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16 Aufrufe14 SeitenComparation of Blast-Induced Damage Between Presplit and Smooth Blasting of High Rock Slope

Oct 30, 2017

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Comparation of Blast-Induced Damage Between Presplit and Smooth Blasting of High Rock Slope

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16 Aufrufe

Comparation of Blast-Induced Damage Between Presplit and Smooth Blasting of High Rock Slope

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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DOI 10.1007/s00603-013-0475-7

ORIGINAL PAPER

and Smooth Blasting of High Rock Slope

Yingguo Hu Wenbo Lu Ming Chen

Received: 2 April 2013 / Accepted: 28 August 2013 / Published online: 14 September 2013

Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Abstract This paper focuses on the comparison of damage control suggestion for two blasting excavation

damage induced by smooth blasting and presplit blasting methods is proposed and verified based on the excavation

based on the excavation of high rock slope. The whole of the temporary shiplock slopes of the Three Gorges

damage process of the smooth blasting and presplit blasting Project in China.

excavation method is studied by using a cumulative

blasting damage numerical simulation technology based on Keywords High rock slope Blast-induced damage

the secondary development of the dynamic finite element Smooth blasting Presplit blasting Simulation

code LS-DYNA. The results demonstrate that, in the case

of contour blasting with the method of smooth blasting, the

List of Symbols

total damage of rock slope is a result of cumulated damage

k Sensitivity constant

induced by the production hole, buffering hole, and smooth

DC Compressive damage symbol

hole. Among the total damage, the blasting of the pro-

D Damage symbol

duction hole is the main resource, followed by the smooth

q Density

and buffering holes. For the presplit blasting, the final

sij Deviatoric stress tensor

damage of rock slope is mainly induced by presplit blasting

a Average crack radius

itself. The spatial distribution characteristics of the final

k Material constant

damage zone of two methods are compared. Two classes of

b Material constant

damage zone could be found in smooth blasting excava-

l Poissons ratio for damaged material

tion; one of them is the columnar high-degree damage zone

l Poissons ratio for undamaged material

around the slope surface and the other is the low-degree

epij Plastic strain tensor

damage zone located in the middle of the slope. But in the

case of presplit blasting, there is only the columnar high- G Shear modulus for damaged material

degree damage zone around the slope surface. Finally, a rij Stress tensor

Dt Tensile damage symbol

C Longitudinal wave velocity

ev Volumetric tensile strain

K von Mises equivalent stress

Y. Hu W. Lu M. Chen P. Yan J. Yang ry Yield stress

State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Cd Crack density parameter

Engineering Science, WuHan University, WuHan 430072,

Peoples Republic of China

KIC Fracture toughness of the material

m Material constant

Y. Hu W. Lu (&) M. Chen P. Yan J. Yang Wp Plastic work

Key Laboratory of Rock Mechanics in Hydraulic Structural e_vmax Maximum volumetric tensile strain rate

Engineering, Ministry of Education, WuHan University, WuHan

430072, Peoples Republic of China K Bulk modulus for damaged material

e-mail: wblu@whu.edu.cn K Bulk modulus for undamaged material

123

1308 Y. Hu et al.

2009). The worldwide practice of the excavation of large-

Blasting is a widely adopted technique in the mining and scale rock mass engineering shows that a reasonable

construction industries. The damage process in rock blast- excavation sequence and the contour blasting method has a

ing has received considerable attention over last several direct effect on the excavation quality, construction sche-

decades and its mechanism seems to be well understood dule, and excavation economy (Lu et al. 2011b; Mandal

(Khandelwal and Monjezi 2013; Onederra et al. 2013; et al. 2008; Sheng et al. 2002). The contour excavation and

Hamdi et al. 2011; Malmgren et al. 2007; Saiang and damage control of high rock slope is one of the most sig-

Nordlund 2009; Ambrosini et al. 2002). As demonstrated in nificant problems during the construction of rock mass

field experiments and numerical simulation (Martino and engineering, as illustrated in Fig. 1. To reduce the extent of

Chandler 2004; Park et al. 2009; Garca Bastante et al. BID and guarantee the quality of the slope contour surface,

2012; Wang and Shukla 2010; De 2012), damage in sur- smooth blasting and presplit blasting excavation methods

rounding rock masses is inevitably induced by a combina- are widely used in the contour excavation of high rock

tion of the effects of blasting load and stress redistribution. slope. The excavation sequence of these two methods is

The processes of blast-induced damage and fragmentations illustrated in Fig. 2. (The rows of production blasting

around a bore hole are strongly dependent on the parameters depend on the project circumstances; in the present study,

of the explosive detonation and the dynamic response of two rows was chosen as an example.)

