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1. CHEMISTRY unchanged if it is even and is increased by 1 if it is
It is the branch of science which deals with the odd. For example: 1.235 = 1.24, 1.225 = 1.22.
substances, their composition and properties, the 5. S.I UNIT
changes which they undergo and the manners by There are seven basic physical quantities. These
which they reacts with each other. are given in the following table along with their
The total number of digits in a number including Sr. No. Physical quantity Unit Symbol
the last digit, whose value is uncertain, is called 1. Length Meter m
number of significant figures. For example: 10.421 2. Mass Kilogram Kg
has five S.F. 3. Time Second s
3. RULES FOR THE CALCULATION OF S.F. 4. Temperature Kelvin K
A. All non-zero digits as well as zeroes between non- 5. Electric current Ampere A
zero digits are significant. For example: 15004 has 6. Luminous Candela Cd
five S.F. intensity
B. Zeroes to the let of first non-zero digit are not S.F. 7. Amount of Mole mol
For example: 0.0028 has two S.F. substance
C. If a number ends in zeroes but these zeroes are to
the right of decimal point, then these are 6. SYMBOLS OF COMMONLY USED PREFIXES
significant. For example: 2.500 has four S.F. IN THE POWER OF TEN
D. If a number ends in zeroes but these zeroes are not
right of decimal point, than these zeroes may or not Table-1
be significant. For example: If 10500 is written as Sr. No. Prefix Symbol Submultiple
1.05 104 , then it has three S.F. However, If it is 1. deci d 101
written as 1.050 104 has four S.F. 2. centi c 102
E. The result of an addition or subtraction should be 3. milli m 103
reported upto same number of decimal places as 4. micro 106
that of the term with least number of decimal 5. nano n 109
places. 6. pico p 1012
For example: Sum of 4.525 + 2.3 + 6.24 = 7. femto f 1015
13.063 will be reported as 13.1. 8. atto a 1018
F. The result of multiplication or division should be
reported upto the same number of S.F. as are
present in least precise number. Table--2
For example : 4.327 2.8 = 12.1156 will be Sr.No. Prefix Symbol Multiple
reported as 12. 1. deca da 101
4. RULES FOR ROUNDING OFF 2. hecto h 102
It implies as follows 3. kilo k 103
A. If the digit just next to the last digit to be retained 4. mega M 106
is less than 5, the last digit is taken as such and all 5. giga G 109
other digits to its right are dropped. For example: 6. tera T 1012
1.234 = 1.23. 7. peta P 1015
B. If the last digit is greater than 5, the digit to be 8. exa E 1018
retained is increased by 1 and other digits on its Check your ability
right are dropped. For example: 1.236 = 1.24. 1. In the final answer of the expression
C. If the digit just next to the last digit to be retained (..)(. )
The number of significant figures is
is equal to 5, the last significant figure is left
A. 1 B. 2 1. Metals: Metals are generally hard, rigid, good
C.3 D. 4 conductor of heat and electricity, ductile and malleable.
2. The number of significant figures in = However, mercury, is liquid at room temperature. For
. , ., Avogadros number are example: Sodium, potassium, calcium etc.
A. Three B. four
C. five D. can be any of these. 2. Non-metals: These are bad conductor of heat and
3. The prefix is electricity, and are not ductile and non malleable. For
A. giga B. exa example: Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur etc.
C. kilo D. nano Graphite is an exception , it is good conductor of
4. One Fermi is electricity.
A. 1013 B. 1015 3. Metalloid: These are the elements which behave as
C. 10 D. 1012 both metals as well as non-metals. For example:
7. MATTER Arsenic, antimony, bismuth etc.
Anything that occupies space, possesses mass and the
presence of which can be felt by any one or more of our ii. Compound: It is a pure substance containing two or
five senses is called matter. more elements in a fixed ratio by weight. It is always
8. CLASSIFICATION homogeneous. These are of two types:
Matter has been classified into two types: 1. Inorganic compound: These are obtained from non-
A. Physical classification of matter living sources such as rocks and minerals. For example:
B. Chemical classification of matter. common salt, marble, washing soda etc.
A. Physical classification 2. Organic compounds: These are present in plants
This is based upon the physical state of matter: and animals. These are obtained from living-thing. For
There are three states of matter. example: Oil, fats, carbohydrates etc.
i. Solid state ii. Liquid state iii. Mixture: it is a material obtained by the
combination of two or more substances in any ratio. It
iii. Gaseous state. is of two types.
1. Homogeneous mixture: Here, composition is
i. Solid State: A solid has definite shape and definite
uniform throughout the material. For example: Air is a
volume. The magnitude of attractive force is very
homogeneous mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon
strong. For example: Table, chair, sugar etc.
dioxide etc.
ii. Liquid state: A liquid has definite volume but not 2. Heterogeneous mixture: Here, composition is not
definite shape. The liquid has tendency to flow. This is uniform. For example: A mixture of iron pieces and
so because magnitude of attractive forces is weak. For sulphur powder is heterogeneous.
example: Water, milk, ethyl alcohol etc. 9. LAW OF CHEMICAL COMBINATIONS
A. Law of conservation of mass
iii. Gaseous state: A gas has neither definite shape nor It was proposed by A. Lavoisier in 1789. It states that in
definite volume. This is because magnitude of attractive all physical and chemical changes, the total mass of
forces is very weak. For example: Hydrogen, nitrogen, reactants is equal to that of products. It can also be
oxygen etc. stated as, Matter can neither be created nor be
destroyed. A balanced chemical equation is in
B. Chemical classification of matter accordance with this law. E.g.
2 2
This classification is based on chemical composition of 12+ 32 44
matter. These are of three types.
i. Element ii. Compound This law does not hold good in nuclear reaction as some
of the mass of reactants is converted into energy
iii. Mixture ( = 2 ). This law, therefore, has been modified to
law of conservation of mass and energy saying that
i. Element: It is a purre substance that contains only total sum of mass and energy during any physical or
one kind of atoms. There are about 112 elements. These chemical change remains constant.
are of three types.

