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PRODUCTION OF

ACRYLONITRILE BY
AMMOXIDATION OF
PROPYLENE
GROUP MEMBERS
Waheed Ahmed
(2k11-ChE-09)
Adnan Rafi
(2k11-ChE-16)
Ahmed Haroon
(2k11-ChE-23)
Shahzad Ali Zahid
(2k11-ChE-49)

1a
CONTENTS
Introduction
Process Description
Site Selection
Hazop study and EIA

1b
Introduction

Waheed Ahmad
(2k11-Che-09)

2a
INTRODUCTION
It was first prepared in 1893 by the French
chemist Charles
Chemical Formula C3H3N.
This pungent-smelling colorless liquid
It is monomerfor the manufacture of plastics.
It produce toxic combustion products

2b
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
colorless liquid and faint characteristic odor.
Other trade names.

Acrylonitrile polymerizes explosively.

3b
Property Value
Molecular weight 53.06
Boiling point, 0C 77.3 At 103.3 kPa
Critical temperature, 246.0
0
C
Density, g/L 806.0 At 20"C
Explosive limit at 250C, vol 3.05-17.0
%
Flash point 0C -5
Freezing point, 0C -83.55
Heat of polymerization, -72.4
kJ/mol
Ignition temperature, C 481.0
Viscosity at 25C, cP 0.34
Heat capacity, 2.094

3c
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Reactions of the Nitrile Group

Hydration and Hydrolysis


Alcoholysis
NH-HX

CH2=CHCN + ROH + HX XCH2CH2COR

3d
Reactions of the Double Bond
Diels-Alder Reactions
Hydrogenation
Halogenations
Hydrodimerization.

3e
Reactions of Both Functional Groups
Cyanoethylation Reactions (Michael-Type
Additions)

CH2=CHCN + RH RCH2CH2CN

4a
USES AND APPLICATION
Acrylic Fibers.
Copolymer Resin ("Plastics'').

Nitrile Rubbers and Resins.

4b
Shahzad ali zahid
(2k11-Che-49)
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Early Processes
a.Passage through ethylene cyanohydrin
The following reactions are involved:

CH2-CH2 + HCN CH2OH-CH2-CN


O
CH2OH-CH2-CN CH2=CH-CN+H2O
Temperature 200C
Yield 90%
b. Addition of hydrogen cyanide to acetylene
HC CH +HCN CH2=CH-CN
H0298 -175 kJ / mol

catalyst consisting of cuprous chloride and


ammonium chloride in solution in hydrochloric acid
temperature of 80 to 90C
molar yield is up to 90 per cent
by-products are acetaldehyde, vinyl acetylene,divinyl
acetylene, vinyl chloride, cyano butene, lacto nitrile,
methyl vinyl ketone
C. Passage through lactonitrile
CH3-CHO + HCN CH3CHOH-CN (10-20) C

CH3CHOH-CN CH2-CH-CN + H2O


Yield 90 percent
D. Nitric oxide with propylene
4CH2=CH-CH3+6NO 4CH2=CH-CN + 6H2O + N2
E. From Propionitrile.
CH3CH2CN CH2 = CHCN + H2
F. From Propionaldehyde.
CH3CH2CHO + NH3 CH2 = CHCN + H20 + 2H2

G. Acrylonitrile Manufacture by ammoxidation of


propylene (Sohio Process)
CH2=CH-CH3+NH3+3/2O2 CH2=CH-CN+3H2O
H0298 -515kJ/mol
Better quality product
Economical
Its conversion in a single pass is high
Energy efficient process
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
Raw Material

Ammonia (NH3)
Air
Propylene(C3H6)

FEED RATIO= PROPENE/AMMONIA/AIR=1/1.2/9.5


the oxygen (air) is introduced below
mixed propylene and ammonia through
spiders positioned above the grid
The operating pressure should be low to prevent
the by-ptoducts
The residence time in the reactor is between
2 and 20 s
The main reaction is

CH2=CH-CH3+NH3+3/2O2 CH2=CH-CN+3H2O
H0298 -515kJ/mol
It now appears clear that this overall result can
be explained by the production of Acrolein as the
main intermediate
CH2 = CH CH3 + O2 CH2 = CH CHO + H2O
CH2 = CH CHO + NH3 CH2 = CH CH = NH + H2O
CH2 = CH CH = NH + 1/202 CH2 = CH CN + H2O
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT VARIABLES
ON CONVERSATION
Effect of residence time
Effect of reaction temperature

Effect of reaction pressure

Effect of Catalyst
REACTION MECHANISM
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
QUENCHER
It is used to remove ammonia from the reactor
effluent and low down its temperature using sulphuric
acid. It produces ammonium sulphate salt ((NH4)2SO4)
at bottom which is used as a fertilizer and the top
effluent is sent to absorber.
No. of Stages : 10
Sulphuric acid: 30% concentrated H2SO4
Bottom stream coming out of quencher mainly consists
of ammonium sulphate. This stream is further passed
into Crystallizer where crystals of ammonium sulphate
are produced which is used as fertilizer.
ABSORBER
Function of Absorber is to remove the residual gases,
containing unconverted propylene, CO2 and other VOC.
Random Packing: 5 segments of Raschig rings made up of
ceramic, diameter=0.375in
Height of each packing segment=10ft
Column Diameter=5ft
RECOVERY UNIT
Idea is to recover the useful components from the
aqueous solution like ACN, AN etc.
No. of stages: 10

Random Packing: Saddles made up of ceramic,


diameter=0.5in
Total tower height=40ft

Column diameter=5ft
CATALYST
Sohio, who initially employed bismuth phosphomolybdate
in 1967 by a mixture based on oxides of antimony and
uranium
In 1972, Sohio then returned to an iron and bismuth
phosphomolybdate doped by additions of cobalt, nickel and
potassium
The catalysts used in the process are mostly based on
mixed metal oxides such as bismuth-molybdenum oxide,
iron-antimony oxide, uranium-antimony oxide, tellurium
- molybdenum oxide etc.
Adnan Rafi

2k11-Che-15
HAZOP STUDY
A HAZOP survey is one of the most common and
widely accepted methods of systematic
qualitative hazard analysis.
It is used for both new or existing facilities and can
be applied to a whole plant, a production unit, or
a piece of equipment

4c
OBJECTIVES OF A HAZOP STUDY
To identify areas of the design.
To identify and study features of the design.
To familiarize the study team.
To ensure a systematic study.
To identify pertinent design information.
To provide a mechanism for feedback.

4d
STEPS OF HAZOP STUDY
1. Specify the purpose
2. Select the HAZOP study team
3. Collect data

4e
5a
HAZOP GUIDE WORDS AND
MEANINGS

Guide Words Meanings


No Negation of design Intent
Less Quantitative decrease
More Quantitative increase
Part of Qualitative decrease
As well as Qualitative increase
Reverse Logical opposite of
Other than Complete substitution

5b
4. Conduct the study
5. Write the report

HAZOP Study of Storage Tank for Propylene