rock (Bohloli and Hoven 2007; Hudson et al. 2009; Tripa- Based on the excavation of several huge hydropower

thy and Gupta 2002; Wang et al. 2007; Zhu et al. 2007). projects in China, such as the temporary shiplock of Three

The capability of predicting blasting-induced damage Gorges, the high rock slope of Xiluodu, the foundation of

(BID) in the surrounding rock mass is important. However, Xiaowan arch dam, and so on, experience demonstrates

the investigation of rock blasting and its effects by scaled that the two methods could both obtain satisfactory effects

or full-size experiments is very expensive and time-con- in most cases, but they have different damage control

suming. With the development of computer technology, mechanisms and the excavation effect is quite different in

numerical methods, derived from sound mechanical prin- some cases. If we want to determine the BID of the two

ciples and validated against experimental data, indicate a excavation methods, two factors must be taken into con-

promising approach to revealing the BID. In consequence, sideration: the first one is the damage induced by contour

extensive research activities in the field of blast damages blasting (smooth blasting or presplit blasting) itself and the

have taken place in recent years (Saharan and Mitri 2008; second is the cumulative effect from other blasting in the

Donze et al. 1997; Ma and An 2008; Mohammadi and excavation zone. However, few attempts have been made

Pooladi 2007; Lu et al. 2011a). Considerable efforts have to investigate the comparison of the BID of the two

been directed towards developing discontinuum, contin- blasting methods. Until recently, there is still some lack of

uum, and continuumdiscontinuum constitutive models of knowledge about the optimization for contour blasting of

the rock materials (Ning et al. 2011; Wang et al. 2007; Hao high rock slope based on the control of the BID.

et al. 2002; Saiang 2010). In the present study, a modified blasting damage model

Damage is required to be minimized even in conven- is implemented into the explicit finite element (FE) code

tional blasting in several situations, such as pit wall LS-DYNA. Then, the whole excavation processes of the

blasting, tunnel and underground chambers excavations, smooth blasting and presplit blasting methods are studied

etc. For the past many years, considerable efforts have been by using a cumulative blasting damage numerical simula-

made to study the effect of blasting on rock damage and tion technology. The distribution characteristics of the BID

also to minimize damage resulting from blasting (Rathore of the two methods are investigated and compared. Finally,

final contour of Xiluodu high

rock slope

123

Comparison of Blast-Induced Damage 1309

age is determined following the equations derived by Bu-

Initiation sequence:

Production holes Buffer holes diansky and OConnell (1976) for a random array of

Smooth holes

penny-shaped cracks in an isotropic elastic medium. The

tensile damage scalar Dt is related to the damaged Pois-

sons ratio l and the crack density parameter Cd through:

16 1 l2

Dt Cd 1

9 1 2l

where Dt is the tensile damage scalar, l represents the

degraded Poissons ratio for damaged material, and Cd is

(b) the crack density parameter.

Initiation sequence:

Production holes Buffer holes Following Grady and Kipp (1980), the crack density

Presplit holes

parameter is assumed to be proportional to the number of

cracks per unit volume N and a3, the cube of the average

crack radius in a representative volume element, as follows:

Cd Nxa3 2

where x is the proportionality constant. N is expressed as a

Weibull statistical distribution function activated by the

bulk strain ev = (ex ? ey ? ez)/3, such that:

Fig. 2 Excavation sequence of two blasting excavation methods.

a Smooth blasting excavation method. b Presplit blasting excavation N k ev m 3

method

where k and m are the material constants.

BID control methods of two kinds of contour blasting of The average crack radius is estimated from the nominal

high rock slope are proposed and verified based on the fragment radius for dynamic fragmentation in a brittle

excavation of the temporary shiplock slopes of the Three material as Eq. (4) (Grady 1983):

Gorges Project in China. p 2=3

1 20KIC

a 4

2 qCe_max

2 Cumulative Damage Simulation Technology where q is the mass density, C is the uniaxial wave speed,

and Finite Element Model KIC is the fracture toughness of the material, and e_vmax is

the maximum volumetric strain rate experienced by the

2.1 Tensile-Compressive Damage Model representative volume element at the fracture.

Substituting Eqs. (3) and (4) into Eq. (2), the crack

Many research works have been conducted to study the density parameter could be determined as shown in Eq. (5):

explosion-induced damage in rock mass by site monitoring 2

5 KIC

and numerical simulations. Continuum damage mechanics Cd k em

v 5

2 qC e_vmax

is one of the methods considered appropriate to describe

the blast damage process (Grady and Kipp 1980; Taylor An expression based on the percolation theory (Englman

et al. 1986; Yang et al. 1996; Liu and Katsabanis 1997). In and Jaeger 1987) is as follows:

the existing blasting damage models, the damage scalar

16

D was defined by the extensional strain, but the compres- l l exp b Cd 6

9

sive strain-induced damage was neglected. It is known that

a compressive damage zone was inevitably formed by the The value of b controls the unloading and reloading

shock wave near the blast hole (Esen et al. 2003). In our behaviors and relaxes the restriction of elastic unloading in

previous study, we proposed a tensile-compressive damage the original model according to the study of Taylor et al.