B. Law of constant composition e.g. in C2H5OH and CH3 (both C2H6O) ratio of
It was proposed by Joseph Proust in 1799. It states that
a pure chemical compound always consists of the same C:H:O =24:6:16 = 12:3:8 by mass.
elements combined together in definite ratio by weight.
C. Law of Multiple Proportion
e.g., H2O contains H and O in the ratio of 1:8 by mass
irrespective of its source. It was proposed by Dalton in 1803. It states that if two
Limitation elements combine to form two or more compounds, the
i. This law is not applicable if an element exists in weights of one of the elements which combine with a
different isotopes which may be involved in the fixed weight of other, bear a simple number ratio. e.g.
formation of the compound. e.g. 12 2 has C:O in the N and O forms number of oxide as shown in table given
ratio of 12:32 by mass but C14 O2 has C:O in the ratio below.
of 14:32 by mas..
ii. The elements may combine in the same ratio but the
compounds formed may be different.


Compound Nitrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Oxygen (mass of
(parts by mass) (parts by mass) (Fixed mass) Oxygen which combine with fixed mass of
N 2O 28 16 14 8
NO 14 32 14 16
N 2O 3 28 48 14 24
N 2O 4 28 64 14 32
N 2O 5 28 80 14 40

Thus, Fixing the mass of nitrogen as 14 parts, ratio of masses of oxygen is 8:16:24:32:40 or 1:2:3:4:5, which is a simple

D. Law of reciprocal proportion E. Law of combining volumes

It was proposed by Richter. The ratio of weights of two It was proposed by Gay Lussac in 1808. It states that
elements X and Y which combine with a fixed weight under similar conditions of T and P, whenever gases
of third element Z, is same or simple multiple of the combine, they do so in volumes which bear a simple
ratio which combine directly with each other. whole number ratio. With each other and also with
e.g. elements H and O combine separately with the gaseous products.

third element S to form H2S and SO2 and they combine . 2 () + 2 () 2 2()
directly with each other to form H2O as The ratio of their volumes is 1:1:2
. 1 mL of 2 , 2 Or a mixture of gases contain the
same number of molecules under similar conditions of
temperature and pressure.
Under similar conditions of T and P all gases contain
equal number of atoms. This hypothesis could not
become a law as it was in contradiction with Daltons
i. The masses of H and O which combine with fixed atomic theory.
mass of S (32 parts) are 2 and 32 or they are in the ratio 2 () + 2 () 2()
2:32=1:16. According to Berzelius
ii. When H and O combine directly to form 2 the n atoms n atoms 2n compound atoms
1 atom 1 atom 2 compound atoms
ratio of their combining masses =2:16 Or 1:8. 1 1
1 1 atom atom 1 compound atom
The two ratios are related as : = 1: 2 2 2
16 8
i.e. simple multiple of each other.
This is not true as half an atom cannot participate in a ()+()
Average atomic mass =
reaction (atom is the smallest particle taking part in a
chemical reaction). For example: There are two isotopes of chlorine namely
Check your Grasp 35 and 37 in the ratio 3:1.
5. Which one of the following is not an element?
A. Diamond B. Graphite (335)+(137)
Average atomic mass =
C. Silica D. Ozone
6. Law of multiple proportions is illustrated by one of 105+37 144
= = = 35.5 a.m.u
the following pairs 4 4

