n g on ly the fi r s t t wo l ette r s o f t he n ame o f J es u s was i t may ,

pl au si b ly b e s u ppos e d b ec au s e th ey are eq u ival e n ts fo r t he H ebre w J ed an d H e wh i ch i n


, ,

t he s am e s en se d e n ote the Ti l/u m the Fi r s t b o r n E man at ion o f the E


t ,
-
S oph o r P r i m al u -
,

Fathe r
- .
28 A N TI Q UE G EM S A ND R I NG S .

h er s el f i n t he E uphrat es t o es c ap e the pur s u i t of the re br eath in g Typh on ;


,
-

an e v e n t c omm em or at e d by the pl ac in g th e S i g n P i s c es i n the h eav en s T he .

s am e b e l i e f pr ob ably d i ctat ed th at cur e for the c ol i c pr es cr i b ed by Marc ellu s

E mpi ri c u s the wear in g of a r in g m ad e fr om g ol d thr ead m e lt ed d own


, ,

e n r av e d w i th t h e ur e of a s h an d i n s cr i b ed on t h e s h an k wi th t he s p ell
g g , ,

eog K eAeuet a?) K sew K oo A n e x ampl e of s uch an amul e t m ay b e



7 ro vov .

s ee n i n t he Fl or e n t in e Cab in e t .

The Frog n o u n c om m on d evi c e for a h eath en s i g n e t (an i llu s tr i ou s


,

i n s tan c e b e i n g th at of Mae c e n as ) was empl oy e d for the s am e u s e by t he ,

e arly c onv e rt s al th ou g h i n a ch an g e d s e n s e
,
I t was t ak e n as the e xpr es s i on .

of t he n e w d octr i n e t h e Res urr e ct i on of t he b od y on acc ou n t of t h e e n t i re


, ,

ch an g e of n at u r e wh i ch i t g oes thr ou g h in the s ec on d s t ag e of e x i s t e n c e

fr om a s eem in g s h in t o a q u ad r u p ed Fr og s t og eth e r w i th s n ak es we re .
, ,

g u r ed ar ou n d the b ase of the g reat br on z e p alm tr ee d ed i c at ed by the -

Cor in th i an s t o t he D elph i c A p oll o w h er e Pl u tarch e xpl ain s th e i r pr es en c e,

s e n se w el l s u i ted
as typ i fy ing S pr in g
( D e E i n oth e r to

a

pr ocur e th e i r ad m i s s i on i n to t he c at al og u e of Chr i s t i an s y m b ol s .

T he Chri sma or S acr ed Mon og ram was pr ob ably t he e arl i es t as i t


, , ,

c ertain ly was t he m os t g en eral d e v i c e of t he n ew c onv er t s the e xpr es s iv e ,

b ad g e of the l e ad e r i n t o wh os e s e r vi c e th ey h ad e nl i s t ed I t app ear s i n .

i ts s i mpl es t for m of th e X trav e r s ed by the P ; o fte n i n t he m i d d l e of an


ol iv e
g arl an d appr opr i at ed to P eace an d w i th t he n am e of the b el i ev e r , ,

as i n a n e e x am pl e V e r n on Coll e ct i on ) in s cr i b ed (DH B G I w for P hebi on


( N ,

(a r eg ul ar h eath e n n ame i t mu s t b e c on fes s ed form ed fr om P hoeb u s afte r


, , ,

t he an al og y of Hep hces ti on from H ep ha s tos H er on from H era


,
o
, ,

Fr equ en tly th i s pr i m i t i v e artl e s s g ur e i s m od i ed by d i ti eren t ad d i t i on s


thu s a n e an d l ar g e s apph i r e (Br i t i s h Mu seu m ) in trod uc es t he S i g n of
,

t he Cross by s i m ply pl ac in g a b ar acr os s the s t em of the P wh e r e t he


, ,

prec i ou s n es s of the m at er i al att es ts t he r an k p erh ap s p atr i arch al of i t s , ,

rs t p os s e s s or But t he m os t t as teful of all s uch em b ell i s hm en t s of t he


.

pr i m i tiv e i d ea th at h av e c om e u n d e r my n ot i c e i s t he on e g u r e d i n ,

G orlaei D actyl i oth e c a N o 2 4 1 wh er e th i s m on og ram i s pl an ted on the



.
, ,

h ead of Cu p i d t o e xpr e s s t he b el i e v e r s l ov e for t h e S avi ou r an k e d by a


,

,

p ai r of d ov es w i t h the m y s t i c A an d Q embl az on ed i n t he el d Th i s
,
.

si n e t i t h e m or e cur i ou s b e in g c u t on t h e fac e o f a s ol i d cry s t al r in g


g s ,

w i th a c abl e m ou l d ed s h an k a fas h i on pr ob ably b orr owed fr om t h e


-
,

S as s ani an P e rs i an s w h os e r eg u l ar s i g n et s we r e m as s y an n u l ar s t am p s of
,

Th e d i phtli o n g er i s h re pu t fo r
e t he l cc ented acco r din g to
a ,
t he g e n er al prac ti c e o f the
l ate r G r eek s .
A P P E ND I X . 29

c alc ed on y . A n oth er r in g of t he s am e m at e r i al an d p att e r n o n c e c am e


d m
u n er y n t i c o e e ,
w
n g rav ed i th t he Chr i s ma i n i ts pr i m i t ive s i mpl i c i ty
.

The C nos s of S hame i ts e lf u n d i s g u i s e d w as fr e qu en tly as s u m e d by t he


, ,

Chr i s t i an s i n t ok e n th at th ey we r e n o t as h am ed of t he cr os s of Chr i s t
,

n e v e rth el es s the fas t fad i n g in u e n ce of an t i q u e t as t e led th e m t o d e c orat e


i t s r i g i d n ak ed n es s w i th m an y s i g n i c an t ad d i t i on s For e x am pl e a s ar d .
,

s h Mu s eu m
( Br i t i ) e xh i b i t s t he Cr os s pl an t e d u p on t he F i s h w i th t w o d o v es ,

p erch ed u p on _the e xtr em i t i es of i ts ar m s an d the n am e I hCO YC r e p eate d ,

ab ov e an d b e l ow th e m A wh i m s i c al v ar i at i o n u p on t he s am e i d ea i s
.

pr es en t ed by t he g e m g u r ed by B eg er Th es au r u s w h e re a
t all Cr os s b ear s t he F i s h s u s p e n d ed from t he en d of each of i t s ar m s t
I n o th e r s ag ain t he C r os s d i s app ear s an d the Con fes s i on of F ai th i s
, , ,

e xpr e s s e d by a s ymb ol i s m s om e t i m es truly p oe t i c al as on t he r in g (F ort n u m ,

Co ll e c t i on ) wh e r e t wo F i s h e s an k a W h eat ear i n t h e m i dd l e s h ad ow in g -
,

forth H i m who i s t he tr u e Br ead of L i fe A n oth e r (Br i t i s h Mu s eu m ) .

i s am on g s t t he m os t e l eg an t an c i e n t j e wel s k n ow n t o m e ; t he s t on e a n e ,

emerald
( 5
: in ch s qu ar e
) b e i n g s et i n a g ol d hex a on al
, g i r in g h av in g t he ,

s h an k e xq u i s i t e ly m od ell e d i n to t he s h ap e o f a u t ed an d k n ott e d r e e d A .

s e c on d in t e r e s t in g e x ampl e i n t he s am e Coll e ct i on i s t he r in g w i th c abl e ,

t wi s t ed s h an k s e t w i th a red j as p e r e n g rav ed w i th t he l eg en d I HC O YC
,

G GO Y Y IO C T H P6 J es u s S on of G od k ee p m e
, , , .

T he S hip th at em bl e m s o s p eak i n g ly d e cl ar in g l i fe t o b e on ly a v oyag e


o v e r a s t or m y oc e an in t o a h av e n of r es t fre qu en tly occ u p i es g em s wh os e
p ecul i ar e x e cut i on c arr i es th e m d own t o t he L owe r E m p i r e For c ar g o th i s .

sh i p e n e rally c arr i es t h e Chr i s m a ; s om e t i m es a m or e c u r i ou s p as s e n g e r


g ,

a c rowi n g Coo/c B u t th e b i r d an c i e n t attr i but e of the S u n i s here e m p loy e d


. , ,

t o r e pres e n t t he s ou l of Man an d as s uch c arr i es a p alm b ran ch


,
to -
,

T he l ater B y z an t i n e s c u l pto r s o ften r epr es en t ed the Q by O s u r mou n t ed b y a b ar i n , ,

o r d e r t o e scap e t he d i f cu l ty o f t he c om pl i c at ed c u r ve o f t he no r m al fo r m The t w vo we l s . o ,

b esid e s were o ft en i g no r an tly t r ans p os ed I n th is fo r m t he Ch r is ma was bro u g h t i n t o


,
.

t he o r n am e ntat io n o f I t al i an G ot h i c ; fo r ex am pl e i n t he p av e m en t o f Mi l an C ath e dral an d


,

i n t h e p an el s o f O reag n a s G all e ry Fl o re n c e wh e r e b e i n g r ead as t he L at in O PA i t i s


, , , ,

ab s u r d ly s u ppos ed to r e fe r t o t he Oper ai B o ar d o f W o rk s o f t h os e b u i l din g s an d to mark


, ,

ou t wh at had b ee n don e u nd e r th e i r s u p e r inte nd e n c e .

t A pl ai n C ross pl ac ed ab ov e t he n ame o f t he p e r son c o u rtin g i t s pro t ection c u t u p on ,

c arn el i an mak e s an am u l et m u ch i n vog u e amon g s t t he mod e r n G reek s S eve ral h av e


,
.

c om e i n m y way ; an d th ey o fte n p u z z l e c o ll ec t o r s who u n abl e t o r ead t he d ebas ed l et t e r in g , ,

m i s t ak e th em fo r G nos t i c wo rk s alth o u g h o ft en m a de b u t ye ste r d ay


, .

I A p att e r n a nno u n c in g fo r d at e o f th i s o rn am e nt t he early y ear s o f t he t h i r d c e nt u ry .

o p
C m a e my er d s cr i p tio n o f t he T a r s u s j e we l s ( p .

A n d t h e re fo r e a c o m m on s ep u l ch r al d e c o rat ion i n m u ch e arli e r t i mes as on t he ,

h andso m e tom b o f N azvole i a Tyc h o at P o m p e i i ,


.
250 A NTI Q UE G E MS A N D RI NG S .

a nn ou n c e the tr i umph an t t erm in at i on of hi s c ours e thu s r en d er in g


c om pl et e i n e v ery p art th i s v e ry pr e tty an d appr o pr i at e all eg ory The .

p a lm-
b ran ch i n d ee d was pre em i n en tly a Chr i s t i an b ad g e an d m ak es i ts
, ,
-
,

app ear an c e i n th at s en s e up on m an y s i n e t s acc om p an i e d w i th t h e n am e


g ,

of t he pr opr i e t o r ; as on a s ar d of my own wh e r e i t i s pl ac ed h or i z on tally ,

b et we e n t he wor d s S VL E V I V E L on g l i fe t o th ee Sylu s , ,

The G ood S hep herd was t he r s t (th ou g h i n d i re ct ) b od i ly repres en tati on


of a s acr e d p e r s on a e th at t he Chr i s ti an s all owed th em se l v es an d th i s at
g ,

a v e ry e arl y p e r i od of t he Ch u rch T e rtull i an who ou r i s h ed d u r in g t he


.
,

l atte r h alf of the s ec on d c e n tury in c i d en t ally i n form s u s that th i s g ur e


,

was t he r eg ul ar d ec or at i on of t h e d r in k i n g cup s (p e rh ap s s acr am e n t al ) of -

i
h s br e thr e n :
U b i es t ovi s p er d i ta ? P roce d an t i ps ae p i ct u r es c ali c u m

v e s troru m
( De T hes e p i ctur es pr o b ably m ean t th os e

d ec orat i on s of i n ser t e d g ol d l eaf s o fas h i on abl e u n d e r t he L at e r E mp i r e


-
,

o f wh i ch n u m e r ou s e x ampl es are pr es er v ed t o u s i n t h e b ottom s of


d r in k in g g l asses x ed in to th e c em en t cl os in g up t h e locu li i n t he
-

Cat ac omb s .

Th e m os t in t e r es t in g of all e x ampl e s of th i s l as t m en t i on ed typ e occur s on -

a l ar g e c ar n el i an br ou g ht r e c e n tly fr om t he N orth of I n d i a (Col P e ar s e ) .


,

on w h i ch th e G ood S h e ph e r d s t an d s b ear in g h i s los t an d fou n d l amb acr os s


,

hi s s h oul d er s s urr ou n d ed by t h e my s t i c l e tt e r s I X
,
t he r e v e r s e , .

en g r av ed w i th XP IC T G c w z e KA P rllA N O N AG HO TG (s i c) :

O

Chr i s t s av e Carpi an u s for e v e r !
,
Th i s i s c u t in e x actly t he s am e c oar s e
l e tt er in g an d s i m i l arly arr an g e d i n c on s ec u t iv e l in es as t he G n os t i c l eg e n d s
, ,

of th e fourth c en tury The s am e g ur e but of earl i er an d b e tt e r work on a


.
, ,

re d j as p e r of my own b e ar s i n t he el d I A H N p os s i bly i n t en d ed for The . .


,

A th i r d a s ar d (Br i t Mu s ) i s v e ry cur i ou s for i ts



N am e J e hovah .
, .
, ,

att em pt t o d e p i ct t he S h e ph er d i n t he m i d d l e of a l an d s c ap e ; th e s tyl e

an d e x e cu t i o n of t he p i e c e b es p eak in g th e p e r i od of the G n os t i c m an u

factur e A cur i ou s v ar i at i on i s pr es e n t e d by an oth e r (H ertz ) wh e r e t he


.
,

s am e K eep er s tan d s w i th hi s d og s on e ach s i d e l ook in g up t o h i m for a


, ,

word : wh i ch wor d i s t he in s cr i b ed E S I V K E V cl e arly i n t en d ed t o s hr ou d from ,

pr ofan e eye the s em i G r ee k L at i n adj u r at i on -



-
Kur i e J es u

O L ord , , ,


J esu s .

The for eg oin g e x ampl es all proc eed fr om t he Chr i s t i an i ty of t he W es ter n


E mp i r e b u t th e r e ye t r e m ain s t o b e c on s i d er ed a m os t i n ter es t in g s e r i e s
,

wh i ch t es ti es t o t he p en e tr at i on of th e r e l i g i on an d i ts s y m b ol i s m i n t o
t he r em ot es t r eg i on s of t he E ast A m on g s t S as s ani an s ton e s eal s t he s tyl e
.
, ,

s u bj e ct s an d l ehlc v i l e e n d s fou n d on s om e d em on s tr at e th at th ey we r e

, g ,

t he s i g n e t s of Chr i s t i ani z e d P er s i an s Chab ou ille t s n ot i c e of s om e v e ry



.
A P P END I X .
Bl

i m p ortan t s p e c i m e n s of th i s cl ass w i ll b e fou n d alr ead y g iv e n an d c om m en t ed


on by m e w h en tr eat in
g o f S as s a n i a n f o rk s
( p an d m o r e r e c e n tly . ,

E T h om as i n hi s m os t i n s tr u ct iv e N o te s up on S as s an i an Coin s an d
.
,

G em s has publ i s h ed am on g s t t he l att er a s e al d e vi c e of an e l eg an t cr os s


'

p atee s u rr ou n d e d by a P e hl e vi l eg en d in t he l at es t ch ar ac t e r of th at alph ab e t
,
.

S o u n c omm on are g e m s w i th S cr i p tu ral s u bj e cts th at c an b e r e fe rr ed ,

w i th an y s h ad ow of prob ab i l i ty t o a p e r i od an ter i or t o t he r eg ul ar m e d i a v al
,
e

Byz an t i n e S ch ool as t o ren d e r a br i e f n ot i c e of all s u c h e x am pl es k n own to


,

m e an al mos t obl i g at ory s uppl e m e n t t o t he for eg oin g s c an ty l i s t A m on g s t .

th es e t wo i n t ag l i i n g re en j as p e r (Br i t Mu s Med i aev al Cl as s ) d e s e r v e


,
. .

p art i c u l ar att e n t i on Th es e are Chr i s t s E n tr y i n to J eru s al e m att en d e d b y


.
,

thr e e g u r es b ear in g p al m bran ch es ; an d t he Mad onn a an d Ch i l d s eat ed an


-
,

an g e l s t an d i n a t a ch i d w i th t w th r s h o v e r in g o v e rh e ad b o th
g e s e o o e ,

e n r av in s b e i n x c ut d w i th t h p c l i ar t ch ni qu e o f G n os t i c work an d
g g g e e e e e u e ,

m an i fes tly b el on g in g to the s am e d ate T he s am e Cas e c on t ain s al s o t wo camci .

o f s uch e x c e pt i on ally n i s h e d work th at th ey c an h ar d ly h av e pr oc eed ed fr om ,

ar t i s t s l owe r i n t he D e cl in e th an th os e p atr oni z e d by S t H el en a T he r s t . .

i s J oh n t he B apt i s t a fu ll l en g th wi th hi s n am e i n m on og r am on e ach s i d e
, ,

of t he g ur e ou t i n a b e aut i fu l s ar d on yx w h i ch g iv es t he b od y i n bl u i s h
, ,

wh i t e t he r ob e i n brow n up on a bl ack el d : t he oth er the A nn u n c i at i on i s


, , ,

u n m i s tak ably s t am p e d by i ts d es i g n as one of t he v e ry e arl i es t fru i t s b or n e


of Chr i s t i an art w h en rs t tr i um ph an t ov e r p a ani s m Th e Vi r g i n s t an d s
g .

i n cl i ni n g r e v er en t i ally t owar d s t he an g el i c m es s en g e r who i s h e r e r epr es en t e d ,

i n t h e form an d s tature of Cup i d a r e l i c of an t i qu e t as t en ot i n t he s h ape



of a p erfec t m an as aft e r war d s ad opted i n all p i ctur es of t he s c e n e ; an d for
,

t he as s umpt i on of wh i ch g ur e A l B ed awi as s i g n s s o v e ry m ate r i al i s t i c

a m ot iv e
(C om m en t on K or an x i x . M a ry Th e s e g u r es are i n h alf
, .

r el i e f an d n ely n i s he d i n p e arly wh i t e u p on a d ark el d (s i z e g x 3 in ch )


,
- - }
5 .

A b o v e th e m i s a n eat ly c u t i n s c r i pt i on O XA I PG T EC MO C
-
,

The S al u t at i on , G abr i el , l abbre v i at i on MP O Y Moth e r o f



a sol t he u su a , ,


G od .B oth th es e c am c i c am e ou t of t he H e rtz Cab in e t A b u s t of t he .

S avi our in h alf r el i e f u p on a l arg e bl ood s ton e in s cr i b ed i n t he el d w i th


-
, ,

1 0 K C t he r eg ul ar abbr evi at i on o f I H CO Y C X P ICTO C b ein g m u ch


, ,

i n fer i or i n e x e cut i on t o t he t wo l as t m e n t i on e d m ay b e as l at e as t he ,

e d
p r i o o J oh n
f Z i m i s c e s
*
an d i ts s tyl e e x ac tly r e s embl es th at of hi s
,

down fal l o f t he I c ono cl asts mu s t h ave g i ven i mm e ns e an d i m medi ate s t i mu l u s to


T he
th e m an u fac t ure o f s ac r ed i mag e s i n pr e c io u s ston e as we l l as i n comm on er mate r i als It , .

i s e vid en t fr o m t h ei r s tyl e t h at t he g r eat m aj o r ity o f t he fo r me r wo rk s are pr od u ction s o f


t h is p er iod .
32 A N TI Q UE GE MS A N D RI NG S .

w ell - k n own m ed al s b ear in g t he sa m e typ e . Th i s s t on e is o v al , 1


3x in
i n s ize .

B u t t he g r eat es t rar i ty as well as the m os t puzzl in g pr obl em i n the wh ol e


,

s er i e s (al s o i n t he Br i t Mu s
) i s th e Chr i s t A s ce n d in g b e ar in
.
, g i n hi s h a n d a ,

l on g cr oss wi th a s m all er g u r e k n eel in g at hi s s i d e a work p u r ely G o th i c


,

i n d es i g n an d i d en t i c al w i th the s am e r e pr es e n t at i on s o fr e qu e n t a d ec orat i on
,

of m e d i a e v al s e p u lchr es T he wor k i s o f t he ru d es t b u t ch i s ell ed ou t aft er t he


.
,

m ann e r of a wood c ar vin g ; t he g ur es are p artly i n h alf p artly in thr ee ,

qu art er s r el i e f in t he w h i te l ay e r of an obl on g ag at e ony x of l ar g e s i z e


,
-

(3 x 2 i n c h es ) Th e p e c u l i ar s tyl e cl os el y r es em bl es t he P ar i s c am eo
.
,


N o 34 9 6
.
,N oah d r in k in g u n d er a Vin e w h i ch Chab ou ille t r eg ar d s on ,

g ood g rou n d s as an u n q u es t i on abl e s p e c i m e n of early Med i ae v al G lypt i c art .

O u r p i e ce i n d ee d has all t he ai r of the r s t e s s ay of s om e G oth i c car v e r of


t h e fou rt e e n th c e n tury t o e mul at e t he B yz an tzi n es in th ei r p e c u l i ar l i n e for ,

n oth in
g i n the techn i qu e or tr eatm e n t of s ubj ec t r es embl es t he G r ee k of the
, ,

s am e p e r i od Th i s s t on e c am e ou t of a m i s c ell an eou s c oll e ct i on for me d i n


.

S u ffolk bu t the pl ac e of i ts d i s c ov ery has n ot b een n ot ed


, It m ay h ow ev e r .

b e s u s p ected t o h av e or i g in ally b el on g ed t o s om e r el i qu ary am on g s t t he


tr eas ur es of the an c i en t an d w ealthy abb ey s of th at c ou n ty Th ou g h for ei g n .

t o t he p u rp os e of th i s art i cl e w h i ch w as t o c on s i d er on ly t h e p ri mi ti ve
,

m on u m en ts of Chr i s ti an art t he e x i s t en c e of th i s c am eo for m s s o i m p ort an t a


,

fact in the h i s tory of g em en g r avi n g th at I c oul d n ot av oi d m ak in g th i s


-

d i g r e s s i on .

A m on g s t Chr i s t i an work s app ar e n tly d at in g fr om the t i m e s of t h e W es tern r

E mp i r e t wo h av e c om e t o my k n owl ed g e d eser vin g of p art i cu lar n ot i c e The


, .

rs t i s a l ar g e ni c ol o i n an an t i q u e m as s y g ol d r i n g en g rav ed w i th t he
, ,

H e av e n ly F ath e r en thr on ed am i d s t t h e T we l v e P atr i arch s the work c ar efu lly ,

w
ni s h ed an d e l d ra n l w *
The o th e r i f an t i q u e (as pr on ou n c ed by t hat i d on eas
.
,

au c tor Cas tell ani ) i s c e rt ain ly t he m os t in t e r e s t in g pr od u ct i on th at early


, ,

Chr i s t i an art has b eq u eath ed t o ou r v en er at i on I t i s an i n t ag l i o i n red .

j as p e r d e p i ct i n g a Martyr d om wh er e a fe m al e s ain t k n eel s b e for e a n ak e d


, ,

h ead s m an ab ou t t o d o hi s ofc e w i th a r em ark ably s h ap ed s wor d h av i n g a ,

r az or l i k e bl ad e an d m an i fe s tly m ad e for d e c ap i t at in g p u rp os es A b ov e her


-
,
.

h ead i s the Chr i s m a t o d e cl ar e the pr e sen c e of he r Red eem e r i n the h ou r o f


,

tr i al ; i n fr on t s t an d s a D ov e b ear in g the ol i v e bran ch i n i ts b eak i n d i c at i v e -


,

o f t he
p eace s h e i s ab ou t t o e n t e r in to T h e g r ou n d l in e i s for m e d in t o t h e
.

p alm of vi ct ory u n d e r wh i ch are t he l ett er s A N F T th e r e g u l ar abbr e v i at i o n


.
, ,


o f t h e w e ll k n ow n c ompl i m e n t
-
A n n u rn n ov u m fau s tu m t i b i an d p ro v i n g
, ,

S ee n by m e i n th e p osse ssion o f the lat e Mr . F o rre s t .


APP END I X .

t he j as p e r t o h av e g r ac e d a N e w Y e ar s g i ft t o s o m e d e v o t e e The i n tag l i o
.

i s e x ec u ted w i th e xtr e m e n e atn es s an d c o n s eq u e n tl y c an h ar d ly b e pl ac e d,

l owe r than the ag e of Th e o d o s i u s wh os e b e s t c o i n s (o f th e Con s t ant i n opl e


,

e rt ai nly r e s e m bl e s b o th i n s tyl e an d i n w o r k man s h i


o r A n t i och m in t s
) i t c p .

O f t he S avi ou r in p er s on n o p or t r ai ts e x i s t i n g e m s u n t i l w e c o m e t o t he ,

By z an t in e c am c i al th ou g h n u m e r ou s pr e t e n d an t s t o t hat hi g h ho n o u r are
, .

e v e ry w h e r e t o b e m e t w i t h Th e m os t au d aci o u s an d e arl i e s t f r au d of t h e
.


k in d t he E m eral d of T i b e r i u s or t he V at i c an am ply d e s e r v e s an d
,

, , ,


h as r e c e iv e d th e atten t i o n of b e i n g e xp os ed i n a t rac t ate all t o i t s el f)
,
Bu t -

b efor e g oin g far t h e r a c u ri ou s m i s t ak e of t he early an t i q u ar i es r e q u i res t o b e


,

n o t i c e d of wh i c h a s t r i k in g in s tan c e m ay b e s een i n C hi e t s A pi s t opi s t u s


,

N o 1 1 1 w h o publ i s h es a fu ll fac e d h ead o f


.
,
Chr i s t cr ow n ed w i th th o rn s
-
,

e n g r av e d i n e m e r al d as a w ork o f t he G n os ti cs
,
It i s i n fact a S er ap i s hc ad .
-

a rl a n d e d w i th ers ea l eav es m i s t ak en fo r br i ar s al th ou g h t he c al ath u s


g p , ,

cr o wn i n g all l eav e s n o u n c e rt ai n ty as t o t he p e r s on ag e in t en d ed e v en th ou g h ,

t he h i g h m eri t of th e w o rk d i d n ot of i t s el f am ply d i s pr o v e a G n os ti c or i g i n .

A n d t h at t he orthod ox d u r i n g t he p e r i od c apabl e of pr od u c in g a n e g e m
,

p ortr ai t of th e i r L or d wou l d h av e r eg ard ed as i d ol atr ou s an d i mp i ou s an y


,

s uch att e m pt i s e v i d en t fr om a p ass ag e i n E pi phan i u s (H ae r e s


, .

wh e r e he m ak es i t a h e av y c h ar g e ag ai n s t t he Carp ocrat i an s (a m or e t ha n
s e m i p a an s e ct of G n os t i c s

-
g ) th a t th e y h av e p ai n t e d p ortrai t s an d e v e n ,

i mag e s of g ol d an d s i l v e r an d i n other mater i als wh i ch th ey pre t en d t o b e ,

p ortrai t s of J e s u s an d m ad e by P i l at e aft er the l i k en es s of Chr i s t at wh at


t i me he s oj ou rn e d am on g s t m en Th es e th ey k ee p in s ecr e t al on g w i th .
,

o th e r s of Pyth a or as Pl t o an d A r i s t o tl e an d s e tt i n
g a , , g th e m u p all t og e th er , ,

t h e y wor s h i p an d o ffe r s acr i c e u n t o th e m aft e r th e G en t i l e fas h i o n Fr o m .

s u c h a c en s u r e of t he pr act i c e i t i s m an i fes t th at s h o u l d an, y g u r es of t he


S avi ou r e x i s t w h i ch w ou l d b e attr i bu t ed on art i s t i c g r ou n d s t o s o early a
,

d at e th ei r p ar e n t ag e i s of a far from o rth od o x or d e r


, The q u ot at i o n has .

an oth e r v al u e It sh ows th at e v en d own t o t he en d o f t he fou r th c en t u ry an y


.
,

att e m p t t o p ourtr ay t he act u al p e r s on of Ch ri s t w as c o n s i d e e d i d ol atr ou s r


.

P e rh aps t he r u d el y m ad e bras s c ru c i xe s oc cas i o n ally fou n d i n t he Cat ac o m bs


m ay b e th es e i d e n t i c al i m ag es w or s h i pp e d b v t he Carp ocr at i an s Th i s .

s o s tron ly r e pr ob at e d u s ag e of th i s s e ct i s t he v ery th in
g g t h at L am pri d i u s .

r e c or d s (w i th c om me n d at i on ) of S e v e r u s A l e x an d e r w ho i n truth may ,

memoi r
On t he E mer al d V er ni cl e o f the V at i can an atte m pt t o trac e t o th i r

In a , e

sou rce the p i ct u r e s pr o f ssi ng to c o me fro m s u ch an o r i g in al an d t o p oi n t o t t he


e , u

p r o b abi li ty o f a B y z an t i e c ameo i n pl as m a o f t he S avi o r s h ead h avin


n
g fo r med p art u

o f t he pres ents k no wn t o h av e been s t t o t he P o p b y B ajaz et I I and t h S ohl an


en e . . e

o f E g ypt P u bl ish d i n the A rch aeo l og i c al J o u r al vo l xx vi i


. e n
,

. .

ll .
4 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I N G S .

r eas o n ably b e s u pp os ed from hi s ed u c at i o n t o h av e i mb i b ed s o me t i n c t u re


, ,

o f t he d o c t ri n es o f Carpo c rate s Th at h e r es i ar c h had preach e d hi s n e w


.

s y t e m ab o u t a c e n t u ry b e for e hi s acc es s i o n t o t he e m p i r e an d had ad opte d


s
,

m or e o f t he o ld n ot i on s th an an y of hi s r i v al s acc ept i n g all th e g r e at ,

ph i l os oph e rs of an t i q u i ty as tru e ap os tl es of G od H e too was an Al e x an d r i an .

an d c o n t e m p o rary w i th B as i li d e s S om e s t at e th at he n e v e r pr ofe s s ed
.

Chr i s t i an i ty at all an d c o n s e q u en tly i s n ot to b e c all ed a h er et i c b u t fou n d e r


, ,

o f a n e w s y n cr e t i s t i c s y s te m .

