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Project Report on

SOLAR BASED GRASS CUTTER


5TH SEMESTER OF DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

-: SUBMITTED BY:-
Gajjar Dharmik k. - 156240309024

Modi Dhruvik k. - 156240309050

Parmar Dixit n. - 156240309024

Damor Rakesh - 156240309020

Damor Dhaval -156240309021

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CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that students mentioned below of Diploma
Mechanical Engineering, Semester 5th have completed the work of
subject Project-I having title SOLAR BASED GRASS CUTTER.
They have undergone the process of shodhyatra, literature
survey and problem definition. They are supposed to carry out the
residue Project-Part-II work on the same problem during Semester-VI
for the final fulfillment of the project work which is prerequisite to
complete Diploma Engineering.
1. Gajjar Dharmik k - 156240309024
2. Modi Dhruvik k - 156240309050
3. Parmar Dixit n - 156240309024
4. Damor Rakesh - 156240309020
5. Damor Dhaval - 156240309021

Guide : Head of Department:


B.J.Patel D.R.Aggarwal

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MEANING OF PROJECT

P= Planning before carring out the work

R= Row material required for the work

O= Organization of the work

J= Joint efforts put together in the work

E= Estimation of material required in the work

C=Costing of the work

T= Techniques used in performing the work

...

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is our privilege to express thoughts to electrical department of


GOVERNMENTPOLYTECHNIC HIMATNAGAR for the help they
have extend in completion of the User defined problem and providing us an
opportunity to learn and get real exposure.

On working of this User defined problem in depth study presentation are


the sole requirement of good project. We are grateful to Mr. B.J.Patel Sir for
developing this asset in us. I cherish these excellent guidance, positive
response affectionate counseling and inspiration supervision.

(You should be thankful to your Guide and


the person who helps you to complete it)

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ABSTRACT
Read these instructions before starting to make your report

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If the same project is to be continued in next semester, mention
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can mention future scope of this work in this section if it is last
semester for you (for this work).
It is also compulsory to include bibliography/ reference section
in report. List the articles, books and research papers referred in
this section.
All the figures and tables must contain captions.
In entire report use figure caption like Fig. 2.3. And for table
Table-II, or Table-IV etc.
All the figures must be aligned in centre in the page.
Take print of title page and certificate in color only
This is sample report. Make changes according
to your work. Consult your guide if any doubt
arises.

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INDEX

1. Introduction 7

2. Introduction to embedded systems 8

3. Project block diagram 12

4. Hardware components 13
4.1 Transformer (230 12 v ac) 14
4.2 Voltage regulator (LM 7805) 16
4.3 Rrectifier 18
4.4 Filter 19
4.5 Microcontroller (AT89S52/AT89C51) 20
4.6 Optoisolator (MOC3021) 28
4.7 Single phase induction motor 30
4.8 PUSHBUTTON 36
4.9 SCR 38
4.10 LM358 41
5 Simulation for F/2 frequency 43
6 Simulation for F/3 frequency 44
7 Conclusion 51
8 Future work 52
References 53

1.INTRODUCTION
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The AC supply frequency cannot be changed, so this project uses a thyristor
controlled cycloconverter which enables the control of speed in steps for an
induction motor. The microcontroller used in this project is from 8051 family, a
pair of slide switches is provided to select the desired speed range (F, F/2 and
F/3) of operation of the induction motor. These switches are interfaced to the
microcontroller. The status of the switches enables the microcontroller to
deliver the pulses to trigger the SCRs in a dual bridge. Thus, the speed of the
induction motor can be achieved in three steps i.e. (F, F/2 and F/3).

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2. INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

What is Embedded system?


An Embedded System is a combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps
additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a specific function. An embedded
system is a microcontroller-based, software driven, reliable, real-time control system,
autonomous, or human or network interactive, operating on diverse physical variables and in
diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market.
An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing, not a
software system on PC or UNIX, not a traditional business or scientific application. High-end
embedded & lower end embedded systems. High-end embedded system - Generally 32, 64 Bit
Controllers used with OS. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc .Lower
end embedded systems - Generally 8,16 Bit Controllers used with an minimal operating systems
and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose. Examples Small controllers and devices
in our everyday life like Washing Machine, Microwave Ovens, where they are embedded in.