A. 2 and 2 B. 3 and 2
C. 2 and 2 D. 2 and
7. The law of multiple proportion was proposed by The atomic mass of an element expressed in gram is
A. Lavosier B. Dalton called gram atomic mass. The amount is also known as
C. Proust D. Gay-Lussac one gram atom. G.A.M.=One gram atom

11. AVOGADROS HYPOTHESIS It is the absolute mass in grams of 6.02 1023 atoms
Under similar conditions of T and P, equal volumes of of any element.
all gases contain equal number of molecules.
Applications of Avogadros hypothesis Number of gram atoms
Using Avogadrros hypothesis, it can be concluded that Mass of element in grams
Atomic mass of the element in grams
i. Molecular mass = 2 Vapour density
ii. 22.4 L of any gas at S.T.P. weigh equal to molecular 8. 1 a.m.u is equal to
mass in gram. This mass is called Gram molecular
1 1
mass and the volume is known as Gram molecular A. Or 12 B. Of 16
12 14
C. 1 g of 2 D. 1.66 1023 kg
S.T.P. stands for standard temperature and pressure.
S.T.P condition means 273 K temperature and one 9. Atomic mass of an element is
atmospheric pressure.
(A) the actual mass of one atom of the element
(B) the relative mass of an atom of the element
It is equal to th of the mass of an atom of C-12. It is
12 (C) the average relative mass of different atoms of the
equal to 1.6 1024 g. element

13. ATOMIC MASS (D) much different from the mass number of the
It is the average relative mass of its atoms as compared
with an atom of C-12. It is expressed in a.m.u. 16. MOLECULAR MASS

Atomic mass of an element Molecular mass of substance is average relative mass of

Average mass of one atom of the element
its molecule as compared with an atom of 12. It is
= 1 expressed in a.m.u. For example : Molecular mass of
th part of the mass of one atom of carbon
nitrogen is 28 a.m.u

12 Molecular mass =



If an element exist in two isotopic forms having atomic
massesaand b in the ratio m:n then 17. GRAM MOLECULAR MASS (G.N.M)

The molecular mass of a molecule expressed in gram 1 = 6.022 1026 .
known as gram molecular mass.

For example: Gram molecular mass of nitrogen is 28 g.

Gram molecular mass is also known as one gram
molecule. G.M.M.=One gram molecule.

No. of gram molecules=

A. In case of atomic substances,
Mass of substance in grams
1 mol = G.A.M.
Molecular mass of the substance in grams
= One gram atom
Vapour density = 6.023 1023 atoms
B. In case of molecular substances,
Density of a gas at certain temp.and pressure
V.D = 1 mol = G.M.M
Density of hydrogen at same temp.and pressure
= One gram molecule
Mass of a certain volume of a gas = 6.023 1023 molecules
V.D = Mass of same volume of hydrogen under
same temp.and pressure
= 22.4 L at S.T.P. if substance is gas
C. In case of ionic compounds
1 mol = Gram formula mass of compound
V.D =
= 6.023 1023 formula unit of
18. MOLE CONCEPT Compound
= 6.023 1023 time number of ions present
One mole is defined as the number of particles in 12 g in one formula unit.
of carbon 12. The number of particles is equal to Check your Grasp
Avogadros no. i,e., 6.022 1023 particles (atoms, 10. The weight of a molecule of the compounds
molecules or ions). It is denoted by 0 . is
A. 14 1023 g B. 1.09 1021 g
i. Number of moles 23
C. 5.025 10 g D. 16.023 1023 g
11.The volume occupied by 4.4 g of at STP is
= =
A. 22.4 L B. 2.24 L
C. 0.224 L D. 0.1 L
= = 12. Avogadro number is
6.021023 0
A. number of atoms in gram of element

= B. number of millitres which one mole of a gaseous
substance occupies at N.T.P.
Mass of one atom of an element C. number of molecules present in one gram molecular
mass of a substance

= D. all are correct
ii. Mass of one molecule of a substance The equivalent weight of a substance is the number of
parts by weight of the substance that combine with or