The n on e x i st en c e o f an t i qu e R oman g em p ortrai ts of Chr i s t at r s t


- -
,

app ar e n tly s o d i fcult t o acc ou n t for i s c om pl e t e ly e xpl ai n e d by t he c i rc u m


,

s t an c es ab ov e p as s e d u n d e r r e vi e w Th e y m ay b e br i e y r e cap i tu l ated
.

th u s S o l on g as t he t each e r s of Chr i s t i ani ty wer e ei th e r actu al J e ws or


. ,

p ers on s tr ain ed u p i n t he J e wi s h way of th in k in g th e i r well k n own abh or ,


-

r e n c e for the r epr es en tat i on o f an y l ivi n g th in g wh at s oev e r r en d e r ed t he ,

pr od u ct i on (or pr es e r vat i on i n th ei r c om m u ni ty ) of an yth in g i n t he s h ap e


of a p ortr ai t s t i ll m or e of on e d ep i ct i n g a D i v i n e B e in g a m att e r of m or al
, ,

i mp os s i b i l i ty 7e h av e s ee n abov e how l i m i ted was the r an g e o f s u bj e cts


.

all owed by Cl em en s t o h i s o ck as s y m b ol s on ly of th e i r fai th in the s e c on d


, ,

c en t u ry Ev e n at i t s cl os e t he e xpr es s i on s of T ert u ll i an alr ead y c i t ed


.
, , ,

pr o v e th at the G ood S hepherd was the s ol e r e pr es en tat i on p er m i tted by t he ,

C hu rc h of her L or d an d S av i ou r
,
Tru e i n d eed i t i s th at S ev er u s
.
, , ,

A l e x an d e r a fe w y e ar s l at e r pl ac e d an i mag e of Chr i s t i n hi s pr i v at e
, ,

ch ap el am on g s t oth er d i v i n ely s e n t teac h e r s ; b u t th i s was i n all pr ob ab i l i ty


, , ,

s w as n e c e s s ar i ly t he c as e w i th t he
(
a m e r e i d eal l i k e n es s a g ol d s t at u e tt e
) a ,

A b raham an d O rp heu s i n cl u d ed i n t h e s am e h on ou r Th at g ood Cath ol i c . ,

Th es eu s A m br os i u s i s h o we v e r v e ry w roth (aft e r q u ot i n g th i s s t at em en t
, , ,


of L am ri d i u s
p ) a t t h e b a r e s upp os i t i on t h at t h e P ag an s s h o u l d h av e pre

s e rv ed the l i k e n ess of Chr i s t an d t he Chr i s t i an s h av e n eg l e ct ed t o d o s o


,


a n ot i o n t he m in d s h u d d e r s t o en t e rtain m u ch l es s t o acc e pt B u t hi s own
, .

p r ej u d i c e s had pr e v en te d h i m from p e rc e i v in g th at the on e was r eally t he


n at u r al c o n s e q u en c e of t he oth e rt he Chr i s t i an s abh orr i n g s u c h i mag es
on ly t he m or e by r easo n o f t he ad or at i on p ai d th e m by t h e G e n t i l es An d .

t h e ab ov e m en t i on e d Carp ocr at i an p or t rai t s we r e w e m ay b e s u re fr om t he


-
, ,

ch ar act e r of th ei r m ak e r s of n o h i g h er au th en t i ci ty th an th os e pl ac ed in hi s
,

o r atory by t he s y n cr e t i s t i c A l e x an d e r I t was a c om m on pr act ic e i n th o s e


.

t i m e s for p eopl e t o c arry on th e i r p e r s on t he i m ag e o f th e i r g u ar d i an d e i ty .

Th u s A p u l e i u s t o r e fu t e t he ch ar g e o f m ag i c al pr acti c es (br ou g h t ag ai n s t
,

h i m by h i s e x as p e rat e d br oth e r i n law ) pr od u c es a l i ttl e s i l v e r Me rc u ry


- -
, ,


an ad m i r abl e wo rk o f art t o pro v e th at i t was n ot t he s k e l e t o n he w as
,

acc u s e d o f c arry in g fo r a p ot e n t e n g in e i n t he bl ac k art As c l ep i ad e s t he .


A PP E ND I X .
35

ph i l os oph e r b or e ab o u t w i th h i m w here v e r he w e n t (s ays A mm i an u s )


, ,

a s i l v e r s t at u e tt e of t he Ce l e s t i al V en u s ( A s t art e ) t he wh i c h h e h av i n g ,

i n c au t i ou s ly l e ft w i th t ap e r s b u rn i n g b efo re i t i n t h e g r eat t e m pl e at
A n t i o c h u p o n h i s v i s i t t o J u l i an occ as i o n e d the re w h i c h d e s t roy e d t h at
, ,

m ag n i c e n t e d i c e A n d l o n g b e fo re e i th e r Syll a i n th at d r ead fu l b attl e


.
, ,

u n d e r the w all s o f R o me ag ain s t T el es i n u s an d t he S am ni t e wh e n t he d ay s ,

was all b u t l os t d re w forth fr om hi s b os om t he g ol d e n A p oll o h i s c o n s t an t


, ,

c om p a n i on an d offe r ed v ows t o hi m in t he s i g ht of all t he h os t


,
.

Fr om all th i s i t i s e v i d e n t th at d u r i n g the t wo c e n t u r i e s wh e n as ye t
,

e rn p ortr ai t u r e ou r i s h ed t hr o u g h out t h e Ro m an w o r l d t h e e x e c u t i o n of
g ,

the s ac r e d l i k en es s w as thr ou g h th ei r ow n m o d e o f th ou g h t r e n d e r e d al m os t
, ,

i m p os s i bl e t o t h e pr i m i t i v e C hr i s t i an c on v e rt s s t i ll m or e t o th os e act u ally ,

acq u ai n t ed w i th t he p er s on al app e aran c e of Chr i s t I t i s n ot u n t i l t he r ei g n


.

o f Con s t an t in e w h e n t he r el i g i on had l os t s o m u ch of i ts or i g i n al c h ar ac t e r
, ,

t he i m pr es s of J e r u s al e m an d had b e c om e g r eatly m od i ed by s u rr o u n d in g
,

i n u en c es th at b as r el i e fs an d m os ai c s p ortr ay i n g t he p e rs o n ag es of t he
,
-
,

G os pel h i s t ory pr es e n t th e m s el v es i n c on s i d er abl e n u m b e r s A m on g s t t he .

v ery earl i es t of t h es e m u s t b e r eck on e d t he s arc oph ag u s of the Mu s eo


G re g or i an o p an ell e d w i t h has r el i e fs r e pres en t i n g t he m i racl es of Chr i s t
,
.
-

v e ry w e ll d r aw n an d n eatly e x e cut e d A c on v in c in g pr oof of i ts pri m i t i v e


.

d at e i s fu r ni h e d by t he g u r e of t h e S av i ou r w ho in t he Rai s in g of
s , ,

L az aru s i s r e pr e sen t e d b ear dless an d eq u i pp ed w i th a wan d aft e r t he


, , ,

r eg u l ar fash i on of a n e c r om an c e r w h i l s t the r e s u s c i t ated c o rp s e i s s wath e d


,

u i n b an d ag es e x actly l i k e an n p t i an m u m m y B rrt e v e n i n t he oth e r


p
.

i
w s e ou ri s h i n
g p e r i od o f C o n s t an t i n e
g e m e n r av i n
g ,g had fall e n al m os t
t o i t s l ow es t d e c lin e h ar d ly s u ppl yi n g a s in g l e auth en t i c p ortr ai t e v e n
,

of t he i m p er i al fam i ly ; an d all i m ag e s d e s i g n e d fo r h on ou r or v e n e r at i on

w e r e e x e c u t ed i n g ol d ch as ed u p w o rk or el s e by m ean s of t h e d i e
-
, T he .

s u c c eed i n g By z an t i n e p er i od e v e n b e for e t he r evi v e d J u d ai c al s p i ri t of t he


,

I c o n ocl as t s had pu t a s t op to all p i ct or i al art i s e n t i r ely b arr e n i n th i s l in e , ,

t he c e n t u r i e s i n t erv en in g b e tw e e n J u t i n i an an d t he Com n e n i b e in g s

e n v el op e d i n t he d ark e s t b arb ar i s m I t i s in te r es t in g t o n o t e h ow up on
.

t h e r e v i v al of l e arn in g u n d e r t he l att e r fam i ly t he art of c am e o en g rav i n g ,


-

s pr u n u p afr e s h thr ou g h th ei r en c o ur ag e m e n t as i t ag ai n d i d fou r c en tu r i es


g ,

l ate r u n d e r s i m i l ar c i r c u m s t an c es at Fl or en c e Mi l an an d Hom e , , .

Fr om th es e pr e m i s es we can b e tt e r appre c i at e the v al u e of t he P ar i s


c am eo (N o 2 9 4 ) of Chr i s t t each i n g t he t hr e e fav ou r e d d i s c i pl es on e by h i s
. ,

s i d e t he oth er s fron t i n g hi m T w o an g els s tan d b eh i n d t he L ord who


,
.
,

i
s r e pr e s e n t e d w i t h a b e a r d al l t h
,
e d i s ci pl e s b ei n
g b ear d l e s s The work .

h f h i c m y t h xp r i n c d C lrab o rri lle t b es p e ak s t he r s t


ma n r o t s a e o s a s e e e e e
s
p , ,

0 2
3G A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I N G S .

ag es of Chr i s ti ani ty anp ini on c orrob orat ed by the tr eatm en t of th e


o

d es i g n S u ch a p i ec e as th i s c an we ll b e i m ag in ed a c omm i s s i on fr om s om e
.


pri n c es s t o t he art i c es P al at i ni an d d es tin e d t o ad o rn s om e r eli qu ary
,

or v es s e l for t he al t ar B u t as for t h e n u m e r ou s forg e r i es of t he cl ass s ol d


.

by t he Rom an an ti qu ari an d c e rt i c at e d as fr es h d i s co v e r i es fro m t he


,

Cat ac omb s a s l i g h t acq u ai n t an c e w i th an t i q u e art su i c es t o d e t e c t t he


,

rec e n cy of th ei r fabr i c at i on The on ly e xc e pt i o n i n th e cl as s k n o wn t o m e


.

th at c ou l d for a m om en t in s p i r e a b el i e f i n i ts au th e n t i c i ty (ev e n wh e n

the w i s h w as fath e r t o t he was a at ag ate ru d ely fas h i on ed


i n to a G r ee k cros s en g r av ed on on e s i d e wi th a fe m al e h ead v e i l ed an d
, , ,

cr ow n ed w i th a ni m bu s ; on t he oth er th at of Chr i s t i n a cruc i for m , ,

g l ory . Bu t a m i n ut e i n s p e ct i on d et ect ed t he l att e r p ortrai t to b e a m od er n


add i t i on ; wh i l s t t he fe m al e h e ad app ar en t ly an an t i qu e w o rk
, had b ee n ,

c onv e rt ed i n t o a Mad onn a by t h e s cr atch in g in of t he d i s t i n ct i v e n i m b u s .

Th at s uch tran s mu t at i on s we r e v ery early i n fas h i on m ay b e in ferr ed fr om


a c ur i ou s s t ory t ol d by E u s e b i u s Co n s t an t i n e s o wn tut or

, in hi s Chr on o ,

g r aphy (p . c on c er nin g t he W o m an h av in g the i s s u e of bl ood wh os e ,

n am e acc or d in g to t he G o p e l
,
s o f
Ni c od e u w as B e re n i c e
m s

,

Th i s .

wom an h eal ed by t ou ch in g the fr i n g e of Chr i s t s g ar m e n t was n ot u n g rate


, ,

fu l for t he cur e but e r e ct e d a br on z e i m ag e of t he S av i ou r w i th h er s el f


, ,

k n eel i n g at hi s feet wi th h er h an d s e xt en d ed A t t he foot o f th i s s t atu e


, .

g r e w a s tr an g e pl an t w h i ch wh e n i t r e ach ed u p t o t he fr in g e of Chr i s t s

, ,

r t cqu r m r cul r s an d was c ap abl e of h ealin


g a m e n a ,
i e d i a ou s v i tu e , g all m ann e r
of d i s eas es E u s eb i u s ad d s th at he h i m s elf had s een t h i s s t atu e s t i ll e r e ct
.
7
.

P h oti u s has pr es er v e d a p as s ag e of A s ter i u s (B i b Col b i s h o p of . .

A m as i a w ho l iv ed i n t he b e g inn in g of t h e fth c en t u ry who s ay s t h at


, ,
.

th i s em bl e m o f t he g r at i tu d e of t he wom an r em ai n ed u ni nj u re d for m an y
y ear s ; b u t th at Maxi rn i n en r ag e d at t he d e v ot i on of t he fai th fu l for th i s
,

s t at u e , or d e r e d i t t o b e r em ov e d H ow ev e r i t was n ot brok e n
.
,
U n d er .

Con s tan tin e i t was r e pl ac e d w i th in t he i n c los rrre of a ch u rch ; b u t J ul i an t he


A p os tat e had i t br ok e n t o p i e c es an d h i s own s t atu e er e ct ed on t he p e d es t al .

I t i s s elf e v i d e n t t o e v e ry on e p os s es s in g a k n owl ed g e o f R om an u s ag e s
-

th at t he r eal s u bj ect of th i s g r oup (wh i ch E u s e b i u s n o d ou bt had s een ,

as he s ay s
) w as an E m p er or rai s i n g u p a s u ppl i an t Pr ovin c e
( a l way s

p e r s oni e d as a fem al e ) an d e re ct ed i n ord er t o c omm em or at e hi s v i s i t


,

t o th at p ort i on of t h e R om an worl d S u ch a g r ou p for m s a fre q u e n t r e v e rs e


.

u p o n t h e c oi n a e o f th at in d efat i g abl e e rarn b u lat or H ad r i an I t i s o bv i ou s


g p ,
.

h o w re ad i ly t he act i on o f t he t wo g u r es ad m i tte d of t he i n te rpr et at i o n pu t


u o n i t by t h e p i o u s f rau d of t h e n e w t eac he r s an d acc e pt e d by t he i g n o r an t
p ,

d e v ot i on of th e i r c o n v e rt s .
AI P E NDIX
O
t

. C a

Th es e s c an ty i ll u s tr at i on s are all th at t he r e s e arch o f m an y y ear s has


e n abl e d m e t o
g ath e r in t he p ro v i n c e of Chr i s t i an g lypt i c art w h i c h i s h e r e
,

treate d of for the r s t t i me Chr i s t i an i c o n og raphy i n i ts o ther bran ch es


.
,

m ore es p ec i ally as r el ates to t h e p ortr ai t s of t he S av i ou r has be e n d es cr i b e d


,

b oth well an d fu lly by D i d ron i n h i s work u n d e r th at t i tl e an d l at e r (t he


, ,

p ai n t in g s on ly ) by P e i g n ot I n ou r l an g u ag e an e x c e ll e n t s e ri e s o f art i c l e s
.
,

u p o n t he e arl i e s t m on u m en t s o f t he s am e cl as s was c o n t ri b u t e d by H e aphy

t o t he A rt J ou rn al for 1 8 6 1 A n d l as tly a v ery i n t er es t i n g m e n ro i r



.
, , ,

c op i ou s ly i ll u str at e d Up on s o m e F i n g e r
,
r in g s of t he E arly Ch ri s t i an
P e r i od by C D E F ort n u m w i ll b e fo u n d i n t he A rch aeol og i c al J o u rn al
,

. . .
, ,

v ol x x vi p
. . 1 39
. .
8 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I N G S .

C ABI NE T S O F G E MS .

S OM E n ot i c e of t he s ourc es of the g e m s s upply in g th es e i ll u s tr at i on s


s e em s r e q u i r e d for pr e fac e t o t he fol l ow i n d e s cr i p t i on of th e i r typ es
g .

T he pr in c i p al N ati on al Cab in et s h avin g b een alr ead y fu ll y r evi ewed i n


my H an d b ook I s h all h e r e c on n e my s el f t o m e n t i onin g t he P ri vate

,

Coll ec ti on s up on wh i ch I h av e d raw n s o l arg ely t og e th er wi th th e i r or i g in


, ,

vi c i s s i t u d es an d fate an d i n or d e r t o pr e ve n t m i s u n d er s tan d in g as t o the


,

p roven an c e of the g e m s s el ec ted for th es e pl at es th e r ead e r mu s t b e appr i s ed


,

b efor eh an d th at t he n ames g iv en are th os e of t he l at es t c ab in e ts of n ot e t o


wh i ch th ey b el o n g ed n ot th ose of s u b s equ en t p u rch ase rs u s u ally d eal er s ,

or t emp or ary hol d e r s .

The B everley Cab i n e t (of 206 g em s ) w as for m ed by



that e v ery way

acc om pl i s h e d n obl e m an ( t o u s e t he e xpr es s iv e E l i z ab e th an phr as e
) of

t he n am e s e c on d s on of t h e r s t D uk e of N orth u mb e rl an d
,
I t was .

c omm en c ed u n d er t he d i r ect i o n of t he l ear n ed an t i q u ary D u ten s hi s , ,

pr ivat e tut or d ur in g hi s l on g c on t in u ed tr av el s i n Fr an c e an d Italy .

T he m os t i m p ort an t p i e c es c am e i n to i t throu g h t he p u rch as e of t he


l arg e c oll ect i on of the D u e d e R oh an Ch ab ot T owar d s t he e n d of t he
'
-
.

c en t u ry t he Cz ar in a Cath ar in e I I m ad e t he acqu i s i t i on o f on e h alf o f


, .

the c ab in e t c ompr i s i n g pr ob ably t he l ar g e r an d m or e s h o wy work s


,
T he .

r em ainin g m oi e ty c on t in u es i n the p os ses s i on of Mr H e b er P ercy g ran d s on


. ,

of t he fou n d e r to wh om
,
I h av e b ee n in d ebted for p e r m i s s i on t o m ak e a
c ar efu l e x am i n at i on of i ts c on t e n t s s t i ll n u mb er in g rrran y s p e c i m en s o f
,

t h e h i g h es t i n t e r es t .
CA B I NE TS O F (1 E MS . 31)

e m s was t he w o rk
T he B lacas (9 5 1 g ) l as t D u k es of th at n ame of t he t wo .

I ts pr i n c i p al s ou rc e was t he l on g c e l e b r at e d S tr oz z i Cab i n e t eq u ally d i v i d e d ,

b e t wee n i t an d t he Ru s s i an I m p e r i al of t he H e r m i tag e w i t h wh ic h m a ny ,

m i n o r on es as the S c h e llers he i m t he D e l a T u rb i c t he B arth ; & c w e r e


, , ,
.
,

i n c orp or at e d d u r i n g the h al f c en t u r y th r o u g h w h i c h i t w as g ro wi n g u p t o
i ts pr es en t m ag ni t u d e I t was p u r c h as ed fo r t he B r it i s h Mu s e u m i n
.

T he B oock e (ab ou t 1 5 0 g e m s ) B oec k e a R u s s i an d iam m n l s e t te r


.
-
, ,

e s t abl i s h e d i n L on d on a s e c o n d C ell i n i i n all p oin t s av ai l e d h i m s elf o f


, ,

e v e ry opp o rt u n i ty an d s p ar e d n o c os t i n pr oc u r i n
, g w h at h i s o wn e x q u i s i t e
t as te an d i n t u i t iv e p e r c e pt i on of t ru e an t i q u e e x c e ll e n c e had p o i n t e d u t o

as d es i r abl e fo r h i s c ol l e ct i on B u t h i s z eal far ou tr u nn in g hi s d i s c re t i o n


.
,

in cr eas in g p e c u ni ary d i fc u lt i es fo r c e d h i m t o c e d e t h e c ab i n e t i n i ts
e n t i re ty t o L ou i s Fou ld u p on w h os e d eath s h ortly aft e r i t w as d i s p e r s e d
, , ,

by au ct i on at P ar i s al on g wi th t he oth er c o n t e n t s of h is g all e ry
, .

T he B raybrook e a v e ry e xt e n s iv e c oll e ct i on of t h e F i n g e r Ri n g s o f all


,

ag es an d p e e pl es m ad e by t he H on R N e vi ll e aft e r war d s p e e r of t he ab o v e
,
. .
,

t i tl e : Of th i s the own e r had pr e p ar e d w i th m u ch er u d i t i on an d in d u s try , ,

a d es cr i pt iv e c at al og u e i llu s tr at e d w i th wood c u ts by Utt i n g of all t he pr i n


,

c i al obj e cts b u t i ts p u bl i c at i on wh e n q u i t e r ead y for press was pr e v e n t e d


p , ,

by hi s u n t i m e ly d ec eas e an d t he c opy w i t h t he bl ock s r e m ai n s l ock ed u p


, , ,

w i th t h e c oll ect i on i n acc es s i bl e t o t he worl d at t he fam i ly seat of A u d l ey


, ,

E nd.

T he H er tz ( 2 02 2 g em s
) has had i ts
char acter alr ead y d es cr i b ed I t w as .

d i s p er s ed by s al e by auct i on i n 1 8 5 9 h av in g for a fe w y ear s pr e v i ou s ly ,

ch an g ed own er s b u t n ot n am e b e in g p urch ased by pr i v at e c on tr ac t b y


, ,

Mr May e r t he em i n en t c oll ect or at L i v e rp ool


.
,
.

The L eak e ( 1 2 7 g em s ) c oll e cted by th e e m in en t t op og r aph e r an d n u m i s


,

n i at i s t, Col L eak e d u r in g h i s l on g r es i d e n c e i n v ar i ou s p arts o f G r e e c e


.
,
.

Up on t he p u rch as e of h i s c oi n s by the F i t z wi ll i am Mu s e u m Cam br i d g e , ,

t h e g em s w e r e v e ry l i b e r ally g i v e n i n t o th e b arg ain by h i s e x e c u t or s Th i s .

c oll ect i o n p os s es s es s om e work s of the g r eat e s t r ar i ty an d v al u e l i k e t he ,

L ad y at her T oi l e tt e w i th t he n am e of D e x am en os i n s c ri b ed ; t he
,

Uly s s es r e c og ni s ed by A r g u s an d oth er s g u r e d in m y t e xt B u t i t has


,
.
,

b es i d es a s p ec i al i n t er e s t from i ts e xh i b i t i n g t he tru e n at u r e o f the g lyp ti c


,

w ork s actu ally y i el d e d by t he s oi l of G re e c e an d pr o v i n g ho w u n pro ,

d u c ti v e o f s u ch w o rk s w e r e t h e d ay s o f h e r art i s t i c g l ory t he v as t m aj o r i ty

of L e ak e s acq u i s i t i on s th ou g h m ad e u n d e r t h e m os t fav o u r abl e ci r c u m s t an c es



.
, ,

an d w i th n o c om p e t i t or s i n t he eld b e i n g u n m i st ak ab ly of Ro man d at e , ,

an d c on r m i n g w h at I h av e al r e ad y ad v an c ed u po n t he s c ar c e n e s s of e n g rav

in g s pur ely G re e k A n oth e r l o c al p e c u l i a ri ty v e ry c o n s p i c u ou s i n t h i s


. ,
0 A N TI Q UE G E JV
I S AN D RI NGS .

c oll ect i on i s t he pr ep o n d e ran c e of c alc ed on y for t he m at e r i al o f t he i nt ag l i


,
,

A n d I t ak e th i s O pp ort u ni ty o f e xpr e s s in g my g r at i t u d e t o t he F i t z wi ll i am
S y n d i c ate for th e i r l i b e r al c on c es s i on o f t he u s e of t he forty w ood c u t s
bel o n g i n g t o t he Cat al og u e of t he L e ak e G em s .

T h e Mar lborou g h ( 7 39 g em s ) was br ou g ht t o i t s pr e s e n t form by t h e th i r d


D u k e of the n am e d u r i n g t h e l att e r h alf of t he l as t c e n t u ry
,
I ts pr in c i p al .

c omp on en t s c om e fr om t he old A ru n d eli an an d t he m or e r ec en t B es s b orou g h ,

c ab i n e t s I t i s v ery r i ch i n h i s tor i c ally i nt e r es t in g j e wel s an d i n c am c i


.
,

i m p ort an t for m at e r i al d i m e n s i on s an d work m an s h i p


, ,
.

The Maslcelyne T he P r ofes s or of Min er al og y i n t h e U n i v e r s i ty of


.

O xfo r d has of l ate y ear s tur n ed hi s att e n t i on from w h at m ay b e t e rm e d


, ,

t he abs trac t t o t he c on c rete of t he s c i en c e t o wh i ch h e has d e v ot e d hi s

t al e n t s an d has al r ead y s ucc e e d ed i n br in g in g t og e th e r a r es p e ct abl e


,

c ab in e t I ts b as i s was form ed by a j u d i c i ou s s el e c t i on fr om the d i s p er s ed


.

P rau n s u ppl em e n t ed by p e rp etu al ad d i t i on s fr om a g r eat v ar i e ty of oth e r


,

s ourc e s I ts s tren g th l i es i n in t ag l i ch os en from c on s i d e r at i on s of art al on e ;


.
,

an d al s o i n an oth e r p oin t of c on s i d e r abl e s c i e n t i c i n t e l es tt he g r e at

v ar i e ty o f an c i en tly empl oy ed materi al s e xh i b i t ed in th e se work s t o m ak in g

w h i ch as c om pl et e as p os s i bl e t h e fou n d e r h as d i r ect e d hi s pr in c i p al
att en t i on .

T he P rau n (ab out 1 800 g em s ) owes i t s t i tl e t o i t s r s t k n ow n p os s es s or ,

P aul u s P rau n p atr i c i an of N u re m b e r g (d ec


,
If th ere b e an y g rou n d s
.

for t he lon g c u rr en t tr ad i ti on th at t he b u l k of i ts c on t en t s had b een ob tai n ed


by a G e r m an s ol d i e r at B ou rb on s s ack of Rom e th i s c ab in e t c oul d b oas t of

,

a h i g h e r an t i q u i ty th an an y oth e r i n t he w orl d e xc e p t th e Me d i c ean , .

Ult i m ately i t c am e by in h e r i tan c e i n t o t he p os s es s i o n of Mad am e Merten s


S c h aatf hau s e n of B onn w ho c on s i d e r ably au g m e n t e d i ts e xt en t by m an y
, ,

j u d i c i ou s p u rch as es w i th t he in t e n t i on of u l t i m ately b equ e ath in g the wh ol e


,

t o the V at i c an Mu s eu m Bu t the g oo d old l ad y who w as al s o a z eal o u s n u m i s


.
,

m at i s t h avin g l eft her c oll e ct i on of m ed al s i n t he ch arg e of her l an d l or d at


,

Rom e fou n d on h er r e tu r n th i th e r aft e r a t w o y ear s ab s e n c e on fam i ly


, ,

m atte r s at her n at i v e pl ac e th at the l ock s had b een p i ck ed in the m ean t i m e


, ,

an d t he m os t v al u abl e p i e c e s ab s tr ac t e d A ft e r l on g s earch t he wh ol e.
,

It al i c s er i es of 3 grac e t he pr i d e of her l i fe an d the fru i t of m an y y ear s


,

u n re m i tt in g l ab our was fou n d q u i e tly r es t in g i n the c oin c ab in e t of t h e


,

Coll eg i o Rom an o Car d A n t on ell i b ein g appl i e d to for r ed re s s d e p u t ed


. .
, ,

an e c c l e s i as t i c t o m e d i at e b e t wee n t he r i g htful an d t he act u al p os s e s s o r s



who h ad s o cl e v e rl y c on veyed t he wi s e i t c all the tr eas u r e i n t o th e i r o wn
, ,

i n v i ol abl e pr e c in ct s b u t hi s s olo r e m ed y was t o c ou n s e l p az i e n z a t o the


pl u n d ere d p ar ty I rr i tat i on at th i s m ock e ry of j u s ti c e c e llpled w i t h g r i ef
.
,
CA B 1 NE TS (I I " [5MS 4l

r .

fo r t h e l o s s o f he r c h e r i sh ed r ar i t i es brok e th i s t ru e am at e u r s h e art an d

, ,

s he a c t u ally d i e d o f v e x at i on l ay i n g the wh ol e bl am e o f t he m atte r u p o n


,


q u e l d i av ol o d i A n t on ell i t o p u ni s h wh o m s he r e v ok ed h e r b e q u e s t t o

t h e V at i c an H er c oll e cti on s i n e v e ry br an c h o f art an d an t i q u i ty w e r e


.

s ol d by he r h e i r s at C olo n e i n 1 8 5 9 a n d t he m c ab i n t p rch as e d an d
g g e ,
e u ,

bro u g ht t o En g l an d (i n t he h op e s of i t e tran s fe r en t i r e t o th e Br i ti s h Mu s e u m ) ,

wh e re afte r a s h ort e xi s t e n c e as a wh ol e i t was u lt i mat ely c on s i g n ed t o t he


, ,

l at e Mr E as t wood w ho d i s p er s ed i t S p ee d i ly amon g s t h i s n u mer ou s c li en tele


.
,

at h om e an d abr oad
tanto s q u e per an n os
Conse r v at a r u it m o l es et mach in a .

I ts m o r e i m p ort an t p i ec e s fou n d th e i r w ay in t o Fr an c e an d I t al y bu t ,

t he l arg e r p ort i o n r e m ai n i n th i s c o u n try d i s s em i n at e d th r ou g h m an y s m al l ,

c oll e ct i on s ; th ei r an c i en t s ou rc e on ly t o b e r e c og n i s ed wh e n th ey h app e n t o
h av e fou n d a pl ac e in s u ch am on g s t the foll o win g i ll u s trat i on s as w er e
e n g r av ed for my rs t e d i t i on .

The P u ls k y (4 82 g em s ) owe d i ts b eg i nnin g an d i t s m os t v al u abl e p i e c es


e z a s c oll e ct i on t o Fj v ary far m e r of t he H u n g ar i an
( m n y fr om Cou n t V V )

a i y ,

o p al m in e s H e b equ eath ed hi s c ab i n e t to h i s n eph e w F Pul s ky w ho m ad e


.
,
.
,

l arg e ad d i t i on s t o i t alth ou g h m an y of hi s n es t G r ee k work s pr ov e d on


,

cr i t i c al e x am in at i on t o d at e from a n o m or e r em ot e e p och th an that of Reg a


an d hi s s ch ool The ow n e r b ein g i m pl i c at ed in t he r e v ol u t i on u n d e r K o s s u th
.
, ,

m ad e hi s es c ap e t o L on d on c arry in g wi th h i m hi s g e ms w h i ch I had fro


, ,

q u en t occ as i on s of s tu d y in g The c ab in e t was s ol d i n P ar i s i n 1 8 6 8 wh e n


.
,

s om e of i t s ch oi c es t c on t en t s e n t i on ed i n m y t e x t
(m ) as t he D e m etr i u s ,


P oli orc et es th e A n t in ou s
,
i n fr on t fac e an d t he P e r s e p ol i t an Vi ct ory , ,

w e r e s e cur ed for t he Br i t i s h Mu s eum T o th es e we re ad d e d at t he s am e


.

t i m e t he two m os t ad mi r ed s c ar ab e i of t he c ab i n e t Aj ax s u pp ort in g t he
d y i n g P e n th es i l ea an d a F au n k n e e l i n g w i th a g oat h el d by t he l eg s o v e r ,

hi s s h ou l d e r Th e l atte r in s ar d u n fortu n at el y c al c in ed r e t ai n s i ts or i g in al
.
, ,

s wi v e l s e tt i n g
-
a m as t e rp i e c e o f t h e E tr u s c an g ol d s m i th an d i s t he n e s t
, ,

s p e c i me n of t he cl as s as ye t f u rn i s h ed by t h e Tharros c em e t e r i es A h ead .

o f a S as s ani an k in g i n pr ol e on a g u arn ac c i n o h as fe w equ al s in i t s o wn


, ,

A n obl e Mi n e r v a s h e ad h e l m e te d p as s in g for a p u r e G r ee k work i n



s tyl e.
,

whi te s app hi re i s c e rtain ly i n a cl e ar c al c e d on y an d i t s m an n e r s tron g ly


, ,

r ec all s t h at of Re g a u n d e r s i m i l ar c on d i t i on s .

