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Design Evaluation Report: Energy Supply to East Santos, Vanuatu

Unit:
INDE1001 Engineering Foundations: Design and Processes

Author:
Danielle Morris

Student ID:
19182201

Star Engineering Inc. Date of Submission:


28/09/17

Figure 1: Angled view of Water Turbine Design (produced using Sketch up online)

Danielle Morris Star Engineering Inc. 1


Executive Summary

The purpose of this design evaluation is to be able to mark the design using the agreed criteria
formed by Star Engineering Inc.

This project required us to design an alternative energy source that can be produced at a low
cost while being safe and efficient. The design also has to be simple enough to be constructed
by the community while not causing additional pollution.

The design criteria has been used to evaluate the design, allowing each member to compare
their scores with each other, resulting in one design being picked for prototyping. The criteria
made consisted of six main sections; Cost (25%), Cultural (15%), Ease of Construction and
Maintenance (15%), Climate/Geography (10%), Environmental Sustainability (20%) and
Availability of Materials (15%). Each category was allocated a total weighing that was
dependent on how important Star Engineering Inc. deemed it. Each section was then split up
into subsections where the design was able to be specifically evaluated. Cost was split into;
Construction (10%), Use (7%) and Maintenance (8%). Cultural was sectioned into; Social (9%)
and Land (6%). Ease of Construction and Maintenance focused on; Feasibility (7.5%) and
Maintenance (7.5%). While Climate/Geography was split into; Climate (5%) and Geography
(5%). Additionally, Environmental Sustainability looked at; Recyclable (5%), Renewable (10%)
and Environmental Impact (5%). Environmental Impact was a new section added to this report
as Star Engineering Inc. saw this having a greater importance, therefore, it was included as
Vanuatus ecosystems should not be harmed in this process. Finally, Availability of Materials
was broken into; Local (10%) and Recycled Materials (5%). The addition of Recycled materials
was made as it will allow less pollution, in using materials that would go to waste otherwise.

In the end this design received a total score of 72.5/100.

The Cost of Construction received a 7/10 due to it requiring multiple people to construct the
design, as the wood is extremely heavy. Cost of Use received 10/10 as the turbine does not
require any human interaction, therefore, the Cost of Use will be determined by the
community on what they think is a fair price. Cost of Maintenance received 8/10 as it is

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designed to have a minimal amount of maintenance, until the wood rots or gears need
replacing.

Culture and Social received an 8/10, as it will allow the community to work together and will
enable them to develop their community in different ways, however, it can also change how
well the community interacts with each other due to new technology. Land received 6/10, as
the Artocarpus altilis trees will take up room, as they need to be produced to construct the
design.

Ease of Construction and Maintenance, focusing on, Feasibility received 8/10 due to being
made of local materials. Maintenance received 8/10 for being self-contained and requiring
little/no maintenance, except for when wood rots and rotor and gears need replacing.

Climate received a 6/10, due to the design relying on water flow of the waterfall, without it
the design would not work, causing the design to fail. Climate will also affect how long the
turbine will last, as certain temperatures and weather will cause the wood to rot quicker, and
ruin the gears and rotor. Geography received 6/10, for its high dependence on the waterfall
to stay as it is, if the waterfall changes it could cause the turbine to not work and therefore
fail.

Environmental Sustainability relates to Recyclable which got 9/10 as the main material is
Artocarpus altilis wood. Due to the design having a rotor and gears, which are not
recyclable, it did not receive full marks. The design uses renewable energy, thus,
renewability received 9/10, however, one mark was lost due to the gears and rotor not
being biodegradable. Environmental impact received 7/10, as most of the materials will not
impact the environment, however, the rotor and gears will. There will also be a degree of
deforestation, as trees will be chopped down, therefore, three marks were lost.

Availability of Local Materials gained 8/10, as most Materials are locally sourced, therefore,
allowing the design to be constructed quickly within Vanuatu. Recycled received 6/10, as
the turbine could alternatively be constructed from broken canoes and ores, as they are

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from the same wood. Due to the limited amount of recyclable wood, and likelihood of
chopping trees down, two marks were lost.

Based on the information throughout this report, this design is not suitable to be
implemented in Vanuatu. Although it meets most of the criteria, the construction of this
turbine would be too difficult considering the mass of the wood. Therefore, it is suggested to
implement an alternative design, or use a more lightweight wood to allow the turbine to work
and be constructed with ease.