SYSTEM DESIGN CALLS:

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Figure 2(a): SYSTEM DESIGN CALLS
EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN CYCLE

Syste Syste
m m
Definit Testin
ion Rapid Hardwa g
Prototypi re-in-
ng the-
TargetingLoop
Testing
Figuren 2(b) V Diagram

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An embedded system is any computer system hidden inside a product other than a
computer.
They will encounter a number of difficulties when writing embedded system software in
addition to those we encounter when we write applications
Throughput Our system may need to handle a lot of data in a short period of
time.
ResponseOur system may need to react to events quickly
TestabilitySetting up equipment to test embedded software can be difficult
DebugabilityWithout a screen or a keyboard, finding out what the software is
doing wrong (other than not working) is a troublesome problem
Reliability embedded systems must be able to handle any situation without
human intervention
Memory space Memory is limited on embedded systems, and you must make
the software and the data fit into whatever memory exists
Program installation you will need special tools to get your software into
embedded systems
Power consumption Portable systems must run on battery power, and the
software in these systems must conserve power
Processor hogs computing that requires large amounts of CPU time can
complicate the response problem
Cost Reducing the cost of the hardware is a concern in many embedded system
projects; software often operates on hardware that is barely adequate for the job.

Embedded systems have a microprocessor/ microcontroller and a memory. Some have a


serial port or a network connection. They usually do not have keyboards, screens or disk
drives.

APPLICATIONS
1) Military and aerospace embedded software applications
2) C om m u ni c at i o n Ap p l i c at i on s

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3) In d us t ri al aut om at i o n and p ro c es s co nt r ol s o ft w a r e
4) Mastering the complexity of applications.
5) Reduction of product design time.
6) Real time processing of ever increasing amounts of data.
7) Intelligent, autonomous sensors.

CLASSIFICATION
Real Time Systems.
RTS is one which has to respond to events within a specified deadline.
A right answer after the dead line is a wrong answer

RTS CLASSIFICATION
Hard Real Time Systems
Soft Real Time System

HARD REAL TIME SYSTEM


"Hard" real-time systems have very narrow response time.
Example: Nuclear power system, Cardiac pacemaker.

SOFT REAL TIME SYSTEM


"Soft" real-time systems have reduced constrains on "lateness" but still must operate very
quickly and repeatable.
Example: Railway reservation system takes a few extra seconds the data remains valid.

3. PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM


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4. HARDWARE COMPONENTS:

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1. TRANSFORMER (230 12 V AC)

2. VOLTAGE REGULATOR (LM 7805)

3. RECTIFIER

4. FILTER

5. MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52/AT89C51)

6. OPTOISOLATOR(MOC3021)

7. SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

8. PUSHBUTTON

9. SCR

10. LM358

4.1 TRANSFORMER

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Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with a little loss of power.
Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage. Most power
supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high voltage to a safer low
voltage.

Fig. 4.1: A TYPICAL TRANSFORMER


The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary. There is no
electrical connection between the two coils; instead they are linked by an alternating magnetic
field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of the circuit
symbol represent the core. Transformers waste very little power so the power out is (almost)
equal to the power in. Note that as voltage is stepped down and current is stepped up.
The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turns ratio, determines the ratio
of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of turns on its primary (input) coil
which is connected to the high voltage mains supply, and a small number of turns on its
secondary (output) coil to give a low output voltage.
TURNS RATIO = (Vp /Vs) = ( Np / Ns )
Where,
Vp = primary (input) voltage.
Vs = secondary (output) voltage
Np = number of turns on primary coil
Ns = number of turns on secondary coil
Ip = primary (input) current
Is = secondary (output) current.

Ideal power equation

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The ideal transformer as a circuit element

If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow, electrical power is
transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. Ideally, the transformer is perfectly
efficient; all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field
and into the secondary circuit. If this condition is met, the incoming electric power must equal
the outgoing power:

Giving the ideal transformer equation

Transformers normally have high efficiency, so this formula is a reasonable approximation.

If the voltage is increased, then the current is decreased by the same factor. The impedance in
one circuit is transformed by the square of the turns ratio.For example, if an impedance Zs is
attached across the terminals of the secondary coil, it appears to the primary circuit to have an
impedance of (Np/Ns)2Zs. This relationship is reciprocal, so that the impedance Zp of the primary
circuit appears to the secondary to be (Ns/Np)2Zp.

Internal Block Diagram

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4.2VOLTAGE REGULATOR 7805
Features
Output Current up to 1A.
Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V.
Thermal Overload Protection.
Short Circuit Protection.
Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection.

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FIG4.2(a):
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VOLTAGE REGULATOR

DISCRIPTION
The LM78XX/LM78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulators are available in the
TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a Wide
range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shutdown and safe
operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is
provided, they can deliver over 1A output Current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage
regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and
currents.

