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Revista Internacional de Fatiga 80 (201) 443448

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Revista Internacional de Fatiga


Pgina principal de la revista: w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / i j f a t i g u e

Un modelo de evaluacin multiaxial de alto ciclo de vida a fatiga de


componentes estructurales con muescass
Xiao-Yong Liu , Tie-Xiong Su, Yi Zhang, Mei-Ni Yuan
School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051, China

Informacin del Resumen


artculo
Se propone un modelo de evaluacin multiaxial de alto ciclo de vida a fatiga de componentes estructurales
Article history: con muescas, que considera el impacto de la tensin de campo en la vida de fatiga mediante la utilizacin
Received 16 February 2015 de la Teora de la Crtica Distancias (TCD) y el mtodo de los elementos finitos (FEM). El plano de corte
Received in revised form 5 July 2015 mximo rango de esfuerzos se define como el plano crtico, y los parmetros de dao son la amplitud del
Accepted 8 July 2015
esfuerzo de corte efectivo mximo y la tensin normal efectiva mxima, que se obtienen promediando el
Available online 13 July 2015
esfuerzo en el volumen del hemisferio alrededor del punto de mxima tensin. Para validar la precisin
del modelo, pruebas de fatiga multiaxiales se llevan a cabo tanto para una probeta lisa o entallada de la
Keywords:
aleacin de aluminio-silicio. Los resultados indican que la vida evaluado y la vida experimental tienen un
Multiaxial fatigue
buena concordancia.
Life evaluation
Notched structural components
2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Critical plane
Critical distances

1. Introduccin (TCD) are common approaches for multiaxial high-cycle fatigue life
evaluation for notched structural components.
El diseo del motor del vehculo tiende a la energa de volumen Local stress and strain approaches estimate the fatigue life by
especfico ligero y alto, y partes que lo componen encuentran cada the local maximum stress/strain at notch root utilizing the criteria
vez ms severas condiciones. Como resultado, muchos componentes del such as equivalent stress criteria, critical plane criteria and energy
motor llevan a la vez una carga mecnica y trmica significativa. criteria. Equivalent stress criteria reduce a multiaxial stress state to a
Como resultado, muchos componentes del motor llevan a la vez una uniaxial equivalent stress state and relate the fatigue life to uni-
carga mecnica y trmica significativa fi. fallo por fatiga es una de axial fatigue properties [5,6]. Based on the initiation and propaga-
las principales causas de los daos. propiedades de fatiga de tion mechanisms of fatigue crack, critical plane criteria are
materiales son uno de los factores ms importantes que afectan a la generally considered as more effective methods owing to the clear
fiabilidad de los componentes estructurales. Aluminio-silicio (Al- physical meaning. Findely [7], Matake [8] and McDiarmid [9] have
Si) las aleaciones se usan ampliamente para componentes made many advancements in this eld. Energy criteria estimate
complejos, tales como pistones y culatas de cilindro, debido a las the fatigue life by the strain energy density. Garud [10] and
siguientes ventajas: buenas propiedades de fundicin menor expansin Glinka and Plumtree [11] have published signicant contributions
lineal de coeficiente peso ligero y una excelente resistencia al desgaste los to this method. In fact, fatigue behavior of a notch is not uniquely
mecanismos de falla, etc. Algunos investigadores ya han estudiado la vida y dened by the local maximum stress but also depends on other
evaluacin de las aleaciones Al-Si en virtud de la carga trmica de fatiga factors determined by notch geometry and local stress distribution
mecnica [1-4]. En realidad el fracaso en zonas de temperaturas no elevadas de [12]. Therefore, evaluating fatigue life through the local maximum
pistn y el cilindro cabezal, como el jefe del pasador del pistn y el techo de la stress at notch root is often overly conservative [13].
parte superior de la culata se debe principalmente al alto ciclo de fatiga mecnica The TCD postulates that the failure in notched structural com-
a alta frecuencia y niveles de esfuerzo bajos. Por otra parte, el estrs de estas ponents can be estimated accurately by using information from
zonas puede ser de varios ejes y distribuido de forma desigual debido a las the linear-elastic stress eld in the vicinity of stress raiser apices
cargas complejas de muescas y rasgos, que afectan a la resistencia a la fatiga. through an appropriate effective stress [14]. The theory was rst
Por lo tanto, es necesario estudiar alto del ciclo de propiedades de fatiga proposed by Neuber [15] and Peterson [16], and has recently been
mecnicas multiaxiales para los componentes estructurales con muescas de las reformulated on the basis of the concepts of Linear Elastic Fracture
aleaciones de Al-Si. En la actualidad, los enfoques de tensiones y deformaciones Mechanics by Taylor et al. [1723]. For now, the TCD for multiaxial
locales y la Teora de las distancias crticas fatigue is not as mature as that for uniaxial fatigue. The stress state

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 13935141030; fax: +86 3513557463.


