The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
Piled footings
References
Poulos and Davis; Tomlinson; AS2159 SAA Piling Code; BHP Steel Piling Booklet; http://sbe.napier.ac.uk/projects/piledesign
Scope
• Pile types and uses
• Axial load capacity
o Settlement of piles
• Lateral capacity of piles
o deflection of piles under lateral load
• Pile group effects
• Load testing
o 
static 
o 
dynamic 
• Piling code AS2159
Extension of Funchai airport in Maderia.
3m diameter columns (80 000kN) are supported by eight 1.5m diameter bored piles up to 50 m long.
(Ground Engineering, 31, 6, 1988)
Function
• Transmit structural loads through soil strata of low bearing capacity (and/or stiffness) to deeper soil or rock having high bearing capacity (and/or stiffness)
• Resist uplift forces. eg due to wind or wave loading
• Resist horizontal loads. eg wharfs, oil platforms
• Structures on reactive soils
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
Distribution of loads between shaft and end bearing
At all stages of loading the total pile load = sum of shaft friction and end bearing components
End bearing pile  Founded in hard strong layer. Large end bearing component, small shaft friction.
Friction pile (floating pile)  No distinctly different layer at base of pile. (End bearing component and significant shaft friction).
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
Mobilisation of full shaft resistance at settlement = 0.5% shaft diameter (5  15 mm) Mobilisation of full base resistance (and hence ultimate capacity) at settlement = 10% of base diameter (about 120 mm) Typically if a structure can tolerate say 15mm settlement then full shaft resistance is mobilised but only about 50% of the base resistance.
Load Capacity of vertically loaded piles  SINGLE piles
Three ways to estimate ultimate load capacity of a single pile
• Static analysis
• Dynamic analysis and testing
• Test loading
Static analysis
P ult = P s + P b
P _{u}_{l}_{t} = ultimate load capacity of pile P _{s} = ultimate shaft resistance (or skin friction) of pile P _{b} = ultimate resistance of soil at pile base
A _{s} is the surface area of shaft in contact with soil
is the average skin friction resistance / unit area at full slip
Base resistance (bearing capacity)
P _{b} = A _{b} .q _{b} = A _{b} .(N _{c} .c + N _{q} .p + ½.B.γ.N _{γ} )  Remember the bearing capacity formula?
A _{b} is the gross area of the pile base q _{b} is the ultimate bearing capacity (pressure) of the soil at the base of the pile
Total stress analysis  ie φ = 0
• immediate undrained capacity
• rapid loading
• short term capacity
For piles in clay the undrained capacity is usually less than the drained capacity except for HIGHLY overconsolidated material. The undrained capacity is usually used for design.
Base:
N _{c} = 9 for deep footings (L/d > 4)  use smaller value for short piles N _{q} = 1, N _{γ} = 0, p = γL P _{b} = A _{b} (N _{c} .c _{u} + p)
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
Shaft:
The skin friction usually varies with depth, z, due to increasing strength. q _{s} (z) = α . c _{u} (z)
α depends on:
soil type
• type of pile
• c _{u} of soil  α decreases with increasing c _{u}
• time
• nature of soil overlying the clay
Great variability of α for piles in stiff clay  fissures
In absence of better data use chart on handout, textbooks or AS2159
N _{c} ,c' & ½.B.γ.N _{γ} terms are small compared to the other term (c' and B are small). Usually neglect these. Hence,
q _{b} = N _{q} .p, where p = σ' _{v}_{b} is the effective vertical stress at the base of the pile
but in sands this leads to and overestimate in the capacity of long piles. The maximum value of σ' _{v}_{b} is therefore limited to the value of the effective vertical stress (σ' _{v} ) at the critical depth z _{l} ( see figure). The limiting depth is about 6d in loose sand and 15d in dense sand (where d is the pile diameter).
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
Shaft:
σ′
v
tan
δ
K
dz
where,
δ is the friction angle between the pile and the soil
K
K _{a} ???
is the earth pressure coefficient (ratio of horizontal stress / vertical stress) K _{p} , K _{o} , or
but again in sands this leads to an overestimate in the capacity of long piles. The maximum value of σ' _{v} is therefore limited to the value at the critical depth z _{l} ( see figure).
so,
P _{u}_{l}_{t} = A _{b} .N _{q} .σ' _{v}_{b} + A _{s} . q
Beta method (Burland; Poulos and Davis)
q _{s} = Κ . σ' _{v} tan δ q _{s} = β . σ' _{v}
In stiff clay it appears that β is fairly constant (0.24  0.29 for values of φ' between 20
and 30)
Design  common practice, Factors of safety
Working load method:
• Overall factor of safety about 2 to 2.5
• Separate factors on shaft and base resistance (shaft resistance factor 1.0 to 1.5, base factor usually about 3.0)
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