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Design Evaluation Report: Energy Supply to East Santos, Vanuatu ........................................ 1
Table of Figures ....................................................................................................................................... 5
List of Tables ........................................................................................................................................... 5
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 6
Section 1: Conceptual Design ................................................................................................................. 6
1.1 Overview of Design ................................................................................................................ 6
1.2 How it works .......................................................................................................................... 6
1.3 Materials................................................................................................................................ 7
1.4 Specifications ......................................................................................................................... 8
Section 2: Evaluation of Conceptual Design ......................................................................................... 11
2.1 Design Criteria ..................................................................................................................... 11
2.2 Justification of Weighting .................................................................................................... 12
2.3 Justification of Score ............................................................................................................ 14
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 16
Appendix ............................................................................................................................................... 17
Individual Reflection ......................................................................................................................... 17
Calculated weight from section 1.4 .................................................................................................. 18
Calculation of Power from Section 1.4.............................................................................................. 18
Materials used for Stator: ................................................................................................................. 19
Materials used for Rotor: .................................................................................................................. 19
References: ........................................................................................................................................... 20

Table of Figures
Figure 1: Angled view of Water Turbine Design (produced using Sketch up online) .................. 1
Figure 2: Diagram of how a wind turbine works (Slideplayer, 2017) ........................................... 7
Figure 3: Free fall calculations (Anderson, D., n.d.) ...................................................................... 7
Figure 4: Breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis tree) (Growables.org, 2014).................................... 7
Figure 7: Side View of Turbine Design (produced on Sketch up online) ...................................... 8
Figure 5: Frontal View of Turbine Design (produced on Sketch up online) ................................. 8
Figure 6: Angled View of Turbine Design without sides (produced on Sketch up online) .......... 8
Figure 8: Side View of Stator Disk with coils (produced on Sketch up online) ............................ 9
Figure 9: Side View of Rotor with Magnet polarity (produced on Sketch up online) .................. 9

List of Tables
Table 1: Cost of Manufacturing .................................................................................................... 10
Table 2: Design Criteria ................................................................................................................. 11

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Introduction
This report has been written to provide Vanuatu an alternative option in supplying their
community with safe, resourceful power. Within this report a potential design has been
included with an in depth analysis of how it can be implemented within the community. It will
cover a brief overview of the design followed by how it works, the materials needed and
specifications. This is then followed by the conceptual design and evaluation to show why this
design should be selected and implemented within Vanuatu. However, many limitations have
been noted as we are not in Vanuatu, thus we do not have direct access to this situation.
Additionally, we also have no first hand reports thus no primary sources, with only researched
information, and no direct access to Stakeholders. This is a limitation as we also have such
little time, therefore, when researching we have been careful to not use unreliable resources
to base our reports on.

Section 1: Conceptual Design


1.1 Overview of Design
The design will be placed underneath a waterfall, as Vanuatu has large waterfalls (Cheng, J T.,
2017). The turbine will have a pole located through its center, allowing it to rotate due to the
water falling and collecting within each paddle creating momentum due to being unbalanced.
In doing so, it will be able to use the kinetic energy created through this rotation and convert
it into potential energy which can be transported to houses using powerlines.

1.2 How it works


The main focus of the design is converting the kinetic energy into electricity through the use
of a water turbine. Within the turbine there is a rotor and stator, which work together as a
generator, which converts the kinetic energy to electricity (Energy.gov, 2014). This works in
the same way wind turbines do through the use of rotation, as illustrated in Figure 2
(Slideplayer, 2017). The turbine paddles are attached to a rotor which rotates about 18 times
a minute, which is too slow to generate energy (Energy.gov, 2014). Therefore, the rotor spins
a series of gears which are used to increase the rotations up to 1800 revolutions a minute,
thus allowing the generator to produce electricity (Energy.gov, 2014). Millenium Cave
Waterfall, has high ceilings that reach about 50m (Wrecks to rainforest, 2012), therefore, the

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waterfall is expected to be about the same height. Thus, can be expected to have a water
falling speed of ~31.30m/s, per cubic meter, assuming it is for 1 cubic meter of water, which
is ~1,000 kg ((Anderson, n.d.), (Convert to, n.d.)). As seen in Figure 3 which shows the
potential speed and time until impact, as calculated above.

Figure 2: Diagram of how a wind turbine works Figure 3: Free fall calculations
(Slideplayer, 2017) (Anderson, D., n.d.)