The R hod es (a s el ect i on fr om wh i ch i s g u r ed i n on e of t he m i s c el


lan eou s pl ates en d i n g th i s s er i es ) owed i ts c om m en c e m e n t to s om e ch oi c e
ems e r e m ai n s of t h e c oll e ct i on of a Mr J ar m an on e o f P i s t ru c c i s

g ,
t h .
,

e arl i es t p atron s i n th i s c ou n try by profe s s i o n a male r of an c i e n t m i ni atur e s


-
t
, ,
42 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N ! ) R I N G S .

an d p i ct u r e d eal e r
-
th e s e we r e s up e r ad d ed m an y p u rch as es fr om t he
. To
H e rtz an d U z i e lli s al e s r ai s i n g t h e wh ol e to t he r an k of a c ab i n e t of s o me
,

i m p ortan c e It h as h owe v e r b ee n r ec e n tly d i s p er s ed by pr i v ate c on tr act


.
, , .

g T h e Uz i elli
( 5 6 4 g em s
) w a s
g e t t o e th e r i n a s h or t s p ac e o f t i m e for t h e
g
W e al t hy m e rch an t of th at n ame u n d e r t he d i r e ct i on of Mr J C Rob i n s on
,
. . .
,

of t he S outh K e n s in t on Mu s e um I t was m ain ly i n d ebt ed for i ts r eally


g .

h i g h ch ar act er t o t he l i b er al p u rch as e at t he H ertz s al e of t he e xqu i i t e s

in t ag l i pr oc eed i n g or i g in ally ou t of D r N ot t s c oll ect i on an d was c on s e .


qu en tly e x t r em ely r i ch i n t he A rch ai c G r eek an d E tr u s c an s er i es B u t , ,


.

n o s uch pr ai s e c an b e awar d ed t o i t s c amc i w h i ch w er e fo r t he m os t p ar t ,

Ci n qu e ce n t o an d m od er n w ork s an d in a v ery fr ag m e n t ary c o n d i t i on


,

when p os s i bly an t i qu e The e x i s ten c e of thi s c ab in e t w as as br i e f as


.

i t s g r ow th h ad b een r ap i d Up on t he pr em atu r e d eath of t he pr opr i e t or i t


.

was b r ou g h t to t he h amm e r i n 1 8 6 1 r eal i s in g b u t a s m all fract i on of i t s ,

or i g in al c os t T h e m os t v al u abl e l ot s (art i s t i c ally c on s i d er ed ) p as s ed i n t o


.

t h e v e ry ch oi c e c oll e ct i on of Mr B al e t h e m or e s h owy i n t o th at of t he.


,

Me x i c an Ros ann a i t s e l f br ok e n u p by s al e at P ar i s i n 1 8 6 8
, .

Th e W aterton D actyli otheca an i m m e n s e as s em bl ag e of t he F in g e r Rin g s


o f all n at i on s an d ag e s b eg i nn in g fr om t he earl i es t arr an g ed i n th ei r
, ,

pr op er s eq u en ces an d w h i ch had c os t i t s fou n d e r t he u n r em i tt i n g l ab our of


,

m an y y ear s to br in g t og e th e r ; h i s s u cc es s b ein g m at er i ally pr om ot ed by


c on s t an t tr av ell in g i n all p art s of E ur op e an d the ad v an t ag es affor d ed h i m ,

by hi s of c i al p os i t i on at t he Rom an Co u rt I t i s h ar d t o d e c i d e wh eth er .

t he i n t e r es t o f th i s c oll e ct i on d ep e n d e d m os t u p on t he h i s t or i c al v al u e of

t he r el i c s i t c on tai ne d or t he art i s t i c i m p ortan c e o f m an y of i t s m as t e rp i e c e s


,

of g ol d s m i th s w ork e m an at in g fr om t he an t i q u e m ed i a

ev al an d Re n ai s s an c e , ,

s ch ool s. B u t i t g iv es m e t he g r eates t p ai n t o h av e t o ad d th at th i s
c oll ect i on fr om wh i ch t he foreg oi n g p ag es h av e b orr owe d s o m u ch of th e i r
,

m os t v al u abl e i llu s tr at i on s n o l on g e r e x i s t s u n d e r t h e s am e form or


,

d e i g n at i on
s .

U n for tu n at e e ve n ts h av e ch an g e d i t s own e rs h i p an d c an c ell ed i ts


n am e ; e t th e r e i s s om e s l i g h t c on s ol at i on i n k n owin g th at t h e fr u i t s o f
y
s u ch lon c on t in u e d r es e ar c h in t e ll i g en c e an d t as t e h av e n ot b e e n s u ffe r e d
g
-
, , ,

t o fall in t o t he h a n d s o f d e al e rs to b e s c att e r ed abr oad an d l os e all i d e n t i ty


,

b u t the w h ol e has b e e n p u rch a s ed for t he Br i t i s h an d S ou th K e n s in g t o n

Mu s e u m s t he m os t i m p ortan t art i cl es fall i n g t o t he s hare o f t he form e r o f


,

th es e es t abl i s h m en t s .
DE S CRI PTI ON O F TH E VV OO D C U TS .

( D r awn to d o ub le the ac t ua l s i z e, when n ot other wi se s


p ec ied .
)

P l ate I A ssyri an N o 1 A d or at i on o f the Ti n g ed Bu ll at t r i b u te of t he g od


. . . .
,

Ni n : ov er the wor s h i pp er s h ead soars t he Mi r or visi bl e pr es en ce of the D e i ty i n the



,

el d are s een t he c onj oi n ed s u n an d moon an d ov er the B u l l s b ack the sev en pl an t s,


, e .

Cyl i nd e r (L anyard )
.

2 W i n ged D eity whose attri bu te t he Cock s tan d s b e for e hi m on an al t ar


.
, , , Coni cal .

s eal.
(L ayard )
3 N i n evi ti sh K in g an d a S u ppli ant ; pr ob abl y t he s i g n et of an of c i al of the p al ac e
. .

Coni c al s eal (B ayard )


.

4 The K in g atten d ed by a G u ar d ad or i n g t he n ati on al g od A ss h u r ; b eh i nd th em i s


.
, ,

xed astan d ard ad orn ed wi th a ll et Cyl in d er (L ayard )


,
. .

5 Bel u s s tan d in g u p on hi s B u ll b et ween t wo fi g u res o f N i s roch


. , The l arg e s tar i n .

fr ont i s t he r egu l ar i ndi cation of a di vi nity Cyl i nd e r (L ayard x) . .

6 T r ai n of Cap ti v s ; m en wom en an d ch i l d ren es c o rt ed by a Ni n evi t ish S ol di e r


. e , , , .

Th eir d r es s es o f s k in s an d t he b aggage th ey c arry s h ow th i s d si g n to b e the m em en t o


, , e

of s om e forc i bl e t r ans fer of a b arb ar i an t ri b e fr om th ir n at iv e l and to s om e r em ot e e

p ort i on of t he em p i r e The l ege nd on t he tabl et beh i nd i s wri tt en i n t he mo s t an c i en t


.

ch arac ter of t he c u n ei fo rm al ph ab et Cyl i n d er (L e g en d )


. .

7 The I I om Tree o f L i fe b et ween t wo G ry ph on s


.
, , .

8 A d orati on of N i n s t andi n g u pon h i s lVi n ged B u ll ; o f A th or or Myl i tt a t he


.
,
(
G reat po u r in g forth fro m h r ar m s t he lV aters o f L i fe ; a d o f Mi th ras
e n

s l au gh terin g a B u l l : t he l as t b e i n g a typ i c al g u r e th at l on g s u r viv ed all t he oth r e

i con ol og y of t he A s sy r i an creed Cy l i nd er ( L ayard )


. .

9 A d or ati on o f t he Moon by a Mag u s s t andi n g b e fo r e a tire al tar


. , Cyl i n d er . ,
44 A N TI Q UE G E MS A M ) R I NG S .

Pl ate I I A s sg/ri an 1 The A s s y ri an He rc u l es c ontendi n g wi t h t he \Vi l d B u l l al so


. .

t he A nd r oc eph al ou s B u l l e m bl em of Be l u s
.

wi th t he L i on en grav ed i n a remark ably


n e mann er Cy l i n d er (L ayarcl)
. .

2 The Mi r soar i n g abov e t he Tree of L i fe b efore whi ch s tand s O ann es t he r i v er


.
, ,

g od att en d ed by a W i n g ed G eni u s
,
on t he o th e r s i d e of the t r ee i s the V Vorshi pper i n
t he ac t of ad orati on Cyl i nd er . .

3 W arr i or i n hi s t r i u m ph al c ar; i n front for troph i es h ead s of hi s c on q u ered


.
, ,

en em i es Cyl i n der
. .

4 Cow an d Calf b efore a tree ; ov e r th em t he S u n an d Plan ets


. The representat i on .

of the ani m al p resents a s tr i k in g an al og y t o th at o f t he b u l l reg ard an t on t he c oins of

S y bari s Coni c al s eal


.
(L aya r d ) .

5 A n ai ti s (V e n u s ) ent h ron ed amon g s t the star s


. Coni c al s eal (L ag/ arch ) . .

6 A s syri an W arri or gr as p i n g t he fore feet of t wo A n droc ephal ou s Bu ll s i n t ok en of


.
,

am it y ; i n front app ears t he m oon god S i n abov e t he Tree of L i fe Cyl i n d er -


, ,
. .

(L ayard ) .

7 . S eal
cl ay hard en ed by t he con ag rati on of the record ch am b er b eari n g
of , ,

mpres s i on s of the s i g n ets of S enn ach eri b an d S ab aco I I of E g yp t (p (L ayard ) . .

8 A s s y ri an wi th a Tort oi s e an d a G oose embl em s of cert ai n r el i g i ou s i d eas


.
, , .

Cyl in der s (L ayard )


Plate I I I
. .

B abylon i an Med i an an d P ers i an 1 A dorati on of Parson d as or acc ordi n g


, , . .
, ,

t o others B el Merod ach t he g od of war


, The ot h er h al f of the cyl i n d er i s occ u p i ed by
, .

a b eau ti fu lly c u t l eg en d i n t he B abyl oni an ch aracter


-
B l ack haem atite (P rau n n ow i n . .
,

the B ri t i sh Mu seu m ) .

2 . Mag u s (Mobed ) ci ati n g at a re al tar The Phoeni c i an l egend i s read by


of -
.


L ev y as L eb elz i d S h em es h Of the heral d of the s u n On on e s i d e of the c oni c al
, .

s eal i s e n grav ed a m an ad orin g a li on h ead ed d ei ty Cal ced on y (P rau n n ow i n _ the -


. .
,

B ri ti sh Mu seu m ) .

3 I n s cri p ti on i n B aby lon i an c u n eiform wi th ou t d evi ce entirely l l in g t he cy li n d er


.
, , .

4 . nthron ed exten d in g t he s y mb ol of L ife to hi s v otary who m ak es the god


B el u s e , ,

t he offerin g of an antel op e B ehi n d app ear t wo genii an d t wo wom en p rob abl y wi v es


.
, ,

of the wor shi pp er b ear i n g b eas ts of ch ase s l u n g u p on p ol es for s acr i c es t o t he t em pl e


, , .

The roy al v u lt u re an d win g ed orb i ntrod u c ed i n the el d show t he wor k t o h av e , ,

b een exec u ted u nd er a c ertai n E gyp ti an i n u ence Haemati te Hertz ) . . .

5 Rep resentati on of a reli g i ou s fes tiv al with d an c es hel d b e for e t he em bl ems of


.
, ,

the g od Nergal t wo s eated s p hi n x es Cy li n der


,
. .

6 D ag on
. Coni c al seal (L ag/arch)
. .

7 Two hu m an h ead ed B u ll s b eari n g u p the Mi r abov e t he Iree of L i fe ; on each


-
r
.
,

si d e s tan d s a worshi pp er one of them wi th the offeri n g of an antel op e The lege n d i s


, .

i n a S emiti c charac ter Cy lin der . .

8 Myl itta p ou r i n g for th t he W at e rs of L i fe from her s h ou l d er s ; wi th a femal e


.

wors h i pper Cyl i n d e r . .

9 S ph i nx c o u c han t o f Per s e po l itan work


. Mottl ed agate (J arman )
,
. . .

1 0 llc reu lc s G i g on b ear i n g u p the Mi r ank ed by a m al e an d fe mal e Pe rs i an as


.
,
D E S CRI P TI O N O F TH E W O O D C U TS . 45

worsh i pper s . The l egen d is e n g rav ed i n t he a l t es t m od i c at i on of t he cu n ei form alph a


Cyl i nd e r
'

b et . .

S assan i an work s 1 Roy al b u s t b o r n e u pon fo u r wi n gs as a m ark o f


P l ate I V . . .
, ,

L egend P i r u z S hahpu ln i

d ei cat i on . Carb n n c le
, (H rtz ) . . e

2 Reg al p ortr ai t of e x tr m e ly n e e x c u t i on i ns cr i b d
.
,
N ars ehi on a v e ry
e e ,
e

,

b eau t i fu l g u arn acc i rro ( P a ls /g n wi n th B ri t i sh M s n ) . c ,


e e u eu .


3 Roy al b u s t wi th l ege nd Pi r u z z i v S hahpu lrri Y e ll ow c al c ed on y ( P rau n "
. .
,
,
,

n ow i n the B r i ti s h Mu s u m
) e .

4 El e ph ant s h ead in s cr i b ed wi th t he n am es of Masd ak i



Cinn am on s t on e ( K i ng )

.
-
. .
,


5 S acr e d b u ll r ec u m b en t ; wi th t he n am e of A l man

. Chu s ru d or Chos roes .

d i n e g ar n et (K i g ) . n

6 The S atr ap o f S al am i s : for wh i ch attri b u t i on the r eas ons wi l l b e fou nd at p 6 8


. . .


7 S ass ani an Qu een in scr i bed wi th her n ame
.
Ru z u z i Coral
, (K i n g ) ,
. .

8 B u s t of V arahran K e r man sh ah en l arg ed from the D e von shi re am eth y s t d es cri b ed


.
,

at p . 72 .

Di ad e med h ead with t he n ame of V arahran ; d on e i n the ru de s tyl e m os t


9 .
,

p rev al en t i n th i s cl as s of gem s N i c ole . .

1 0 B u s t of Chos roc s I or I I ; fo r t h ere i s n o d i s t i n c ti on b et ween th ei r p ortr ait s on


. . .

t he c oin ag es of the t wo The l eg en d i s i n the l at es t for m of t he S ass ani an ch ar ac te r fas t


.
,

m er g i n g i n t o t he Cu c Calc edon y (K i n g ) . .

1 1 The L u l ab or b u n d l e of s pr i g s c ar r i e d at the Feas t o f Tab ern acl es an d t he


.
, ,

es t ab li s hed em bl em of J u d ai s m D es c ri b ed at p 9 5 J ac i n th ( W ater ton ) . . . .

1 2 S as s ani an Q u een an d her i n fan t pri n c e ; wit h t he n ame of A rmi n d oc hti


. .

Cal c e don y s eal (Her tz ) .

1 3 Two P e r s i an l ad i es i n c onv e r s at i on b etwee n t h em a l on g cr os s p ro b ably


.
, ,

i ntended for t he m eet in g of Mary an d E l i z ab e th I f t h i s ex pl an ati on b e well grou n ded .


,

we h av e h ere the s i g n e t o f some N es tori an Ch r i s ti an S ard (K i n g ) . .

1 4 Ru by fou n d i n t he r u in s of B rah mi n ab ad S c i nd e ; v ery n eatly engrav ed i n


.
,


Cu c ch arac t er s with i ts o wn er s n am e E l A sad I b n El Hassan
, .

P l ate V Egyp t i an S c araS ei i n v ari ou s m ate r i al s The tabl e t i s of cl ay cov e red


wit h a th i c k bl u e g l az e to i m itate l ap i s
. . .
,

l az u l i an d was wor n as a p en dant


, , .

P l ate V L E gyp t i am E x am pl es of the di ffe r ent d evi c e s c u t u p on t he b as es of


s c ar abei The l arge s wi v el ri n g b el ow
. we i g h i n g n o l es s th an ve ou n c es i s ,

s u ppos ed t he s t ate seal of K in g Horu s I t i s i n the May er Coll ect i on The so l id g old . .

si g n et ri n g (3) has b ee n read as hear i n g the n am e of K i n g Ch ee p s SO pho The n e xt .

g u r e (4 ) ex h i b i t s the u su al m od e i n whi ch s carabei were mou n t ed for wearin g on t he


n ger The t wo hands of a m u m m y ( 1 ) cov er ed wi th a m u l t i t u d e o f ri n g s amon g s t
.

wh i ch i t wi l l b e n ot i c ed th at t he m os t i m po rt an t of all t he act u al s i g n t was wor n , e ,

u p o n the t h u m b N o 5 i s the m ag ni ed i m pr es si on o f t he seal of S ab ac o I I


. . No 6 a . .
,

sol id m et al r i n g en g r av e d wi th t he g u r e of Osi r i s .

P l at e V I PEg yp t i an 1 I si s S ar don y x ( lu i rhead )


rl . . . .

2 The Hawk of Th oth the E g ypt i an Her mes c arry in g t he c ad u c eu s o f the g od


.
, , .

G rec o E g ypt i an work o f n e e x ec u ti on


- S ar d ( P ra u n ) . .

3 Horu s t he V er n al S u n as i s d eno t ed b v th at l u m in ary ov e rhead seat ed on the


.
, , ,
!

4c A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D RI NG S .

l otu s em bl em of fec u n di ty ad ored by the Cy n oc eph al u s


, , ,
at t r i b u t e of t he Moon wh os e ,

c res c ent m ark s hi s ch aract er G reen j as per i n a ri n g .


, o f iron p erfectl y pr eser v ed
, .

( IVatel ton )

4 Men i n on i an
. Head , no w c al l ed an A ntin ou s (p . S ar d oi n e .
(B ri ti sh Illn sen m ) .

5 . V as e u se d in
i c rites ; m ark ed on the b elly wit h a s acred mon og r am
t he I s a ,

e x actl y as are the H i n doo s acr i c i al v ess el s of t he p res ent d ay S ar d (P rau n ) . .

6 I s i s wi th t he I b i s p erch ed on her h an d
.
, S ard (P rawn ) . .

7 G rou p o f s acr e d an imal s


. The Cy n oc e phal u s s eat ed on an al t ar h ol d s for t h the .
, ,

I b i s hi s tai l i s for med i nt o t he A sp behi n d hi m i s t he Hawk i n front of hi m t he


, , ,

J ack al G reen j as p er
.
(B rown ) .

8 W ar r i or pr ob abl y a Per s i an S at r ap of t he c ou ntry between t wo r oy al A s p s


.
, , ,

m ar k i n g hi s sov erei g nt y S ard ( P ran n ) . .

9 Can op u s wi th the head o f A t h or ank ed by t wo A s p s ; on the b elly of the v ase


.
, ,

i s the s ol ar di s k A l man di n e s et i n an i r on r i n g
.
(Fou ld ) , .

P l ate V I I I G n os t i c N o 1 The A br ax as god i n the c ar of P h oeb u s ; a re mark abl e


. . .


pr oof of hi s as su m ed i den t i ty with t h at d eit y U nd er n eath i s t he ti tl e S abao for .

S ab aot h The r ev ers e b ear s hi s n am e


. I ao abrax as c ontai n ed i n a cartou ch e ,
-
,

form ed by a c oi l ed s erp ent ex ac t ly as t he H i nd oo I n effabl e Name A U M i s d ep i c ted i n


,

th ei r t empl es G r een j as per ( B osan qu et)


. .

2 The s ame g od acc or di n g t o hi s regu lar t yp e b u t u n u su all y wel l drawn for a wor k
.
, ,

o f t h i s cl as s G r een j as p er
.
(K i n g ) .

3 Ab rax as h e re r ep res e nt ed wit h t he head of an A ss i n the ch arac t er of Typhon


.
'

, .

Th at d emon acc ord i n g t o on e l eg end ed ou t of t he b at tl e of the gods on as s b ack i n to


, ,
-

S yr i a wh ere he b egat Palaes t i n u s an c estor of the J ews


, Th i s v ery s i n g u l ar t yp e s h ows , .

t he prev al en c e of t he an c i ent b el i ef res p ec ti n g t he form u n d er wh i c h t h e Hebr ews

ad ore d t h eir h i d d en god G r een j as per ( W aterton ) . .

4 A br ax as i n h i s c u s tom ary s hap e


. The ch ar ac ters of t he i n s cri pti on ac ross t he .

el d seem to b e H i my ari ti c The rev erse b ear s i n the m id d l e I H pr o b ably i m ply i n g .


,

the Hebr ew J eh tit l e of the Ti f /ru n or Fi rs t E m an ati on o f J eh o v ah s u rrou n d e d by a


,
f
, ,

l on g l eg en d IXG G G wH IAwIAA wN mw
,
wh e r e on e c annot h el p s u s p ec ti n g
t he rs t l etter s t o b e the initi al s of I na X pw rb bs x 6 t he wor d s u p on t he s o

o s
'
s e e e
,

fam ou s s eal of Ab g aru s G r een j as p er (K i ng ) . .

5 A b rax as as b e fore b u t c arry in g a kite s h ap ed s h i el d


. G reen j as p er
, ( Frou n ) -
. .


6 A b rax as wi t h the ti tl e of
. I ao S h em esh Kil am
,
J eh ov ah t he Et er n al S on ; , ,

an other c on rm ati on of the ori g i n al c harac ter o f thi s ad opt ed d ivi nit y H ze rn ati te . .

( K i ng )
7 j ack al h ead ed A n u b i s b ear i n g a s h i el d em bl az on ed with t he G reat Nam e
The -
, ,

I ao an d oth er titl es : ov er hi s h ead are the S even Vo wels a s p ell of the u tm ost
, ,

p oten cy G reen j as p er ( l m an n ow i n the B ri ti sh Mu s eu m )


. .

, .

8 The A gat hod a mon S er p ent e l ev ated ab o ve an al tar ; wi t h the i nv oc ati on


.
a
A n oeh

C n ou b i s S h em esh E i lam
lr

I am Clru eph t he Et er n al S u n P l as ma ; t he reg u l ar
, ,
.

m ate r i al fo r thi s k i n d o f t al i s m an ( P m un
) .


9 Hor u s t he V e r n al S u n g od s eated on the lot u s wi th th t i t le o f
.
,
S he mc s lr -
, ,
e

E ilam ( lreen j as er ( K i ng
)
.
p .
D E S C RI P TI ON 0 1 " THE I VO O D C U TS . 47

P l ate I X . G n osti c . 1 . The Mi th rai c


v ted u p on a c o l u m n t o wh i ch i s G rypho rr e l e a ,

b o u nd a m an bl i nd fo l d e d an d wi th h is h ands t i ed b h ind h i s back ; e v id en tly t he


-

,
e

repres en t at i on of s ome p en an c e The r ev e r s e b ears a r o u g h at te m pt at a fem al e g u re. ,

w i th t he wo s r d Ni c nd r nd
Catch h u s band k ee p h u s b and ; wh en c e t he
"
a a S osa ra , , ,

wh o l e m ay r eas on ably b e c on cl u d ed to b e a l ov e ch ar m add ed on t he r ev e r s e (ac c ord i n -


,

t o t he c om m on G nos t i c pr act i c e) o f an i n t ag l io o f earl i e r d at e G r een j as p e r ( Pra wn ) . .

2 D e i ty wi th h eads of J ack al V u l t u re an d I b i s s y m b o l s o f A n u b i s P i ne an d
.
, , , , , ,

Th oth He i s th e r efor e an E gypt i an t r i ni ty a T p a an r t o wh os e p o we r s u ch


. ,
r u s
,


p erp et u al r e feren c e i s n i ad e i n t he V al nti n i an G os p el t he Pi s ti s S oph i a G r een e ,
-
.

j as per ( 1 b u an
.


3 The G nos t i c G or gon u s u al ly e xpl ain ed as t ak e n for the typ e o f A ch am oth
.
, ,

Moth er o f the D e mi u r g u s aym


The l gend m u ch c or r u pt ed i s m ean t for A y.
e , ,
i os , s,


Holy h ol y L ord of Hos t s ; li os at u a
i
mp E B O b am 9 r i oilfa r

z os a a cu ( e / 1 o s / vo s i
, ,

t o the Hi g h es t t he B l ess ed (F rom a c s t )


, . o .

4 P h oeb u s i n hi s c ar i nv ok ed b y t he l eg end A B AA N AO A N AA B A
.
,

Th ou , ,

art o u r Fat h e r an d wi t h t he t i tl e T Y z eY l wh i ch acc ordi n g to A l e x and e r of Tr all es



, ,
, ,

i s a t i t l e o f t he S u n Ti re r ev er s e s h ows hi s s i s ter L u n a g uidin g her c onv ey an c e the


.
, , ,

Co w . Hze m ati t o .
(K i ng )
5 . S c en e
from the Mi t hrai c My s ter i es ; d e p i c tin g
the n eoph y te s u rrou nd ed by t he

v ar i ou s s y m bol s an d t yp es of t he rel i g i on G r een j as p er (F m an ) . .


6 The G ol d en E of D el ph i or t he s acr e d n u m eral Fi v e ; u p on wh i ch I lu tarc h
.
,

has l e ft a v e ry i nteresti n g d i ssert at i on



De E i D elphi c o Cam eo (K i n g ) , . .

7 Mi th rai c gu re h ol d in g a s erp ent an d a l u s tr al v as e


. I ns cr i b ed on the rev ers e ,
.

wi t h (DPH N E g ypt i an n ame of the s u n , G r ee n j as p er (K i n g ) . .

8 The Marty rdo m of a Fem al e S ai nt


. The l et t e r s are t he i ni t i al s of the r eg u l ar .


N ew Y ear s Day c om pl i ment
A nn u m N ov u m Feli c em T i b i in d i c at in g th i s gem t o

, ,

h av e ad orn ed a k eep sak e rin g The su bj ec t al t h ou g h so u n u su al i n g en u i n e early .


,

Chr i sti an rern ai n s ex h i b it s ev er y m ark of au th enti c i ty i n i ts m ann er an d t ech ni c al


, _

exec u t ion an d m ay p oss i bly b el on


, g t o t he e p och o f C o n s t an t in e R ed J as p e r ( K i ng
) . .

9 The G ood S h eph erd a Ch ri s ti an en grav i n g o f i n d u b i tab le anti q u i t y an d of u n


.
, ,


u s u ally g o od e x ec u ti on t he l eg e nd i s t he Hol y Nam e J ah Red J as p er ( K ing ) ,
. .

P l ate X S at u rn ; J u p i ter
. N o 1 S atu r n hi s h ead c ov e r e d wi th a v ei l wh i ch
. . .
, ,

Macrob i u s ex pl ai n s as all u si v e to the ru le that hi s wors h i p al on e was c el ebrat ed wi th t he


h ead u n c ov e r ed S ard (K i n g ) . .

2 Cyb el e i n wh os e ch ar act e r Fau s tin a Mater h er e m ak es her app earan c e acc or di n g


.
, ,

to the u s u al ru l e of I m per i al d ei c at i on ( p Red j as p er Uz i elli ) . . .

3 J u p i t e r c as t i n g h is th u n d er b ol t ; i n t he el d i s the b u s t o f A starte i ndi c at i n g


.
-
,

t he Phcen i c i an o r i g i n of t he en g rav in g The b ac k of t he s earab eu s i s c u t i n t o t he h ead .

of the L ord of Fl i es (p A g at e ( Fm an ) . .

4 J u p iter D od on ze u s t he g rand c am eo fou nd at E ph es u s r s t i n t he Z u l i ani


.
, ,

Cab i n e t n ow i n th at of t he A c ad em i a of V e ni c e
,
D r awn t o the act u al s i z e . .

5 J u p i te r Olym pi u s a n e G r eek i n t ag l i o
. S ard ( B i acas )
,
. .

6 J u p iter d i ad enred h ead i n the m os t arch ai c styl e u nle ss i t he i nten ded for the
.
, ,

p or tr ai t of s ome Et r u s can lu cu mon G r een j as p er ( B lam s ) . .


48 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NGS .

7 . J p i t er i n h i s c ar c as t in g hi s t h u n d erbol ts The i ntrod u c ti on of the cl ou d s


u , .

p rov es t h i s n e en g r avi n g to b e n o m or e t h an a s u cc es s fu l i m itati on of the anti q u e .

S ard .
( Hertz )
P l ate XL J ii p i ter ; J u n o (t o 1 J u p iter su rrou n d ed by pl an etary em bl ems : a
, . .
,

t yp e s u ppos ed t o represent t he au s p ici ou s c omm en c em ent of a S ot h i ac P er i od -(p .

E g ypt i an em eral d (P ran n ) .

2 J u p iter an d J u n o ; c onj u g ated h ead s


. S ard (L eak e) . .

3 J u p i ter ; h ead i n a n e Roman s t y l e


. S ar d ( N o r ton ) . .

4 J u p i t er ov erthrowi n g t he Titan s
. The fam ou s c am eo by A then i on wh os e .
,

s i g n atu re i n re l i e f pl ac ed u nd er the wh eel of t he c ar has b een om itted by t he c ar el ess


, ,

n ess of t he d rau g h ts man i n t h i s cu t Drawn t o the s i z e of t he ori g i n al ( Nap les ) . .

5 J u n o a h ead i n the n obl es t G r eek m ann er


.
(B erli n ) .
.

6 J u n o Reg i n a acc om p ani ed by Mi n erv a V i ctrix l eani n g on a p al m bran ch i n


.
, ,
-
,

plac e of her c u s tom ary s p ear an d Merc u ry A pretty m i n u te Rom an en gravin g i n


,
.
,

s ard .
( K i ng )
7 G an y m ed e c ar r i ed o by t he E ag l e s ti ll retai ni n g t he j av eli n s that tel l he was

.
,

e n g ag e d i n h u n t i n g at t he ti m e of hi s c ap t u re Th ese weap on s s h ow t he amen tu ni .

attach ed Y el l ow s ard (K i n g )
. .

8 G an y m ed e as sh eph er d b oy h ol di n g forth t he crater of n ec tar


.
-
,
S ar d (B erli n ) . .

9 . Y ou t h fu l g i ant (B t u s or E ph i al tes d e fy i n g J ov e He protects hi m self wi th a


, , .

li on s hi d e an d ai ms a large s ton e at hi s en emy A mag ni cent Rom an work



,
. .

A nti q u e paste (D r Nott ) . . .

P l at e XI I E u rop ri ; D i os c u ri ; S erapi s
. 1 E u r op a c arr i ed off by t he B u l l s ti l l
,
. .
,

hol din g t he owers s he was g ath erin g at the ti m e she was s ed u c ed i nt o m ou n t in g on the
b ack of t he god i n di sg u i s e S ard (S t P eters bu rg ) . . .


2 Head of L u n a b et wee n th ose of Cast or an d P oll u x
,
fr atres Hel en ae l u c i d a , ,

s i d era Calc ed on y
.
(L eahe) .

3 Cas tor hi s h ead c ov ered wit h t he p etas u s t he regu l ar eq u i pm ent of a h or sem an


.
, , .

G rec o I tali an s carab eu s of t he n es t work ; i n ameth y s t


-
(B lacos )
4 J u pi ter S erap i s c rown ed wi t h t he calathu s or c or n
.

.
-
b as k et em bl emati cal of hi s , ,

b ei n g the g i v er an d r ec eiv er of all li fe S ar d (B erli n ) . .

5 S erap i s u n i tin g t he ch aracte r s o f A mm on an d P lroeb u s i n d i cati n g th at all th es e


.
, ,

are n am es for on e an d the s am e d eity t he S u n The i n d i vid u al i ty of t he pr ol e prov es


,
.

that Corn m od u s i s thu s com pl i m ented here S apphiri n e c alc ed on y ( K i n g ) . .

6 S e r ap i s wit h t he s am e ch aract ers as the l as t ; b u t ad d in g al so t he wan d o f E s c u


.

l ap i n s to wh os e ofce he had s u cc eed ed i n hi s g r eat tem pl e at A l ex and r i a S ard ( K i n g )


,
. .