model by incorporating the compressive damage into the (1986). In the present study, b is set as 0.5.

existing damage model. The feasibility of the model is On the other hand, when the rock material is in com-

verified by comparing with four different existing blasting pression, based on the coupling principle of the strain-rate

damage models based on the cross-hole sonic test of the effect in the FurlongDavisAlme (RDA) model (Furlong

BID zone of Xiluodu high rock slope (Hu et al. 2012). et al. 1990), the compressive damage DC is expressed as:

123

1310 Y. Hu et al.

D_ C 7 effect of the previous excavation should be cumulated in

1 Dt

the current excavation step. In the present study, the

where k is the sensitivity constant of DC which is taken to damage is recorded with historical variables hsv(i) based

be equal to 1.0 9 10-3 kg/J in this study, while the plastic on the secondary development of the LS-DYNA and

work Wp is computed by: FORTRAN program. The LS-DYNA restart capability

Z

allows analyses to be broken down into stages. The full

Wp rij depij 8 restart technology of LS-DYNA allows the user to restart

the simulation by providing a restart file and, optionally, a

In this way, the tensile damage scalar and compressive restart input defining changes to the model, such as delet-

damage scalar are given in the model simultaneously. ing contacts, materials, elements, switching materials from

Introducing the symbol D into expressing the damage rigid to deformable, deformable to rigid, etc. The stress and

scalar and considering the biggest damage effect, the displacement etc. can be inherited by using the keywords

damage scalar can be obtained as: *STRESS_INITIALIZATION of LS-DYNA, which allows

D max Dt ; DC 9 all parts to be initialized on restart based on the results of

the previous excavation. Figure 3 shows the flow diagram

On the other hand, when the rock material is in

for the numerical simulation of the cumulative blasting

compression, the von Mises yield condition is expressed as:

damage. The circle is implemented repeatedly in every

U K2 r2y 0 10 excavation, which realizes the numerical simulations of

q cumulative damage induced by all excavation steps.

where K 32 sij sij is the von Mises equivalent stress and

ry is the yield stress. 2.3 Finite Element Model

The degraded bulk modulus and shear modulus are

defined as follows: Based on the excavation of the Xiluodu high rock slope,

K K 1 D 11 which is one of the biggest hydropower project slopes in

China, an FEM was constructed as illustrated in Fig. 4. The

3 1 2l

G K 12 excavation zone is in the region marked with the red circle.

2 1 l The height of the blasting excavation layer is 15 m. The

The constitutive relations recording the damage effect diameter of the blast holes is 90 mm. The charge structures

could be defined with Hookes law of increment as follows: of different kinds of blast holes are shown in Fig. 5. To

guarantee that the differences in the damage process is

drij Kdekk dij 2Gdeij 13 induced only by the excavation method, the smooth

where ekk and eij are the volumetric and deviatoric strains, blasting and presplit blasting excavation methods adopt the

respectively, while dij is the Kronecker delta function. same charge structure. The numerical simulation model

LS-DYNA is a well-known general-purpose commercial was finished by employing the dynamic finite element

FE code that has been developed for simulating the non- software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The excavation region can be

linear dynamic response of structures. It provides the user divided into many identical sections. To make the numer-

with a subroutine interface to implement the user-defined ical simulation feasible and easy to implement, one section

model. Wang et al. (2007) and Ma and An (2008) imple-

mented the user-defined material model into LS-DYNA

Result

and simulated the BID. In the present study, the tensile- Complete restart

LS-prepost

compressive damage model is implemented with the user

subroutine interface of LS-DYNA.