E-mail address: liuxiaoyong0354@nuc.edu.cn (X.-Y. Liu).
X.-Y. Liu et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 80 (2015) 443448 444

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2015.07.010
0142-1123/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
and distribution of notch under multiaxial loading are more com- amplitude, Dsmax =2, and the rn;max on the plane, by means of the
plex than those under uniaxial loading. Therefore, it is more dif- von Mises criterion:
cult to determine the appropriate focus path [18] and effective q
2
kr
stress to be used in the TCD. Developing concise and applicable 3Dsmax =2 2
n;max f eq 2
models for multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of notched structural

components seems to be necessary. where feq is related to the tension fatigue strength of the material
In this paper, a multiaxial high-cycle fatigue life evaluation and can easily be acquired by experiments.
model is proposed on the basis of the critical plane criterion The SN curve model in the high-cycle fatigue regime is
through the investigation of multiaxial fatigue properties under described by the Basquin equation and then a new multiaxial
proportional and non-proportional loadings. The impact of the high-cycle fatigue life evaluation model is proposed. The model
stress eld on fatigue life is taken into account by the Volume is suitable for both proportional and non-proportional loadings:
Method (VM) of the TCD, and the effective stress at notch root is q
2 b

calculated by Finite Element Method (FEM). To validate the accu- 3Dsmax =2 kr2 r 0
f

n;max f 2N
racy of the model, fatigue tests under axialtorsion cyclic loading 3
have been carried out on both smooth and notched specimens of where r0
f and b are the tension fatigue property parameters of the
AlSi alloy, respectively. The group method is employed for fatigue material, and Nf is the fatigue life.
tests at each stress level due to the scatter data.
2.2. The impact of the stress eld on fatigue life

2. Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation model for notched The calculation of the effective stress for the TCD includes the
structural components Point Method (PM), the Line Method (LM), the Area Method (AM)
and the Volume Method (VM) [18]. The effective stress of PM is
2.1. Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation model for smooth components the stress of a single point at a critical distance ahead of the notch
tip. The effective stress of LM, AM and VM is the average stress on a
Multiaxial fatigue refers to the damage under multiaxial cyclic line, area and volume within a critical distance ahead of the notch
loading, which means that at least two stress components vary tip, respectively. Fatigue failure occurs when the effective stress
over time periodically. The loading is non-proportional if any cyclic range at notch root reaches the fatigue limit of the material.
loading results in the rotation of principal axes in time, while it is The critical distance is related to the parameter L [12,32], which
proportional if the principal directions of cyclic loading remain is the material characteristic length, and can be calculated as fol-
xed [24]. lows [12]:
Under multiaxial cyclic loading, the crack substantially gener-
2
ates along the maximum shear stress plane and then propagates L 1=pDK th =Dr0 4

under the action of the normal stress. According to this physical


where DK th is the threshold value of stress intensity factor, and Dr0
phenomenon, Findley [7] proposed a shear-mode critical plane cri-
is the fatigue limit of the material.
terion through bending-torsion fatigue tests in the 1950s. The crit-
The above methods of the TCD are mostly derived for notched
ical plane is the maximum linear combination plane of the shear
structural components under uniaxial loading, but the complexity
stress amplitude, Ds=2, and the maximum normal stress, rn;max . of the structure and loading for multiaxial fatigue usually leads to
Fatigue failure is expected to occur on the plane [25]:
more difculties in determining the appropriate focus path when
utilizing the PM, LM and AM. For the convenience of application,
Ds=2 krn;max max t eq 1
the VM is here employed to calculate the effective stress at notch
root. The maximum shear stress range plane at the maximum
where k is a material parameter determined experimentally, and teq stress point is dened as the critical plane. The hemisphere volume
is related to the torsion fatigue strength of the material.
with critical radius 1.54L ahead of the point is selected as fatigue
At present, a common method for multiaxial fatigue tests is
process zone, where the radius value is taken from the literature
applying the axialtorsion cyclic loading to the cylindrical speci- [18]. The stress tensor at any point within the volume is converted
men. Extensive research works have shown that the fatigue life into the shear stress and the normal stress the critical plane. Then,
under non-proportional loading is usually lower than that under the effective stress can be acquired by the averaged values as
proportional loading [2628], and the fatigue life decreases with follows:
the increase of phase differences of axialtorsion cyclic loading
Z
[29,30]. The reason is that the continuous rotation of principal 1

stress axes under non-proportional loading leads to additional sR f sdv 5


V
hardening of the material [31]. Additionally, if the applied von
Mises stress amplitude, Dreq =2, is the same, the shear stress ampli- Z
1