7 S e r ap i s b or n e u p by t he E agl e of J u p i te r to d ecl ar e hi s id enti ty wi t h th at ol d e r


.
, ,


di vi ni ty as i s s et fo rth i n the l egen d | C Z G Y C C A PA H I C O n e J u p ite r
, , , ,


S e rap i s Red j as p er
.
( L eak e
) .

8 S e rap i s i n front fac e a c am eo i n v ery h i gh r eli ef an d a beau ti fu l s pec i me n o f t he


.
-
, ,

Rom an s tyl e ( Hertz ) .

P l at e X lll D ei t i es N o 1 Ne p tu n e an d A m plri t ri te c ar r i ed ov er the


. . . .

wav e s on t he b ac k o f a S ea h o r s e ; t he g od s lu n rb e rs an d one o f the at t end ant C u p i d s


-
,

has s t o l en his tr id ent .


D E S GR I P TI ON O F TH E W 0 0D C U TS . 49

2 Nep tu n e u rg i n g hi s s u it to A myn ron e The n y m p h h ol d s a p i tche r i n al l u sion to


. .
,

t he fou nt of L ern a a pres ent to her fr o m t he g od o f wat e r s


, A n t i q u e p as t e ( Fe wa rd e t) . . n

3 A m y mon e at t he Fou n t ain


. The t r id en t i n her h an d d e cl ares t he au thor o f the .

s p ri n g A c u ri ou s arch ai c G reek en g ravi n g S ar d


.
(P ro a ) . . n

4 Ven u s Mar i n a t r ans p ort e d ov e r t he wav es by t he H i ppocam p u s of Nept u n e


. Her .

vei l d i s ten ded by the breez e d ecl ar es he r ch aract er of E n pleea pat ron es s of sai l or s
, , ,

.

S ard (D u e d e L ay
.
/m s ) .

5 The N ere i d G al en e ( the Ro m an L e u c o th ea) g iv e r of fai r weath e r to m ar i n r s i n


.
, e ,

t he ac t of s wi m m i n g as d es cr i bed i n t he e p i g ram by A dd ams u pon the s i m i l ar g em


, ,

en g rav ed by Tr h n S ar d ( B rli n )
yp e . . e

6 The s am e s u bj e ct of v ery n e work b u t a fr ag me nt t he lower p ar t a res torat ion


.
, , ,

by the d r au g h ts man S ard ( Pra u n ) . .

7 Tar as or Palze m on c arr i ed by a D ol ph i n


.
,
A nti q u e pas te ; h i gh l y ad m ired by
, .

\Vi n c k elm an n .
(B erli n )
8 . s u bj ec t b ein g the or i g in al of t he p as te j u s t n am ed The Et r u scan l et t e r s
S ame , .

hav e b een read b y De Mu r r as K: an d re fe rred to I c ad i u s a son of A p oll o s ; b u t i t ,


i s m u c h mor e p ro b abl e th ey are a b lu nd er ed attem p t at 6 6 36 an d all u d e to Th es eu s , ,

who was c arr i ed back to l and by a d olphi n aft e r l eap in g i n to the s ea to r ecov er t he r in g ,

o f Mi n e s t oss ed i nto t he wav es t o tes t t he t r u t h of h i s b ei n g s on of N ep t u n e


,
B ery l . .

P l at e XI V Mari n e D ei ti es 1 Nep tu n e a h ead en c i rcl ed wi th a di adem of


. . .
,

d olph i ns The wo rk b ears the s i g n atu re of Polycl itu s an d i s on e of the v ery n es t i n


.
,

t he Pon i atows k y s eri es A m e thy s t . .

2 P roteu s i n the ac t of t ran s form ati on ; hi s ar m s t u rni n g t h em s elv es i nto s h es hi s


.
,

leg s i n t o s ea d ogs S c arab eu s i n s ard (P ra n n )


-
. .

3 S cyl l a ab ou t t o d es troy wi th a bl ow from the r u d d er of hi s s h i p wreck ed b ark an


.
, ,

u n l u cky m ar i n er c au g h t by the s erp ent s an d d og s formi n g he r l owe r e x tr em i t i es


, S ar d . .

(D r No tt)
.

3a S cy ll a the earl i es t G r eek re pr es entati on of t he m on s ter S ard ( D u e rte L n g n es )


. . . .

4 D ag on ; ov er hi m t he \Vi n g ed O rb
. Ph oeni c i an scarab eu s i n g ree n j as p er (F ro m ) . .

5 The Cab iri i nv entors of Navi gat i on


.
,
B u r nt s ar d ( l
rl as helg e
) . .
'
n

6 Fat her Ni l u s at t end ed by hi s t wo d au g h t er s o f t he D e l t a wi t h t he I lt es ian wi nd s


.
, ,
'

s oar i n g ov e rh ead I n fr ont i s t he l and of E g ypt r ecl i nin g on her S ph i n x


. The , .

rev erse of the s ton e i s c ar v ed i n t o a mag ni c en t G org on s Head i n v e ry at re l i e f '

, .

Th i s i s t he lon g c el ebr at ed Far n ese Taz z a an d i s h ere d rawn t o one h al f t he act u al si z e


-
,
-
.

S ar d on y x N
( p ) a les .

7 Pal ae m on and Mel i c e r ta oth e r wis e Ner eu s an d D or i s ; on e o f t he b es t G ree k


.
, ,

i n t ag l i i n ex is t en c e : d rawn h ere t o t he act u al si z e A n ret lrys t (Floren ce) . .

8 N er ei d g u idin g a p air of H i pp oc am p i acros s t he s eas


. Cameo i n at r e l i e f .
, .

( P rel i m )
9 . Tr i ton wi el di n g
ru dd e r as b ein g the p at r on of mar i n er s an d s ou ndin g
a , , hi s
s h el l tr u m pe t to c al l t he winds ted j as p e r
-
(Ill s k elg e) u n

Plate XV
. .

Ap ollo N o 1 A po l l o h i s owin g leek s di ad ern ed an d t i ed at


. . . .
, , t he
ends I ntag l i o of h i g h ni s h i n t he early G r eek s ty l e A methy st
.

( Prau n )
, . .

11 . E
A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D RI NGS .

2 . A poll o , a
h ead c rown ed with the bay s i n the ch arac ter of the god of poet ry , . The
i ns cr i p ti on i n the el d i s a G nos ti c i nterp olati on ren d er ing the g em a t ali s man ,
. S ard .

(K i n g )
3 A p ol l o, a
. fu l l l en g th gu re s u pp ortin g hi s ly re u pon the head of a littl e fem al e
-
, ,

c arry i n g bran ch es i n her han d The l atter i s pl au s i bly su pposed by Vi s c onti to b e on e of


.

t he ch oir of D elph i c v irg i n s who ann u all y oti ered t o t he g od t he rs t fru i t s of t he


,
-

c ou n try The ori ginal of th i s i n tagli d was m ost p rob abl y s om e v er y fam ou s s tat u e for
.
,

m any anti q u e c op i es of the s u bj ec t i n g em s are s til l extant Sard ( i ng)


K . .

4 The s am e su bj ec t b u t he r e the g od res t s hi s ly re u pon a c i ppu s


. .

5 The D elphi c Ap ol lo s eated an d m ed itatin g hi s oracl es ; by hi s s i d e s tan d s the r s t


.
,

who held the of c e of Pyt t i i a t he aged Hero phil e S ard (B erli n )


, . .

6 A p ol l o Mu sag etes i n femal e attire as the l ead er of t he Mu s es s eated b efor e hi s


.
, , ,

tri p od an d pl ay in g on the c i thara hi s prop er i n s tru ment as the lg ra was of Her mes
, , ,
.

S ard f (D r . N ott)
7 . A p ol lo, t n d i n g in t h ou g h t
s a , an d h ol d i n g c ithara i n front of the D el ph i c
t he ,

T r i p od . The i n s c ri p ti on s hows t hi s n e gem t o hav e b elon g ed t o L oren z o d ei Medi c i .

S ard .
(F loren ce)
8 . A pol l o A g yi eu s , l eanin g
p ill ar hi s attri b u te i n t h i s charac ter as g od of the
on a ,

read an d profferin g hi s b ow i n s i gn of am ity Peri d ot (K i ng )


, . .

9 E sc u lapi u s son of A p ol l o ; a h ead al way s regard ed as t he rs t of i ts kin d


.
,
The .

n am e of A u l u s i s t he add i ti on of s ome Rom an p os s es s or of t he s ton ep rob ably a

phy s i c i anwho u s ed i t for hi s profes si on al seal S ard (B lci cas ) . .

P l ate XV I Ap ollo P heeb u s ; Z od i ac


.
-
1 A p ol l o g ras p i n g t he fore feet of a
!

, . .
,

fal l ow d eer th at rai s es itself toward s hi m The s ti ffn ess of t he grou p m ak es i t alm ost
-
, .

c er t ai n th at i t i s a c opy from the work of the v ery earl y s t at u ary Canac hu s s tan d i n g i n , ,

t he Di d ym eam of Mi l etu s an d d es c ri b ed by P l in y S ard


, (P ran n ) . .

2 Phoeb u s h ead i n fr ont fac e b et ween t h ose of J u p ite r an d L u n a


.
,
Med i oc re
,
.

Roman work b u t v e ry remark abl e for t he m ateri al a tr u e op al ( P ran n


) , .

3 P h oebu s i n hi s c ar i n the c ent r e of the Z od i ac ; app aren t l y a work of the


.
,

Ci n q u e c ento when thi s repr es entati on was e x tremel y p op u l ar


-
, .

4 D eu s L u n n s t he Moon god of whose worshi p the c h i ef seat was Carrhai i n


.
,
-
,

Mesop otam i a S ard (B lacas ) . .

5 Capri c orn u s b es tr i dd en by a G eni u s wi el d in g a tri d ent t o s i g n ify t hat he i s


.
, , ,


ty r ann u s Hes peri a Capr i corn u s u n d ae S ar d (P ran n )
a
. .

6 Capri c orn u s an d S c orp i o u nited i nto on e c om p os i t e mon s ter c ar ry i n g a m i l itary


.
, ,

s tand ard Evi d ently t he s i gn et of an of c er of the S econ d A u gu s tan L eg i on whi c h


.
,

b o re the for mer S i gn for i ts badge Sar d oin e (K i n g ) . .

7 Tau r u s ; b eh i nd hi m i s s een Capri c orn b el ow hi m a Serp ent sy m b ol i z in g t he


.
, ,

el eme n t of water G r een j as p er (K i n g )


. .

8 E r i gon e or V i r go s eat ed u n d er a vin e b ewailin g the d eath of her fath er t he hos t


.
, , , ,

o f Bacch u s s lai n by the ru sti cs for the i ntrod u c ti on of win e i nto A t t i c a The s tat u e of
,
.

Pal l as i s i n geni ou s ly i ntrodu c ed to n rark the l oc al i ty ; an d to m ak e i t ev id ent th at the


maid i s t he Marathon i a V i rgo of the p oet S tati u s

S ar d (P re an ) . .

9 A po ll o the P u r i er : ty p e of the p ri m itiv e c oi n age of Cau lorria i n S o u th e r n ltaly


.
,
.
D E S CR I P TI ON O F TH E W O OD C U TS . 51

I t i s g i v en h e re to ex h i b i t t he c on for m i ty i n t he d es i g n an d tec hn i q u e of the g u re ,


an d

i ts Etru s c an b ord er wi th th ose of the s c arab ei .

1 0 The . conj oi n ed fore q u ar ter s of t wo W in g e d B u l l s : pr o babl y to b e u n d e rs t ood as an


-

as t rol og i c al t al i s m an al l u si v e to t he S i n Tau r u s
g S ar d sc arab eu s
, ( Mi lli n ge n ) . .

P l ate X V I I 111 u s es 1 Th al i a s eat ed con t e m pl at in g a S aty r i c mas k i n he r h and


. . .
,

i n front s t an ds t he i n fant Bacch u s on a c i pp u s i n the att i t u d e of on e d ecl ai m in g to her ,

di c tat i on The su bj ec t has b een i nterpr eted by i t s m ed i mval nd e r as llerod i as wi th


.
,

the Bapt i s t s h ead i n her h and j u st pr es e n t e d to her by he r d an c in d au h te r ; an d t o


g g ,

t h i s acc e p tati on all u d es t he l e end J e s u i s el d amu r lel I am t he s eal o f l o y al


g , ,


l ov e. S ard s e t i n s i l v er (F rom the D i n eleg Collecti o n n ow i n the B ri t i sh Mu s eu m )
.
, .

2 Head of a Mu s e ; b u t withou t an y d i s t in u i shi n at t ri b u te The s i gn et of on e


.

g g .

C [E li u s
. S ar d ( Frau a) .

3 Terp s i ch o r e wh ose h ead has b ee n c onv erted i nto a S appho by the mod er n i n ser
.
,

ti on s i n the el d S ar d (Marlborou g h)
4 Melp ome n e s eated on a p i l e of ar msas b ei n g t he Mu s e of Trag edyan d
. .

c ontem pl at i n g a mask of t he B ear d ed B acch u s t he i n s ti t u ter of the d r ama S ard , , .

(K i n g )
5 . Cl i o, with t he roll of H i s tory
typ e i n the old n om encl at u r e p ass ed for a . Th i s , ,

S em i r am i s h o l di n g a s wor d S ar d ( M arlborou g h
) . .

6 Fem al e Fl u te pl ay e r d an c i n g exem pl i fy in g J u ven als G aditan a c an ero chore



-
. .
,

(F ro m a east ) .

7 Mu s e or p oet es s s eated an d pl ay in g u pon t he m any st r in g ed b arb iton



.
, ,
A ,
- .

p erfec t ex am pl e of early G r eek art v ery d el i c at ely en g rav ed on a s earab eei d of rock ,

cry stal ( Coclcerell)


.

8 P oly h y m ni a Mu se of Fabl e p en s i v ely c ontem pl ati n g a s ep u lch ral c ol u m n on the


.
, , ,

su mm i t of wh i c h i s p erch ed the s ou l of the d ec eas ed hero wh ose d eed s are t he th em e o f ,

t he Mu s e s t h ou g hts Ex pl ai n ed for merly as Calpu rni a trou bl ed by her d r eam presag i n g



.

e sar s d eat h ( p A l m andi n e


Ca ( B ever ley)

. .

9 Mu se h al f d rap ed s eated an d pl ay i n g on t he b arb it on


.
,
-
Cry stal searab ee i d fou n d
, , .

i n Corfu (B ri ti sh Mu seu m )
. .

1 0 Terps ic lrore s tan d in g tu ni n g her ly re ; b ehi n d her a g u r e of t he i n fant Bacch u s


.
, ,

er ec ted on a c i pp u s The in s cr i pt i on i s the s i g n atu re of the ct iti ou s ar ti s t A l l ion


. .

N i eole ( B lacas)
.

P l at e X V I I I D i an a 1 Di an a r et u rni n g fr om t he ch as e c arry i n g a fawn slai n


. . .
,

by her arr ows ; s he wear s for man t l e the s k i n of a wi l d b east S ar d . .

2 Di an a l eani n g on a c i pp u s h ol d in g t wo t orch es inv er t ed


. The r ock s i n t he ,
.


back g r ou nd i ndi c at e he r t i tl e of t he Di an a of the h i ll s A v ery c el ebrat ed work .
,

b ear i n g the n am e of A ppollon i u s a s u pp osed en g r av er ; d r awn h er e t o the act u al s i z e ,


.

A m ethy s t ( N ap les ) .

3 Di an a h ol di n g a S tag by the an tl e r ; i n the arch ai c G r eek s tyl e ; b eari n g t he n ame


.

of a s u pp os ed art i s t H e ins A nti q u e p as te ( B lacas)


,
. .

4 Di an a i n t he t wo ch ar act e r s of g odd ess of the ni g h t an d of t he chas e attend ed


.
,

by her s tag an d h ou n d S ard ( I escovali )


'

5 Di an a as the Moon
. .

.
g o ddes s i n the c ar d rawn by white s tag s as s i g n ed t o her i n , ,

E 2
52 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I N G S .

th at c apac i ty S he offer s a b u n ch of s ome tal i sm ani c pl ant to her kn eel i n g wor sh i pper
. ,

wh os e pr om i sed su cc ess i s typ i ed by the wreath b el ow t he c ar S ar d ( D r No tt ) . . . .

6 The E ph es i an Di an a a m od i c ati on of t he H i nd oo Par v ati an d s i m i l ar ly h avi n g


.
, ,

for at t r i b u tes s tags an d s c orp i on s B l ac k ag ate (D r Nott ) . . . .

a. Di an a s own Roeb u ck the capr etto of t he Tu s c an Maremm e S ard s carab eu s



, . .

Mas helg n e)
Pl ate XI X Mi n erva 1 Mi n erv a a b u s t the h ead c op i ed fr om t h at on t he l ates t
. .
,

c oi n age of A then s The work thou gh u ni vers al l y rec ei v ed for anti q u e has i n t r u th
very m u ch the ch ar acter of the ov er
.
, , , ,

el ab oraten es s of the Cin q u e c ento an d th i s -


,

at t ri b u ti on i s m u ch s u pp orted by the mater i al red j as p er ( Vi en n a) ,


.

2 Mi n erv a with her regu l ar attri b u tes the owl an d s er p e nt b u t al so a p eac ock ad d ed
.
, , ,

t o t h em i n t he el d Th i s i s on e of the mos t an c i ent e n gravi n gs of the g odd es s an y


.

wh ere to b e fou nd S ar d sc arab eu s .


( Thorwald sen ) .

3 Min er v a a b u s t i n fr ont fac e i ns cri b ed wi th on e of t he few g en u i n e s i gnatu res


.
, ,

yet di s cov ered E u tyches s on of Di os c or id es of Alg ae m ad e thi s Both gem an d



.
, , ,

i n s cr i pti on are m enti on ed by Cyri ac of A n c on a as early as t he m idd l e of t he fteent h , ,

c entu ry Drawn h ere to the ac tu al s i z e Am ethy s t (Marlborou g h)


. . .

4 A fou r wi n g ed godd es s i n the A ss y ri an s tyl e al th ou g h of Et r u s c an work


.
-
, ,

pr ob ably i ntend ed for Min erv a S ardon yx s carab eu s ( T horwald s en ) . .

5 Mi n erv a b u s t i n front fac e


.
, .

6 Mi n erv a s eat ed hol d i n g forth the b u s t of her s p ec i al d ev otee D om iti an


.
, S ard , .

( P rau n )
7 Mi n erv a ( who after war d s b ec am e
. Dea Rom a) t d an d contem pl ati n g the t wi n s
s ea e ,

su ck l ed by the she wol f whom the shepherd -


,
Fau s t u l u s has j u s t d i s c ov er ed S ar d . .

( Dr Nott )
. .

8 Mi n erv a i n the ac t of tran s form i n g A rachn e i nto a s p i der


. S ard (B erli n ) . .

9 Mi n er v a en c ou rag i n g t he G r eek s t o ad v an c e t o the c om b at S ar d (I I ertz )


-

. . .

1 0 Dea Rom a s eated on a p i l e o f ar mou r with her arm p as s ed th rou g h a t o rq u es


.
, ,

t o wh om V i c tory present s a p al m br an ch i n t ok en of a n ew tri u m ph Ci n q u e c ent o , .


-

work i n a sard agate (P rau n ) .

ll Min er v a seat ed c ontem pl ati n g a Com i c mas k


.
,
The l eg end H eroplri li opob al .
,

s h ows the g em was u s ed by s ome Rom an phy s i c i an t o s tam p hi s m ed i c in es



s am u m ,

with S ar d H ertz n ow i n the B ri t i s h Mu seu m )


.
( .
,
.

1 2 Mi n er v a Med i c a as i s ex pres s ed by the s erp ent on t he c i p pu s i n the b ack g r ou n d


. , ,

hol d i n g a b u tterfly em bl em of L i fe ov er a bl az in g al tar ; an all egory the m ean i n g of


, ,

wh i ch i s n ew b ey on d c onj e ct u re S ar d (H ertz ) .

Pl at e X X Meclu sa 1 G orgon s head i n the mos t an c i ent s tyle as she i s gu r ed i n


.


. . .
,

t he m e top es o f S eli n u s Fl at reli ef i n sar d ( Pru n n )


. .

2 Med u s a i n the p er fec t G r eek s ty l e an d on e of the n es t of t he c las s


.
i lack ,
.

agat e a fr ag m en t
, ( P rau n ) .

3 The s am e d on e by an exc ell ent h an d of the s chool of Reg a B lac k a gatc ( K i n g )


.
,
. .

4 G orgon or Fu ry as br ou g h t on the stag e by IE s chylu s hu rry i n g to the p u r s u i t


.
, ,

o f the wi ck ed S ard P eter s b u rg h )


( S t
. . . .

5 The Med u s a o f S o s th en es ac tu al s i z e
. Calc edon y ( Ca rli s le) ,
. .
D E S CRI P TI ON O F TH E W O O D C L TS
'

6 . S ame bj ec t A me thy st (F lo ren c e)


su . .

7 The
. D y in g Med u sa ; a h ead i n th r ee q u art er fac e i n -
,
a g r andi os e s tyl e . 1

(K i ng )
8 . The L i vin g Med u s a ,
o f, a pl ac i d s pect
a ,
t he e mbl em of I

ro v i d en t i a (p .

S ar d .
( K i ng )
9 . ce l eb rated S tro z z i Med u sa alread y d escr i bed b u t d rawn h ere to t he act u al
T i re ,

siz e Calc edon y


.
( B lacas ) .

1 0 Med u sa s Head i n t he c ent re of a t ri g u etra em bl em o f S i c i ly Ti re wh eat ear s



.
, , .

al l u d e to the s tapl e prod u c ti on of t he i s l and ; t he mu llet d ecl are s t he


g m t he s i gn e t e

of a Mal l eol u s a c og no m e n i n t he g e n s Pob lic i a S ar d ( Her tz )


P l at e XXLMerc u ry
. .
,

1 Merc u ry h ol di n g t he Cad u c e u s e r ect an d cl ad i n t he


. .
,

ch l am y s as i f read y fo r a j ou r n ey ; appear in g h er e i n the ch aract er of t he patron of


,

t rav ell e r s Th i s g em has b een l on g c el ebrat ed as b ear i n g the n ame of Dio sc or id es


.
,

i d en tred wi th o u t an y real fou nd at i on wi th t he fam o u s e n g r av er u nd e r A u g u s t u s


, , .

S ard .
(Jilarlborou g h)
2 Me rc u r
.
y eu rvm l yr ee i nv entor
,
tu ni ng his i n s t ru m ent ; a G reek work of the ,

h i g h est m e r i t S ard ( Marlbor ou g h)


. .

3 Her mes i n the m os t arch ai c s tyl e b u t ex q u isi t ely ni s h ed


.
, S ar d (B everley) , . .

4 Me rc u ry an d For tu n e wi th th eir p rope r at tr i b u t es ; a p op u l ar s i gn e t d evi ce wi th


.
,
-

t he Rom an s .

5 Her m es P s yche pom pos rai s i n g a s ou l from t he s h ad es by t he vi rt u e o f hi s wand


.
, .

The l et t ers i n t he el d are the i n i ti al s of som e Rom an own e r B and ed agat e . .

( Uz i elli )
6 . Her m es , by the s ou nd
p as toral p i pes l u l l i n g to s l eep A r g u s k eep er of the
of hi s , ,

m etam orph os ed lo S ar d (B erli n ) . .

7 He r m es P s ychopon rpos es c ort in g a sou l to t he S ty x


. Ch ar on exten d s hi s h an d t o .

recei v e t he c u stomary p as sage mon ey Per id ot (Mask elyn e) . .

P l ate X XII Merc u ry 1 Merc u ry an d Fort u n e wi t h th e ir at tr i b u t es t he earl i es t


. . .
,

ex am pl e of th is g r ou p kn o n t o me b e in g i n t he p er fec t G reek s t yl e S ard



w
, . .

( B everley)
2 . c rt i n g P r i am i nto t he p res en c e of A ch i ll es Ronran wo rk or more
Her m es es o .
, ,

pro bably a s k i l fu l m od e r n i m i tat i on of the an t i q u e S ar d ( B aro n R og er)


,
. .

3 Her m es act in g as c u pbear er t o t he g od s an d c arry i n g r ou nd t he o lp e of n ectar on


.
, ,

wh os e br i m i s p e rch ed t he b u t ter y o f L i fe O f th i s s u bj ec t m an y r ep et i t i ons are i n .

e x i s t en c e ( Fr o m a cas t )
. .

4 He r m es s eat e d on t he Ram as t he p atr on of o ck s an d s h e ph e r ds b u t wi el di n g


.
, , ,

al so t he t h u n d erb ol t The l eg e nd G H I IT AXPYC O C t he G ol d e n


'

of J ov e .
, ,

S ev en s hows th at n u m er al to h av e b een as si g n ed to hi m as was t he Fiv e t o A pollo


, , .

S ar d .
( P rau n )
5 The Cad u c e u s o f Herrrres wi th i n a wreath
.
The r ev e r s e o f t he g em b ear s a G n os t i c .

l eg end of t he sam e d at e A K p lwtpl o f wh i ch oth e r ex am pl es are k nown i n a s i m i l ar


, ,

conn ec ti on S ar d ( K i ng ) . .

6 Cad u c eu s bet ween t wo ear s o f b eard ed wh eat (t ri b i c u m) s y m b ol i f pr os p er i ty


.
, .

O r i e ntal amethy s t ( ll/as helg n e) .


54 A N TI Q UE G EMS A N D R I NG S .


7 . Foot of Her mes Ps ychepom pos , S atel l e s O rc i ,
c ru sh in g the b u tter y of L i fe
.

Jac in th .
( P rau n )
Herm es Cri oph or os , patr on of s h eph er d s , i n d i c at ed by the rarn s head b orn e i n hi s

8 .

h and ; a g em famou s for the s i g natu re of D i os c or i d es, b u t pr ob ably a m od ern work .

Drawn tu al s i z e S ar d ( D evon shi re)


t o the ac . .

9 Mer c u ry a h ead cov er ed wi th a d i s prOporti en ately s mal l p etas u s ; evi d ent ly a


.
,

c om pl i m ent to some j u v enil e Caesar A nti q u e p as te (L eak e) . .

P l at e XX I I I Ven u s . 1 V en u s a h ead rec ogn i sed by the n eckl ac e of g r eat


. .
, ,

p earl s the d i sti n c tiv e bad ge of t he g od d ess ; al thou gh the i ndi vi d u al ity of the featu r es
,

p rov es th i s el egan t i ntag l i o t o c ommem orate some pr in c es s of the A u g u s tan fam i ly u n d er


s u ch a ch arac ter Sard .
(D r Nott) . .

2 V en u s rob i ng herself on l eavi n g the b at h ; i n the earl y G r eek s t yl e


. L ap i s .

laz u li s earab eei d fou n d at A then s (Mask elyn e)


,
.

3 V en u s fu l l y drap ed l eanin g ag ai n s t a c ol u m n em bl em of Con s tan cy an d h old i n g


.
, , , ,

forth an alabas tron or p erfu me jar A g r an d Roman wor k


,
S ar d (B everley) . . .

4 V e n u s Mari n a b orne ov er the wav es b y Hi pp oc am p i an d wavi n g al oft her


.
, ,

c es tu s s ym b ol of her p ower A work exhibi ti ng all the charac teri s ti c s of t he Ci n qu e


, .

c ento style i n i ts fu l l p er fec ti on .

5 V en u s fu lly d rap ed b eari n g on her hand a d ov e


.
, , A v ery sketch y en g ravi n g b u t .
,

by a g ood G reek han d Sar d (L eak e) . .

6 V enu s i n t he bath as i s shown by the pi tch er i n her h an d


.
, Cameo . .

7 V en u s an d Cu p id g u ard ed by A p ol l o e vi d ently c op i ed fr om a g r ou p of s tat u es


.
, ,
.

D es i g n an d ex ec u ti on of thi s g em agree s o rem ark abl y wit h t he gu r es on t he re v ers e


of a m ed alli on of S e v eru s as to l eav e n o d ou b t as to i ts d ate L ap i s l az u li
, (P rau n ) .
-
.

8 V en u s Vi c tri x ; kn own as su ch by t he h el met an d p al m b ran ch i n her h an d s an d


.
,

the armou r l y in g at her feet Cal ced on y wit h wh i te b and s


.
(L eahe) , .

9 V e n u s at V u l c an s for g e waiti n g i m p ati entl y for the c om pl eti on of t he arm s she



.
,

has b es p ok en for IE n eas S ard (B erli n )


. ;

1 0 V e n u s ri s i n g from O c ean
. Plas ma (B lacas ) . .

P l ate XX I V Cu p i d . 1 Cu p i d wres tlin g wi th P an t yp e of the U ni v ers e fo r the


. .
, ,

l ord shi p of the world The attribu tes of t he t wo d ei t i es are hu n g u p on the trees
.

esp ec i al l y d ed i c ated t o each the m y r tl e an d t he c an e or s ri n a


, g c
(F rom a eas t ) , . .

2 Cu p i d v oy ag i n g u p on a W i n e jar whi ch he has eq u i pp ed with a s ai l n i ad e ou t of


.
, ,

a l ad y s h air c au l A pr etty alleg ory u p on t he alli an c e of love an d win e S ard



. . .

(B erli n )
3 Cu p i d g u i d i n g a li on by t he sou n d of hi s l y re ; i n s c ribed with the i nt er p ol ated
.

n ame of the i mag i n ary ar ti s t Myeon S ard ( Nasmyth) ,


. .

4 Cu p i d weep i n g ov er the s l ai n P s yche


. On y x (D r Nott) . . .

5 Cu p i d offerin g u p hi s v ows for t he c ap t u re o f t he P s yc he b u tter y


. S ard . .

(D r Nott )
. .

6 Cu p i d as t he G eni u s of A u t u m n c arry in g a ham p er of fru it s an d a g oo s e


.
, ,
.

7 Cu p id as the G eni u s of S pr in g rai sin g ou t of the b u r stin g porn egrarri tc ower the
.
, , ,

earl i est of all bl os som i n


g t rees S ard ( D emi lo)

. . c

8 Cu p id as lI arpoc ratc s b eu n d to secr ecy with rep es of p earl s Canreo ( Cap ra n es i )


.
, ,
. .
D E S CR I P TI ON O F TH E W O OD C U I S
' '

. 5G
!

9 . Cu pi d bes t r idi n g a H i ppocarn pu s , an d ru lin g t he wa v es li k e rari n e


a rr d i ty
e .

Cameo .
( P rau n )
-

1 0 Cu p i d. pl ay i n g at s ch oo l mas te rs ,
an d a d m inist r i n g e th e

t aws t o hi s pu pi l ,

A nt eros . S ard .
( Dr . K ni t .
)
11 . Cu p i d
v rc om e by Ps ych e who i s b i ndin g lri nr to a c ol u m n ; the s i g n et of
o e ,

M A nsi as P ri s c u s Calc edon y ( P ra u n )


. . .

1 2 Cu p i d who I ras gain ed t he pr i z e at t he g am e o f tro c hu s S ar d (B lacas )


P l ate XX V
.
, . .

Cu p i a 1 Cu p i d V i ct or b ear in g t he wand o f Merc u ry an d the cl u b



. . . , ,

of H erc u les em bl em s of h i s i rr esi s t i bl e p owe r


,
S ard (K e t n e r ) . . s

2 Cu p i d s eat ed an d with av e rt ed fac e e x ti n g ui s h in g hi s t orch


.
, Cameo ( D em i rlo) . .