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Absolute Maximum Ratings

TABLE 4.2(b): RATINGS OF THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR

4.3 RECTIFIER

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which


periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), current that flows in only one direction, a
process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power
supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made of solid statediodes, vacuum
tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components. The output from the transformer is fed to
the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave
rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full
wave rectification. In positive half cycleonly two diodes( 1 set of parallel diodes) will conduct, in
negative half cycle remaining two diodes will conduct and they will conduct only in forward bias
only.

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4.4 FILTER

Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier
and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and
load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this
point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.
The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter. The use of this
filter is very limited. It is sometimes used on extremely high-voltage, low-current power supplies
for cathode-ray and similar electron tubes that require very little load current from the supply.
This filter is also used in circuits where the power-supply ripple frequency is not critical and can
be relatively high. Below figure can show how the capacitor changes and discharges.

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4.5 MICROCONTROLLER AT89S52

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with


8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory.The device is manufactured using
Atmels high-density non volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry
standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory
to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non volatile memory programmer. By
combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip,
the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and
cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256
bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit
timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-
chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic
for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving

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modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port,
and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM
contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt
or hardware reset.

Features:
Compatible with MCS-51 Products
8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
Three-level Program Memory Lock
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
Eight Interrupt Sources
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
Watchdog Timer
Dual Data Pointer
Power-off Flag
Fast Programming Time
Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)
Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option

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Block Diagram of AT89S52:

FIG 4.5(A): BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AT89S52

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Pin Configurations of AT89S52

FIG 4.5(b): PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89S52

Pin Description:

VCC:
Supply voltage.

GND:
Ground

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PORT 0:
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can
sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-
impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order
address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0
has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and
outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during
program verification.

Port 1:
Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that
are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.
In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count
input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX).

Port 2:
Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that
are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.
Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory
and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @
DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During
accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits
the contents of the P2 Special Function Register.

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Port 3:
Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that
are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups.

RST:
Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is
running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the
Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to
disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is
enabled.

ALE/PROG:
Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the
address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input
(PROG) during Flash programming.
In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and
may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse
is skipped during each access to external data memory.

PSEN:
Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory.
When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated
twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each
access to external data memory.

EA/VPP:
External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the
device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to
FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on
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reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also
receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.

XTAL1:
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating
circuit.

XTAL2:
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
Oscillator Characteristics:
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting
amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 1.
Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an
external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as
shown in Figure 6.2. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock
signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-
flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be
observed.

FIG 4.5(c): Oscillator Connections

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FIG 4.5(d): External Clock Drive Configuration

Idle Mode
In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on chip peripherals remain
active. The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the
special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be
terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset.

Power down Mode


In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped, and the instruction that invokes
power down is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function
Registers retain their values until the power down mode is terminated. The only exit from
power down is a hardware reset. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-chip
RAM. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal operating
level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize.

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4.6 OPTO ISOLLATOR (MOC3021)

A lot of electronic equipment nowadays is using optocoupler in the circuit. An


optocoupler or sometimes refer to as optoisolator allows two circuits to exchange signals yet
remain electrically isolated. This is usually accomplished by using light to relay the signal. The
standard optocoupler circuits design uses a LED shining on a phototransistor-usually it is
anpntransistor and not pnp. The signal is applied to the LED, which then shines on the transistor
in the IC.

The light is proportional to the signal, so the signal is thus transferred to the photo-
transistor. Optocouplers may also comes in few module such as the SCR, photodiodes, TRIAC
of other semiconductor switch as an output, and incandescent lamps, neon bulbs or other light
source.
In this project we have an opto-coupler MOC3021 an LED diac type
combination.Additionally while using this IC with microcontroller and one LED can be
connected in series with IC LED to indicate when high is given from micro controller such that
we can know that current is flowing in internal LED of the opto-IC.Whenlogichigh is given
current flows through LED from pin 1 to 2. So in this process LED light falls on DIACcausing 6
& 4 to close. During each half cycle current flows through gate, series resistor and through opto-
diac for the main thyristor / triac to trigger for the load to operate.

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The optocoupler usually found in switch mode power supply circuit in many electronic
equipment. It is connected in between the primary and secondary section of power supplies. The
optocouplerapplication or function in the circuit is to:

1. Monitor high voltage


2. Output voltage sampling for regulation
3. System control micro for power ON/OFF
4. Ground isolation

If the optocoupler IC breakdown, it will cause the equipment to have low power, blink, no
power, erratic power and even power shut down once switch on the equipment. Many
technicians and engineers do not know that they can actually test the optocoupler with their
analog multimeter. Most of them thought that there is no way of testing an IC with an analog
meter.