1.3 Materials
Vanuatu contains a large amount of forests with many different trees. The design is produced
from wood sourced from the land to allow an
environmentally friendly approach to the production of
the product. Through the use of wood, it enables the
community to fix the turbines if and when needed,
allowing it to be a sustainable solution and limiting
pollution. Artocarpus altilis trees (As seen in Figure 4),
produce a type of Light Hardwood which will be chosen
for the construction of the turbine as the whole tree can
be used, thus none of it will go to waste (Walter, Lebot.
& translated by Ferrar, 2006, p. 119, 120). Artocarpus Figure 4: Breadfruit tree
altilis trees can be found throughout villages, as each (Artocarpus altilis tree)
(Growables.org, 2014)
village has about 10 to 120 different cultivars, most
importantly the wood is robust and is used for canoe paddles, thus will be a good choice for
the turbine (Walter, Lebot. & translated by Ferrar, 2006, p. 120). The pole that is found
through the turbine will be made from the wood too, however, it will be hollowed out so

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there is a lesser weight to be supported. The side of the turbine, containing the generator,
will be protected with a 0.1m layer of wood attached to the Stator frame, to work as a shield
that encourages the water to run off, and coted in a layer of rubber on the inside and outside
to ensure the wood lasts as long as possible in these wet conditions. Fortunately, Artocarpus
altilis trees secretes latex, thus this can be used as a suitable alternative to rubber (Walter,
Lebot. & translated by Ferrar, 2006, p. 120). Through having a types of materials that are both
strong and local, it enables the community to repair the turbine over time without too much
hassle.

1m
1.4 Specifications
Due to the design requiring a constant flow of water a 1.5m 0.3m

waterfall is chosen as it is ideal for these conditions. The


0.5m
turbine will be located at Millennium Cave Waterfalls, in
the Vunaspef Village, near Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu Figure 5: Frontal View of Turbine
Design (produced on Sketch up
(World-of-waterfalls. 2017). The turbine will fit as it is
online)
1.5m by 1m (as seen in Figures 5, 6 and 7), with the pole
connecting to the sides of the waterfall. The paddles
themselves will be 0.3m deep, 0.5m long and 1m wide, 1.5 1m
0.3m m
with a 0.3m pole diameter, additionally the thickness of
the wood will be 0.2m (see appendix for further details).
Figure 6: Angled View of Turbine
The weight of materials used for the turbine is estimated
Design without sides (produced on
to be about 298kg (see appendix for calculations, not Sketch up online)
including the additional length of the pole, as it needs to
be long enough to be nailed securely into the rocks either side
of the waterfall), as Artocarpus altilis wood is about 400 kg/m3
1.5m 0.3m
(MTC Wood Wizard, n.d.). This design does not require someone
1.5m
to work it, as it is able to work by itself. However, it is important
that the community of Vanuatu is able to know how to construct
Figure 7: Side View of
the panels, as over time the wood will begin to rot and need to Turbine Design (produced
on Sketch up online)
be repaired. Therefore, when constructing the design, it is
important that many people are included to be able to work together and share their

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knowledge. In doing this it also creates jobs for the community, therefore giving the workers
a greater income.

Within the water turbine there will be a hydroelectric


generator which consists of a Stator and Rotor Disk. These
will both be constructed by hand to reduce the cost of
shipping them over. The equipment needed will be
Artocarpus altilis wood, 126m of wire, 24 nails and 6 strong
magnets. The first thing to be done will be the construction
of the Stator, this will be achieved by making six coils of wire
with 200 turns (0.2ms in diameter) that will be attached Figure 8: Side View of Stator
Disk with coils (produced on
onto a circular piece of wood that is 1.5m in diameter (0.2m Sketch up online)
thick) with a 0.3m hole in the center. The coils will then be
arranged 0.2m away from the outer perimeter and
N
positioned at an angle of 60 degrees away from each other,
S S
refer to Figure 8, and will have a circular circumference of
about 0.63m. The coils must alternate the directions they
are turning each time (e.g. clockwise to anti clockwise) to N N

allow the electrons to flow between the coils. The ends of


S
the coils are then to be wrapped with the natural rubber
produced by the Artocarpus altilis tree, to minimize any Figure 9: Side View of Rotor with
Magnet polarity (produced on
errors that could occur. The rotor will also need to be Sketch up online)
attached to its own 1.5m circular piece of wood (0.2m thick). This is done using strong
magnets that will alternate from South to North, ensuring their polarities alternate. This will
be attached through using 4 screws to hold each magnet in place on each side (Figure 9).
These two sections will then be separated with a 0.1m gap with the Stator attached to the
turbine, while the Rotor is attached to the wooden pipe that runs through the turbine and
does not turn. This will then generate power which will then be distributed to the community.

Assuming the mass of water is 100kg in mass falling at a velocity of 31m/s the water turbine
is expected to generate about 13.35 Watts in one hour (Easy Calculation.com, n.d.). However,
this result is theoretical, and as such the actual power generated will be less.