3 P s ych e op enin g P ros peri n e s py xi s fe rm os i tatis b ox of b eau ty from wh en c e

.
, ,

i ss u es a n arc oti c v apou r th at th rows her i nto a tran c e A good s p ec i men of t he styl e of .

t he Pon i atowsk y g ems A m e t hy s t (K i ng ) . .

4 Cu p i d p rac ti s i n g the ex erc i ses of a p u g i li s t


. S ar d ( B e rli n
) . .

5 Cu p i d s ei z i n g t he p anth er of B acch u s by t he hi n d leg whil s t hi s bro t her beats


.
,

ral wi th a p ed u n Sar d
t he an i r r (H ertz ) . .

6 Cu p i d end eav ou r in g t o erec t fr om t he g rou n d a c orn u c op i a as b i g as hi nrs elf


.
, .

The n ame of t he s u ppos ed arti s t A u l u s has b een i nter p ol ated i n t he eld Y e l l ow


, ,
.

cry s tal (rllarlborou g h)


.

7 Cu p id s eated an d pl ay i n g wi t h the P s ych e b u tter y j u s t c oni c i nto hi s h and s


.
, , .

8 Ps ych e i n d es p ai r s eated on a rock an d b ewai l in g t he i g h t o f Cu p id


.
, , , .

9 Cu p i d havi n g ov erc om e an d b ou n d hi s riv al A nter os to a c ol u m n rec eiv es from


.
, ,

Ps ych e the palrn of vi c tory S ar d (D em i d o ) . .

1 0 Cu p id c ou ri n g t o t he d el i v er an c e of P s ych e c au g h t by t he foot i n a t rap ; i n


.
, ,

the el d t he s i g n atu re o f Pamplri lu s Th i s ch ar m in g work of t he n es t po ss i bl e . .


,

ex ec u ti on has all the m ark s of t he s tyl e of P i c hlers s c hool S ard (Town ley n ow i n
'

. .
, ,

the B r i ti sh I iI u s eu m )

1 1 Cu p i d g u i din g a d ol ph i n by t he s ou n d o f hi s p i p e ; hi s br oth er ov erhead


.
, ,

c onv er ts the tai l of a s econd d ol ph i n i nto a s ai l to c atch t he breez e Red j as per . .

(I )

raan

12 P s ych e l u l lin g to s l eep the i n fant Cu p i d A v ery early p i ct u re of thi s my th


. .
,

b ei n g of p u r e G reek work man s h i p S ard ( K es tn er)


P l ate X XV I
. .

Mars Vi cto ry 1 Mars G rad i vu s c arry in g a t roph y earl y G reek


. . .
,

work Band ed agate


.
(K i n g ) .

2 Mar s N avali s hi s ti tl e d ecl ar ed by the ru dd er he hol d s so c on s p i c u ou s ly u pon the


.
,

c i pp u s ; a d es i gn p rob ably c omm emorati n g the bat tl e of A c ti u m S ard ( B everley) . .

3 Mar s S t at or by hi s s i d e a l eg ion ary eag l e


.
,
S ard ( B erli n ) . .

4 Vi c tory s tandin g on t he p row of a g all ey i n s cr i b ed D i v I V L I F


.
,
wh i ch sh ows .

i n d u b i t ably th at th i s elegan t d evi ce re fe r s to the sam e s u cc es s as the lately nren tion ed


g u r e S ar d
.
( Her tz ) .

5 Vi ct ory p erch ed on t he g l ob e pl ac ed u po n a B acch i c altar t o wh o m t wo


.
, , ,

k n eel in g Partlri an s are offer in g l eg i on ary s t an d ard s Th i s el abor at e d es i g n al l u des t o .

t he rec ov e ry by A u g u s tu s s g en eral V errti d i u s o f the s t an dar d s an d pr i son e r s los t by


, ,

C r assu s A nti q u e p aste


.
( G erhard ) .
56 A N TI Q UE GE MS A N D RI N G S .

6 . Vi c tory p ou r in g ou t the tri u m ph al li b ation S ard (B erli n ) . .

7 The \Vi n g les s Vi c tory i n her c ar Cameo s ai d t o h av e b een fou n d i n the


.
, .
,

P u n jau b (B o lton )
.

8 Vi c tory crowni n g a t r oph y form ed ou t of t he s p oi l s of s om e b arb ari an n ati on


.
,

pr ob ably of S ou th ern I taly Calc ed on y searab eeid (B ri t i sh Mu seu m) . .


.

9 Vi c tory i n the char ac ter of Hy g ei a


.
, S ard (B laeas) . . .

P l ate X X VI I 1 The G reek Di on y s os the Rom an L i ber P ater ( the or i g i n al t yp e of


. .
,


t hi ivi nity) cl th d i n hi s l on g r o b e c rocoti s an d b earin g t he c anth ar u s an d
s d o e , , ,

thy rsu s Ban d ed agate (P rau n )


. . .

2 The Y ou t h fu l B acch u s c arry in g a b u n ch of grap es an d a p oc u lu m ; the t orch


.
, ,

s tu c k i n t he grou n d re fer s t o hi s n o c t u rn al m y s teri es B and ed agate (K i n g ) . .

3 The Y ou th fu l Bacch u s vi ewin g t he re ec ti on of hi s fac e i n t he li q u i d c ontain ed


.

i n the v ase set b efor e hi m S ard (R hod es ) . .

4 The Y ou t h fu l B acch u s i n a c ar d r awn by a p ai r of p anth ers for these are the real
.
, ,


an i m als i nten d ed by hi s ti g res .

5 The D r u nk e n B acchu s u nrob i n g h i m sel f: S ar d


.
(B erli n )
,
.

6 B acchu s i n hi s fren z y ru shi n g alon g foll owed by hi s p anther ; i n s c ri b ed with


.
, , ,

t he n am e of S c ym n u s b u t evi d ently a m od ern work ,


S ard ac tu al s i z e ( Oad es) .
, .

7 S i l en u s i n s p ired wi th win e s i n g i n g l u s til y to hi s l y re b efor e a r u ral s hrin e


.
, , ,

wh ereon i s set u p the p rop er embl em of hi s g od A sk etch y b u t v er y s p irited per .

form an c e S ard (L
. eak e
) .

8 Old Fau n recli nin g d r unk en on t he grou n d gras p in g hi s em p t y gobl et ; i n the


.
, ,

el d a crat er A rchai c G reek work of u n comm on m erit on a l arg e s carab eu s of d ar k


.

ag at e (P rau n )
.

9 Old Fau n n u rs in g t he I n fant B aachu s


.
Fin e G reek wor k of s om ewhat earl y .

charac ter Sard (B laco s ) . .

1 0 S il en u s i n s tru ct i n g B acch u s i n t he c er emoni al o f s acri c e


. The c ontras t betwen .

t he grac e fu l s l en d er form of t he y ou th an d t he grotes q u e ob es i ty of hi s t u tor i s , ,

wond erfu lly W ell ex pres s ed i n th i s work of a Roman en g r av er o f the p eri od of the
A ntoni n es Sar d (Mu i rhead )
Plate XXV I I I B acchi c s u bjects 1 Bacch ante s Head i vy crown ed ; a g em
. .


-
. . .
,

regard ed as the rs t i n th i s cl ass Fou n d i n S i c i l y an d b ou g ht by Cou nt W i c z ay for .


,
"

three h u ndred gold d u cats Sardoi n e (P ai sley) . .

2 Y ou n g Fau n ac ti n g as G an y med e to hi s seni or


. E arl y G reek work Sard . . .

(K i ng )
3 B ac ch ant e s Head , her feat u r es
.

fu l l of wild i n s p i r ati on Red j as p er (B erli n )
. .

4 .
i v y crown ed wh i c h i s the
S i l en u s , -
,
sol e d i s tin c ti on b et ween hi s h ead an d t he

p ortrai t of S ocrat es S ard (P rau n ) . .

5 Two old Fau n s ab ou t to s acri c e a goat ov er an altar


.
.

6 S il e n u s a b u s t of won d er fu l ex pres s i v en es s ; ex ec u t ed i n the p ec u li ar m an n er of


.
,

i n eavo rel i ev o oth er wi s e termed E g ypt i an r eli ef


-
,
A nti q u e pas te (D r N ei l) . . .

7 B aec li an te ov erp owered by the i n u e n c e o f her g od an d as s he fal l s back war d s


. , ,

attem p tin g to s tay h er s el f by c at ch in g at an am ph ora o f v ery g r ac e fu l form S ard . .


D E S CRI P TI O N O F TH E W O O D C U TS . 57

8 . He r m aph r odi t u s repos in g ,


rr o u nd e d by C u pids A p u r ely m od e r n wo rk t h ou g h
su .
,

g rac e d wi t h t he s i g n at u r e o f D i os c o r id es D rawn t o t he ac t u al si z e A m ethy s t


. . .

lVors ley)
9 . B acch ante d r awin g wat e r fr o m a s pr i n g wh i ch g u s h es from a p i l e of r ock s on e o f ,

wh i ch i s c ar v ed into a r u s t i c Pr i ap u s at wh i ch t he Ny m ph c as t s a h al f fr i g h t e n e d
,
-

g l an c e Cam e o
. .

1 0 Ce ntau r Pholu s h i m s el f g oi n g to the fes t i v al b ear i n g a h u g e b owl an d a


.
, , , ,

p i n e t ree tor n u p by the r o ot s Cam eo ( Uz i elli ) . .

P l at e XXI X S i len u s ; S atyrs ; P ri ap u s 1 Yo u n g Fau n a b u st i n t he at t it u d e of . .


,

v i ol ent exer t i on evid en tly i n t he fav ou r i t e act i on of s u stainin g the d r u n k e n S i l en u s


, .

Fi n e G r e ek work S ar d ( K i ng ) . .

2 S i l en u s hi s h ead crown ed wi t h i v y
.
,
S ar d (P m u n ) . .

3 A g av e i n a t of Bacch i c fr en z y Cam eo i n pl as m a ; ac t u al s i z e ( I raan )



.
,
. .


4 S il en u s ab ou t to repl ac e the em pt i ed cr ater u p on i ts stand Sar d

.
,
i n c i t eg a ,
. .

( Her tz )
5 Fau n i n the ac t of as c en d in g a r ock b ear in g on hi s s h ou l d er a h u ge am phora ;
.
,

s i g n ed wi t h t he n am e of K oi n os ; pr ob abl y a work of Nat t er s S ard ( Hertz )



. .

G Satyr s u rpr i s in g a s l eep i n g Bacch ante


. E m eral d ( B lacas) . .

7 A ri ad n e i v y cr own ed her b u s t cl oth ed i n the fawn s k in u su al garb of the


.
,
-
,
-
,

Maen ad s S ar d (B erli n ) . .

8 I o ; t he s u p pos ed wor k of Di os c or i d es whose n am e app ear s u p on it


. S ar d ,
.
,

ac tu al s i z e ( P on i atows k y)
.

9 Fau n eq u i pped wit h thy rs u s an d p an t her s k in i n the act of d an c i n g


.
,
S ard ,
. .

ac t u al s i z e (F lo ren ce) .

1 0 Bacch ant e d rawi n g wat er fr om a wel l u nd er t he pr otec ti on of P r i ap u s the g od


.
,

of g ar d en s ( Town ley p astes )


.

1 1 G ar d en er work in g with hi s m attoc k u n d er t he au s p i c es of a r u r al Pri ap u s


.
, ,

r ou g h l y fas h i on ed ou t of a tree Sard (L eale)

Plate X XX S i len u s ; Fau ns & c l S i l en u s s eated th y rsu s i n hand eagerly


. .

, . .
, , ,

rai sin g to hi s l i ps a m ost c apac i ou s bowl S ard Uz i elli ) . . .

2 Bacch ante thyr s u s on s h ou l d er b al an c in g her s el f on on e leg


.
,
S ar d ( L eak e) , . .

3 S i l en u s bl owi n g the d ou bl e u te t he i n st r u m ent of t he Fau n Mar s y as


. S ar d , ,
. .

( K i ng )
4 . Fau n c arry in g hi s b roth er on hi s s hou l d ers . N i c ole .
( Fo rmerl
y i n the p o s s es s i on

(f Caylu s .

)
5 .
pry i n g i nto the Cis t a Mys t ica wh en c e esc apes a s erpent ; a y ou t h fu l
Bacch ante ,

Fau n l o ok s on wit h am az em e nt S ar d ( Vi d o ni ) . .

6 Com i c ac tor i n a m as k cl ad i n the p al l i u m an d l eanin g on the p ed u m b ad g e of


.
, , , ,

Com ed y S ar d (P rawn )
. .

7 T wo Co m ed i an s i n mas k s on e rec itin g hi s p ar t to the sou n d of t he oth er s ly re



.
.
,

S ar d r Not t )
(
. D . .

8 S atyr s u rpr isin g a s l eep i n g Nym ph ; s i g n ed


.
- A s pas i u s A v ery m i n u te .

Ci n q u e c ento wor k i n bl ack an d wh ite on y x


-
(J a r man ) .

9 A r i adn e d es ert ed by Th es eu s i n t he I s le of Nax os ex pr es sed by the p i l e of rock s on


. ,
58 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NG S .

wh i ch she i s s ea e t d . I n s cri b ed with t he n ame of Hyl lu s ; m od er n s tyl e . S ard , c al


a tu

i
s ze .
(B ri t i sh M u seu m) .

1 0 S aty r d an c in g agai n s t a b i g he-goat for the


. pr i z e ,
as is s i g n i ed by t he pal m
bran ch on r n d S ar d (L eak e) t he g ou . .

1 1 S am e s u bj ec t b u t on a v er y m i n u te s cal e
. S ar d ( Cartellan i ), . .

1 2 A n dre S ph i nx . p erhaps Di on y s os L eon tomorphos proffer in g


-
, ,
a c rater an d

m yr tle bran ch A n ex q u i s i t e G reek work of t he b es t p eri od


. S ard , . .
( Marq u i s De

S ali n es )
P l ate XXX I B acchi c Masha
.

l Mask o f the A g e d B ac ch u s
.
(F rom a eas t) . .

2 Com i c m ask fu l l of g rotes q u e fu ry wel l b e t t i n g t he ch arac ter of t he I r at os



.
, ,


Chremes S ard ( B everl y). . e

3 Mask of Pan i n fron t fac e


. On y x c arefu l ly hol l owed at t he back probably to
, .
, ,

contai n p oi s on (p (P rau n ) .

4 T wo Com i c m as ks mal e an d fem al e c onj oi n ed : i n the el d a S y r i n x


.
The
, , , .

l eg en d i s an eni g ma accord in g to ru l e i n s u ch c ases S ar d (H an cock )


, . .

5 S aty ric an d Com i c mas k s c onj oi n ed


. Sard ( K i ng ) , . . .

6 Com i c mask weari n g a d i ad em Black ag ate (Fo rmerly Lord Mu rray s)



,
. . .

7 Mask for t he ch arac ter of t he rog u i s h s lav e or Davu s ; s i g n et of C Clod i u s


. .
,

B ab i nn a S ard (P rau n ) . .

8 Mask for a B acch an t e of v e ry b eau t i fu l ex ec u ti on


. l ack ag ate , . .

9 Mask for the c h arac ter of t he Old W om an


. S ar doi n e ( Formerly L ord . .

Mu rray s )
.

1 0 Mas k . of Pan , crown ed wi th vi ne l eav es a wor k su p eri or t o an y thi n g kn own to

me i n th i s clas s S ard (D r No tt) . . .

1 1 Thr ee m ask s i n on e prob ably a m ed i aev al e n g r avi n g of the c og ni s an c e of the


.
,


L om bard Tri vu lz i a reb u s on t he n am e read as Tres V u ltu s
,
S et i n a m as s y g old .


ri ng i n s cri b ed on the b eas i l Ne wel Ne wel (B raybroo/ce)
, , , .

1 2 Saty r d anci n g ; a S i l en u s m as k l ai d u n d er a t r ee Red j as p er ( Pr a w n


)
P l ate X XXI I Ceres ; Trip tolem u s Ceres v ei l ed an d wheat c rown ed t he reg u lar
. . .

-
.
, ,

typ e of the g odd ess S ard ( B lacas) . .

2 Ceres i n a c ar d rawn by el eph ants ; a d es i gn ad op ted by t he Rom an s for t he


.
,


embl em of IE tern i tas as the m edal s of Fau s ti n a t estify S ard ( P ran n )
, . .

3 L ivi a as Ceres s u rrou n d ed with the att r i b u tes of all t he ot her g odd es s es of the
.
, ,

P antheon s u ch as the li on of Cyb el e the owl of P allas t he p eacock of J u no & c


,
The , , ,
.

h ead i s i n i ntagli o the acc es sori es i n c ameo A g at e on y x (B lacas)


,
. .

4 G i rl wi th a lap fu l l of owers ; p erh ap s the Ny m p h Thall o


.
, S ard ( D r No tt ) . . .

5 Tri pt ol emu s i n t he c ar of Cer es r ec ei vi n g hi s i n s t r u ct i on s from the g od d ess


.
, , ,

b efore s etti ng ou t on hi s mi ss i on of b en ev ol en c e P l asma ( Cou n t Vi z tham von . .

E cles tad t)
recl in i ng ami d s t her own pr od u c ti on s S ard ( Demi d og)
The g od d es s Tellu s
'

6 . . .

7 Cer es wi th t he s i g n atu r e of A u l u s ; app arent ly the g em on c e i n t he Marq u i s d e


.
,

D re s c ab i n et S ard ( W ebb )

. .

8 Tr i p tol emu s h ol d in g the wi nn owi n g fan wh en c e es cap es the E l eu s i ni an s erp ent


.
,

i n t he el d a l ar g e l ettered P hazn ic i an l eg en d S ar d ( Dc mi rlo)


'

. .
DE S CR I P T I O N O F THE W O O D C U TS .

9 P r o s erp in e, her h ead cov er ed wi t h t he S i c i l i an m i t ra S ar d oin e ( Ki ng )


1
. .

P l at e XxxI ll Herc u les . y o u n g He rc u l es c ov e red wi t h t he s k i n


. . [ l ead of t he ,

of t he Ci t heron ean l i on The s h o rt c u rl s pr o v e th i s typ e t o b e l on g to t he g od n ot t o


.
,

O m ph al e to whom i t i s u s u ally assi g n ed S ar d ( Nas m yth)


, . .

2 Herc u l es a h ead cr own ed wi th p opl ar l eav es a m emento o f h i s S cy th i an


.
, ,

ex p edi t i on O b sidi an (J arman )


. .

3 The c e l ebrated S t r oz z i Herc u l es ; b ear i n g t he n ame o f a eu s s om e for m e r


.
,

poss ess or i eryl ( B lacas )


. .

4 Y ou n g Herc u l es wi th t he fal se s i g nat u re of A u l us ; a mod e r n work


.
, J ac in th .
,

ac tu al s i z e ( P i o mb i n o )
.

5 Herc u l es l e tt in g y an ar row at t he S t y mphal i an b ird s


.
,
S ard ( Uz i elli ) . .

6 S am e s u bj c t i n t he Et r u s can s ty l e t he b i r d s om i t t ed
. e
,
S ar d s awn from a ,
.
,

l arge s c arab eu s ( Uz i elli ) .

7 S ame su bj ect of wh i ch i nn u m erabl e m od ern c op i es are c u rre nt


.
,
.

8 Nes s u s the Cen t au r ab ou t to offe r v i ol e n c e t o D ejan i ri wh om he has j u s t c arri ed


.
, , ,

ac ros s t he r i v er Ev e n u s S ar d s c arab eu s ( Cas tellan i ) . .

9 Herc u l es s trang l in g the L i by an g i an t A n ta u s l i ft i n g hi m b ey on d the ai d of hi s


.
,
a
,

m oth er E arth An earl y Cin q u e c ento work al mos t i d enti cal wi t h Pollai u olo s treat

.
-
,

m ent of the s am e s u bj ec t B l ood agate (K i n g ) . .

1 0 Herc u l es r ec og ni s in g hi s i n fant Tel ephu s j u s t di s c ov ered by a sheph erd wh en


.
, ,

s u ck l ed by a d oe S ard ( Castellan i ) . .

P l ate XXX I V I I erc u les 1 Herc u les ar m ed wi th cl u b an d how hi s q u i v er


. . .
, , ,

s u s p end ed i n the eld on on e kn ee awaitin


g t he attac k of hi s foes
,
Et ru s can s carab eu s ,
.

i n cry stal ( P rau n ) .

2 Herc u l es t r i mm i n g a wil d ol iv e tree t or n u p by the roots i nto a cl u b with hi s


.
, , , ,

s wor d To t h i s ex p edi e nt he was d r i v e n on n d in g t he Nemean l i on s h i d e i m p en etrabl e



.

to s teel Et r u sc an sc arab eu s i n sard ( P rau n )


. .

3 Her c u l e s c onte n d i n g wit h the r iv er g od Achelou s for t he p os s es s i on o f D ej ani r a


.
, , ,

who s tand s by i m p l or in g hi s protec ti on Etru s c an scarab eu s i n plas ma (B i shop ) . .

4 Her c u l es d es troy in g the Hy d ra S ar d


.
(B lacas ) . .

5 Herc u l es c ap tu r i n g t he E ry m anth i an B oar


. a g ood i ll u s trati on of t he

g rotes q u en ess of t he E t r u s c an treatment of su ch s u bj ec ts S ard s awn from a s c arab eu s .


, .

( K i ng )
6 . Herc u l es ho m
v r t he sea i n a r aft b u oy ed u p with am phor ae an d s pr ead in g a
e o e ,

wi n e s ki n for a sail to c atch t he breez e wh i l s t he s teers hi s nov e l b ark with hi s cl u b , .

T h i s was a v ery po p u l ar s u bj ec t wit h the Et r u s c an arti s t s S ar d sc arab eu s ( Pasqu i n i . .

f
o Chi u s i )
7 . HeadY ou n g Herc u l es A v er y b ad c opy of the S troz z i gem
of the . .

8 Herc u l es by t he t wan gi n g of hi s bows t r i n g s cari n g away the Harp i es from t he


.
, ,

tabl e of the blind Phin eu s S ard ( Cas tellan i ) . .

9 Herc u l es or p erh ap s t he G i ant O r i on en gag ed i n t he ch as e of the l i on whi ch


.
, , ,

l as t he has s ei z ed b u t i s el u ded by the craft of t he fox S ard s carab eu s (B laco s)


,
. .

1 0 Herc u l es carry i n g t o E rys theu s the Cret an Bu l l ; i n t he ex ergu e i s the name of


.

A nteros S ard act u al s i z e


.
(F loren ce), .
GO A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NGS .

1 1 H erc u l es cross i n g t he S ty x i n Ch aron s fer ry b oat wh ereof he has t ak en forc i bl e



-
. ,

p os s ess i on an d p rep ar in g to m u f e Cerb er u s wi th hi s l i on s sk in The v as es i n t he b oat


,

.

are the c u s tomar y c on c om it ants of a G r ec i an b u r i al S ard ( To wn ley) . .

1 2 H erc u l es an d I ol e s i g n ed wit h t h e n ame of Teu c e r


.
S ar d ( F loren ce
) . .

P l ate XXXV Fortu n a Nemesi s 1 The For tu n a For t i s of A n ti u m ex ac tly as


.
-
,
. .

she app ear s on a d e n ar i u s of A u g u s tu s m i nted by Q R n s ti as to the s i g ni c ati on of , .


,

wh ose n ame the A n t i n the el d prob ably all u d es P l asm a (K i n g ) . .

2 Fortu n a s eated with the med i as at her feet h old i n g for th a gu r e of J u s t i c e


, , .

T he i ntenti on of t h i s d es i g n req u i r es n o ex pl an ati on G r een j as p er ( Dr Nott) . . .

3 Fort u n a Pri m i g en i a c arry i n g Ne p tu n e s t r i d ent an d d ol phin t o s i gn i fy her b ein g


. , ,

D omi n a Mar i s an d for the s am e r eas on b or n e on t he b ack of Capr i c orn



,

ty ra nn u s ,

Hesperi ae u n d ae S ardon yx (D r Nott )


"
. . . .

4 Nem es i s i n the atti tu d e charac ter i s t i c of the god d ess


.
,
S he d i s pl ay s her fore arm .
-
,

c u b i tas t o ex press s el f m easu rement or m od erati on m0d tl8 an d c ar r i es i n her oth er


,
-
, ,

han d a br an ch of ash tree S ard (B lacas)-


. .

5 The P rovin c e A fr i c a ; a v ery n e en gravi n g i n a m u ch b etter an d ear li er s ty l e


. ,

than i s u s u al wi th thi s su bj ec t ; u p on whi ch s ee wh at has b een remar ked ( p .

S ard .
( B lacas)
6 Fate s tan d i n g ag ai n s t the col u m n of I mm ob ilit y hold in g d i s ta an d s p ind l e
'

.
.
, ,

Dar k agate (K i n g )
.

7 Fortu n a or Nemes i s wi n ged g u i d i n g the fou r h orses of a tri u m ph al car D rawn


.
, , , .

t o the ac tu al s i z e A m eth y s t (Floren ce)


. .

P l ate X XXV I S leep D eath 1 S om n u s eq u i pped wi t h b u tter y win g s an d


.
,
. .
,
.

p ou rin g for th hi s bal m from the c orn u c op i a i n hi s han d the d i s tin c tiv e attri b u te of th i s ,

b en ecen t d ei ty To thi s gu re S tati u s al l u des Th eb ai s v i 2 7 )



.
. ,

E t N ox et co n u r fu g i eb at S om n u s i n an i .

S ard .
(P raan )
2 S k eleton emer g i n g from a s ep u lch r al u rn an d pl u ck in g a p al m b ran ch A -
.
.

s p eak i n g i ll u s trati on of p os th u mou s fam e fu r th er c arri ed ou t by t he warr i o rs ar m s


p il ed at the foot of hi s m on u ment S ard oi n e (B eck ) . .

Phi l os o ph er med itatin g on the i mmor t ality of t he s ou l s y m b oli z ed by the ,

b u tter y p erch ed on the s k u ll ly in g b e for e hi m S ar doi n e (Mask elyn e) . .

4 Deat h as u su all y p ers oni ed b y the Rom an s l eani n g u p on hi s i nv e r ted torc h the
.
, ,

s i g n et of a c e r tai n E u ge ni u s On yx On c e i n the p os s es s i on of Mu rat ( Da vi d son )


. . .

5 The s am e d eity b u t h er e gu red as the Etru s c an Ch ar u n c om in g to the rel i ef of


. , ,

T own l y)
t he faintin g H erc u l es S ard ( e . .

6 The s ame d e it y b u t s t andi n g wi th i n a tom b : the pi g b el ow has re feren c e to t he


. ,

fu n e r al sacri c e Cam eo (P rau n ) . .

7 S k el eton or L arva l eani n g agai n s t an am ph ora an d hol din g o u t a l ecy th u s an


.
, , , ,

arti cl e r eg u l ar ly for mi n g a p ar t of a G rec i an i ntermen t Calc ed on y (K es tn er) . .

8 P r om e th eu s m odel l in g the fram ewo rk of hi s Man


.
S ard (B lacas ) . .

9 C u p id p eep i n g i nt o a v ase ou t of wh i c h a L ar v a i n t he g u r e o f a s k el eton


. , , ,

m ak es a pr ec i p itate re tr eat On y x ( Dr No tt ) . . . .

1 0 E tru s c an s orc er e r rai s i n g a g h os t i n ord e r to g i v e r es p on ses to his c on s u l t e r s


. , ,
D E S CR I P TI O N OF TH E W O OD C UTS . 61

who bend over i t i n the ac t of p u tti n g th ei r q u es ti on s to the s u mm on ed u p s p i r i t -


.

B and ed ag at e ( Hertz )

P l ate XX XV I I R elig i o n 1 T wo S al i i c arry in g b et ween th em the A n c i li a s l u n g


. . .

u p on a p ole The l eg e nd ab ov e th em g i v es the word i n t he E t r u s c an ch ar ac te r s


.
,

e q u i v al ent to t he G reek A I KTA E ; th at b e l ow i ndi c at es A lec u s t he o wn e r s



AA K E
e
, , ,

n ame S ard ( Floren ce)


. .

2 W arri or wrapp i n g a ll et i nf u la ar ou nd a s ep u lch r al c o l u m n ; a c u stom ary


.
, , ,

of feri n g to t he Man es ; pr ob ably Orestes at t he t omb of A gam emn on S ar d (K i ng ) . .

3 B oy b ear in g a g oat for s acr i c e to the al tar of B acch u s


. S ar d ( Pran n ) . .

4 S acri c e to J u p i te r Capi toli n u s ; t he p ap a wi th hi s p o l e axe l eadin g t he vi c ti m


.
-
,

an d the c el ebrant h ead v ei l e d c ar ry in g the b owl for l i b ati on


, (From a cast )
,
. .

5 \Varri or offer i n g u p s acr i c e of th an k s g i vi n g after a vi c tory


. S ar d (B lacas) . .

6 I nsi gn i a of the s ac er d otal offi c e the ag on for l i b at i on b et ween the p ol e ax e an d


.
~

t he k ni fe ov e r it t he p ate r a ; b el ow the vi c ti m i ts el f
,
A m eth y s t (P raan ) , . .

7 Ny m p h wi th p i tch er at a fou ntai n ; her ty m p an u m s u s p end ed to t he rock


.
, ,

d ecl ares her to b e Rh ea S yl vi a pr i estes s of Cyb el e Cameo ( B everley)


8 I m p erator cl ad i n the p alu clam en t u man d S en ator i n t he tog a c onj oi ntl y offerin g
. .
,

. , ,

s acr i c e t o t he god d es s of Hom e The l etters b el ow are t he ini t i al s of thei r n am es


.
.

(From a cas t ) .

9 . c ri c e a femal e p lac i n g i n c en s e on an al tar b e fo r e a r u s t i c shrin e


Ru r al sa ,

c ontaini n g the c u stom ary sy mb ol of the god of I n creas e S ar d (L eak e) . .

1 0 I n s i g ni a of t he S ac erd ot al O f c e The vi c ti m s s k u ll bu c ran i u m d ec or ated



.
.
, ,

wi th t he i nf u la ab ou t whi ch i s t wi sted the vi tta the axe k ni fe si mp u vi n m or l ad l e


, , , , ,

fo r li b ati on the li tu u s ap ex or Fl amen s cap of of c e an d asp erg i llu m for s p rink l i n g


, , ,

, ,

t he l u s t r al wate r A nti q u e p as te
.
(B ever ley) .

1 1 A u g ur en gaged i n t ak i n g the A u s p i c es ; s eated on t he g rou n d an d divi d in g


.
,

the heav ens i nto temp la by m ean s of the li t au s h e l d b e fore hi s ey es J ac i nth . .

( Mas k elyn e)
P l at e XX XV I I I .
A rts
P hilos oph er s eat ed an d stu dy i n g a p apyr us
, S ci en ces . 1 .
,

r ol l b efor e a su n d i al The i ntrod u c ti on of t hi s in s t r u m ent n d i cat es t hat Py th ag oras


-
. i

i s the s u bj ec t of the gem S ar d ( D em i d o ) . .

2 Di ogen es en s c on c ed i n hi s h u ge oi l jar d oli u m wi th h i s d og ex pr es s i v e of the


. , , ,

Cyn i c ti tl e di ct at i n g to a dis c i pl e s eat ed b e fore hi m


,
The d ol i u m i s i n s cri bed wi th the .

i ni t i al s of the own er of the gem S ar d ( Thorwald sen ) . .