This is the principle used in OptoDiacs, which are readily available in Integrated circuit
(I.C.) form, and do not need very complex circuitry to make them work. Simply provide a small
pulse at the right time to the Light Emitting Diode in the package. The light produced by the
LED activates the light sensitive properties of the diac and the power is switched on. The
isolation between the low power and high power circuits in these optically connected devices is
typically several thousand volts.

Pin Description:

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4.7 INDUCTION MOTOR

An induction motor or asynchronous motor is a type of alternating current motor


where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction.

An electric motor turns because of magnetic force exerted between a stationary


electromagnet called the stator and a rotating electromagnet called the rotor. Different types of
electric motors are distinguished by how electric current is supplied to the moving rotor. In a DC
motor and a slip-ring AC motor, current is provided to the rotor directly through sliding electrical
contacts called commutators and slip rings. In an induction motor, by contrast, the current is
induced in the rotor without contacts by the magnetic field of the stator, through electromagnetic
induction. An induction motor is sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator
(stationary part) is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is
the secondary side. Unlike the normal transformer that changes the current by using time varying
flux, induction motors use rotating magnetic fields to transform the voltage. The current in the
primary side creates an electromagnetic field which interacts with the electromagnetic field of
the secondary side to produce a resultant torque, thereby transforming the electrical energy into
mechanical energy. Induction motors are widely used, especially polyphase induction motors,
which are frequently used in industrial drives.[citation needed]

Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to their rugged
construction, absence of brushes (which are required in most DC motors) andthanks to modern
power electronicsthe ability to control the speed of the motor.

Principle of Operation and Comparison to Synchronous Motors

The basic difference between an induction motor and a synchronous AC motor with a
permanent magnet rotor is that in the latter the rotating magnetic field of the stator will impose
an electromagnetic torque on the magnetic field of the rotor causing it to move (about a shaft)
and a steady rotation of the rotor is produced. It is called synchronous because at steady state the
speed of the rotor is the same as the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator.

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By contrast, the induction motor does not have any permanent magnets on the rotor;
instead, a current is induced in the rotor. To achieve this, stator windings are arranged around the
rotor so that when energized with a polyphase supply they create a rotating magnetic field
pattern which sweeps past the rotor. This changing magnetic field pattern induces current in the
rotor conductors. This current interacts with the rotating magnetic field created by the stator and
in effect causes a rotational motion on the rotor.

However, for these currents to be induced the speed of the physical rotor must be less
than the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator (the synchronous frequencyns) or else
the magnetic field will not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no currents will be
induced. If by some chance this happens, the rotor typically slows slightly until a current is re-
induced and then the rotor continues as before. This difference between the speed of the rotor
and speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator is called slip. It is unitless and is the ratio
between the relative speed of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor (the slip speed) to the speed
of the rotating stator field. Due to this, an induction motor is sometimes referred to as an
asynchronous machine.

Synchronous speed

To understand the behavior of induction motors, it is useful to understand their distinction from a
synchronous motor. A synchronous motor always runs at a synchronous speed- a shaft rotation
frequency that is an integer fraction of the supply frequency. The synchronous speed of an
induction motor is the same fraction of the supply.

It can be shown that the synchronous speed of a motor is determined by the following formula:

Where nsis the (synchronous) speed of the rotor (in rpm), f is the frequency of the AC supply (in
Hz) and p is the number of magnetic poles per phase.[16]

For example, a 6 pole motor operating on 50 Hz power would have a speed of:

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Note on the use of p - some texts refer to number of pole pairs per phase instead of number of
poles per phase. For example a 6 pole motor, operating on 60 Hz power, would have 3 pole pairs.
The equation of synchronous speed then becomes:

With P being the number of pole pairs per phase.

Slip

FIG: TYPICAL TORQUE CURVE AS A FUNCTION OF SLIP

The slip is a ratio relative to the synchronous speed and is calculated using:

Where

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s is the slip, usually between 0 and 1

nr = rotor rotation speed (rpm)

ns = synchronous rotation speed (rpm)

The stator consists of wound 'poles' that carry the supply current to induce a magnetic field that
penetrates the rotor. In a very simple motor, there would be a single projecting piece of the stator
(a salient pole) for each pole, with windings around it; in fact, to optimize the distribution of the
magnetic field, the windings are distributed in many slots located around the stator, but the
magnetic field still has the same number of north-south alternations. The number of 'poles' can
vary between motor types but the poles are always in pairs (i.e. 2, 4, 6, etc.).