Damage Record LS-DYNA

Fortran subroutine

The numerical simulation of the whole excavation process Damage Process Damage Model

is more complex than one excavation step. In every exca-

vation step, the finite element model (FEM) is modified

and the elements of rock mass excavated in the previous Ls971.exe

excavation are deleted, but the stress and displacement etc.

should be inherited. What is most important for the Fig. 3 Calculation scheme used for cumulative damage

123

Comparison of Blast-Induced Damage 1311

numerical simulation model

based on the Xiluodu high rock 3m 1.5 3m

slope

15m

100 m

120 m

c b a a--Presplit/Smooth hole

b--Buffering hole

c--Production hole

has 308,904 elements and 324,987 nodes. The symmetry Fig. 6 Finite element model (FEM) mesh of the excavation zone

boundary was employed in the vertical direction of the

plane, as shown in Figs. 4 and 6, while for the other edges

of the FEM, except for the natural surface, the transmitting

P C0 C1 l C2 l2 C3 l3 C4 C5 l C6 l2 e

boundaries were adopted to prevent the effects of reflected

waves at the edge of the region. 15

where e is the internal energy per volume. The compres-

2.4 Material Identification of Explosive and Air sion of the material is defined by the parameter l = (q/

q0) - 1, with q and q0 being the current and initial density

The JonesWilkensLee (JWL) equation of state is used of the material, respectively. As a matter of fact, the air is

here to model the pressure generated by the expansion of often modeled as an ideal gas by setting

the detonation product of the chemical explosive. It has C0 = C1 = C2 = C3 = C4 = 0 and C4 = C5 = 0.401.

been widely used in engineering calculations and can be The air mass density and initial internal energy e0 are

written as: 1.255 kg/m3 and 0.25 J/cm3, respectively.

x x xE The rock mass surrounding the blast hole is modeled

PA 1 eR1 V B 1 eR2 V with the Lagrange mesh, while the explosives and air are

R1 V R2 V V

modeled with the Euler mesh. The Arbitrary Lagrangian

14

Eulerian (ALE) algorithm is employed to model the fluid

where A, R1, B, R2, and x are material constants, P is the solid coupling characteristic in blasting. The command

pressure, V is the relative volume of detonation product, CONSTRAINED_LAGRANGE_IN_SOLID was used in

and E is the specific energy, with an initial value of E0. the simulation. Initiation points were defined by using the

Table 1 gives the JWL parameters for the explosive used. keywords *INITIAL_DETONATION in LS-DYNA. The

Material type 9 of LS-DYNA (*MAT_NULL) is used to coordinate and detonation time of the initiation points

calculate the pressure P from a specified EOS, which should be determined. The location of the initiation points

defines the relationship between pressure, density, and was set at the bottom of the blast holes. Explosives in these

internal energy. As for the air, the polynomial EOS is boreholes are not continuous, and the detonation time of

usually employed, in which the pressure P is expressed as: different blast holes was determined according to the

123

1312 Y. Hu et al.

Density (kg/m3) VOD (m/s) PCJ (GPa) A (GPa) B (GPa) R1 R2 x E0 (GPa)

Table 2 Material constants and damage constants for the modified damage model

Density Elasticity Poissons Dynamic tensile Damage Damage KIC Damage Material

(kg/m3) modulus (GPa) ratio strength (MPa) constant k constant m (MN 9 m-3/2) constant k constant b

(Kg/J)

PPV=59.30(Q1/3 /R) 1.227

6# r 2=0.948

Test points 7#

PPV=51.12(Q1/3 /R) 1.236

10 r 2=0.960

1

0.01 0.1 1

3# Scaled distance( kg1/3 /m)

distance in the rock mass

Fig. 7 Arrangement of vibration measuring points in Xiluodu high high rock slope. Figure 7 shows the arrangement of the

rock slope vibration measuring points. The numerical simulation of

blasting vibration was implemented by employing the

excavation sequence as shown in Fig. 2. The delay time of dynamic finite element software LS-DYNA. Figure 8 plots

different rows of blast holes is 30 ms. the simulated and measured attenuation of peak particle

vibration in the rock mass as a function of scaled distance

2.5 Determination of Rock and Damping Parameters from the charge center.

Damping in the model is done through the Rayleigh

In the present study, the numerical simulation was imple- classical approach by making the damping matrix equal to

mented based on the case study of the excavation of a linear combination of the mass and stiffness matrix. The

Xiluodu high rock slope. Assuming to be isotropic and result of the trial calculation demonstrates that, when val-

homogenous material, the damage constants used in the ues of mass and stiffness damping used in our case are 6.0

tensile-compressive damage model for the rock mass of and 0.000035, respectively, the simulated peak particle

basalt are listed in Table 2. The material constants such as velocity (PPV) attenuation is seen to match well with the

elastic modulus, Poissons ratio, etc. are determined test data at all the vibration measuring points. In the next

according to the geological data and field experiments. sections, the damage process of the smooth blasting

Damping determines the attenuation characteristics of excavation and presplit excavation methods are investi-

stress waves in rock mass. Whether the damping selection gated by using the damping parameters selected by cali-

is correct or not would directly affect the accuracy of the bration. The aim of this calibration stage is to achieve a

calculation results to a great extent. Appropriate damping close match between direct measurements and model pre-

parameters can be obtained by trial calculation in support dictions, and have a better understanding of the impact of

of the field measurements. In the present study, the cali- model solution and rock material input parameters on the

bration of damping parameters is implemented by trial final results.