How this force is considered depends on the design methodology:
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
Pile displacement factors
10
100
1000
Pile stiffness factor, K
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
10000
The University of Queensland
I 
is an influence factor (from tables or chart) 
P 
is the load on the pile 
L 
is the pile embedded length 
E 
_{s} is the Young's modulus of the soil 
E 
_{p} is the Young's modulus of the pile 
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
R _{A} is the area ratio of the pile = area of section / gross pile area (eg for a solid pile R _{A} = 1)
b) End bearing pile on rigid stratum
s
=
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
P.L
E
p
.A
p
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
M
R
A _{p} is the cross sectional area of the pile
M
The term in brackets is the axial shortening of a free standing column in compression.
M
_{R} is the movement ratio (from tables)
_{R} is the interaction effect of the pile and the soil
It
gives estimates for various types of soil which may be used for preliminary calculations).
is not simple to determine a suitable value of the soil modulus E _{s} (table in code
• Triaxial values are not reliable for pile settlement
o
o
o
sample disturbance
loading conditions
small strain stiffness not measured in triaxial test
• Backcalculate E _{s} from test pile results for reliable calculations
Pile groups
Pile group effects
Groups of piles typically spaced at 2d to 4d (d = diameter of pile)
• Connected by a rigid pile cap  uniform settlement for all piles
• All piles in the group do not necessarily carry equal load (edge piles carry more load)
• The ultimate load of a group is less than the total of the individual piles. The group efficiency factor is typically about 0.7
• Settlement of group > settlement of single pile with same average load
• average group settlement
R
s =
settlement of a single pile with the same average load per pile as in the group
is the settlement ratio.
Load capacity of pile groups The ultimate capacity of a group P _{u} is the lesser of:
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
s is the settlement of a single pile at the same average load as a pile in the group
R _{s} is the settlement ratio for the group  obtained from tables based on elastic
solutions.
Laterally loaded piles
Typical situations where lateral load is significant:
• Marine Structures  ship impact, berthing loads, wave action
• Bridge piers  water flow, traffic load, curved bridges
• Transmission line tower foundations
• Pile supported retaining walls
• Structures in seismic areas
Design requires:
• Adequate factor of safety against ultimate failure
• Adequate deflection at working load
Horizontal load capacity
• Statics of problem are complex
o 
Soil resistance force depends on interaction of soil and pile movement 
o 
The load deflection relationship is nonlinear 
• Design methods are based on
o 
semitheoretical (Broms) 
o 
empirical (pressuremeter) 
o 
py method 
o 
finite element or boundary element analysis  (quality of data) 
• Room for improvement and more research
• Most exact method method is well planned and executed insitu load test
The ultimate lateral load capacity Hu depends on:
• Soil type  failure may occur by failure of the ground. Short stubby piles.
• Pile type  failure fails in bending. Long slender piles.
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
• Boundary conditions at pile head  Restrained or free to rotate. Capacity of a pile with restrained pile head > pile with free head.
Method of Broms
• assumed pressure distributions and magnitudes of earth pressure at failure.
• considered short / long and free / restrained cases.
• derived solutions from simple static equilibrium.
• produced dimensionless design charts for ultimate lateral resistance (Theory and eqns presented in Poulos and Davis)
• must calculate capacity using BOTH short and long assumptions and choose the lesser. This will also indicate the mode of failure.
• for cohesionless soil the value ok Kp used in the charts is the RANKINE value.
py method
• models the pile as a beam (vertical) supported by springs (horizontal)
• spring constant is obtained from the coefficient of subgrade reaction
• load deflection curve specified for each spring (py curve)  nonlinear
• need to limit spring force to a maximum value (three times the Rankine value?)
Ultimate lateral load capacity of pile groups
Lesser of :
• n x the ultimate lateral resistance of a single pile
• ultimate lateral capacity of a block containing piles and soil between them, but with the "dead zone" near the top of the pile equal to the lesser of 1.5 d and 0.1
L
Deflection and rotation of laterally loaded piles:
Use published solutions based on elastic calculations. These are usually in the
nondimensional form. Free headed pile:
⎛
⎛ H ⎞ 
⎟ I 
⎛ + ⎜ 
M 