Induction motors are most commonly built to run on single-phase or three-phase power,
but two-phase motors also exist. In theory, two-phase and more than three phase induction
motors are possible; many single-phase motors having two windings and requiring a capacitor
can actually be viewed as two-phase motors, since the capacitor generates a second power phase
90 degrees from the single-phase supply and feeds it to a separate motor winding. Single-phase
power is more widely available in residential buildings, but cannot produce a rotating field in the
motor (the field merely oscillates back and forth), so single-phase induction motors must
incorporate some kind of starting mechanism to produce a rotating field. They would, using the
simplified analogy of salient poles, have one salient pole per pole number; a four-pole motor
would have four salient poles. Three-phase motors have three salient poles per pole number, so a
four-pole motor would have twelve salient poles. This allows the motor to produce a rotating
field, allowing the motor to start with no extra equipment and run more efficiently than a similar
single-phase motor.

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There are three types of rotor:

Squirrel-cage rotor

The most common rotor is a squirrel-cage rotor. It is made up of bars of either solid copper (most
common) or aluminum that span the length of the rotor, and those solid copper or aluminium
strips can be shorted or connected by a ring or some times not, i.e. the rotor can be closed or
semiclosed type. The rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction motors are not straight, but have some
skew to reduce noise and harmonics.

Slip ring rotor

A slip ring rotor replaces the bars of the squirrel-cage rotor with windings that are connected to
slip rings. When these slip rings are shorted, the rotor behaves similarly to a squirrel-cage rotor;
they can also be connected to resistors to produce a high-resistance rotor circuit, which can be
beneficial in starting

Solid core rotor

A rotor can be made from solid mild steel. The induced current causes the rotation.

Starting ofSingle phase induction motors

In a single phase induction motor, it is necessary to provide a starting circuit to start


rotation of the rotor. If this is not done, rotation may be commenced by manually giving a slight
turn to the rotor. The single phase induction motor may rotate in either direction and it is only the
starting circuit which determines rotational direction.

For small motors of a few watts, the start rotation is done by means of one or two single
turn(s) of heavy copper wire around one corner of the pole. The current induced in the single turn
is out of phase with the supply current and so causes an out-of-phase component in the magnetic
field, which imparts to the field sufficient rotational character to start the motor. These poles are
known as shaded poles. Starting torque is very low and efficiency is also reduced. Such shaded-

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pole motors are typically used in low-power applications with low or zero starting torque
requirements, such as desk fans and record players.

FIG: SPEED TORQUE CHARACTERISTIC OD 1- INDUCTION MOTOR

Larger motors are provided with a second stator winding which is fed with an out-of-
phase current to create a rotating magnetic field. The out-of-phase current may be derived by
feeding the winding through a capacitor or it may derive from the winding having different
values of inductance and resistance from the main winding.

In some designs, the second winding is disconnected once the motor is up to speed,
usually either by means of a switch operated by centrifugal force acting on weights on the motor
shaft or by a positive temperature coefficientthermistor which, after a few seconds of operation,
heats up and increases its resistance to a high value thereby reducing the current through the
second winding to an insignificant level. Other designs keep the second winding continuously
energized when running, which improves torque.

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4.8 PUSH BUTTONS

A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for
controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard
material, usually plastic or metal. The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the
human finger or hand, so as to be easily depressed or pushed. Buttons are most often biased
switches, though even many un-biased buttons (due to their physical nature) require a spring to
return to their un-pushed state. Different people use different terms for the "pushing" of the
button, such as press, depress, mash, and punch.

Uses:
In industrial and commercial applications push buttons can be linked together by a
mechanical linkage so that the act of pushing one button causes the other button to be released.
In this way, a stop button can "force" a start button to be released. This method of linkage is used
in simple manual operations in which the machine or process have no electrical circuits for
control.
Pushbuttons are often color-coded to associate them with their function so that the
operator will not push the wrong button in error. Commonly used colors are red for stopping the
machine or process and green for starting the machine or process.
Red pushbuttons can also have large heads (mushroom shaped) for easy operation and to
facilitate the stopping of a machine. These pushbuttons are called emergency stop buttons and
are mandated by the electrical code in many jurisdictions for increased safety. This large
mushroom shape can also be found in buttons for use with operators who need to wear gloves for
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their work and could not actuate a regular flush-mounted push button. As an aid for operators
and users in industrial or commercial applications, a pilot light is commonly added to draw the
attention of the user and to provide feedback if the button is pushed. Typically this light is
included into the center of the pushbutton and a lens replaces the pushbutton hard center disk.
The source of the energy to illuminate the light is not directly tied to the contacts on the
back of the pushbutton but to the action the pushbutton controls. In this way a start button when
pushed will cause the process or machine operation to be started and a secondary contact
designed into the operation or process will close to turn on the pilot light and signify the action
of pushing the button caused the resultant process or action to start.
In popular culture, the phrase "the button" refers to a (usually fictional) button that a
military or government leader could press to launch nuclear weapons.