123

Comparison of Blast-Induced Damage 1313

3 The Damage Process of Smooth Blasting blasting is closer to the remaining rock mass, and after the

detonation of first production blasting, the strength of the

As discussed in the previous section, damage induced by a rock mass has been degraded, so the damage effect of

blasting excavation method should contain the contour second production blasting would be more serious.

blasting itself and other blasting in the excavation zone. Because of differences in the charge structure, the buffer

For the smooth blasting excavation method, because blasting could not induce obvious cumulative damage in

smooth blasting holes detonate after the detonation of other the remaining rock mass, smooth blasting is closest to the

blasting, this method cannot prevent the cumulative dam- remaining rock mass, and the damage effect is between

age effect from other blasting in the excavation zone. But buffer blasting and production blasting. Two classes of

considering the damage induced by contour blasting itself, damage zone could be found in the remaining rock mass;

the result may be different. Given certain rock strength and one of them distributes along the slope surface and the

blasting parameters conditions, the damage in the remain- damage degree is more than 0.8, while the other is located

ing rock mass is closely related to the peak value and in the middle of the slope and the damage degree is less

acting time of the blasting pressure. As illustrated in Fig. 9, than 0.5.

the burden of smooth holes is small, which induces the To further study the cumulative damage characteristic of

required normal stress perpendicular to the crack surface to the smooth blasting excavation method, Fig. 11 shows the

become small in the process of crack formation between damage process at points A and B shown in Fig. 4.

the adjacent holes. In addition, the compressive stress wave Four jumps can be found in the damage process of the

spreads along the radial direction to the slope free surface two points, which indicate that every blasting step induced

after detonation and then returns a tensile stress wave, damage in the remaining rock mass. The biggest damage

which accelerates the cracks formation and chamber increment is found at the step of the smooth blasting for

expansion. The crack and chamber make the detonation gas point A, while for point B, the biggest damage jump was

escape more easily, which reduce the action time of the induced by the production blasting. The results demon-

blasting load. So, by taking the damage induced by contour strate that the main damage impact factor is different in

blasting into consideration, the smooth blasting excavation different positions. The main damage-induced factor

method is very helpful for reducing the damage induced by around smooth holes is smooth blasting itself, while in the

the contour blasting itself. middle of the slope, production blasting is the main

According to the excavation sequence shown in Fig. 2, resource of total damage. Comparing the final damage

the damage process of the smooth blasting excavation degree of points A and B, the degree of damage induced

method is simulated with the cumulative damage simula- directly by smooth blasting itself is higher than that of the

tion technology. Figure 10 plots the damage distribution cumulative damage. Figure 12 plots the extent of the

corresponding to the different excavation steps. damage zone of the top face and at 5 m and 10 m depths of

It can be seen that a columnar damage area is formed the blast hole.

near the current detonation blast hole in every excavation The results reveal that the damage extent increases

step. The extent of the damage zone induced by the pro- mainly at the excavation step of production blasting and

duction blasting is much larger than that of buffer and smooth blasting at three positions. At the orifice of the blast

smooth blasting. The first production blasting has induced hole, the damage was nearly only induced by the smooth

damage in the remaining rock mass and the cumulative blasting, but at depths of 5 and 10 m, the biggest damage

damage induced by the second blasting production blasting extent increments were induced by the production blasting.

is very clear. Although the two times of production blasting The cumulative damage induced by the production and

have the same charge structure, the second production buffer blasting is more than 80 % of the final damage

extent in these positions.

The results of the damage process for the smooth

blasting excavation method prove that cumulative damage

induced by other blasting in the excavation zone could not

be neglected. The production blasting is the main cumu-

Gas escape lative damage-induced factor, the cumulative damage

effect of buffer blasting is the least significant factor, and

smooth blasting is between the two. The final damage zone

contains two different classes of region: one is induced

directly by smooth blasting and distributes along the slope

surface, the damage degree is almost more than 0.8, and the

Fig. 9 Field photograph of conventional smooth blasting extent is small; while the other is caused by the cumulative

123

1314 Y. Hu et al.

every excavation step for

smooth blasting

1

damage and located in the middle of the slope, the damage

0.9 Point A degree is less than 0.5, but the area is large.

Damage variable D

0.8 Point B

0.7

0.6

4 The Damage Process of Presplit Blasting

0.5

0.4

0.3 As shown in Fig. 2, the presplit blasting detonates before

0.2 the production holes and buffer holes. Precracks formed by

0.1

0

presplit blasting can prevent the blasting stress waves being

1 2 3 4 5 induced by other blasting holes. So, considering the

Excavation step cumulative effect of other blasting in the excavation zone,

the presplit blasting excavation method has an advantage

Fig. 11 Damage development process of points A and B

compared with the smooth blasting excavation method.