⎜ ⎝ E .L s ⎟ ⎠ H ⎞ ⎟ I 
ρ 
H ⎛ + ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 
E .L ⎞ 2 ⎟ I s M 

E .L s 
2 ⎟ ⎠ θ 
H 
⎜ ⎝ E .L s 
3 ⎟ ⎠ 
⎞
⎟ I
⎟ ⎠
θ
M
translation, ρ = ⎜
rotation, θ = ⎜
⎝ ⎜
ρ
M
fixed headed pile – no rotation, translation only:
⎛
⎝
ρ = ⎜
⎜
H
E .L
s
⎞
⎟ I
⎟
⎠
ρ
F
Where the terms, I _{ρ}_{H} , I _{θ}_{M} , etc are influence factors, determined from charts. They are a function of the flexibility factor:
E
p
.I
pile
K
R
=
4
E .L When using published results and tables ensure the notation, meaning and definitions of all terms is clearly understood.
s
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
Pile testing and test loading
Static test loading
• Expensive procedure.
• Load pile and measure settlement.
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
o 
precontract: to confirm design parameters. 
o 
during construction: to check quality control and design. 
• Usually 1 to 3 weeks between construction and testing (to allow for pore pore pressure dissipation).
• Usually load to about 2 times the "allowable load". Sometimes load to failure.
• Refer to ASTM D1143 1974 and also AS2159 for procedures.
• Usually apply a slow maintained load.
• European method is constant rate of penetration (0.5mm / minute).
Methods of load application
• Load with kentledge
• Jack against kentledge
• Jack against tension piles
Pile test arrangement for 1.5m diameter pile (Ground Engineering, 31, 6, 1988)
Dynamic testing and analysis
• Analysis during driving – Hiley formula and stress wave analysis
• Testing after installation (driven, cast in place) – Stress wave analysis
Pile driving formula – Hiley formula
• traditional method of assessing load capacity of driven piles
• pile driven until acceptably small displacement (set) per hammer blow is achieved
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
• the required set is calculated from considerations of the dynamics of bodies under impact. ie Newtonian impact dynamics. The application of this theory is fundamentally invalid !!. Two invalid assumptions are made:
o 
Dynamic resistance of pile to driving can be estimated from the kinetic energy of the hammer at the point of impact and distance penetrated under the hammer blow 
o 
Ultimate static resistance of soil is equal to the dynamic resistance of pile to driving 
• However formula have been developed and used on this basis.
Hiley formula:
P
u
n.W.h
=
s +
c
2
where,
P 
_{u} is the average resistance to penetration = ultimate static pile load 
n 
is a hammer efficiency factor  depends on mass on pile and hammer and coefficient 
of 
restitution 
W 
is the weight of the hammer 
h 
is the hammer drop distance 
s 
is the set per hammer blow 
c 
is an energy loss term (compression of packing, pile and ground) 
Wave equation analysis
Wave equation analysis is better and more widely used  test after installation
Dynamic Pile Load Testing (Chapman and Seidel, in Williams, 1989)
• Dynamic pile load testing commenced in Australia in the early 1980's in Australia (in the early 1970's worldwide).
• Dynamic pile load testing involves recording the force (via strain gauges) and velocity (via accelerometers) in the top of a pile, as it is subjected to one or more hammer blows.
• The measured responses are analysed for pile integrity and the estimation of pile load capacity.
• Dynamic pile load testing is rapid and cheap.
• The main criticism of the use of dynamic pile load testing to estimate pile load capacity is that the displacement of the pile under a hammer blow is very small. This may restrict the mobilisation of shaft resistance, but will almost certainly severely limit the mobilisation of end bearing.
• In uniform clays, in which the majority of the pile load capacity will come from the shaft, this limitation is of little importance.
• In sands or end bearing situations, the end bearing capacity will be underestimated by dynamic pile load testing.
• Dynamic pile load capacities are far more reliable than the results of simplistic Hiley pile driving formula, but should be calibrated against static pile load testing taken to failure.
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
Wave behaviour in piles
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
• A hammer blow sends a compressive wave down the pile.
