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Running head: MAPPING BACKWARD DESIGN MODEL TO ADDIE

Mapping Backward Design Model to ADDIE

Bassel EL Ahmadieh

California State University Monterey Bay


Running head: MAPPING BACKWARD DESIGN MODEL TO ADDIE
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ADDIE Model is a framework utilized by instructional designers and content developers

to develop and design instructional training and course materials. This model is characterized by

its flexibility because it can be utilized in all types of instruction and its phases can be adjusted in

a way that suits learners needs. This model consists of five phases: analysis, design,

development, implementation, and evaluation. Analysis phase includes establishing training

objectives, identifying instructional issues and determining learners level. Design phase

comprises training objectives, analyzing subject matter, planning the content, assessment,

practice, and lessons, and selecting media. Development phase embraces developing the content

by following the designed storyboard and integrating media and technology. Implementation

phase focuses on ways on teaching the instructional content by utilizing different learning

strategies and materials. Evaluation phase is an ongoing process that goes through all phases to

ensure that the training objectives are met.

Figure 1 ADDIE Module


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The ADDIE model is a useful, simple framework for instructional design. The process

can be applicable in a variety of settings, because of its systematic and generic structure. The

framework provides developers with a means for identifying the target audiences needs and

reinforces the use of this information for the design and development of programs. Throughout

the implementation and conclusion of the implementation phase, developers employ the ADDIE

model to gather the necessary feedback (through formative and summative evaluations) to

determine the effectiveness of the program (Peterson, 2003).

The Backward design model consists of three stages that share some characteristics with

ADDIE model phases. In the Backward design model, the trainer or teacher identifies the

desired results, determines acceptable evidence and plans learning experience. Peterson explains

the phases that the backward designer undertakes by stating: the backward designer derives the

curriculum from the evidence of learning (performances) called for by the standard and the

teaching needed to equip the students to perform (Wiggins & McTighe, 2004). Secondly, the

backward designer develops assessment tools and strategies before planning learning

experiences: backward design calls for us to operationalize our goals or standards in terms of

assessment evidence as we begin to plan a unit or course (Ibidem). (Peterson, 2003)

Setting goals by identifying the desired results is an essential step in the Backward design

model since this provides a guideline to specify the teaching and learning strategies needed to

apply the standards which can be external and internal (Di Masi, D., & Milani, P. , 2016).

External standards are when the teacher or the trainer needs to take into consideration the state or

country standards. Internal standards are when the teacher or the trainer takes into consideration

students interests, developmental levels, and previous achievements. The second step in this

model requires constructing a rubric to determine the acceptable evidence needed to test if the
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objectives and goals are met. The learners demonstrate their understanding by taking a formative

assessment. The third step is about planning learning experiences and instruction that lead to the

desired results identified in the first step (Tomei , 2009).

Figure 2 Stages in the backward design process connected to the stages used by the instructors to

collaboratively design an online course. (Adapted from Wiggins & McTighe, 2005, p. 18)

There are differences in the number of phases between the two modules. ADDIE model

has five while Backward Design Model has three phases. Moreover, there are some similarities

in the function of some phases. The following table compares the two modules

Comparing ADDIE to Backward Design Model


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ADDIE Steps Backward Design Model Differences


Steps
Analyze Identify desired results ADDIE model includes all
types of analysis needed to
support and establish the
learning objectives, while in
Backward Design Model the
desired results are identified
first
Design Plan learning experiences and In Backward Design Model
instruction planning and designing the
content comes after
producing the rubric while in
ADDIE it comes after the
thorough analysis and it
includes designing the model
content and all kind of
assessments.
Develop Determine acceptable This step in ADDIE includes
evidence developing all the content and
the assessment designed. In
Backward design there are
rubrics development
ensuring the fulfilling of the
desired results
Implement Identify desired results Backward Design Model
includes in the first step
identifying the learning
strategies that is determined
after specifying the desired
results. Identifying best ways
of implementing the
developed materials in
ADDIE it comes after
developing the content.
evaluate Determine acceptable There is continuous
evidence evaluation process in ADDIE
while in Backward Design
there is a limited formative
evaluation that assesses
learners understanding to
make sure that the desired
results are met.
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Many instructional designers and training developers depend on ADDIE Model when

designing their instructional or training models because its phases reflect ways to solve the

problems and to reach the training objectives effectively. Backward design model focusses on

the importance of desired results by designing and developing instructional content, learning

experiences, assessments, and rubrics to support the main objectives.


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References

Di Masi, D., & Milani, P. (2016). Backward design in-service training blended curriculum to

practitioners in social work as coach in the PIPPI program. Journal of e-Learning and

Knowledge Society, 12(3).

McTighe, J., & Wiggins, G. (2005). Understanding by design. Association for Supervision and

Curriculum Development.

Peterson, C. (2003). Bringing ADDIE to life: Instructional design at its best. Journal of

Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 12(3), 227-241.

Tomei, L. A. (2009). A theoretical model for designing online education in support of lifelong

learning. Online education and adult learning: New frontiers for teaching practices, 29-

45.