However, in terms of damage in the remaining rock mass

induced by the contour blasting itself, the result would be

6

different. Comparing the presplit blasting and smooth

blasting holes, they have similar charge structures and

5 orifice depth of 5m depth of 10m

blasting parameters, so the peak value and rise time of the

Damage extent (m)

presplit blasting is much greater than that of smooth

3

blasting, as shown in Fig. 13. Rock mass extrusion makes

2 the crack formation difficult and the detonation gases can

only mainly escape from the orifice of the blast hole, which

1

enlarges the acting time of the blasting load. So, consid-

0 ering the damage induced by the contour blast hole itself,

1 2 3 4 5

Excavation step

the presplit blasting method is not helpful for controlling

the damage in the remaining rock mass. The next section

Fig. 12 Damage process at different positions of the blast hole describes the numerical simulation of the damage process

123

Comparison of Blast-Induced Damage 1315

of the presplit blasting excavation method using the induced by the contour blasting itself, as shown in Fig. 10,

cumulative damage simulation technology. Figure 14 plots the extent of high degree damage around the blast hole of

the damage distribution corresponding to the different smooth blasting is about 0.83 m, but for the presplit

excavation steps. blasting, it is 1.1 m, which is an increase by 30 % com-

As with the smooth blasting excavation method, a pared to smooth blasting. The results of the presplit

columnar damage zone is formed around the current det- blasting excavation method prove that the presplit blasting

onated blast hole in each excavation step. The BID zone can shield the cumulative damage effect of other blasting

extent of two rounds of production blasting is the largest. in the excavation zone, but the damage zone extent induced

The rock mass around the presplit blast hole is seriously by presplit blasting is bigger than that induced by the

damaged after the presplit blasting detonation and the smooth blasting itself in the smooth blasting excavation

presplit crack was formed, the stress wave induced by method.

production blasting and buffer blasting could not pass

though the presplit crack. The damage zone in the

remaining rock mass of the slope is almost only caused by

5 Comparison of the Two Blasting Excavation Methods

the presplit blasting itself. Comparing the damage zone

In order to make a further comparison between the smooth

blasting excavation and presplit blasting excavation

methods, the distribution characteristics of PPV and final

BID zone in the remaining rock mass are analyzed and

contrasted. Then, the damage control suggestion of the two

Gas escape

methods is proposed respectively.

PPV

Fig. 13 Field photograph of conventional presplit blasting smooth blasting and presplit blasting are plotted in Fig. 15.

every excavation step for

presplit blasting

123

1316 Y. Hu et al.

MX MX

5.2 Damage Characteristics in Remaining Rock

C

A

D DE BD

AC E

remaining rock mass of the two excavation methods.

B F GH

C F H

A=120 I

A=100 As can be seen, several obvious differences could be

I B=110

B=90

E G C=100

C=80

observed between the final damage of the two excavation

D=90

E=80

D=70

E=60

methods. Two types of damage could be found in the final

F=70

G=60

F=50 damage zone for smooth blasting excavation; one of them

G=40

H=50 H=30 is the columnar damage zone around the slope surface,

I=40 I=20

MN

(cm/s) MN (cm/s) which is directly induced by smooth blasting itself. The

damage degree is almost greater than 0.8 and the extent is

(a) Smooth blasting (b) Presplit blasting

0.83 m. The other type of damage is induced by the

Fig. 15 Isograms of distributions of PPV induced by different cumulative effect of blasting in the excavation zone. It is

blasting methods located in the middle of the slope. The damage degree is

lower than 0.5 and the extent is much greater than the first

As can be seen, the general rule of PPV distribution for kind of damage. But in the presplit blasting excavation

the two blasting methods is identical overall. The hori- method, there is only a columnar damage zone around the

zontal PPV attenuates quickly with increasing distance. slope surface. The damage degree is almost greater than 0.8