3 fE sc hylu s en g ag ed i n hi s fav ou r it e occ u p at i on o f d r i n k i n g wh i l s t an eag l e


.
,
~

prep ar es to d ash a tor tois e on hi s bal d p ate m i s tak in g i t for a ston e S ard ( B erli n ) , . .

4 Mod ell e r at work u p on a wax en i mag e ( p


. pl ac ed u pon a r evo l vin g bl o ck .

t u rb o i n fr ont of hi m
,
S ar doi n e (K i ng ) . .

5 A s tron om er H i pp ar ch u s en gaged i n c al c u l at in g t he di s t an c es u p on a c el esti al


.
, ,

g l ob e L a
.p i s l az u li ( P ra zm )
-
.

6 Pri m i t i ve su r g e ry : S h eph erd s eat ed an d ex t r ac t in g a th or n f rom t he foot of a


. ,

Ny m ph P l asma ( P ran n ) . .

7 S tatu ary em pl oy ed i n model l in g i n cl ay a fu l l l en g th g u r e


. The s u bj ec t m ay he -
.

i ntend ed for the Cr eati on of Man by P rometheu s Cameo (P raan ) . .


62 A N TI Q UE G EMS A N D RI NGS .

8 . or wa e
t r organ The performer s tand s behi n d the row of p i pes
The I /yd rau li s , .
,

at each sid e s t and work me n at t he hy d rau l i c p u m p s whi ch forc e the wate r i nt o t he reat
g
braz e n cyl ind er an d thereby c on d en s e the ai r wi thi n an d whi ch an s we rs the p u rp os e
, ,

of t he win d ch est i n t he m od e r n i n s tru me nt The d es cr i p ti on of t he lryd rau lis r s t .


,

i nv ented by Ctes ib i u s of Alex an d r i a as g iv en by A th en a u s (i v ex ac t ly appl i es ,


e
.


to t h e i nst r u ment b e for e u s The hy d r au li c or gan s eems to b e s om eth i n g aft er the
'

n atu re of a water cl ock P erh ap s i t ou gh t to b e t ermed a wi n d i n s tru men t i n as mu ch


.
,

as t he org an i s ll ed wi th b reath by m ean s of water ; for the p i p es are b ent d own i n t o

water an d the wat er b ei n g p ou n d ed by the atte n d ant whi l s t tu b es p as s th rou g h t he


, ,

b od y of the org an its el f t he p i pes are l l ed with wi n d an d g iv e fo r th an ag r eeabl e


, ,


s ou n d The i n s tr u m ent res em b l es i n shap e a c ircu l ar al tar
. The letters i n t he el d .

s eem t o form i n a n ex u s the word V I V A M



S u cc ess to mysel f ! and as n o pre per n ame ,

i s add ed thi s i nte rp re tati on has mu c h to rec om m en d i t s u pp os i ng i t t o refer to t he


, ,

own er of the g em
(Hertz n e w B ri t i sh Mu seu m )
.
, .

9 Tel egon u s au th or of d ivi n ati on by m ean s of ser pent s


.
, The own er of the s i g n et .
,

on e P i u s s eem s t o h av e ch os en t he s u bj ec t as c on s on ant wi th t he s en s e of hi s own


,

n ame S ar d (B everley)
. .

1 0 Toreu tc s e n g ag ed wi t h hamm er an d p u n c h i n chas i n g u p the i d ecorati on s u p on


.

an i mm ens e Cori nth i an v ase The s i g n et of a p rofess i on al i n thi s b ran ch of art


. S ard . .

(Du e d e L u yn es .

)
11 P h ilosoph er seated an d b u r i ed i n the s tu d v of a p apy ru s rol l u n d er the au s p i c es
.
, ,

of a b u s t of S ocrates wh os e p ec u l i ar featu res are eas i ly recog ni sabl e in th i s hi g h ly


,

ni sh ed thou g h m i n u te en gravi n g S ard Uz i elli )


Pl ate XXX I X A rts I n s tru men ts
. . .
, ,

1 G al ley u n d e r sail wi th a crew of arm ed


.
, . .
,

n ren an d the s tars of the Di os c u r i (S t E l mo s Fi r e) p erch ed at the en d of the y ard arm


, .

-
,

t he pl ed g es of a pros p erou s v oy age (From a cas t ) . .

2 G al l ey as b efor e b u t wi th a Vi c tory p erch ed u p on the ap lu s tre ov er the s teers


.
,

man s head A nti q u e p as te



.
(B artholdy) .

3 Cl ep sy d ra or water cl ock i n i ts p ri m i ti v e for m : an egg s h ap ed v as e fr om


.
, ,
-
,

t he p ointed en d of which t he water es c aped t h rou gh a s m al l or i c e meas u r in g a s pac e ,

of t wenty m i n u te s The i n s t r u ment i s m ad e orn am ental by b ein g s u pp or ted by a p air


.

of Cu p i d s Agate b an d ed
.
(B rett) , .

4 J an u s whos e g u re b ei n g i nv er ted as su m es the s h ap e of a tall p i tch er p rref eri


.
, , ,

c u lu m pr ob abl y c op i ed from a v e ss el ac tu ally u s ed i n t he ri tes of thi s an c i en t Ital i c g od


,
.

S ard .
( G erhard )
5 Cor i nthi an c r ater em b ossed with a B acchi c grou p
.
,
A gate on y x .
-
.

6 V as e t he b ell y of whi c h i s mod el l ed i nto a grou p of m ask s ; i t i s an k ed by the


.
,

p i p e s an d p astoral s taff en s i grrs of the Com i c Mu s e led j as p er ( K i n g )


,
. .

7 Co r i nth i an H el me t el ab orately ch as ed wi th t he story o f B ellerO plron an d the


.
,

Ch i mu r a O n e of the ch i e f orn arrrerrts of the or i g i n al ( Roy al ) Pon i atows k y Cab in et


a
.
,


wh e r e i t was kno wn as the
Hel m et of Pyrrlru s A l th ou g h rec ei v ed by V i s eorrt i .

as an u n d o u b ted anti q u e yet t he p ec u l i ar ex ec u ti on s eem s rath er t o b el on g to so me


,

e xc e ll ent Ci n q u e c er rto m as te r -
The m ater i al i s eq u al ly ex t rao r di n ary wi th the work
.

i t c arr i es b ei n g a s trat u m of red j as p er u p on a g rou n d o f t r ans p arent pl as m a a tru e


, ,
D E S CR I P TI ON OF THE W O OD C U I S
'

. 63

j as p-on y x i n t he an c i e n t s ens e o f t he word The intag l io pas s i n g thro u gh the o paq u e .


,

i nt o t he t ran s laren t g rou nd i s rend e red v e ry e ffe c ti v e A t the llc rtz s ale thi s g em
r
,
.

fe tch ed 8 9 and aft er ward s pas se d i n t o t he c o l l ec ti on of Se no r Ro s ann a of Mexi co


, .

8 L arg e Crat e r wi th t wo d ov e s pe rch e d u po n t he h and l es ; pe rh aps an at te m p t at


.
,

e m b o dy i n g Ho me r s fam o u s d es cr i pt i on o f N e s t or s cap ac io u s Bo wl
( Fro m a eas t )

.

9 Pe r si an vi z o red h e l me t i n t he s hape of a m as k ( p 6 8 ) for me rl y d e n om i n at ed


.
, .

by c o l l ec tors t he Head o f Dari u s



T he i n s cr i pt ion in t he fi eld c omme n ce s wi th t he
.

Tironi an s ig la fo r S c ri b e b at fo l l o we d by t he i ni t i al s M A I T he g o l d b e nsi l c arr i e s


, .

t he s u pers c ri p tion o f a medi aev al poss es s or c os rmm m c o u rrn


Con r a do d e l Con te
"
:
, , ,

who has mou nted th i s n e g em a s ard i n an eleg an t r i n g ( W a ter tr/n


)
1 0 S y ro
, , .

. Mac ed oni an He l me t shaped l ike that s ee n on t he coin s of Tryphen B lack


, .

ag ate ( P rau n )
.

1 1 The Comi c S acc us c ros s ed wi th t he ped u m an d the p al m of vi c to ry


.
, S ard , . .

( B everley)
12 . Pers i an Hel met, as N o 9 . . S ard .
( P rau n )
1 3 P lec tru m for t he
. ly re
p ni ed by the seali llu m i n s tr u men t for heat i n g
,
acc om a /
,

ti me wi th b ein g pl ac ed on t he foot l i k e a sli p per S ard ( K estn er)


Plate X L
, . .

W ar G ames E xerc i s es
. 1 Hu nte r rec e i vi n g the ch arge of a wi l d boar
, , . .

ru s h in g u pon hi m ou t of his rec dy lai r S ard . .

2 T wo Roman hor se me n i n c on i c t wi th as man y G au ls on e of wh om l i es s l ain i n


.
,

t he fo r eg rou n d ; hi s c om pan i on b rou ght to hi s kn ees i s d e fe ndi n g hi mse lf wi th hi s .

l on g br oad s word S ard (K i n g )


-
. .

3 Y ou t h c arry i n g a larg e win e jar p rob abl y a cu p bearer b ri n g i n g i n a c rater of t he


.
-
,
-

mos t pr i m iti v e m ak e S ard scarab eu s ( D em i d og )


'

. .

4 Horse s h ead em b lem of G all i a coup ed an d bri d led ank ed by t wo G all i c s h i e l d s



.
, , , ,

b eari n g d i fferen t nati on al cogn i zan c es pl aced en salti re Th i s ex press i ve devi c e com , .

me morates t he vi c tory of t he Con su l P Corn Nas i ca ov er t he c onfed erate lns u b res ,


. .
,

an d Caznoman n i an d was t he s i gn et of hi s relati v e


, Q Corneli u s L u p u s S ard , . . .

( W aterton )
5 . n d er the mas k of a g i ant sc ari n g his play fel l ows
Boy, d i sgu i sed u The d es i gn ,
.

of th i s pr e t ty s ce n e be t ray s i ts mod ern ori g i n B lack j as pe r ( li la 1 8 ) . .


c/

6 G reek He l me t an d h orse s h ead coup ed an d b ri d l ed t he s i g n e t of some cav ali er



.
, , ,

of the be s t ti mes of art S ard Vi d o n i ) . .

7 Y ou th c ar ry in g i n on e h and a s tri g i l wi t h t he othe r t ru n d l in g the trochu s


.
,
S ard ,
. .

8 Rac er b eari ng off t he pal m of vi c tory : hi s n ame Ti beri s i s i n sc r i bed ov er

h
.
, ,

hi m orse s fr q u en t l y rece i vi n g the appell ati on of celebrated ri vers G reen j as pe r


e . .

( K i ng )
9 Di sc o bol u s b randi shin g the th on g u sed i n pro pel l i n g t he wei gh ty d i sc u s i n
.
,

t he same m ann er as t he Tu scan s d o wi th t he roz z u ola at t he pr es nt d ay The e


.

tru es t represe n t at i on of th i s s u bj ect on a gem an y where kn own ( Hertz n ew B ri ti sh .


,

Mu seu m ) .

1 0 G reek war ri or
.
t n d in g b y t he s i d e
s a of hi s horse , whi ch i s q u i p ped wi th
e t he

pp hipp i a,
e t he an c i ent s u b s t it u te for sad dl e . A n t i q u e pas te .
( Lord Northamp ton ) .
64 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I N G S .

11 . Ch ar i oteer d r ivin g t h ree horses abr eas t i n hi s car, Trig a . E meral d s c arab eu s .

( P rawn )
12 . Di s c ob ol u s h ol d in g hi s q u oi t an d measu rin g wan d ad or n ed wi t h
V i c tori ou s -

ri bbon s at hi s s id e a tab l e an d oi l cru i se Plas ma (K i n g ) -


. .

P l ate X L [ Heroes 1 A rg u s son of D an au s t he r s t s hi p wr i g h t b u s i e d i n


'

. . .
, , ,

s h ap in g t he p row of t he shi p c al l ed after hi m ou t of t he t i m b er of t he v oc al oak of

D od on a Ban ded s ard on y x (D r N oll )


. , . .

2 B el l eroph on attired as a Th es s ali an Horseman


.
,
mou nted on Peg as u s i n , ,

com bat with the Ch i maera The c os tu m e i s hi stori c al ly correc t the hero b ei n g Pri n ce
.
,

o f E ph yra S ard on y x fou n d at V u lc i


.
( Campan ari ) .

3 A tal anta s topp i n


.
g s h o r t i n t h e m i d s t of t he rac e i n or d er to p i ck u p t he g o l d e n ,

appl e t h r own b e fore her by her c om p etitor A work p referred by W i n ck el man n t o all .

ot h ers of t he ki n d A m ethy s t B erli n )


( . .

4 Ni ob e v ai n ly at t em pt i n g t o s h i el d from the s hafts of A p ol l o the you n g es t of


.
'

her son s A v ery an c i ent rep res en tati on of the s u bj ec t t he work b ein g i n t he ol d es t
.
,

G reek s tyl e B l ac k ag at e
.
( Demi d oi ) .

5 Narc i s s u s c ont em platin g hi s n ak ed ch arm s i n the m irror of a fo u ntai n


. The .

i ntrod u ct i on of the s tatu ette of Di an a s i g ni es that the s c en e i s the i nter i or of a fores t .

W h en VVi n ck elman n rs t p u b li s h ed thi s g em i n hi s Moni me n t i I n ed i t i i t had


, ,

rec ently b een d i s c ov ered at Rome set i n a bracel et S ar d ( Du e d e L u yn es ) . . .

6 O ne of t he D an ai d es e n g ag ed i n her e n d l ess t ask of p ou rin g wat er i nto a l eak y


.

c i s tern Cam eo (B everley)


. .

7 S i s yp hu s gras p i n g at t he wav es whi ch reced e from hi s tou c h


. S ard sc arab eu s
,
. .

ows
( B l )
8 T h i s c u ri ou s s u bj ec t n ot u n fr eq u ent i n g ems i s ex pl ai n ed by s ome as the tri pl e
.
, ,

b odi ed g i ant G eryon ; by oth ers as the three br ot h er Horati i A s the m idd le warr i or i s .

c l earl y l eanin g for s u pport u p on hi s t wo corrrpan i on s (when ce t he old d en om i n ati on of


Pi etas Militari s t he s ec ond i nt er pr etati on s eem s t he mor e pl au s i bl e S ar d ( B lu cu s ) . .

9 Narc i ssu s as b e fore b u t the s tor y i s v ery q u aint ly t ol d by the C u pi d ai m i n g h i s


d art at hi m fr om ou t of t he fou ntain whi l s t t he littl e h al f
.
,

fi g u re em erg i n g from t he rock s


, ,

ab ov e rep resents the N y m ph E ch o


,
Pl as ma ( Hertz ) . .

1 0 The archai c v er s i on of the p u ni s h men t of S i s yph u s i mag i n ed as the lift i n g of a


.
,

wei g h ty bl oc k u p the s t e p s of a py ram i d S ard scarab eu s (B lu cas) . .

1 1 The s ame s t ory ; b u t to l d aft er t he fas h i on mad e p op u l ar by Hom e r the


.
,

i ntag l i o b ei n g of Rom an d ate S ard (B erli n ) . .

1 2 P rom eth eu s c hain ed t o the rock s of Cau c as u s with the E ag l e prey i n g u p on hi s


.
,

l i v er S ard (B erli n ) .

Pl at e XL I I Ep i c Cycle . 1 Th es eu s c ont em p lat in g t he s wor d of h i s fath er


. .

JE geu s wh i c h he has j u s t rec ov er ed from u nd e r t he p i l e of rock s wh ere i t had b een


,

c on ceal ed be fore hi s birth The cl u b l ai d agai n s t the ro ck i s the weap on he had u s ed at


.

t he ou tset o f h i s c areer S t r i p ed agate N


.
( D r oll ) . . .

2 The Man eat er Hors es of the Th r ac i an Di om ed es d ev ou r in g Ab s y r t u s c om pani on


.
-
,

o f llc rc u les O ther s t ak e i t for the h or s es of A ch i ll es l am e nti ng ov er the s l ai n


.

Patro cl u s wh i ch s eems t he b etter ex pl an ati on as i t acc ou nt s for t he p res en c e of t he


, ,
D E S CR I P TI O N 01 " Ti l/} ll U U D U U TS
f

. 65

fe m al e wi th the v as e Of th i s s u bj e ct i nn u m e rabl e m od e r n c o p i es are t o b e me t wi th


.
.

S ar d (Hertz )
.

3 Ores t es i n t he reg u l ar s c en i c g u is e of a way far e r m ak i n g h i m s e lf k no wn to h i s


.
, ,

S i s ter El ec t r a S ar d . .

4 The I nfan t O ph e l t es d est r o y ed by a S e rp e n t ; wh i ch e v en t was c o mme m o rat ed b y


.

the I s thrn i an G am es led j as p e r ( P ra m z ) . .

5 Y ou th u s in g t he st r i g i l c opi ed fr o m t he c e l e b ra ted s t at u e t e r me d t he
. A p xyol
, o

m e n os The gem b ear i n g t he E tr u s c an l eg en d T V T E g av e o ccasion t o t he s ee i n g i n


.
,

th i s s u bj ec t Ty d eu s wou nd ed i n t he leg wi th an arro w The g u re rs pr e pos t e rou s ly .

m ag ni ed i n th i s c u t S ar d c u t f ro m a s carab eu s ( B e rli n ) .
,
.

6 E l ectr a c ar ry i n g t he p i tch e r for t he fu n e r al li b at ion s t o t he t o m b o f he r fath e r


.
,

A g am em n on S ar d (B lacas ) . .

7 J as on c on s u l t i n g the D elph i c O racl e typ i e d by A p oll o s S e rp e n t t wi n ed ar o u nd



.
, ,

an d hi s Rav en p erch ed u p on a p i ll ar B and ed ag ate ( D r N oll) . . .

8 The Fi v e Her o es Ty d eu s P o ly ni c es A m ph i ar au s A dras tu s an d Parthen opze u s


.
, , , , , ,

h ol di n g c ou n c i l be for e the wall s o f T h eb es Th eir n ames s t ran ge ly d i s t ort ed are g i v en .


, ,

by t he E tr u scan leg ends i n t he el d Th i s i n t ag l io h ol ds acc or din g to \Vi n c k elm an n .


, ,

t he s am e pl ac e am on g st g ems as Hom e r d oes am on g s t t he p oe ts S ar d c u t fr o m a .


,

sc arab eu s (B e r li n ) .

9 \Varri or l eani n g on h i s s p ear an d l ook i n g u p war d s i n t he at t i t u d e of att en t i on


.
, .

The E tr u s c an l et t er s i n t he el d h av e b een r ead by V i sc onti as t he eq u iv al ent s o f t he


G reek TT PTA E ; an d t he g u r e pr on ou n c ed by hi m on th ei r au th ori ty to he m ean t , ,

fo r t he S p art an p oet Ty r taeu s The ch oi c e of s u ch a s u bj ect b y an E tr u s can art i s t has .

a c u ri ou s an al og y wi th P l u tarch s t r ad i t i on ab ou t t he L ac ed cem on i an o r i g i n o f t he

S ab i n es S ar d ( V an /t orn )
. .

1 0 \Varrior i n am b u s h awai t i n g hi s foe : u s u all y d en om i n ated t he W ou n d ed


.
, ,


Ty d eu s S ard (.F rai m ) .

1 1 The Th ree S on s of H y ll u s s on of Herc u l es A rg aeu s Cres ph ontes an d Tenren u s


. , , , , ,

c astin g l ots i n a water v es sel for the p ar ti ti on of th ei r c on q u es t t he Pelopon n es ns The ,


.

s ep u l c h ral c ol u m n i n the b ack grou nd i ndi c ates t he previ ou s d eath o f th ei r s i r e S ard . .

( B lacas)
12 . Thes eu s affi x ed to hi s i ro n t h ron e i n the r eal m s o f t o rm en t . Calc edon y .

( B erli n
)
Pl ate X L I lI .

Troja
t i n hi s t ent si n g i n g the d eed s o f
n h r . 1 . A ch i ll es s ea ed ,

an c i e nt worth i es to t he n otes o f the i v ory lyr e wh i ch he had res e r v ed t o h i m s el f o u t o f ,

t he s poi l s o f A e t i on s p al ac e Th i s g em i s as cr i b ed t o an art i s t Pam phi lu s S ar d


'

.
, .
.

( B laeas an d P ari s .
)
2 .
i r in g t he ar mou r an d weap on s the work o f V u lc an j u s t brou gh t to
A ch i ll es ad m , ,

hi m by hi s m oth e r Th et i s S ar d on y x o f v e ry m i n u te ex ec u t i on
, ( Prau n ) . .

3 The s am e s eat e d on hi s c ou ch wi th i n hi s tent br oodin g ov e r hi s q u arr e l W i t h


.
, ,

A gamem n on Al mandin e g ar n et .
( B everley) .

4 The s ame t ry in g on on e o f t he greav e s b el on gi n g to hi s n e w s u i t e of ar m ou r


.
, .

Cal c ed on y (L eak e) .

5 The s am e ex am i ni n g h i s n e w s wo rd : a d e si g n ple po tor u s ly e x pl ai n e d b v


'

s o
.
,

I] .
l"
( NW T/1 16 I VO U I NJ U I S
'

. (37

4 . b nd on d i n the i s l e o f L e m nos an d farm i ng his fes t e r in g foo t wi th a


l lrilo c te tes

a a e
,

b i rd s wi n g The n ame llo t hu s i n t he fi l d pro b ably i m pl i s th at th is fi n e c ame o



. e

e e

i s a Roman c o py fr o m a ch asi n g b y th at v ry c l b rat d ( i re e k ( l i rrl


y) e e e e '
r v r

5 The s h e ph e r d l ar i s cl ad i n a g o at s k in an d h o l d i n g o u t t he o l d en a l e of

-
.
g pp ,

Dis c o rd Calc edon y ( I lu eas )


. .

r

6 Aj ax s o n o f ( h lo u s abo u t t o d rag a way Cass and ra fro m t he alt a r o f lall as


.
, ,

.

wh e re s he has tak e n s an c t u ary S t r i p d ag at (Ki g) . e e . n

7 ZE n e rrs es c ap i n g fr o m t he b u r ni n g T ro y carry in g on h i s s h o u l d e r s t he o l d
.
,

A n ch is e s who has c harg e o f t he s ac r d ei s t


,
an d l adi n g by t h h an d t h i n fan t e u
,
e e e

A s c ani u s Tho g all ey r ead y t o r c e i v t he f u g i ti v s i s s n i n t h d i s t an c e


. S ard e e e ee e .

( B le ed s )
Pl at e X e l (.
'
rrcel
c P o rtrai ts . 1 . Fe m l
ae llc ad , c ov e re d wi th t he ru i t rft ,

pe rh ap s a S apph o ; on e of the ea rl i es t att e m pt s at p o r t rai t u r e t o b e fo u nd n o a ge m


J ac i n th .
(Pm u n
)
2 . Fe m al e Head , of
ty pe g e n e rally r ec e i v ed fo r th at o f S apph o ; a b eau ti fu l
t he

ex am pl e o f t he p e rf c t ( i re c k s ty l e Pas t fr o m an an t i q u e o r i g i n al at Napl es ( l rmm )



e . e .

3 W arr io r s llead c ov e r e d wi th a Co r i n th i an h el m e t ; ap par n tly i n t e nd e d fo r a


.
,
e

po r t r ai t al th o u g h the s tyl e i s th at o f t he earl i s t d ay s o f t he art S ard ( B l )


-
,
eas e . . u .

4 S o crat e s a g ood s p e c i m e n o f llo rn an W o rk S ar don yx ( I ri n g )


'

. . .
,

5 T he s am e h ead an d o f t he s am e p e r iod
. On y x ( P ra wn )
,
. .

6 S o crate s an d P l at o c on fr onted p o rtrai t s


. T he e x e c u tion o f th i s fi n e i n t ag l io
,
.

i ndi c at es a d ate m u ch cl os r to the ti mes of t he o r i g i n al s th an an y o th e r o f s u c h e

port rai ts can b oast S ard ( P ari s ) . .

7 P l ato eq u i pp ed wi th P s yehe s win g s u p on hi s t e m pl s : an early wo rk i f n o t a



e
.
, ,

v ery acc u rat e c o py by a m od e r n h and of the Be rl i n g e m S ard oi n e . .

8 T he s ame h ead b u t wan t i n g t he win g s The si g n e t o f s ome llo rn an l lato n is t



. .
,

n am ed S an foi ns B l ack ag ate ( Pru n i t ) . .


- .

9 Head wi th m u ch of the ch ar ac te r o f S o crat e s b u t conv e nti on ally assi g n ed t o h is


.
, ,

prec u r sor D em o cr i t u s S ard (L ady G ri v )


,
. . e e .

1 0 A r i sti pp u s s u rr o u n de d by the d e i t i e s who i ns p i red hi s ph i l oso phy v i z Bacch u s


. ,
.
, ,

A p oll o V e n u s Min er v a
,
A p or t r ai t f u l l o f i ndi vid u al i ty an d evid e n t ly c o p i e d fr o m
,
.
,

s ome au th enti c m emo r i al o f t he g r eat Cy r eni an A n t i q u e p as t e ( B lo w s ) . .

1 1 E pi c u r u s ; a p ort r ai t o f u n c omm on e x c e l l en c e
.
( Fro m ( L cas t ) . .

P l ate X L V I l G reelc a n d R oma n P o rt r a i ts 1 A l e x and er wear i n g a p t as u s e x actly


. . . e

si m i l ar to th at on the h ead o f K in g Per s eu s i n t he c am eo at Par is ( am eo o f ad m i rabl e .


Ro m an work b u t e vid en tly c u t do wn fr o m a l ar g e r g em : on c e i n t he p oss ession o f


,

Cayl u s who r s t p u bl is h ed i t i n h is llec u e i l


,
vo l i pl 5 2 . . . .

2 Por t r ai t wi th m rrc h o f t he ch arac t e r o f th at o f A n t i och u s E pi phan e s on t he


.
,

m ed al s Y ell ow s ard ( Lac e)


. .

3 P h i l i p V o f Mac ed on a c on t em por ary wo rk o f g reat m e r i t for m e rly b el on g in g to


. . ,

Hor ac e W alpol e S ar d . .

4 A l ex an d e r a good wo rk o f t h e Revi v al Lap i s laz u l i ( l rau n )



-
. .
. ,

5 .
P e rse u s w it h w i n g e d c a
,p an d t he h arp i n t h e ch ar act r o f t he h e r e hi s n am e , e

s ak e. L ap i s l az u li ( B lu cas )
- .
8 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NGS .

6 t o l emy B e r eni c e an d th ei r
.
P
, , P h i l ad el ph u s A n en g r avin g of thi s n e
s on .

g em has b ee n al read y g iv en at i x The pr esen t c u t i s from a d rawi n g m ad e


.

i n an oth er s tyl e for t he p u rp os e ,


of c om p ar i n g t he effec ti v en es s of each S ar d . .

( i lli ci rheacl)
7 . H ead c ov ered wi th a Phry g i an c ap, a pp arent ly that of a Partlri an . S ar d .

( B lacas )
8 . S ex t u s Pompei u s , the work , or ( more prob abl y ) t he s i g net of A g athan g elu s .

S ar d .
( B erli n )
9 . Pom pei u s Mag n u s , a bu st
fr on t fac e in -
,
su r
rou n ded by t he abbr evi at i on o f hi s
ti tl e , g rante d t o hi m by the L ex Mani l i a vi z , .
,

P rae fec tu s Clas s i s et Orae Mari t im ae .

ran n )
N i c ole .
( P
P l ateX L V I I I R oman P ortrai ts 1 Nu m a h avin g hi s n ame i n scr i b e d on hi s
. . .

d i ad em ; t he v er y p ort r ait pu t on t he m i n t age of t he g e n s Calp u r ni a hi s d esc en dan t s ,


,

an d n o d ou b t a faith fu l c opy fro m hi s s tatu e i n the Cap i tol S ee p 209 ( From a east ) . . . .

2 S ab i n u s t he c ol leagu e o f Rom u l u s ; a p ortrai t d er i v ed fr om the s am e s ou rc e


.
,
.

S ard ( Capran es i )
.

3 S c i p i o A fr i c an u s t he Eld e r hi s head c ov er ed wi t h a c u d o (l eathern sk u l l c ap) for


. ,
-
,

t he pu rp os e of c on c eal i n g hi s b aldn ess S ard (K i n g ) . .

4 Marc el l u s as u p on the d en ari u s of hi s fam i ly : t he s hi eld al l u d es t o hi s sp oli a


.
,

O i ni o
p S ar d .
( Ki n g ) .

5 Ci c ero
. Cin q u e c en t o p ast e i m itat i n g ag ate b u t tak en from an anti q u e or i g i n al
.
-
, .

(P rau n )
6 . The Tri u m v i r ate : A u g u s tu s
id e by s i d e fac i n g L ep i d u s wh ose an d A nton y , s , ,

o f c e of Ponti fex i s m ark ed by the li t i ln s b eh i nd hi m (Fro m a eas t) .

7 Maec en as

. The n ame of . S ol on was i n s er t ed by s ome an t i q u ary of the
Revi v al ( wi th S al am i ni an ad d e d i n s ome c as es for g reater c er ti t u d e) t o m ak e t he , ,

h ead p as s for the A th en i an s ag e ; b u t l ater amateu r s ch oos e t o t ak e i t for t he n ame


of the e n g rav e r S ar d ( Vi en n a b u t n u merou s other ori g i n als are k n own )
. .
,
.

8 The s ame h ead as it wou l d app ear b u t s h own i n n early fu l l fac e al thou gh l on g
.
, ,
-
,

s u pp os ed t o b e a Pom p ey The s i g n atu re of A p oll oni u s i s an e vi d ent i nterp ol at i on of


.

t he l as t c e ntu ry J ac i n th ( Hertz ) . .

9 J u b a k i n g of N u m i d i a wh os e p or tr ai t s are n ot u n fr eq u e n t
.
,
He mu s t h av e owed
, .

hi s p o p u l ar ity at Rome t o hi s b ei n g t he l as t s t ay of t he p ar ty of P om p ey S ard . .

(Mas k elyn e)
1 0 M A g ri pp a a g ood con tem p or ar y p ort r ai t
. .
,
S ard ( From the D e la Tn rb i e . . .

Cabi n et as appears fro m i ts selli n g f aced wi th b lu e en amel)


, ,

1 1 M A nton y c ont em p orary p or t r ai t fu l l o f charac ter S ard


. .
, ( Oo pran esi ) ,
. .

1 2 B r u t u s t he Yo u n g er
. S ar d ( K i ng ) . .

P l ate X LlX Roman P ortra i ts . 1 J u li u s Ca s ar l au r eated head i n front fac e at . .


e
,
-
,

the sid e t he l i t u u s an d t he s tar of d ei c at ion ,


I n the el d the s i g n atu r e of Di os c or id es .

i n m i cro s co p i c l etter s S ard ( Town ley b u t there i s a fac si mi le i n jac i n th i n the


. .
,
-

! In cas Ca b i n et)

l
V
J u l i u s i n pr o fi l e a p ortr ait o f m u c h ch arac te r
,
S ar d oi n e . .

Q
h o A u g u s t u s i n h i s y ou th S ar d ( B en g n ot) . .
D E S CRI P TI ON O F T HE lVU UD U UTS . (9
5

4 . The s ame ; b el ow t he bu s t is pl aced hi s horosc 0pe, Capri c o r n . Cameo .

(Floren ce)
5 . The s ame, as a J u p i t e r -
.
(A bad , op y f rom the B lacas cam eo )
red u ced c ,

6 . Ti ber i u s i n h is y ou th : a s pl endid s pec i m en o f Ro man portrai t u re Calc ed on v . .