Push to ON button:

Fig 4.7(a): push on button

Initially the two contacts of the button are open. When the button is pressed they become
connected. This makes the switching operation using the push button.

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4.9THYRISTOR (SCR)

A silicon-controlled rectifier (or semiconductor-controlled rectifier) is a four-layer solid


state device that controls current. The name "silicon controlled rectifier" or SCR is General
Electric's trade name for a type of thyristor. The SCR was developed by a team of power
engineers led by Gordon Hall and commercialized by Frank W. "Bill" Gutzwiller in 1957.

Construction of SCR
An SCR consists of four layers of alternating P and N type semiconductor materials.
Silicon is used as the intrinsic semiconductor, to which the proper dopants are added. The
junctions are either diffused or alloyed. The planar construction is used for low power SCRs (and
all the junctions are diffused). The mesa type construction is used for high power SCRs. In this
case, junction J2 is obtained by the diffusion method and then the outer two layers are alloyed to
it, since the PNPN pellet is required to handle large currents. It is properly braced with tungsten
or molybdenum plates to provide greater mechanical strength. One of these plates is hard
soldered to a copper stud, which is threaded for attachment of heat sink. The doping of PNPN
will depend on the application of SCR, since its characteristics are similar to those of the
thyratron. Today, the term thyristor applies to the larger family of multilayer devices that exhibit
bistable state-change behaviour,that is switching either ON or OFF.

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Modes of operation
In the normal "off" state, the device restricts current to the leakage current. When the
gate-to-cathode voltage exceeds a certain threshold, the device turns "on" and conducts current.
The device will remain in the "on" state even after gate current is removed so long as current
through the device remains above the holding current. Once current falls below the holding
current for an appropriate period of time, the device will switch "off". If the gate is pulsed and
the current through the device is below the holding current, the device will remain in the "off"
state.
If the applied voltage increases rapidly enough, capacitive coupling may induce enough charge
into the gate to trigger the device into the "on" state; this is referred to as "dv/dt triggering." This
is usually prevented by limiting the rate of voltage rise across the device, perhaps by using a
snubber. "dv/dt triggering" may not switch the SCR into full conduction rapidly and the
partially-triggered SCR may dissipate more power than is usual, possibly harming the device.
SCRs can also be triggered by increasing the forward voltage beyond their rated breakdown
voltage (also called as break over voltage), but again, this does not rapidly switch the entire
device into conduction and so may be harmful so this mode of operation is also usually avoided.
Also, the actual breakdown voltage may be substantially higher than the rated breakdown
voltage, so the exact trigger point will vary from device to device. This device is generally used
in switching applications.

Reverse Bias
SCR are available with or without reverse blocking capability. Reverse blocking
capability adds to the forward voltage drop because of the need to have a long, low doped P1

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region. Usually, the reverse blocking voltage rating and forward blocking voltage rating are the
same. The typical application for reverse blocking SCR is in current source inverters.
SCR incapable of blocking reverse voltage are known as asymmetrical SCR, abbreviated
ASCR. They typically have a reverse breakdown rating in the 10's of volts. ASCR are used
where either a reverse conducting diode is applied in parallel (for example, in voltage source
inverters) or where reverse voltage would never occur (for example, in switching power supplies
or DC traction choppers).
Asymmetrical SCR can be fabricated with a reverse conducting diode in the same package.
These are known as RCT, for reverse conducting thyristor.

Application of SCRs
SCRs are mainly used in devices where the control of high power, possibly coupled with
high voltage, is demanded. Their operation makes them suitable for use in medium to high-
voltage AC power control applications, such as lamp dimming, regulators and motor control.

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4.10 LM358

General Description
The LM358 series consists of two independent, high gain;internally frequency
compensated operational amplifierswhich were designed specifically to operate from a
singlepower supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation fromsplit power supplies is also
possible and the low powersupply current drain is independent of the magnitude of thepower
supply voltage.
Application areas include transducer amplifiers, dc gainblocks and all the conventional
op amp circuits which nowcan be more easily implemented in single power supplysystems. For
example, the LM358 series can be directlyoperated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage
whichis used in digital systems and will easily provide the requiredinterface electronics without
requiring the additional 15Vpower supplies.