The maximum value is found at the top of slope close to and the extent is 1.1 m. The disadvantage of the smooth

the blast hole and the minimum horizontal PPV occurs at excavation method is that the cumulative effect of blasting

the bottom of slope removed from the slope surface. The in the excavation zone increases to a large extent and only

biggest difference in the magnitude of the contours dis- to a low degree in the damage zone. But for the presplit

tribution for the two excavation methods is that a repeated excavation method, the disadvantage is that the extent of

high peak value zone of vibration velocity in the remaining the columnar and high degree damage zone around the

rock mass is found for the smooth blasting excavation slope surface induced by presplit blasting itself is greater.

method. The repeated high peak value zone is located in

the position of the cumulative damage zone, as marked in 5.3 BID Control of the Two Different Blasting

Fig. 16 with a red line. For the smooth blasting excavation Excavation Methods

method, because of the cumulative dynamic disturbance of

production blasting and buffer blasting, the high degree of The total damage of smooth blasting is a result of cumu-

vibration is induced repeatedly in the remaining rock mass lated damage induced by the production hole, buffering

close to the slope surface. But in terms of the presplit hole, and smooth hole. The most important impact factor of

blasting excavation method, stress waves induced by other cumulated damage in the remaining rock mass is produc-

blasting in the excavation zone could not pass through the tion blasting, so the damage control should focus on the

presplit crack and the vibration in the remaining rock mass restraint of production hole-induced damage. Studies over

is almost only induced by the presplit itself. the years have shown that the blast damage and

damage distributions of the two

excavation zones

123

Comparison of Blast-Induced Damage 1317

smooth blasting itself, it can be expected that the burden of

contour blasting could seriously impact the formation of

Cautious blasting zone the BID zone in the remaining rock mass. So, the damage

Final Slope Crest Current Crest control of presplit blasting could focus on the reduction of

the burden length of presplit holes. The sequence of pre-

split blasting was changed as follows: a part of production

Extent of Damage

blastingpresplit blastingproduction blastingbuffer

blasting. The new combination of blasting methods could

be named presplit blasting with lateral surface. Figure 18

Smooth Row illustrates the use of the method in high rock slope. The

Buffer Row Final

Production row first detonated production holes could create a new lateral

surface and reduce the length of burden of presplit holes.

Fig. 17 Damage control suggestion of smooth blasting

Then, the rock extrusion of rock mass was weakened and

the crack formation became easy, which reduces the action

underground structures due to blasting can be related to time of the blasting load and reduces the damage extent.

particle velocity. As proposed by Holmberg and Persson In the first phase of the slope excavation, presplit

(1978), comparison to a particle velocity-based damage blasting with lateral surface was used successfully in the

criteria will then yield the extent of damage. The design excavation of temporary shiplock slopes. The diameter of

principle should follow strictly that the particle velocity in the blast holes was 110 or 90 mm. When the excavation

the remaining rock mass induced by each row could not reaches the vicinity of the slopes contour surface, a lateral

exceed the damage critical value. The damage critical protection layer with a width of 58 m was reserved.

distance between each production row and the final contour Presplit blasting was implemented at the contour surface

surface can be determined (Lu and Hustrulid 2001). If the and then the lateral protect layer was fragmented by two or

design distance of each production is greater than the three rows of buffer holes. The distance between adjacent

critical distance, the damage in the remaining rock mass buffer rows was 1.5 or 2 m. The excavation sequence is

induced by production can be controlled. As shown in illustrated in Fig. 19. Because the splitting of rock mass by

Fig. 17, the region between the final production row and presplit blasting with lateral surface is easier than that of

the final contour surface could be named as the cautious presplit blasting in semi-infinite rock mass, the width of the

blasting zone, in which the buffer rows could be increased presplit crack formed was over 20 mm. Reduction of the

and the decoupling coefficient of the charge structure could effects of blast vibration induced by production and buffer

be enlarged in order to control the damage extent. holes were good. Based on the blast vibration measurement

The disadvantage of presplit blasting is that the damage of the blasting excavation of temporary shiplock slopes of

induced by presplit blasting itself is more serious than that the Three Gorges Project, the measured PPV on the slope at

of smooth blasting. The charge structure and blast hole a distance of 15 m away from the blasting contour were

parameters could be changed to reduce the peak value and controlled within 810 cm/s (Lu and Hustrulid 2001).

action time of presplit blasting as well. The air-deck charge During the second phase of the shiplock slope excava-

structure and notch holes etc. have been proved to be tion, smooth blasting technology was adopted in the for-

effective to control the damage of contour blasting (Rat- mation of the shiplocks vertical wall. Details of the

hore and Bhandari 2007; Lu and Hustrulid 2003). Based on blasting excavation design are shown in Fig. 20. The

suggestion of presplit blasting :presplit blasting :buffer blasting

Extent of Damage

123

1318 Y. Hu et al.

of the temporary shiplock slopes

Excavation contour

in the first phase

1:0.