(P ortal s)
7 L ad y n it h l ot u s on he r br o w i n t he ch ar act e r of I sis
.
A pp ar en tl y a po r t r ai t o f ,
.

J u l i a d au g h t e r of A u g u s t u s
, S ar doi n e ( K in g) . .

8 J u l i a bet wee n her t wo s ons Cai n s an d L u c i u s ; t he pr ec i s e typ e pu t u po n t he


.
,

d en ar i u s of he r fath e r m i n t ed by Mar i u s T rog u s A n i nv al u abl e g em b ei n g b ey ond all .


,

s u s p i c i on o f m od e r n fo r e ry fo r i t i s s e t i n a m edi a v al r i n
g t he l egend of wh i ch s hows
e

g , ,

i t to h av e b el on ged to a c er t ai n A n d rc o t to d i S yrac u s a ( W e te rton ) .


9 Cai n s Caesar at on c e to b e r ec o g ni s ed by hi s s t r i k i n g l i k en e ss t o h i s fath e r


.
, ,

A g r i ppa ; for wh i c h v e ry u n e x p ec ted c i rc u m s tan c e h i s m o th e r t he wi t ty J u l i a as si g n ed , ,

a c u r i ou s r eason as Macrob i u s has rec or d ed , S ard oi n e (1 0c . . .

1 0 L i vi a A u g u s t a
. A g ood Ci n q u e c ent o c o py o f t he an t i q u e
. li ed j as p e r - . .

(P rau n )
11 . ch ara c ter of Me rc u ry The explan atorydegend has b een pu t i n
Cal i g u l a i n the .

by a m od er n h an d S ard (J arman ) . .

1 2 Cal i g u l a an d hi s th r ee s i s te r s ; a work of t he Cin q u e een to as are t he


.
-
,

g en er al it y of t h es e c om b in ed i m p er i al p or t rai t s S ar d ( P ran n ) . .

P l ate L R o man P o rtra i ts . 1 J u l i a d au g h te r of T i t u s : t he mas t e rp i ece of


. .

Roman g lyp ti c art S l i g h tly en l ar g e d i n the d rawi n g


. B e ry l ( P ari s ) . .

2 The s am e i n the ch ar act e r of J u n o her h ead cr o wn ed wi th t he s k i n of a p eac ock


.
, , ,

i n the sam e m an n er as t he E g ypt i an q u een s with t hat of the roy al v u lt u r e Yell ow .

s ar d (K i ng )
.

3 A n t on i n u s P i u s aft er hi s d eath whi c h i s s i g ni ed by t he c ei li n g of t he head


.
, .

V e ry i nteres t in g for t he m ater i al O r i e ntal A m az on s ton e i n whi ch i t i s cu t i n low rel i e f


,
-
,
.

( l ran n )

4 . Bu s t
Y ou n g L ad y i n the s tyl e of J u l i a Dom n a E vi d e ntly a l ov e tok en fo r
of a ,
.
-
,

it c arr i es the m otto A me te ego S ar d ( K i ng )


, . .

5 A Y ou th fu l Ca s ar wh os e pr o l e r es em bl es D i ad u m en i an an d again lte m u l u s
-
e
.
, , ,

Maxen tii wi el d i n g t he r u dd e r of Fo rt u n a in c om pl i m en t to t he bl es sin g s ex p ect ed


, ,

from hi s r u l e S ard (K i n g ) . .

6 Di ocl e t i an an d Maxi m i an c onjoi n e d h eads i n the ch ar ac ter of J an u s ; an


.
,

i n geni ou s c om pl i men t to t he n ew e ra op en e d by th e i r u n ion i n p ower G reen j as per .

m ott l ed wi t h cry s t al ( l ri i u n ) .

7 The p oe t H o rac e ; as m ay b e d ed u c ed from t he i ni t i al l e tt er an d t he b ay


.
,

bran ch i n the e l d Y el l o w be ryl ( L lacas ) . .


8 Por t rai t r es em bl i n g th at as s i g n e d t o Ma c en as ins cr i be d wi th t he n am e o f Dio s


.
,
e
,

c ori d es Cm q u e c e n t o pas t e i m i t at i n g agat e


.
-
( N ell/ ropp ) ,
. i

9 I n fan t s fac e g i v e n n early i n fron t v i e w T h es e h ead s s ee m l i k e the p hal e ra o f


:
.
,
.
,

t he s am e ch ar ac ter to h av e had t he vir t u e o f am u l et s ,


I ns cr i b ed wi th the n am e o f .

Tyc hi as S ard (K in g )
. .

P l at e L I 1 The A p o th eos i s of A u g u s t u s
. .
The d e i ed e m p ror i s t he pri n c i lal . e
0 A N TI Q UE GE MS AND RI NGS .

g u re i n the u pp er c om part men t b orn e u p i n t he heav en s by E n eas fabl ed au th or ofhi s , ,

l i n e an d welc om i n g hi s s on Dru s u s wh om P eg as u s c arri es u p t o j oi n hi m B el ow


, ,
.
,

T i b er i u s an d L i vi a as J ov e an d D ea Roma are d es p atch in g G erm ani c u s on hi s


, ,

A s i at i c c am p ai g n The ex erg u e i s l l ed wi t h t he c ap ti v es of hi s G erman vi c tori es


. .

2 The u pp er p ar t of t he c om pos i t i on d rawn t o a l arg er s c al e


. S ard ony x of s ev eral ,
.

s t rat a ; ac tu al s i z e 1 3 x 1 1 i n ch es
(P ari s ) .


P l ate L I I 1 The G e mm a Au g u stea A u g u stu s an d L i vi a atten ded by all the
. . .
,

m em b er s of their fam i ly are rec ei vi n g D r u su s an d Ti b er i u s on th eir retu r n from t h ei r


, ,

V i n d eli c an d Rh aeti an c am p ai g n s I n t he ex erg u e Roman s with th eir Th es s ali an an d.


, ,

Mac ed oni an al li es are rai s i n g a t roph y em bl az on ed wi th a scorp i on llOl OSCOpe of


, , ,
'

T i b er i u s S ard on y x of t wo s t r ata ; ac tu al s i z e 9 x 8 i n ch es ( Vi en n a) .


2 The G on z ag a
. or O d es calch i c am eo The p ort r ai t s at rs t were t ak en for
,

.

A l e x and er an d O ly m p i as after war ds g i v e n by V i s con t i t o P h ilad el ph u s an d hi s s i s te r -

wi fe A r sin oe
, B u t ev e ry ex p e r i enc ed n u m i s mati s t wi l l p erc ei v e t h at t he m al e h ead
.

( the h el met be i n g r em ov ed ) i s th at of Nero on hi s l arges t m edal s whi l s t an y on e u n d er


s tan d i n
g p ortrai ts wi l l di s c ov er t he i d e nti ty of the l ad y s pr ol e wi th th at of A gri pp i n a

,

i n t he Fam i ly of Cl au d i u s g u r ed at p 1 8 2 S ar don y x of three s trata ; ac tu al s i z e


,

. .

6 x 5 in ch es (I t p ass ed f rom the Cabi n et of J os ephi n e i n to the R u ss i an I mp eri al)


.

P l ate L I I I A n i mals 1 L i on p u l l i n g d o wn a B u l l
. . The techn i qu e of t h i s
. .

i ntag l i o i s al togeth er Ass yr i an and the s u bj ec t j u s t i es the c on cl u s i on t h at i t i s of


,

P h oeni c i an work m an s h i p Calc ed on y (K i ng ) . .

2 L i on p assan t in s cr i b ed wi t h t he mon og r am of P au l u s
.
,
S ar d ( Prau n ) . .


3 Hor se s h ead a n e Rom an en g r avin g ; b el ow i s the n am e of E vodu s t he s ens e

.
, ,

wh e reof i s as appli c abl e t o the s t eed its elf as to i ts m as t er or en g rav er J ac i n th . .

(J arman )
4 . S am e su bj ec t as No 1 .
,
an d prob ably of the s am e o r igi n . S carab eu s in red s a rd .

(Rhod es )
5 . S ow on t he g r ou nd
b e fore her l i es an appl e A won d er fu ll y n i s h ed ex am ple of .

G rec o I t al i an art
-
Calc ed on y s c arab eu s
.
(D r No tt) . .

6 L i on es s s eated pl ayf u lly l i fti n g her paw ; i n t he el d ab ov e i s a c i g ala


.
, .

A b eau ti fu l work of t he s am e p eri od with t he l ast


,
S ard s carab eu s ( volta of
A . .

Corn eto)
7 The Di on y s i ac B u ll or rat h er the g od hi m s el f i n t he for m o f hi s own att ri
.
, ,

b u te The work i s c om monly as s i gn ed t o t he Hyl l u s whos e n ame i t b ears S ar d


. . .

(P ari s )
8 L i on s h ead of v e ry an c i e nt work m an shi p res emb li n g t he t yp e of t he L yc i an

.
,

Marbl es The t wo l etter s b eg i n the own er s n am e S ard ( Rhod es )


.

. .

9 B u ll an d a c ou pl e o f G oats u nd er a tree
. S ar d (Merli n A then s ) . .
, .

1 0 B u ll an d Cow s tan d in g s id e by s id e
. Cal c ed on y (L eak e) . .

1 1 G r ou p of Catt l e e vi d en tly c op i e d from a p i ec e of s tatu ary i n br on z e p erh ap s


.
, ,

fr om t he m os t c el ebrated of all p i eces of t he k i n d d es cri b ed by Prop er ti u s as ,

r m en t a Myron i s
a

Qu att aor art i c i v ivi d a si n a b ov es


g s .

S ard .
( L at/
y G ri e ve)
D E S CR I P TI ON O F TH E W O OD C U TS . 71

12 didrach m of S yb ar i s g i v en to i ll u s trat e wh at has been sai d i n the te x t


. The ,

u pon the i d e n t i ty o f A rch ai c G r ec o


I t al i an an d E tr u s c an art ( pp 1 1 3
P l ate L lV A n i rn al 1 Head s h o wn i n fr on t o f a h u g e wi l d boar : d ou bt less
.
,

. s . .
, ,

take n for s i g n et d evi c e b y s om e m i g h ty Et r u s c an h u n te r S ar d sc arab e u s ( Milli n g er) . .

2 \Vi l d b oar at tack ed by b ou n d s : t he s tyl e ann ou n c es a Part lri an or e v e n a


.
,

S as s ani an arti s t A m ethy s t s carab eoi d .


( B lacas ) .

3 \V i l d s ow of e x trem ely t ru c u l en t as pe ct : a perfe c t G r eco I tal i an en g r avi n g


.
,
-
.

S ar d s carab e u s (D r Nott) . .

4 G oat m ou n t ed by a L oc u s t : t he n at u res o f the t wo i ndi cat an e r ot i c tal i s m an


.
,
e
.

S ard .
(K i n g )
5 E ag l e s Head b el o w i t a poc u lu m i n all u s i on to the s e r vi c es of the b i r d i n t he

.
, ,

affair of J u p i t er s Cu pb earer Cam eo of excel l e n t work man s h i p


(P ran n )
.
, .

6 Head of t he Ro man E a l e i ns cr i be d wi t h t he n am e o f a s u pp os ed art i s t S c ylax


.
g
, , .

O f t h i s gem n u merou s m od er n c op i es are to b e m et wi th i n all c ab i n ets S ard . .

( B everley)
7 . n g age d i n t u r nin g a m i l l of the s am e con s t r u c ti on as th ose yet s tan d i n g at
A ss e ,

Pom pe i i S ar d .
( Vescov li ) . u

8 A S S re t u rni n g fr om a vi ll a l ad en wi th p anni er s ll ed wi th c ou nt ry p rod u ct i ons


.
,
.

A nti q u e p as t e (L o rd No rthamp ton ) . .

9 \Volf an d Bear y ok e d toge th e r i n al l u s i on to the feat of A d m e t u s who was


.
, ,

c ommand ed by Pel i as to y ok e th i s i n con g ru ou s p ai r to hi s c ar as t he pr i c e of h i s ,

d au g h t er s h an d The s i g n et of a l ad y n am ed Ru n a Red j as p er (P rau n )



. . .

1 0 D ol phi n : t he i n s cr i p ti on s h o ws i t to h av e been e n g r av ed for a wed di n g r i n g


. .


The Fi d es on t he acc om p an y i n g g em wi t h t he n am es of the c ou ple Prete r e s an d , ,

Hyg i a be t ok en s t he s am e d es ti n ati on for the g em (p


,
.

1 1 Parr ot c ar ry i n g a b u n ch of n u ts
. S ard (K i ng ) . .

1 2 I b i s c arry i n g the c ad u c eu s o f Th oth an d s u r mou nte d by Harp oc rat es


.
(Fro m , .

a cas t ) .

1 3 The N u p ti al A l t ar on wh i ch i s l ai d a wh eat ear embl e m of fec u n d i ty an k ed


.
,
-
, ,

by a p air of D ov es p erch ed on q u i n ce bran ch es c arr i ed i n the h an d s of t he wedd ed pai r .

S ar d oin e (P ra an )
Plate L V
.

S ymbo li c al A n i mals
.
~
1 L oc u s t d r ivi n g a pl o u g h to whi ch are y ok ed . .
,

a pair of c i g ale On y x (K s tn er) . . e

2 G r ai n o f wh e at wi th t wo an t s fo r s u ppor te rs : t he si g n e t of on e Pi u s
.
,
S ar d . .

Polla rd ) .

3 L oc u st act i n g as p ou l t e r e r c arry i n g s l u n g fr om h i s p ol e a br ac e o f ra bb i t s an d
.
, , ,

sh at wh i c h a s c o rp i on an d c at e rp i l l ar m ak e a g ras p
,
S ar d (L eak ) . . e

4 L oc u s t pe rch ed u pon a cl u s t e r o f ears o f wh eat t ri ti c u m


.
Band ed ag at e , . .

(Mask elyn e)
Fou r Rabb i ts
di nin g c d t he c or n e r s o f an i m men se vi n e l eaf i n t he cent re of
"

5 . ,

wh i ch si t s a beetl e A n t i q u e p ast e (K es tn er)


. .

6 Fr o g ; g i vi n g u s d ou b tl e s s an e x act i d ea of the famou s si gn e t of Ma c e n as : th i s


.
, ,

al s o b ei n g of E tr u s c an ori g in Cal ced on y s carab eu s ( P ra wn ) . .


72 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D RI NGS .

7 . Two G ryph on s d ev ou r i n g a s t ag , wh i c h th ey hav e p u ll ed d own b et ween th em .

S ar d . No tt ) ( D r . .

8 A poll o s G ryph on h o l di n g hi s mas t er s ly r e ; b ehi n d hi m i s p erched the or ac u l ar



.

Rav en A m ethy s t
.
(Floren ce) .

9 P y gm y wal k in g al on g an d toi l i n g u n d er the wei g h t of the Cr an e whi ch he has


.
, ,

s l au g h tered S ard (L eak e ) . .

1 0 S ph i n x co u chan t : a work apparent ly of A s i ati c G reek ori g i n


. Y el low sard . .

( Uz i elli )
11 . S ph i n x s ea ed :t
typ e of the c oi n ag e of Chi os B l ack j as p er (K i ng )
the . .

12 . Har py b etween t wo G ryp hon s ch anti n g a m y s ti c c hor u s to th eir g od s , . S ar d


s carab eu s .
( Camp an ari )
1 3 S yr en adv an c i n g t o the
. s ou n d of her l y r e . The l egend an d the p al m atte st
t h at s u ch gems (man y of whi ch e x i s t) we re pr i z es i n
the Cap i tol in e G ames rev i v ed by
D om i ti an S ard (K i ng ) . .

P l ate L V I G rylli 1 Head s of B acch u s an d S il en u s c onj oi n ed J an u s fas h i on


. . .
,

t he wh ol e vi ewed a di fferen t way b ec om in g t he I n di an Parrot attri b u te of t he g od


, , , ,

s t andin g on a br an ch ( p Calc ed on y (L eak e) . .

2 W in g ed g u r e g r as p in g t he p aws of a S phi nx an d ti g er
. B eli ev e in g ol d for min g .
,

t he fac e of an E t r u s can ri n g (A volta ) .

3 Fantas ti c B i r d c om p os e d of the h ead s of S i l en u s an d a wol f s u rm ou nted by


.
, ,

a p i g eon wi t h h ead u nd e r her wi n g : the s i g n et o f on e Ti ti ni u s wh os e n am e i s ,

whi m s i c al ly di s p os ed s o as to r ead fr om t he m i d d l e O bs i d i an . .

4 an d 5 G ryll u s i n t he g u r e o f a b ird wi t h hor s e s h ead c om b i ni n g the S i l en u s



.
, ,

and the Ram s head s pl au s i bly ex pl ai n ed by Botti g er as u ni t i n g the i n u en c es of all the


E l em ents for t he b en e t of the wearer S ard (P raan ) . .

6 B i r d wi t h t he h ead o f Pall as wh os e s pear a


.
,
n d s h i el d i t al s o c arr i es The i d ea
, .

of t he wh ol e i s t he cran e s ei z i n g a l i z ard Th i s i d enti cal g u r e i s a t yp e on t he c oi n s .

of t he g en s V al eri a an d i s th e r efor e s u pp os ed t o h av e a p u n nin g all u s i on to t he fami ly


,

n ame i n the sens e of s treng th B u rn t s ard ( K i n g )


,
. .

7 El eph an t em erg i n g fr om a s n ai l s h ell : a s u rp ri se


. S ar d (K i ng ) . .

8 W i n g ed Pant h e r or L y nx ab ou t to m ak e a s p ri n g
.
, B and ed ag ate ,
(B everley) .
.

9 A mu l et agai n s t t he s trok e of t he Evi l E ye : th at org an i t sel f s u rr ou nd ed by t he


.

e as i ly rec ogni sabl e att r i b u tes o f t he d ei t i es pr es i d i n g ov e r the sev er al d ay s of the week .

S ard .
(P raan )
1 0 S y m b ol i c al Ri n g u p on whi ch res ts t he G ry ll u s s u pp os ed to for m i ts int a l i o
,
g ,
.

s u rrou nd ed by the em bl em s of t he ch i e f g od s amon g s t wh i ch the m os t c u ri ou s are t he ,

c oni cal c ap s (ap i c es ) of the t h ree Fl am en s S ar d (Mask elyn e) . .

11 Tri pl e
. M a s k ; s et i n a m e d i ze v al g ol d rin g w it h t he l e n
g e d N e wel , .

1 2 L o c u s t s tr u ttin g al on g c ar ry i n g a c or n u c op i a wh en c e eme r g e C
.
, apri c o r n an d ,

a B ee The wh ol e c om p os i ti on i s i ntend ed lik ewis e to pr od u c e t he e tTec t o f th at p op u lar


.

d e si g n the Ge ek b eari n g off the pal m of vi c tory S ardoi n e


, Uz i elli ) . . .

1 3 B u n ch of G rap es m ad e u p ou t of t wo S at y r i c an d th r ee Co m i c mas k s c om pl eted


.
, ,

by the addi t ion o f a fe \v b erri es : on e of the m o s t i n gen i ou s c o m posi t i on s o f t he s ort .

lle l j as p e r
r
( K i ng ) .
COP P E R- PL ATE S O F MI SCE L L ANEO U S G E MS .

No 1 . . The Pel as g i c He r m es : hi s p etasu s isfor med ou t of the u pp er s h e l l o f


to rtoi se ,
as \Vi n ck elmann has o b s erv ed of ot h er arch ai c g u r es of t h i s g od S ar d . .

2 . J u p it er A mmon ,
i n t hree q u art er face ; earl y G reek e n g r av i n g p rob ably of
-
,

Cy reni an wor k man s h i p an d r etaini n g i t s or i gin al set t i n g


, S ar d ( K in g ) . .

3 P r oserp in e or A re thn s a : n e mod e r n i m i t ati on o f t he G reek mann er


.
,
S ar d . .

( K i ng )
4 . Di an a : h i ghl y n i s hed G r eek work Jac i n th ( Hertz )
-
. .

5 The D y in g M
. ed u s a ; app are nt ly anti q u e wor k g on e ov er ag ai n by a g ood mod er n

han d Perid ot ( Fro m the P u lli n i Cab i n et )


. . .

6 S at u r n wi th v ei l ed h ead
.
,
S ar d (K i n g ) . .

7 Y ou n g Fau n
. The act i on o f t he s h ou l d er s s h ows t he wh ol e g u r e to b e i n t he
.

att i t u d e of d r ag g i n g al on g old Fath er S i l en u s S ar d (K i n g ) . .

8 Melpom e n e ap os tr oph i s i n g a T rag i c Mas k pl ac ed o n a c i pp u s b e for e her


. .

A cc or di n g t o A gosti ni s m od e of i n t erpr etat i on we b eh ol d h er e th e Mu s e c ons u lt in g t he



,

o r acl e o f her s on Or ph e u s S ar d (K i n g ) . .

9 Marc el l u s t o j u d ge from i ts res em bl an c e t o hi s p or t r ait on a d e n ar i u s of the


.
,

en s Cl au di a S ar d ( K i n
g)
g . .

1 0 S ab i n a ; an ad mi r abl e s p ec i men of Rom an p ortr ai tu re at i ts b est


. Yell ow sar d . .

( W eb b
)
1 1 . Sas sani an Qu een , wh ose n am e s eem s r to ead l egen d as Madhod ochti
i n t he
.

The ty le of thi s i ntag l i o i s


s wor t hy o f c om p ar i s on t o th at o f t he p or traits of Varahran

al r ead y eu l og i z ed N i cole . .

1 2 Mi n er v a weari n g a h e l met m ad e u p ou t o f n u me r ou s s c eni c m ask s


.
,
Thi s i s . on e

o f the mos t el ab orate as well as b eau t i fu l prod u ct i on s of the Cin q u e c en t o that has
-
, ,
74 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NG S .

e v er c om e to m y k n owl ed g e S om eth i n g i n i ts s tyl e an d ex ec u ti on i n cli n es m e t o


.

at tri bu t e i t t o the au t h or of t he fam ou s Vi enn a Min erv a wi th t he n ame of A spasi u s .

S ard .
( B o dche
)

1 3 A nti och u s E pi phan es ; p rob ably a c opy from hi s n e d r achm a


. Y ell ow .

s ard.
( L ace)

1 4 P al l as b u s t i n front fac e wi th v er y el ab orat e head d ec orati on


.
, Cop i ed from a
, . .

l ate m edal of S y racu s e S ard oi ne (K i ng ) . .

1 5 Med u s a i n pr ol e : g ood Rom an st yl e


.
,
S ard (K i ng ) . .

1 6 P ort r ai t of an E gy p ti an L ad y of the Ptol em ai c p eri od ; the mon og r am b ehi n d


.

s eem s to c on tai n t he l etters of Ars i n oe S ard oin e (K i n g ) . .

1 7 Child s H ead i n front fac e i n s cri b ed wit h t he nam e of Tychi as S ard ( K i ng )



.
.
, .

1 8 L epi d u s cl os el y ag r eei n g wit h the p ort r ait on hi s d en ari u s


.
,
B l ack j as per .
,

ori g i n al l y s et i n i ron (K i n g ) .

1 9 Nero an i ntagli o rou gh ly ex ec u ted i n a d ebas ed G reek s tyl e


. S ard (K i n g ) . .

2 0 The Provin c e A fr i c a (s ee r em ark s on t h i s t yp e p


. v e ry b ol dly an d , .

d ee pl y c u t i n a l at e Rom an s t yl e S ar d ( H ertz
) . .

2 1 J u p i ter Tri u m phali s


. whose featu res res em bli n g thos e of S ev eru s h av e
, , ,

su gges ted t o s om e m od er n an ti qu ari o the i nte rp ol ati on S E T T I MI i n t he el d Y el l ow .

s ar d
.
( K i ng
)
2 2 S aty ri c an d Com i c Mas k s c onj oin ed for the s ak e of c ont r as t Y el l ow s ard ( K i n g )
.
, . .

2 3 B u s t of a Rom an
. wh os e fac e m u ch r es em bl es t h at of Di oc l eti an
,
S ard . .

( K i ng )
24 . S as s ani an p ortrai t ,
u n u s u al ly wel l ex e cu ted for t he cl as s . The P eh l evi l egen d
g iv es the n am e
(K i n g )
K arti r S hahpu hri . S ard .

2 5 The S i gn S ag ittari u s s u rrou nd ed wit h hi s pr op er s tars


.
, I n t he early G r eek .

s t y l e an d c on s eq u ent ly on e of t he m os t an c i ent as trol og i c al g em s an y wher e t o b e fou n d


, .

B an d ed ag ate bl an ch ed by re , ( D r Nott ) . . .

2 6 Conj oi n ed H ead s of Nep tu n e an d B acchu s with t h eir r es pe c ti v e at tr i b u t es


.
, ,

form i n g a t ali s m an the v i r tu e of whi ch i s s el f evi d ent


, S ardoi n e Uz i elli ) -
. . .

2 7 Two Cu p i d s en g aged i n s h in g
. P erh ap s an early Ch ri s ti an wor k for the .
,

Cros s formed by the m as t an d y ard i s m ad e a v er y c on s p i cu ou s obj ec t i n the t ableau


, , .

S ard .
(K i n g )
2 8 Two Cu p i d s amu s i n g th em s el ves wit h a mat c h at c ock ghti n g : the tri u m ph
.
-

of t he v i c tor an d d es p ai r of t he v an q u i sh ed on e are v er y cl ev erl y ex pr ess ed


, Red , .

j as per ( Uz i elli )
.

2 9 S phi nx with d ou bl e b od y ; the c og ni s anc e b or n e on the shi eld of the


.
,

Moli on i d ae S ard (Hertz ; f rom the ori g i n al P on i atows k y Cab i n et )


. . .

30 O l d an d Y ou n g Fau n s e n g ag ed i n a d r i nki n g b ou t ov er a cr ater c ap ac i ou s


.
,

e n ou gh to s ati s fy t h at t h i r s ty fam il y Y el l ow s ar d ( K i n g ) . .

31 Et r u s c an writi n g d own the r u l e s o f di vi n ati on d i c tated t o hi m by the ear t h


.

b orn Tages j u st tu r n ed u p by t he pl ou gh i n the eld of Cane Oth ers t ak e i t for an


, .

ast r ol og er c alc u l atin


g the n ativit y o f t he n e wly b or n i n fant ; whi ch ex pl an at ion i nd eed
-
, ,

i s s u ppo r ted by the i nt r od u c ti on of the s u n an d m oon ov er the n as c en t head S tr i p e d .

ag at e ( K i ng )
.
C OP P E R- P L A T E S OF MI S CE L L A NE O US G EM S . 75


32 . A G au l , to b e
k n own by his d oor l i k e s h i el d an d the b ina g aes a m an u -
, ,

falli n g wou n d ed from hi s h or s e S ar d Uz i elli ) . . .

33 Cu p i d exp ell i n g a g h os t from t he rec es ses o f a v ast u rn


. Ni c olo ( Dr Nott ) . . . .

34 G ryl l u s i n the ge n e ral ou tl i n e of an E ag l e s h ead m ad e u p o f t h os e of B acch u s a



.
, , ,

B oar a Ram an d a Coc k ; all re fer r i n g t o t he d ei t i es wh os e attri b u tes th ey sev erally


, ,

are . S ard ( K i ng
) .

35 The S i c i l i an Tr i q u et r a
. S ar d ( U z i elli . . .

36 Hel m et m ad e o f a B oar s H ead cres t ed wi th a Cou ch ant \Volf (s ac red t o Mar s)



.
, ,

an d for ch i n s t rap h avi n g a L i z ar d t he ef c acy of whi c h l as t has b een al read y n oti c ed


-
,

( p. S a r d (K i n g ) .

37 Cap an eu s s tru ck wi t h li g h tni n g an d t u m bl i n g b ack ward s whi l s t hi s s word fall s


.
, ,

hal f m el t ed from hi s g r as p I n t he wh ol e E tr u s c an s eri es n o g em s u r pas s es th i s for


-
.

acc u r acy of d r awi n g n en es s of exec u ti on an d effect i ve m od e of te l lin g i t s s tory


,
Ev ery , .

t h in g h ere i s per fec tly n atu ral an d yet free from t he grotes q u e n at u ral i s m that,

e n erally d i s gu res t he work s of th i s s ch ool Ban d ed agate bl an ched by re


g .
, .

Ves covali )
38 . S e r api s,
n iti n g t he ch arac ter s of P h oebu s an d A m mon as b ei n g the S ol ar
u ,

d e it y S apph i r i n e c alc ed on y
.
(K i n g ) .

39 H e r m es i n t he A ss y r i an sty l e ; an earl y A s i ati c G reek p rod u c ti on ( p


.
,
-
.

O c tag on al con e of sapph iri n e c alc edon y (Foald ) .

4 0 The S i s t er Nem es es of S m y rn a ; t he on e b eari n g t he m eas u r i n g wan d t he oth er


.
-
,

the b ri d l e embl em s of s elf k n owled g e an d s e l f res t r ai nt


,
~
The s i g n et of on e Di ony s i u s -


of th at c i ty S ee m y r em ark s u p on adv erti s ement g em s ( p
. S ard (K i n g ) . .

4 1 P ers i an H e l m et an d S h i el d em bl az on ed wi th t he S u n : s i g n et of on e P r i mi
.
,

g e ni us S ar d
.
( H ertz
) .

4 2 E s c u lapi u s an d H y g ei a : the s i g n et of on e A n thi m u s ev i d ent l y some phys i c i an


.
, ,

an d u s ed for s tam p in g hi s m ed i c in es S ar d (K i n g ) . .

4 3 D eat h exti n g u i shi n g t he v i tal t or ch ; t he hoop h el d b ehi n d hi m sh ows that


.

T i m e (ann u s ) i s ru n ou t S ard ( K i n
g)
w
. .

4 4 T r i t on s H ead hos e am ph i b i ou s n atu re i s s i n gu l arly ex pressed by t he g i l ls



.
,

th at cros s hi s ch eek s an d en abl e hi m t o breat h e u n d er water A S ex tu s Ped iu s has


, .

chos e n for hi s s eal thi s v ery c u r i ou s d evi c e S ard (K i ng ) . .

4 5 B on u s E v en t u s i n t he ch ar act e r of t he S i gn Vi rg o at tend ed by her faith fu l d og


.
,

Meta The own er s n am e


.

V i ri l i s

s eem s t o h av e i n d u c ed h i m t o
, g iv e th i s h erma
,

phrod i t i c g u re t o hi s tu t el ary S i g n S ar d ( Dr No tt ) . . . .

4 6 Man s eat ed hol di n g u p a Ram s Head as an offe r in g b efor e a b l az in g al t ar



.
, .

VV i nc k elm an n e x pl ai ns t h i s freq u ent t yp e as a s acr i c e t o Praxi d i c e b u t i t s p o p u l ar ity


wou l d rath er s u gg es t t he wors h i p of He r m es Cri oph oros so often gu red wi t h a ram s ,

h ead i n hi s h and S ard (K i ng ) . .

4 7 \Varri or x i n g i n the g rou n d a s h eathe d s word A s some gem s repr es en t t he


'

. .

s am e ac t i on b ein g p e r for m ed i n fr ont of a t om b t he su bj ec t m ay b e u nd e r s t ood as ,

J ason s ol i c i t i n g p u ri c at i on from Ci r c e for t he m u rd er of A b s y rt u s ; acc ord in g to the


c erem on y d etai l ed by A p oll oni u s Rhod i u s S t r i p ed ag ate ( E as t wood ) . .