• A free end (floating pile) or crack in the pile will reflect a tensile wave
• A crack will transmit a compressive wave
• A rigid base of a pile will reflect a compressive wave
• An increase in pile section will reflect a compressive wave and transmit a tensile wave
• Coinciding waves in the pile superimpose.
• The compressive wave delivered by a hammer blow causes compressive stress and velocity in the pile to rise together. As the wave meets shaft resistance a compressive wave will be reflected and a tensile wave transmitted, raising the force and lowering the velocity recorded at the top of the pile. The separation of the stress and velocity curves is a measure of the shaft resistance.
• When the wave reaches the toe, it will
• Almost totally reflect as a tensile wave if there is essentially no end bearing. This can have significant implications for concrete piles with limited tensile capacity. Prestress and/or limited hammer weight and drop will accommodate this.
• Almost totally reflect as a compressive wave if the base is essentially rigid. This can have significant implications for the integrity of the pile where the reflected compressive wave and a subsequent compressive wave meet.
• In most cases, the behaviour is between these two extremes.
Analysis of data
• Shaft resistance – separation of stress and velocity curves.
• Soil shaft resistance can only produce compressive reflection.
• Any tensile reflection arriving at the gauge location (near the top of the pile) is due to:
o 
Reflection from base 
o 
Reflection from change in cross section of the pile 
o 
Damage 
The first two are expected – the time of arrival of the tensile wave is known. If the tensile wave does not correspond to the first two than damage is likely.
• By comparing the size of the tensile reflection with that of the incident compressive wave, corrected for the shaft resistance above the point, a β or integrity factor can be calculated.
_{β} 
PILE CONDITION 
1.0 
Undamaged 
0.81.0 
Slight damage 
0.60.8 
Severe damage 
< 0.6
Pile broken
Wave equation
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
The University of Queensland
CIVL3210 – Geotechnical Engineering – Piled footings
• The basic differential equation governing the propagation of a wave in a pile is given by StressWave Equation:
∂
2
u
1
∂
2
u
=
∂
x
2
c
2
∂
t
2
where u is the pile displacement
x 
is the longitudinal coordinate 
c 
is the wave velocity 
t is time
• The solution to the stresswave equation is u(x, t) = f(x  c.t) + g (x + c.t) The two functions f and g correspond to two stress waves propagating at the same velocity in opposite directions.
• The pile and hammer are approximated by lumped masses connected by elastic linear springs, with dashpots and springs representing the soil resistance. Smith (1960)
• Using this model Goble developed the Case Method of calculating pile capacity and the CAPWAP model for matching force and velocity responses.
• The Case Method Capacity (called the RSP) is a closedform solution of the 1
D wave equation Assumes: rigid plastic soil model, all damping occurs at the
toe and uniform pile section.
CAPWAP: (a refinement of the RSP closed form solution)
• 
The CAse Pile Wave Analysis Program (CAPWAP) separates the pile into a series of discrete elements, usually 1m long, allowing piles of nonconstant impedance to be analysed. 

• 
A 
soil model is attached to each or every second pile (shaft) element and to the 
pile toe. In its simplest form it comprises a viscous damper to model dynamic 

resistance and an elastic spring with a slip element to model elastoplastic static resistance. 

• 
A 
distribution of shaft resistance and a toe resistance and damping factors are 
first assumed. 

• 
The program applies the measured pile velocity to the pile top, and calculates the stress at the measuring point. This is compared with the measured stress. The assumed parameters are then varied until the computed force is in agreement with the measured values. 

• 
Although the match obtained is not unique, independent CAPWAP analyses on particular data show very good agreement on predicted total capacity, and good agreement on predicted distributions. 
© Dr Robert Day, The University of Queensland, 2009
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.