Unique Characteristics
In the linear mode the input common-mode voltagerange includes ground and the output
voltage can alsoswing to ground, even though operated from only asingle power supply
voltage.
The unity gain cross frequency is temperaturecompensated.
The input bias current is also temperature compensated.
Advantages
Two internally compensated op amps
Eliminates need for dual supplies
Allows direct sensing near GND and VOUT also goes toGND
Compatible with all forms of logic
Power drain suitable for battery operation

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Features
Available in 8-Bump micro SMD chip sized package.
Internally frequency compensated for unity gain.
Large dc voltage gain: 100 Db.
Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated)
Wide power supply range:
o Single supply: 3V to 32V
o or dual supplies: 1.5V to 16V
Very low supply current drain (500 A)-essentially independent of supply voltage.
Low input offset voltage: 2 mV
Input common-mode voltage range includes ground.
Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage.
Large output voltage swing.

PIN CONNECTIONS

1 - Output 1
2 - Inverting input
3 - Non-inverting input
4 VCC-
5 - Non-inverting input 2
6 - Inverting input 2
7 - Output 2
8 VCC+

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5. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

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5.1 OPERATION

POWER SUPPLY
The circuit uses standard power supply comprising of a step-down transformer from
230Vto 12V and 4 diodes forming a bridge rectifier that delivers pulsating dc which is then
filtered by an electrolytic capacitor of about 470F to 1000F. The filtered dc being
unregulated, IC LM7805 is used to get 5V DC constant at its pin no 3 irrespective of input DC
varying from 7V to 15V. The input dc shall be varying in the event of input ac at 230volts
section varies from 160V to 270V in the ratio of the transformer primary voltage V1 to
secondary voltage V2 governed by the formula V1/V2=N1/N2. As N1/N2 i.e. no. of turns in the
primary to the no. of turns in the secondary remains unchanged V2 is directly proportional to
V1.Thus if the transformer delivers 12V at 220V input it will give 8.72V at 160V.Similarly at
270V it will give 14.72V.Thus the dc voltage at the input of the regulator changes from about
8V to 15V because of A.C voltage variation from 160V to 270V the regulator output will remain
constant at 5V.
The regulated 5V DC is further filtered by a small electrolytic capacitor of 10F for any
noise so generated by the circuit. One LED is connected of this 5V point in series with a current
limiting resistor of 330 to the ground i.e., negative voltage to indicate 5V power supply
availability. The unregulated 12V point is used for other applications as and when required.

STANDARD CONNECTIONS TO 8051 SERIES MICRO CONTROLLER

ATMEL series of 8051 family of micro controllers need certain standard connections.
The actual number of the Microcontroller could be 89C51 , 89C52, 89S51, 89S52,
andasregards to 20 pin configuration a number of 89C2051. The 4 set of I/O ports are used
based on the project requirement. Every microcontroller requires a timing reference for its
internal program execution therefore an oscillator needs to be functional with a desired frequency
to obtain the timing reference as t =1/f.
A crystal ranging from 2 to 20 MHz is required to be used at its pin number 18 and 19 for
the internal oscillator. It may be noted here the crystal is not to be understood as crystal oscillator

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It is just a crystal, while connected to the appropriate pin of the microcontroller it results in
oscillator function inside the microcontroller. Typically 11.0592 MHz crystal is used in general
for most of the circuits using 8051 series microcontroller. Two small value ceramic capacitors of
33pF each is used as a standard connection for the crystal as shown in the circuit diagram.

RESET
Pin no 9 is provided with anresset arrangement by a combination of an electrolytic
capacitor and a register forming RC time constant. At the time of switch on, the capacitor gets
charged, and it behaves as a full short circuit from the positive to the pin number 9.After the
capacitor gets fully charged the current stops flowing and pin number 9 goes low which is pulled
down by a 10k resistor to the ground. This arrangement of reset at pin 9 going high initially and
then to logic 0 i.e., low helps the program execution to start from the beginning. In absence of
this the program execution could have taken place arbitrarilyanywhere from the program cycle.A
pushbutton switch is connected across the capacitor so that at any given time as desired it can be
pressed such that it discharges the capacitor and while released the capacitor starts charging
again and then pin number 9 goes to high and then back to low, to enable the program execution
from the beginning. This operation of high to low of the reset pin takes place in fraction of a
second as decided by the time constant R and C.
For example: A 10F capacitor and a 10k resistor would render a 100ms time to pin number 9
from logic high to low, there after the pin number 9 remains low.