tude on the maximum shear stress range plane varies a little while rn;FI f rn dv 6
V
the maximum normal stress gradually increases with increasing
the phase difference of axialtorsion cyclic loading.
X.-Y. Liu et Fig. 1 shows
al. / International where
Journal V is 80
of Fatigue the(2015)
volume process zone, sFI and rn;FI are the445
of fatigue
443448
the stress curve on the plane under in-phase and 90 effective shear stress and the effective normal stress, respectively, f
out-of-phase of axialtorsion loading when Dreq =2 is 160 Mpa. s and f rn are the shear stress and the normal stress in the crit-
Consequently, it is more reasonable to dene the maximum shear ical plane, respectively.
stress range plane as the critical plane, since the fatigue crack ini- Stress eld distributions can be simulated by FEM [12,33]. The
tiates along such a plane, and the rn;max on this plane reects the nite element stress, rie , represents the stress in the space which
fact that the fatigue life is reduced under non-proportional loading. the nite element belongs to. If the mesh of the structure is rened
For the convenience of application in engineering, a enough, the nite element stress distribution can accurately repre-
tension-mode criterion is proposed, in which the maximum shear sent the stress distribution of the notched component. Therefore,
stress range plane is dened as the critical plane. The damage Eqs. (5) and (6) can also be formulated based on the FEM results
parameter is a combination of the maximum shear stress as follows:
X.-Y. Liu et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 80 (2015) 443448 446

100 200
shear stress shear stress
normal stress normal stress
50 100

stress (MPa)

stress (MPa)
0 0

-50 -100

-100 -200
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01
t (s) t (s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 1. Stress curve of a cycle on the critical plane under axialtorsion loading when D req =2 is 160 Mpa: (a) in-phase; (b) 90 out-of-phase.

Table 1
Chemical composition of the AlSi alloy (wt %). [3,4]. The chemical composition of the AlSi alloy is given in
Table 1. The mechanical properties of the material at room temper-
Si Cu Ni Mg Fe Mn Ti Zn Al
ature are listed in Table 2. The material was cast into solid bars and
12.37 5.28 2.67 0.82 0.42 0.2 0.106 0.006 Bal.
then machined to smooth and notched specimens. The shape and
dimensions of specimens are shown in Fig. 2.

Table 2 3.2. Experimental procedure


Mechanical properties of the AlSi alloy.

E (GPa) v ry (MPa) r0f (MPa) b Fatigue tests have been conducted through a MTS809
servo-hydraulic axialtorsion testing machine at room tempera-
78 0.3 212 398 0.0843

ture under axialtorsion cyclic loading with a fully reversed sine


X
n wave and frequency of 10 Hz. The tests for smooth specimens
1 e

sFI si Dv 7 including in-phase and 90 out-of-phase have been performed by


V i0 controlling the von Mises stress amplitude mode, where the ratio

1X
n Table 3
e Experimental results for smooth specimens.
rn;FI rn;i Dv 8
V i0 Phase Dreq =2 Dr=2 Ds=2 No. Nf N50 CV

() (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (cycles) (cycles)


where se and re are the shear stress and the normal stress of the
i n;i
0 160 113 65 1 86,178 55,502 0.047
i-th element in the critical plane, respectively, and Dv i is the volume
2 31,766
of the i-th element. 3 62,455
The time history of the effective stress under cyclic loading can 150 106 61 4 86,451 152,214 0.043
be acquired by Eqs. (7) and (8). Substituting the damage parame- 5 202,767
ters of the maximum effective shear stress amplitude, Dsmax;FI =2, 6 213,319
140 98 57 7 83,402 206,380 0.090
and the maximum effective normal stress, rn;max;FI , into Eq. (3), 8 214,297
the multiaxial fatigue life evaluation model for notched structural 9 105,677
components is obtained: 10 960,497
q 90 160 160 92 11 5136 3403 0.052
2 b
kr 2 0f
3Dsmax;FI =2 n;max;FI r 2N f 9 12 2630
13 3640
14 4927
15 1884
3. Experiments 150 150 87 16 10,123 9674 0.004
17 9480
3.1. Material and specimen 18 9435
140 140 81 19 14,768 22,453 0.057
20 42,812
The material for multiaxial fatigue tests is a cast Al12Si 21 17,904
CuNiMg alloy, which is widely used for diesel engine pistons
X.-Y. Liu et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 80 (2015) 443448 447

Fig. 2. Shape and dimensions of specimens (unit: mm): (a) smooth specimen; (b) notched specimen.
X.-Y. Liu et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 80 (2015) 443448 448

Table 4 where CV is the variation coefcient, d is the margin of error (gener-


Experimental results for notched specimens. ally 5%), xi is the logarithm of the fatigue life of the i-th specimen, x