1:1

99 95

3

lateral protect layer presplit holes

1:0.

1:0.3

88

3

84 79

Middle-isolated

69 69

pier

Ship lift 5~8 61 Temporary ship lock

50

7.5

13~20 58.4 23~28.5 25

using the tensile-compressive damage model and a cumu-

Vertical wall

lative damage simulation technology based on the sec-

ondary development of the dynamic finite element code

Buffer holes Smooth holes Production holes LS-DYNA. The results demonstrate that the final damage

Smooth holes in remaining rock mass is induced by the cumulative effect

of all blasting in the excavation zone. The damage induced

by production blasting is the most serious, while that of

Contour surface buffer blasting is the least serious, with smooth blasting in

between the two. But for the presplit blasting excavation

method, the final damage is almost only induced by the

Buffer holes

cautious blasting zone presplit blasting itself.

There are two kinds of damage that could be found in

the remaining rock mass of the smooth excavation method;

Fig. 20 Excavation sequence of the temporary shiplock slopes in the one is the columnar high degree damage zone around the

second phase slope surface, which is directly affected by smooth blast-

ing, and the other is the low degree damage zone located in

distance between each row of production holes and the the middle of the slope, which is induced by the cumulative

slope surface could not exceed the damage critical distance effect of blasting in the excavation zone. For the presplit

determined by a particle velocity-based damage criteria. excavation method, there is only a columnar high degree

The region between the final production row and the final damage zone around the slope surface, which is induced by

contour surface is the cautious blasting zone, as defined presplit blasting itself. The extent of the damage zone

in Fig. 17; three buffer rows and two smooth rows were set induced by presplit blasting itself is greater than that of the

to control the damage extent in the remaining rock mass of columnar high degree damage zone, which was induced by

the shiplocks vertical wall. Based on the above blasting smooth blasting itself.

technology and parameters, the contour surface of the In the case of smooth blasting, the design approach

shiplocks vertical wall was smooth and the half-cast ratio based on the damage criteria of particle velocity was

of smooth blasting is more than 95 %. The results of sonic introduced. For the method of presplit blasting, except for

wave velocity tests demonstrate that the depth of the BID changing the charge structure and parameters of the

zone in the remaining rock mass of the shiplock slope was explosive detonation, the method of presplit blasting with

only about 0.4 m. lateral surface was proposed to reduce the damage induced

by the presplit blasting itself.

It should be pointed out that the emphasis of this paper is

6 Conclusions and Discussions to present the differences in the damage processes of the

smooth and presplit blasting methods. The isotropic and

In the present study, the damage process of the smooth homogeneous damage model for the rock mass is employed

blasting excavation method and the presplit blasting in the numerical simulation for rock damage under blasting,

123

Comparison of Blast-Induced Damage 1319

while the anisotropic and inhomogeneous damage of the and Blasting Technique, New Orleans, Louisiana, February

rock mass in reality are ignored. Otherwise, the cumulative 1978. ISEE, pp 113127

Hu YG, Lu WB, Jin XH, Chen M, Yan P (2012) Numerical

blasting damage simulation technology proposed in the simulation for excavation blasting dynamic damage of rock high

present study and numerical simulation of the smooth slope. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 31(11):22042213 (in Chinese)

blasting and presplit blasting methods still provide a good Hudson JA, Backstrom A, Rutqvist J, Jing L, Backers T, Chijimatsu

reference for the BID of high rock slope excavation. M, Christiansson R, Feng X-T, Kobayashi A, Koyama T, Lee

H-S, Neretnieks I, Pan P-Z, Rinne M, Shen B-T (2009)

Characterising and modelling the excavation damaged zone in

Acknowledgments This work is supported by the Chinese National crystalline rock in the context of radioactive waste disposal.

Programs for Fundamental Research and Development (973 Program) Environ Geol 57:12751297. doi:10.1007/s00254-008-1554-z

(2011CB013501), Chinese National Science Fund for Distinguished Khandelwal M, Monjezi M (2013) Prediction of backbreak in open-pit

Young Scholars (51125037), Chinese National Natural Science blasting operations using the machine learning method. Rock

Foundation (50909077 and 51179138), and the Fundamental Mech Rock Eng 46(2):389396. doi:10.1007/s00603-012-0269-3

Research Funds for the Central Universities (2012206020205). The Li HB, Xia X, Li JC, Zhao J, Liu B, Liu YQ (2011) Rock damage

authors wish to express their thanks to all the supporters. control in bedrock blasting excavation for a nuclear power plant.

Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 48(2):210218. doi:10.1016/j.ijrmms.

2010.11.016

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