External Access(EA):
Pin no 31 of 40 pin 8051 microcontroller termed as EA is required to be connected to 5V for
accessing the program form the on-chip program memory. If it is connected to ground then the
controller accesses the program from external memory. However as we are using the internal
memory it is always connected to +5V.
COMPARATOR
How an op-amp can be used as a comparator?
Potential dividers are connected to the inverting and non inverting inputs of the op-amp
to give some voltage at these terminals. Supply voltage is given to +Vss and Vss is connected

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to ground. The output of this comparator will be logic high (i.e., supply voltage) if the non-
inverting terminal input is greater than the inverting terminal input of the comparator.
i.e., Non inverting input (+) > inverting input (-) = output is logic high
If the inverting terminal input is greater than the non-inverting terminal input then the
output of the comparator will be logic low (i.e., gnd)
i.e., inverting input (-) > Non inverting input (+) = output is logic low

ZERO VOLTAGE CROSS DETECTION

Zero voltage cross detection means the supply voltage waveform that passes through zero
voltage for every 10msec of a 20msec cycle. We are using 50Hz ac signal, the total cycle time
period is 20msec (T=1/F=1/50=20msec) in which, for every half cycle (i.e. 10ms) we have to get
zero signals. This is achieved by using pulsating dc after the bridge rectifier before being filtered.
For that purpose we are using a blocking diode D3 between pulsating dc and the filter capacitor
so that we can get pulsating DC for use. The pulsating DC is given to potential divider of 6.8k
and 6.8K to deliver an output about 5V pulsating from 12V pulsating which is connected to non
inverting input of comparator pin 3. Here Op-amp is used as comparator. The 5V DC is given to
a potential divider of 47k and 10K which gives an output of about 1.06V and that is connected
to inverting input pin no 2.One resistance of 1K is used from output pin 1 to input pin 2for

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feedback. As we know the principle of an comparator is that when non-inverting terminal is
greater than the inverting terminal then the output is logic high (supply voltage) .Thus the
pulsating dc at pin no 3 is compared with the fixed dc of 1.06V at pin no 2. The o/p of this
comparator is fed to the inverting terminal of another comparator. The non-inverting terminal of
this comparator pin no 5 is given a fixed reference voltage i.e., 2.5V taken from a voltage divider
formed from resistors of 10k and 10k. Thus we get ZVR (Zero Voltage Reference) detection.
This ZVR is then used as input pulses to microcontroller.

ZVS WAVE FORM

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OPERATION

CONNECTIONS:
The output of power supply which is 5v is connected to the 40th pin of microcontroller
and gnd to the 20th pin or pin 20 of microcontroller. Pin 2.0 of port 2 of MC is connected to 1st
pin i.e., anode of 1st MOC3021. Pin 2.1 of port 2 of MC is connected to anode pin of 2nd
MOC3021. Pin 2.2 of port 2 of MC is connected to anode pin i.e., 1st pin of 3rd MOC3021. Pin
2.3 of port 2 of MC is connected to anode pin i.e., 1st pin of 4th MOC3021. Pin 2.4 of port 2 of
MC is connected to anode pin i.e., 1st pin of 5th MOC3021. Pin 2.5 of port 2 of MC is connected
to anode pin i.e., 1st pin of 6th MOC3021. Pin 2.6 of port 2 of MC is connected to anode pin i.e.,
1st pin of 7th MOC3021. Pin 2.7 of port 2 of MC is connected to anode pin i.e., 1st pin of 8th
MOC3021. Pin 3.3 of port 2 of MC is connected to output of LM358. pin 1.0 & pin .1 of port 1
of MC are given to SW1& SW2 (switch 1 & switch 2).

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SIMMULATION OF F/2

WAVEFORM

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SIMMULATION OF F/3

WAVEFORM

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7. Abstract

Induction motors are very cheap and robust so they are used in industry and for
domestic application. The induction motor a constant speed machine to vary the speed of
induction motors, the efficient way is frequency control method in our supply system frequency
is constant. We cannot change the frequency of supply, however we can change the frequency
cyclo converter in our work we will use three frequency (f,f/2,f/3) to vary the speed single
phase induction motor .In this work we have cleared the idea of operation of cyclo converter by
simulation. The o/p wave forms clear shows the frequency f/2 and f/3 and giving this single
phase induction motor. We will achieve three different speed for single phase induction motor.

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8. Future work

From the simulation result shown in this report, our idea for hardware
development is very clear now.
We will make hardware for this circuit and we will vary the speed of
small single phase induction motor in the three different steps.
We will observe the wave forms of f/2 and f/3 mode on CRO.

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REFERENCES

List the articles, books and research papers referred in this section.
(Method to refer research article and book is given below. Replace it
with your actual references)
[1] Raja Verma, Patroklos Argyroudis, Donal O Mahony, Matching Electricity Supply
and Demand using Smart Meters and Home Automation. Conference on
Sustainable Alternative Energy (SAE), IEEE PES/IAS. Sep 2009; 17.

[2] Damodar N. Gujarati, Dawn C. Porter, Sangeetha Gunasekar, Basic


Econometrics, Tata McGraw Hill, New York. 4th Edition. 2009: 780846.

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