= displace directly or indirectly 1.008 parts by weight of
hydrogen or 8 parts by weight of oxygen or 35.5 parts
iii. SI definition of mole by weight of chlorine.
Mol .wt. of acid
Equi. Wt. of acid =
one mole is that amount of the substance which Basicity
Mol.wt of base
contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in Equi. Wt. of base =
Mol.wt.of salt
0.012 (, . 12) 12 . Equi. Wt. of salt =
TOtal positive valency of metal
1 = 6.022 1023 . Equi. wt. of oxidising agent =
No.of electrons gained
Equi. wt. of reducing agent =
Equivalent weight is the weight of a substance which is D. Convert the simplest ratio into nearest whole
deposited by 96500 coulumbs or 1 Faraday. number. This whole number is known as simplest
Note:- Equivalent weight = 96500 Electrochemical whole number ratio.
equivalent E. Write the symbols of elements side by side and put
Basicity the simplest whole number ratio of each element at the
It is the number of displaceable + ions from one lower right end of the symbol.
molecule of the acid. For example: Basicity is one for 25. CALCULATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA
HCl, two for 2 4 and three for 3 4 . OF A COMPOUND
Acidity Following steps are involved
It is the number of displaceable ions from one A. Calculate the molecular mass of substance by
molecule of base. suitable method.
For example: Acidity of NaOH is one, that ()2 is B. Calculate empirical formula mass by adding the
two. atomic masses of atom involved in empirical formula.
20. GRAM EQUIVALENT WEIGHT C. Divide the molecular mass of substance by empirical
The equivalent weight of a substance expressed in gram formula mass. As a result n is obtained.
is known as gram equivalent weight. D. Molecular formula = Empirical formula
Check your Grasp 26. LIMITING REAGENT
13. 1 mol of contains The reactant which is present in smaller amount, reacts
A. 6.02 1023 atom of H completely and decide the amount of products formed
B. 4 g atoms of hydrogen is called limiting reagent.
C. 1.81 1023 atom Excess reagent
D. 3.0 g of carbon. The reactant which is not consumed completely in the
14. Equivalent weight of crystalline oxalic acid is reaction is called excess reactant or excess reagent.
A. 90 B. 63 e.g. 22 + 2 22
C. 53 D. 45 Here 2 mol of 2 react exactly with 1 mol of 2 to form
21. CALCULATION OF PERCENTATE 2 mol of 2 . If given moles of 2 are 4 and that of 2
% of element =
100 22 + 2 22

4 0.5 moles
41 0.5 0.5 2 0.5
It gives the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of
=3 mol 0 = 1 mol formed
various elements present in one molecule of the
Therefore 2 acts as limiting reagent as it is in minimum
compound. For example: Empirical formula of glucose
amount and the product formation is given with respect
is (2 ) where = 6
to 2 (, . ,1 2 is formed)
It gives the actual number of atoms of various elements
The compounds having identical crystal structure,
present in one molecule of the compound.
similar constitution and chemical formulae.
For example: Molecular formula of glucose is
e.g. ZnSO4 . 7H2 O
6 12 6 .
MgSO4. 7H2 O
Relation between molecular formula and empirical
FeSO4 . 7H2 O
FeSO4 . 7H2 O
Molecular formula = Empirical formula
i. The valencies of the two elements forming
Where = any integer
isomorphous salts are essentially same. Therefore, if the
valency of one of the elements is known, that of other
can be obtained.
A. Write the % age of different elements involved in
ii. Weights of two elements A and B that combine with
the formula.
the same weight of other elements in their respective
B. Calculate atomic ratio. This is obtained by dividing
isomorphs, are in the ratio of their atomic masses, i,e,
% age of each element by its atomic mass. wt.of A that combines with certain wt.of other element
C. Divide the atomic ratio of different elements by the wt.of B that combines with same wt.of other element
smallest among them to find simplest ratio. At mass of A
At mass of B

1. Atomic mass specific heat = 6.4
(Duleng and Petit law)
2. Atomic mass = Equivalent wt. Valency
Molecular mass
3. Atomic mass of a gaseous element =
4. Vapour density of a volatile metal choride
E = Eq. wt. of metal
X = valency of metal
Gram atomic wt.
5. Wt. of one atom =
Gram molecular wt.
6. Wt. of one molecule =
Gram formula wt.
7. Wt. of formula unit =
Gram ionic wt.
8. Wt. of one ion =

9. 1 g atom wt. of an element is equal to its gram

atomic wt.
10. 1 g molecule wt. of a substance is equal to its gram
molecular wt.
11. 1 g formula wt. of an ionic compound is equal to its
gram formula wt.
12. 1 g ion wt. of an ion is equal to its gram ionic wt.
Wt.of an element in grams
13. No. of atoms =
Gram atomic wt.
Wt. of a substance in grams
14. No. of g molecules =
gram molecular wt.

15. No. of gram formulae :

Wt. of ionic compound in grams

gram formula weight

Wt. of an ion in grams

16. No. of g ions =
grams ionic wt.

17. Loschmidt number : The no. of molecules in 1 3

of a gas at STP. It is equal to 2.687 1019 .

1 mol of 2 is equal to 22400 mL of 2 but the

concepts is that 1 mol of 2 but the concepts is that 1
mol of 2 is not equal to 22400 mL of 2 because it
is a liquid. Instead, 1 mol of 2 = 18 mL of 2 .