Phase Axial load Torque No. Nf N50 CV is the average value of the logarithm of the fatigue life under a given
() (N) (N m) (cycles) (cycles) stress level, sx is the standard deviation, and t a is the critical value of
0 34,461 63 1 52,304 38,448 0.025 t-distribution which is determined by the degree of freedom,
2 32,544 m n 1, and the condence level, c. The c is also the probability
3 33,390 value that the relative error of x is lower than d.
31,180 57 4 146,485 190,220 0.037
5 146,864
6 319,935 4. Results and discussion
28,741 52.5 7 381,333 515,580 0.068
8 254,184
9 1,413,925
4.1. Experimental results

Experimental results with the condence level c = 50% are listed


in Tables 3 and 4. The experimental fatigue life decreases with
increasing the stress level. Under the same Dreq =2, the fatigue life
6
10 of smooth specimens under 90 out-of-phase non-proportional
In-phase loading is much lower than that under in-phase proportional load-

900 Out-of-phase ing. That indicates that the continuous rotation of principal stress
axes under non-proportional loading leads to the decrease of the
evaluated life (cycles)

5
10 material fatigue life.

4.2. Fatigue life evaluation through the proposed model

4
10 Taking the minimum error between the evaluation life and
median experimental life for smooth specimens as the optimizing
objective, the value of the examined material parameter, k, in the
scatter band proposed model (Eq. (2)) is calibrated to 0.35. The comparison
of factor 2 between the evaluated life and the experimental life is shown in
3
10
Fig. 3, which indicates that the proposed model can accurately
4 6
evaluate the multiaxial fatigue life of smooth specimens within a
10 10
scatter band of factor 2 for the examined material.

experimental life (cycles) The nite element model of notched specimens is shown in
Fig. 4. The model is meshed by 10-node tetrahedral elements.
Fig. 3. Comparison between the evaluated and experimental life for smooth
specimens.
Actually, the stress at notch root tends to be stable while the time
consumed in the FEM calculation becomes longer with decreasing
the element length. Based on the analysis of simulation with differ-
of the axial stress amplitude, Dr=2, to the shear stress amplitude, ent values of the element length at notch root, the nite elements
p
Ds=2, is set to be 3. The tests for notched specimens have been at notch root are rened to 0.1 mm. The stress distributions with
carried out under in-phase loading with a xed ratio between different experimental loading are simulated by FEM separately.
the axial load and torque. Based on the FEM results, the effective stress at notch root
Considering the scatter of experimental lives, the group method under different loadings is calculated by Eqs. (7) and (8) with crit-
[34] is employed for fatigue tests at each stress level. The median ical radius 1.54L [18]. The L value of the examined material is
fatigue life, N50, is calculated. The minimum specimen number, n, 0.21 mm, obtained from Eq. (4), where Dr0 and DK th are 226 MPa
should satisfy the following rule: and 5.9 MPa m1/2, respectively, under the stress ratio, R = 1.
The damage parameters of notched specimens on the critical plane
p
C V < d n=t a 10 are shown in Table 5, where Dsmax;Fi =2 and rn;max;Fi are the damage

parameters for the effective stress, and Dsmax =2 and rn;max are the
Further : C V sx =x 11 damage parameters for the local maximum stress. The evaluated
s life values of notched specimens are shown in Fig. 5. The evaluated
. .
Xn 1 .Xn .2 life values through the local maximum stress have very poor accu-
sx x
2
i1 i
x n 1 12
i1 i n racy beyond the bound of factor 2. The evaluated life values are so
over-conservative that the maximum error factor (experimental
x life/evaluated life) is equal to 9.21 under axial load 31180 N and
N50 10 13
torque 57 N m. Nevertheless, based on the effective stress, the
X.-Y. Liu et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 80 (2015) 443448 449

Fig. 4. Finite element model of notched specimens.


X.-Y. Liu et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 80 (2015) 443448 450

Table 5
Damage parameters of notched specimens.

Phase Axial Torque Dsmax;Fi =2 rn;max;Fi Dsmax =2 rn;max Acknowledgements


() load (N) (N m) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)

0 34,461 63 81.04 89.96 96.08 96.52 This study was supported by the National Nature Foundation of
31,180 57 73.33 81.39 88.72 89.12 China (No. 51201155), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi
28,741 52.5 67.59 75.02 80.13 80.49 Province, China (Nos. 2012011019-1, 2012011007-1), and the
Doctoral Foundation of Educational Ministry of China (No.
20101420120006).

6
10
effective stress Appendix A. Supplementary material
local maximum stress
Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in
evaluated life (cycles)

the online version, at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2015.07.


010.
5
10 scatter band
of factor 2
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