4 8 A chi l l es rep os in g i n hi s te nt hi s ar mou r an d weap on s fas t en ed to a c ol u m n be fo r e


.
,
76 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I N G S .

hi m . Th i s g em ,
th ou g h b u t m edi oc re i n p oi nt o f art pos s es s es v ery g r eat i nter est , ,

bein g on e of t h ose s et i n t he s h ri n e of S t E l i z ab et h of Marbu rgh all ab s t rac ted d u r in g .


,

i ts r em ov al to Cas s el i n 1 8 04 Th i s id en t ity i s evi d ent u p on c om p ari son wi t h Creu z ers



.

d rawi n g of t he s am e s u bj ec t i n hi s pl ates of the g em s b el on g i n g t o t he m on u m ent ,

p u bl i s h ed i n hi s A rc haeologi e vol i i i N i c olo ( W ebb ) ,



. . .

4 9 The S i g n A r i es
. T h i s b ei n g t he horos c op e o f A n t i och (an d c on seq u ent l y pu t on
.


i t s c oi n ag e) i t m ay b e i n ferre d th at
,
P r i m u s wh os e n am e i s so c on s p i c u ou s l y add ed , ,

was a n ati v e of th at c i ty S ard


( D r A ott) . . .

5 0 Y ou th fu l G i ant d e fy in g J ov e an d s hi el d in g hi msel f wi t h t he li on s s k i n

.
,

wrapp ed ab ou t hi s l e ft arm B u r nt s ard fou n d at Cu m ae ( K i n g ) .


,
.

5 1 The D y i n g O rthryad es wri t i n g v rc r on t he t rophy he has rai sed ou t o f the


.

ar mou r of t he v an q u i s h ed S p ar tan s : t he s ame wo r d i s rep e ated i n l arg e ch ar act ers i n

t he e l d Rom an wor k of the Re pu bl i c an ti mes S ar d L o rd M array


.
( ) . .

5 2 H erc u l es an d O m ph al e c onj u g at ed b u s t s ; or p erhaps Com m od u s an d Marc i a


.
, , ,

c om pl i m ented J ac i nt h ( Uz i elli )
5
9 . .

5 3 L ittl e B oy c ares s i n g a l arg e Hou n d : a p retty an d c are fu lly ni sh ed G reek


.

wor k . S ar d of g reat b eau ty Uz i elli ) . .

5 4 S il en u s h al f r ecl i ni n g m ak i n g a g es tu re wi t h hi s h an d ; b u t v ery p rep osterou s ly


.
, ,

u n d e r s tood by t he pr e vi ou s own e r as S ocrates d ecl ai m i n g E arl y G r eek e n grav in g . .

(Hertz )
55 . n gag ed i n t u rni n g u pon hi s wh eel an i mm en se arn phora ; the apparent
Potter e

p etasu s ov er hi s h ead i s i n real ity d u e t o a frac t u re of the ed ge Th i s i n tagli o i s o f the .

d at e of t he Mag n a G rec i an v ases wh os e m anu fac t u r er i t i mm ortali z es Y el l ow sar d


-
, . .

( Uz i elli )
56 r r i or s tandin g by the s i d e of hi s Hors e ; p rob abl y c op i ed from a g rou p by
. W a

L y s i pp u s of A l ex an d er an d hi s fam ou s st eed
,
The n ex u s of l ett ers i n t he el d i s r ead .


by Vi s c on t i as M A N T N V MI for N u m i da or N ym pheros
. . S ar d (From the
.
, , . .

orig i n al P on i ato wsk y Cab i n et .


)
57 J u p i t er s tan di n g u p on the g l ob e, t o wh om Fort u n a s u pp or ted by t he G en i u s of
.
,

t he E arth i s p res en t i n g a li t tle g u re of A b u nd anti a


,
A com p os i ti o n fu l l of g ood .

au g u ri es an d e vid entl y m eant t o d ec orate a N ew Y ear s g i ft On y x (K i n g )


. .
,

5 8 Cu p i d Vi c tori ou s re pos i n g after hi s c on q u es t u pon a p i l e of ar m s


.
,
B an ded .

ag ate .
( K i ng
)
59 Head of a S as s ani an Prin c e ; the l eg en d app ear s t o c ontai n t he n ame o f
.

Mi tri rat i foll owed by oth er t i tl es S p i n el r u by (K i n g )


,

. .

6 0 O m ph al e c arry in g off t he s p oi l s of Herc u l es


.
A b o l d e n g rav i n g of t he Cin q u e .

c ento s ch ool whi ch s ome m or e recent pos s es s or has s ou gh t t o en h an c e i n v al u e by


,

i nserti n g the nam e of t he ct iti ou s arti s t Hell en Sard (K i ng ) , . .

P l at e I S carabei from t he Merten s S chaa haas en Collect i on


.
(A c t u al s i z e ) - . .

1 Fem al e i n l on g rob e l ifti n g u p from t he g rou n d a ch i l d wit h di s t ort ed l eg s


.
, ,

Pal l as an d E r i ch th oni u s ? S ard .

2 S ph i n x s eat e d b e fore a P al m tree ov erhead i s the Royal V u ltu r e : i n d i c ati on s of a


.
-

P h oeni c i an or i g i n Calced on v . .

3 Mou nted \Varri or c ar ry i n g a trop hy


. S ard . .
C O PP ER P L A TE S O F Jll[ S C E L L A N E U US G E MS . 77

4 . G ryph on
d ev ou r in g a S t ag S ard . .

5 S ph in x cou c han t ; i n front t wo Hawk s i n the el d d e t ach ed l et t e r s A l at e


"

.
, .

E g yp ti an work Top az . .

6 N ak ed You t h wi t h han d appl i ed t o h i s an kl e as i f i n t he ac t o f u s i n g t he


.
, ,

s tr i g i l A methy st
. .

7 W arr i o r pl u n g i n g a s wor d i nto a H u man Hea d h e l d i n hi s l e ft h and : Ty d eu s


.

wi th t he s ev e r ed h ead of Mel ani pp u s S ar d . .

8 S i l e n u s r ecl i nin g i n h i s h an d a c an th ar u s ab ov e hi m a l ar g e crat e r


.
,
V ery early , .

G r ee k work S ar d oin e . .

9 Herc u l es v oy ag in g on a Raft b u oy ed u p wi th A rn phorzn an d s pr eadi n g a wi n o


.
,

s k i n for s ai l S ard . .

10 . ext r ac tin g an arr ow fr o m h i s leg : Di o m e d e wou nd ed by t he arch e r

Par i s ? S ar d .

1 1 B acch u s at ti r ed i n a l on g rob e ; t he t hy rs u s i n on e h and i n t he oth er a


.
, ,

m yr t l e br an ch -
S ar d . .

1 2 W in g e d Mo ns t er r es em bl i n g t he W i n g ed B oar on t he c oin s of Claz om e n ae S ar d


.
,
. .

1 3 Seat ed S ph i nx of s p i r i t ed ex ec u ti on an d pr ob ably o f G r ee k wo rk
.
,
S ar d , . .

1 4 \Varri or i n c om pl et e arm ou r k n ee l i n g
.
,
Ty d eu s awai t i n g h i s fo es S ard , . .

1 5 S eat ed Fi gu re ad or i n g an E g ypt i an K i n g ad v an c i n g t o ward s hi m


. A wo rk of .

t he P tol emai c pe r io d O b s idi an . .

1 6 Cu p b ear e r G an y med e ; i n on e hand a v as e i n t he o th er t he l ad le cy ath u s for


.
-
, , , ,

bal i n g the wi n e ou t of the crater D ark ag ate . .

1 7 W arr i or n u d e gu re ar m ed wi t h l arg e h em i s ph er i c al s h i el d an d br oad s wor d


.
, ,
.

S ard .

1 8 Cas tor at t he tom b of A phau eu s ; a Nak ed Y ou th weep i n g ov er a c ol u m n t o


. ,

wh i ch are x ed a d i s c u s an d a s t ri g i l On yx . .

19 W arr i or wit h how i n hand cr ou ch i n g b ehi n d a s hi el d ; p e rh ap s i nte n d ed for


.
'

, ,

Pand ar u s Calc ed on y . .

2 0 A g ed Man s u pp or ti n g a You t h wh os e arm i s g r as p e d by a Fem al e : t he s i ck


. ,

O r estes ten d ed by the Ch oras an d El ectr a S ar d . .

P l ate 1 1 G reek A rt . .

1 H erc u l es s l ay i n g t he Hy d r a The s u bj ec t i s tr eat ed i n the s am e man n e r as u p on


. .

th e c oi n s of P h a es t u s i n Cr et e S ar d . .

2 B r id e u nv ei l i n g h er s el f ; c onv en t i on al ly t er med a Pen el op e or t he em bl em o f


. ,

Mod es ty S ard . .

3 A treu s ar m ed wi th t he h arp of Pers eu s ( fou nd er o f Myc en ze ) abou t t o c u t u p


.
, ,

th e c hild of hi s brot her Thy es t es S ar d . .

4 A p oll o s h ead i n t he arch ai c s tyl e b u t wh i ch g en er ally p ass es fo r V irg i l s


As

. , .

t h i s i d enti cal h ead gu res on t he m i n t age of the gen s Cal p u rni a i t was probabl y ,


c op i ed fr om the Tu sc an i c u s A p ol l o s o h i gh l y l au ded by P l i n y Ni c ol o ,
. .

5 H ead of a Poet mu ch re s em bl i n g th at of A lco u s i n t he t erra c ot t a r el i e f of hi m


e -
. ,

an d S appho n ow i n t h e B r i t i s h Mu s eu m
,
Calc ed on y . .

6 W arr i o r b rou g ht to hi s kn ee s by a wo u nd b u t s t i ll d e f ndi n g h i m s el f wi th hi s


. , e

b at tl e axe A n t i q u e pas t e
-
.
.
8 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D RI NG S .

7 Nep tu n e s h al l ow i ntag l i o of e x trem e ni s h Yel l o w s ar d


. . .

8 S i l e n u s extendin g hi s g obl et to t he B acch i c p an th e r


. S ar d . .

9 H er o an d L eand er ; t he l att e r i s pr ec ed ed ov er t he wav es by a p ai r o f dol ph in s


.
,

i n accor d an c e wi th som e l eg end n ow l os t m aki n g hi m to h av e av ai l ed h i ms elf o f t h eir , ,

ass i s t an c e i n hi s n oc tu rn al tri p s as appears from S tati u s (i 3 2 7 ) , . .

S es t i acos u u nc fam a si n u s pelag q e n at at am u s u

au d ac i ju n c t os d elph i as eph eb e

J ac t at , et n .

B u rnt rd sa .

1 0 Or ph eu s s eated on a roc k res tin g hi s l y re on t he tru n k of a tree


.
S ard , . .

1 1 Pri es tes s of Ceres c arry i n g s c e ptre an d l l et her h air g ather ed i nto a l on g


.
, ,

tres s S ar d
. .

1 2 Comi c A c tor at t i r ed i n the p alli u m m asked an d h ol d in g the p ed u m t h at m ark s


.
, , ,

hi s pr ofes s i on S ar doi n e . .

1 3 Ven u s (or L ai s ) v i ewi n g hersel f i n a c on v ex m irror


. B an d ed agate . .

1 4 I n d i an B acch u s wi th th yr s u s an d c anth aru s i n hi s h an d s


.
, B an d ed agat e . .

1 5 Erechtheu s ab ou t to s ac ri c e hi s d au g h te r Chthon i a u n d er t he s ac red Oli v e t ree


.
-
.

The s h ad e em erg i n g from t he ear t h b et ok en s t he c on s eq u ent s u i c i d e of her s i s t er s .

A nti q u e p as te .

1 6 Y ou n g Fau n carry i n g a G oat on hi s s h ou l d e r s t o b e s acr i c ed


. Y el l ow s ard . .

1 7 L u n a vi s iti n g E n d y m i on as he s l eep s on Mou nt L at m os whi l e Cu p i ds c arry


.
,

away the s p oil s of t he c h as e t o i ndi c ate t he h ero of t he s c en e S ard , . .

1 8 A r gu s c u tti n g ou t the s tem of hi s s hi p Sard


Pl at e I I I
. . .

R om an I n tag li . .

1 Y ou t h s eated h ol d i n g a S er p ent ov e r a bl az i n g altar ; b ehi n d i s a B u tterfl y u p on


.
,

a b ran c h of a tree A s i m i l ar s u bj ec t i s r e ferr ed by W in ck el m ann t o Tel egon u s


.
,

i nv ent or of d iv i n ati on b y m ean s of s erp e nts S ard . .

2 Old Fau n s eated b u s y i n s t irri n g u p a c au l d ron wh e n c e Cu p i d i s r u nn in g off


r
. .
, ,

wi th a hu g e h orn ll ed with t he b re wi n g ; the su bj ect bein g cl earl y the c on c oc tion of a


l ov e p oti on The s ty l e i s t hat of the Ci n q u e cento wi th whi ch c orres pond s the
-
.
-
,

oc tag on al s hap e of t he g em a l arg e j ac i nt h , .

3 J u n o Cap it ol i n a wi th her s acred G oose


. S ard ,
. .

4 Cu p i d s tee r i n g a D ol ph i n by t he s ou n d of hi s p i p e
. S ard . .

5 D og s Head cou p led wi t h a s ac ri c i al kni fe ; al l u s i v e t o t he rites of Hecate



.
, .

Red j as p er .

6 G all i en u s an d S alon i n a c onfronted b u s t s ; b etween them t he n u p ti al altar


.
,

s u ppor tin g t he I m p er i al E agl e ( p S ar d . .

7 J u p it er e nth ron ed wi th i n t he Z od i ac ; an d en grav ed u p on hi s own p ec u l i ar g em t he



.
,

l ap i s l az u li (s apphi ru s) The hor os c op e of t he own er who had c au s e to boas t th ereo f


.
, ,

for Nu n q u am c ri t p au p er cu j u s n ati vi tat i s d omi n u s es t J u p i te r as Al man sor ,


hath i t .

8 Ceres or an em pres s so c ompli m ented i n a c ar ( th en s a) d rawn by E l eph an t s



.
, , .

Y ell ow s ard .


9 Capr i c orn u s L ord o f t he Hes p eri an \Yav o as the t r i d e n t he b ear s s i ni es
.
, g , ,

g u id ed by hi s G e ni u s Sard . .
COP P ER -
P L A TE S OF I ll I S CE L LA N E O 7S G E MS . 79

1 0 Cu p i d d r ivi n g , wi th
. trid ent for wh i p a m ari n e team of I li ppoc arn pi y ok ed to a , ,

g r eat s h el l for c ar: a p ar od y on the u s u al Vi c tory i n he r b i g a S ard oi n e . .

1 1 J u p iter i n t he S i g n Can c er at h i s fee t t he E ag l e ; a v e ry pr o p i t i ou s h or os c op e


.
,

( p. C alc ed on y .

1 2 Cu p id m ou nt ed on a g r eat Fi s h s u rrou nd ed by s t ar s ; re pr e s e n t i n g t he
.
,

c onstell ati on Cetu s t he h oros c o p e of s h er men an d s al t work er s


,
-

N ow l e ft t h VVhale h g f r m wi ll r is e
on t he e

s u e o ,

S ek i n g A n d r m ed a th r o g h ea thr g h k es
e o u s ,
ou s i .

L ed b y th is s t ar war h all t he n at iv e wag e


,
s

O ocean s s c aly r ac e wi th ag r r ag e

n e e

S h all lay t he s ar e f ll wi d e wi th n t s o t pr ead


n u e u s ,

An d et wi th art f l t r aps old N pt e s b ed



s u e un .

Man i l i u s v ,

. 65 6 .

S ard oi n e .

1 3 G au l rec og ni z abl e
. by hi s l on g hair p ec u li ar sh i el d sl u n g at hi s b ack an d great
, ,

s wo r dawai t i n g the attac k of t he e n em y A n i nter es t in g m em ento of som e G all i c


.

tri u m ph P l asm a . .

1 4 H er mes Ps ychepom pos ev oki n g a s ou l from H ades b y the v i r tu e of hi s


.
,

c ad u c eu s Ban d ed agate
. .

1 5 L y re form ed ou t of t wo D ol ph i n s (su ppos ed g r eat l ov ers of m u si c ) ; t he s ou n d


.

i n g b oar d i s a m as k u p on the br id g e s i ts Mi n er v a s Owl On y x red an d whit e



- - . .
, ,

1 6 Me rc u ry l ean i n g ag ai n s t a c i ppu s h ol di n g for th a S erp e nt t wo ot h ers rear


.
, , ,

t h emselv es toward s hi m a s c en e of d i vi n ati on On y x . .

1 7 G or gon s H ead ; a wor k of i m men s e vi g ou r t h ou g h i n t he l at er Rom an s t y le



. .
,

A l mandi n e .

1 8 Rom an S ol di er ad or i n g Mar s who g ras p s i n on e h an d a t r oph y i n t he oth er a


.
, ,

l eg i on ary s t and ar d E arl y Roman work ret ai nin g m u ch of the Etru sc an Sard
.
, . .

Plat e I V G reelc an d R om an G em s
. .

1 Y ou t h s eat ed m ak in g a g es tu re o f re fu s al ; b efor e hi m s t and s a \Voman


.
, ,

app arent ly u rg i n g som e r eq u es t : H i pp olyt u s an d P h aed r a s N u r se P l as ma


. .

2 Messali n a ; an ex q u i s ite S p ec i m e n of Rom an p ort raitu r e of t he h i g h est p oss i bl e


.
,

ni sh J ac i nth
. .

3 Mi n er v a s eated h ol d in g for t h a V i c tory u p on her h an d ; acc om p an i ed wit h t he


.
,

at tr i b u tes of J u p i ter H ermes an d E s c u lapi u s


,
A d esi g n i n th e Ci n q u e c ento t ast e
,
.
-
.

S ard .

4 J ason con s u l tin g the D elp hi c O r acl e ex pr es s ed by A p oll o s Rav e n an d S er p e nt



.
. ,

Pan ofk a h owev er s ees i n i t t he orac u l ar P i ou s c on s u l t ed b v an I t al i an warr i or


, ,
S ard . .

5 Toreu tes e n g ag ed i n ch asi n g a v as t Cor i n th i an cr at e r


.
S ar d . .

6 B u s t of S erap i s ab ov e t he g l ob e to t yp i fy hi s sov er ei g nt y s u pp ort ed on a c olu m n ;


.
, ,

i n the el d a t ri d em bl em prob ably s om e s acr ed pl ant an d t he l etter s T Z i n i t i al s


, , ,

of s om e n ormal i nv oc at i on to t he g od R ed j as p e r . .

7 B u s t of a Bacch ant e i n the atti t u d e o f i n s p i r at i on ; v er y b ol d ly d on e i n the l ater


.
,

Rom an s ty l e S ard . .

8 The Th r ee Heracli d ze c as t in g l ot s for the p arti t i on o f the Pel op on n es u s i n t he


. ,

man n er d es cr i b ed by A p oll od oru s (ii Or accord i n g to an oth er e x pl an ati on t he .


, ,
80 A N TI Q UE G E MS A N D R I NGS .

A rg on au ts p u ri fy i n g t h emse l v es after t he d eat h of Cy z i c u s s l ai n by chan c e m ed l ey ,


-
.

Band ed ag ate .

9 W i n g ed Foot ( n ormal s y m b ol of S erap i s or P l u to) cr u sh i n g t he P s ych e b u t ter y


.
- .

Jac i nth .

1 0 A u g u s t u s pl ac ed withi n an oli v e wreath a v ery m i n u te work


.
, S ard -
. .

1 1 E ag l e with s pread wi n g s t he breas t mod el l ed i nto t he h ead of G anym ed e


.
, .

S ard .

1 2 U l y s s es pro eri n g a b owl of win e t o P olyph e mu s : b ehin d i s on e of hi s cre w


.
,

c arry in g the wi n e s k i n on hi s s h ou l d ers A cu ri ou s e x am pl e of the Ci n q u e c ent o s tyl e


-
.
-
,

en g r av ed on a v e ry l ar ge c ar b u n cl e .

1 3 Mou nted Hu nter wit h t wo H ou n d s c hasi n g a L i on


.
,
D ou bl e c onv ex d i s k of , .
-

bl ack agate p erforated i n t he c entre an d pr ob ably i ntend ed for a b u l a


, ,
.

1 4 The T h ree S i s t er S y ren s s t an d in g i n t h ei r c hor u s : a v e ry c u r i ou s re pres en t a


.
,

ti on A meth y s t
. .

1 5 The I n fant O ph eltes i n t he fold s o f a S erp ent as d es cri b ed by S tati u s


.
,

Praeei s u m s q u am i s av i d u s b b i it an g u is Ophelt em .

Red j as p er .

16 . Fath er N il u s b eari n g the c orn u c opi a ,


e mb l em of hi s m u n i cen ce ; b efore hi m
t he p apy r u s S ard . .

17 City o f A nti och s eated u p on the Ri v er g od O rontes


. The l ette r s i n t he el d -
,
.

i ndi c ate her reg u l ar titl e s x i a I p Mnrpdr lu s A o fas , P l as m ao e


.

e

cz '
o . .

1 8 The s am e b u t an k ed by For tu n a an d her fou n d er S el eu c u s


.
,
Red j as p er , . .

Plate V Mi scellan eoas G ems . .

1 Sag i ttar i u s : v er y n e Ci n q u e c ento work


. S ard -
. .

2 B acc hi c P r oc es s i on S i l e n u s hal f fall i n g off hi s A s s s u pp orted by Fau n s an d


.
, , ,

p reced ed by a Maen ad On e of t he b es t ex am pl es of g lypt i c art an y wh ere t o b e


.

fou nd for i ts ski l fu l com p os iti on perfec t d rawi n g an d wond er fu l ni s h The v ery
, , , .

e x c el l en c e of i ts p i c tori al e ec t howev er i s a pr oof th at thi s wor k m u s t b e as si n ed to


'

, g ,

on e of t he g reat m as ters of the earl y I tal i an Revi v al S ar d of u nc omm on beau ty of tint .


,

wor t h y of the i ntag l i o i t c arri es .

3 P opp aea p rob abl y a c ont em p orary p or t rai t


.
,
Yellow sard . .

4 V e n u s i n s tru c ti n g her s on i n t he art of arch ery


. S ard . .

5 A p oll o D elphi c u s i n fr ont fac e of t he b es t G r eek ep och


.
, Jaci n th , . .

6 V en u s robi n g h erself b e fore a mi rror S ar d


. . .

7 Fau n em p t y i n g an amph ora i nto a crater pl aced on t he g rou nd


. S ard oi n e on c e .
,

Horac e W al pol e s

.

8 Y ou n g Fau n an d Bacchante k eep i n g fes tiv al u n d er the au s p ices of Cu p i d


.
, .

S ard .

9 B ac ch u s fol l owed by h i s Panther


. S ar d . .

1 0 V en u s g u i d i n g h er s h el l car
.
A work exhi b i ti n g all t he ch ar ac teri s t i c s of t he
-
.

Cin q u e c ento s tyl e an d i t s d i ffer e n c e from t he anti q u e


-
, S ardoi n e . .

1 1 P r i am at t he feet o f A ch i ll es
. The He r t z g em al read y n oti c ed ( p S ar d . . .

1 2 Me rc u r
. y i n the S i g n S c o rp i o a v e ry au s pi c i ou s horos c o p e (p P l as ma . .
COP P ER -
P L A TE S OF MI S C E L L A NE O US G EM S . 81

13 . Pallas P romachos S ard


. .

1 4 Cu p i d in t he charac te r of a rac e r
. . S ar d .

1 5 D i s eob olu s : t he v ery n es t i nt ag l i o of t he s u b jec t an d p e rh aps t he m os t


.
,

i mportant gem i n the Her t z Cab i n et ( N ow i n t he B r iti s h Mu seu m ) S ar d


. . .

1 6 A gri pp i n a J u ni o r ; work o f her peri od


. . Plasm a .

1 7 Pan an d O l y m p u s at a fo u n tain on whos e mar g i n cr awl s a S n ai l em bl em of


.
, ,

v ol u p tu ou s n es s S ar d
. .

1 8 Fau s t i n a d on e i n the b es t s ty l e o f her ti mes S ar d on c e Ho r ac e \Valpole s



. . .
, ,
go AN TI Q UE G E MS A ND R I N G S .

1 VOODCU TS I N T E XT OF A PP END I X .

Ti tle P ag e M r a s an d V en u s c au gh t i n c ameo of wh i ch a
V u lc an

s n et : ,

d escri p ti on has bee n g i v en at p 4 28 The d r awi n g of t h i s masterp i ec e of tech ni c al


. .

s k i ll i t s l f m t er p i ec e for d el it y an d e x q u i s i t e ni s h b n m d s c l e of
( e a as
) h a s e e a e t o t he a

on e an d a h al f of t he m eas u r em ent of the or i i n al Thi s n om i n al n ot r eal enl arg e


g .
,

m e nt was the on ly p os s i bl e m et h od of t r an s ferri n g t o p ap er the e ffe c t of the or i g in al u p on


t he eye as m ay b e prov ed by m at hem ati c al d em onstrati on thu s
,

,
I n an y g u r e i n ,

h al f r el i ef t he ar ea of i ts whole su rf ace exc eed s by on e hal f t he ar ea c ontain ed wi th i n i t s


- -

own ou tl ine . N ow wh en a drau ghtsm an attem p ts t o dr aw an obj ec t i n rel i e f t o wh at he



cal l s t he ac tu al s i z e he b eg i n s by taki n g the ex ac t li m its of th i s ou tli n e to c ontai n all
,

t he d etai l s of the g u r e whi ch d etai l s are t h e r eby ac tu al ly r ed u c ed i n s i z e i n t he s am e


, ,

p rop or ti on fr om th os e i n the reli ef itsel f Hen ce t he ni s h ed drawi n g has t he app ear


.

an c e o f b ei n g m u ch s mal l er th an t he ori g in al O f thi s error (i n to whch m an y con


.

n oi ss eu rs fal l t h r ou g h t he d es ire of p oss ess i n w h at th y s u pp os e fac s i m iles o f g em s ) -


, g e

some g l ar i n g ex am p l es wil l b e fou n d i n t h es e pl at es wh ere the c op i es th ou g h m ad e by, ,

a cl ev e r arti s t hav e tu rn ed ou t eq u all y d ec i ent i n d etai l s an d acc u racy as t h ey are


, ,

m i serably weak an d total ly d ev oi d of t he tru e ex pres s i on ; i n fac t they p rod u c e t he


, ,

i m pres s i on of b ei n g greatl y d i mi n i shed from th ei r pr ototyp es .

Th e r e i s howev er t he opp os i t e e r ror th at of p rep os te rou s ly m ag ni fy i n g t he c opy


, , , ,

i n to whi ch the d rau g h ts me n of the las t c en t u ry c om m on ly ran l i k e t he tal ented l i c art ,


worki n g for S tos ch an d the Roman ar ti s ts em pl o y ed on \Vi n c k elm an n s p u bl i c ati on



, .

The ru l e I h av e g i v e n h e r e has at l eas t the m athe mati c al arg u ment on its s id e an d , ,

what i s b ett er has rec e iv ed t he app rov al of m an y ac tu al p rac titi on ers of t he art of
,

d r awi n g .

The c ameo s ou rc e of the ab ov e di g r ess i on i s n o w the pr o p e rty o f Mr J B rog d en


, ,
. . .
W O O D C U TS IN TH E TE X T O F A I P JLN D J X

. 83

Pag e 1 The c ar vi n g o f t he g od Cu c u lcan d s cr i bed i n t he n e x t p ag e Th c om


.
,
e . e

par i s on o f the mater i al to g reen en am l mak es i t probabl e th at i t i s r eally A m az on e

ston e an d no t n eph r i t e as s t at ed i n the t e x t


, ,
.

Pag e 5 E g y pt i an Ph oenix from a p ai n t i n g


.
,
.

Pag e (5 E tr u s c an s wi v l r in g i n wh i ch i s m ou n t e d a s carab eu s o f t he fi n es t s ard


. e -
,

on yx as th at n ame was u nd e r s t ood by the early G reek s


,
S ard o n yc h s o li m i n t lli .

e e


g b an t u r c an d or e i n s ard a
e u troq u e t ralaci d s ay s Pl in y ; an d t hi s
g m is o, e

fo r med by t he u ni on of a b eau t i fu l s ar d wi t h a tr ans p ar ent wh i t l ay e r T he i ntag li o e .

i n t he earl i es t s tyl e r epr esents a ho r s m an who m u s t b e Cast or


,
who d el i g h t s i i i
e , ,

h o rs es for the twi n s t ar s of t he Dios c u r i app ear i n t he el d to d ec l ar e the s i g ni fi can c , e

o f t he t yp e .

I h Head o f S i l en u s o f ex c ell ent G r ec o I t al i an work ; on e of t he v e ry rare s p ec i m en s


. ,
-

o f a h ead of eit h er god o r m an attem p ted u pon a scarab eu s The featu res h av e all t he .

ch ar act er of th ose of S ocr ates b u t the d ate of the work i s m u ch too earl y to all ow of i ts
,

p as sin g for a p o rtrai t (S ard ) . .

I h Ch ari ote r mou nted i n hi s tri g a an d l eani n g for ward t o pat t he t r ac e hors e
. e , ,
-

u p on t he n eck A n i n s tr u c ti v e i ll u s t rati on o f the p ri m iti v e Et r u s can t hn i q u e t he


. ec ,

e nti re i ntag l i o b ei n g s u nk i n t he s ard by t he d ri l l al on e .

Th es e t h r ee ex am pl es are all drawn t o d ou bl e t he ac tu al s i z e an d are s l ec ted fr om , e

t he ex ten s i v e c oll ec ti on of s c arab ei b el on g in g to Mr B r og d en . .

P age 8 Med ia val secretu m or p erson al s eal set wit h an anti q u e i nt ag i o of a l ion
.
3
, , l ,

t o wh i c h al l u s i on i s c ont ai n ed i n t he m otto The wrath of a k i n g i s as t he an ge r of a ,

l i on Fou n d i n t he v i c i ni ty of Z u r i ch .

P age 9
.

The G r eat Cam eo of S t A l b an s ; a fac s i m i l e of Mat th ew Par i s s s p i r i t ed



-
.
.

s k etch (I. am i nd eb ted t o t he S oc i ety of A nti q u ari es for t he p er m i s s i on t o h av e an

e l ec t r ot yp e tak e n from t he wood c u t i n t h ei r p ossess i on ) I c an n ot d is c ov er t he fate o f .

t h i s r em ark abl e m on u m en t after t he d i ss ol u ti on of t he abb ey I ts mag ni t u d e an d work .

m ans h i p wou l d hav e ren d er ed i t a v al u ed p art of t he s p oi l s i n t he e s t i m ati on o f t he


comm i s s i on er s an d wou l d n ow l ead t o i ts i m med i at e i d en t i c at i on i f s t i l le x i s tin g i n a y
, , n

mod er n c ab i n et .

Page 1 9 A n t i q u e R in g s et wi th a s m all e r i ntag l i o u p on each s h o u l d e r b sid es t h


.
, ,
e e


S i n e t i n t he m idd l e ; a d th er e for e t o b e d esi g n at ed ann u l u s t ri g emm eu s

g
n
( S e . e

remark s at p .

Page 2 0 Mi n e r v a or Mel p omen e h ol di n g u p an d ap os tr o ph isi n g a t r ag i c m as k ;


.
, ,

a s eal u s ed fo r s t am p in g t he O p ob al s amu m of H r oph i l u s D s cr i bed n th s ame pag