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Table 1: Cost of Manufacturing
Item: Cost in Aus. $:
For Turbines:
Wood No cost Vanuatu has Artocarpus altilis
trees, which produce fruit which contain
seeds, thus these seeds will be planted to
allow the trees to be chopped down for
wood and then replaced.
Cost of Construction The average wage per person is ~ $11
(Australian dollars) (The World Bank, 2017).
Thus assuming it will take two whole weeks
for one person it will cost:
~$154
Generator:
Wood No cost Refer to above.
Rotor Disk (Assuming Ferrite Magnets are $23.98
used)
Stator Disk (Assuming Enamelled Copper is $10.47
used)
Total Cost: $188.45
(Main cost is from construction wages)

(Refer to Appendix for specific locations of prices)

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Section 2: Evaluation of Conceptual Design
Table 2: Design Criteria
Criteria Sub Criteria Weighting Score/10 Total
%
1. Cost 1.1 Construction 10 7 7

1.2 Use 7 5 3.5


1.3 Maintenance 8 8 6.4

2. Cultural 2.1 Social 9 8 7.2


2.2 Land 6 6 2.4

3. Ease of Construction and 3.1 Feasibility 7.5 8 6


Maintenance
3.2 Maintenance 7.5 8 6

4. Climate/ 4.1 Climate 5 6 3


Geography 4.2 Geography 5 6 3

5. Environmental Sustainability 5.1 Recyclable 5 9 4.5


5.2 Renewable 10 9 9
5.3 Environmental impact 5 7 3.5
6. Availability of Materials 6.1 Local 10 8 8
6.2 Recycled Materials 5 6 3

Total 72.5

2.1 Design Criteria


The Design above will be able to operate without electricity or power and is simple enough
to be taught to young children and adults, however, adults will be needed for the construction
of the design, as it is very heavy. The design does not need constant caring for, however, when
the wood begins to rot it will need to be replaced, and checked for any water defects, to

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ensure no one is electrocuted. The construction of the design will require multiple people due
to the size and weight and Artocarpus altilis trees will need to be planted, for future
replacements. The design is not lightweight and easy to transport, however, it is designed to
be built securely into the waterfall walls. Additionally, the use of wood as a material, will allow
it to withstand the harsh, tropical weather Vanuatu experiences.

As seen in the above table of criteria, sections 5.3 (Environmental Impact) and 6.2 (Recycled
Materials) were added to this report, to provide a more specific focus on the important
effects this design could have on Vanuatus environment.

2.2 Justification of Weighting


The weightings have been chosen based on what Star Engineering deems most important.
Looking at the criteria, cost has been separated into three sections, Construction, Use and
Maintenance, which collectively adds to a total of 25%. These subsections have been ranked,
as seen by the weightings, with Construction being most important followed by Use and then
Maintenance. Construction has a weighting of 10% as it is the most important part of this
operation, without the design being successfully Constructed there will be no power, thus a
waste of materials. Use has been given a weighting of 7% as use would not provide a greave
amount of cost, as it is up to the community to choose what is fair. Maintenance is worth a
weighting of 8%, as it is a large factor of this project that will determine how successful it will
be, as the community will be left to maintain and repair the design.

The criteria of Culture has been separated into two subsections, social and land, thus has
been given a total weighting of 15%. Social refers to how this design could affect the
community in a positive way through being able to communicate with others from around
the world, while also changing the level of education that is offered to children. Due to Social
having a reasonable effect on the community it has been given a weighing of 9%. Land refers
to the space in which this design will take up, and also the effects on the land, thus a positive
or no effect would receive a high mark. Due to some land being Taboo land (ACIAR, 1997), it
is important to ensure the design does not use that space, thus land has a weighting of 6%.

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The ease of Construction and Maintenance, has a collective weighting of 14%, as it is
important for the community to have a design that is highly self-contained and will not be
extremely hard to repair, as it will not be used if it is too hard to Maintain. This section has
been split into two subsections, Feasibility and Maintenance. Feasibility refers to how
practical the design is to be constructed considering the materials the community can access
and use. Whereas Maintenance refers to how easily the design can be maintained. Thus due
to both of these sections being equally as important, they are each worth a weighting of 7.5%.

Climate/Geography, has a combined weighting of 10% as it is a highly important aspect to


consider. This Criteria has been split into two sections, Climate and Geography. Due to the
design using renewable energy it is highly dependent on the rainfall to allow the waterfall to
flow and the geography of Vanuatu, which will allow the design to be placed securely. Thus
both Climate and Geography each have a weighting of 5%, due to them both effecting the
functionality of the design equally.

Environmental sustainability is another section of criteria worth a total of 20%, and is broken
down to Recyclable, Renewable and Environmental Impact. Vanuatu is known to have heavily
polluted water (Index Mundi, 2017) thus, the water cannot undergo further pollution.
Therefore, there is a high importance for the design to be Recyclable, so it can eventually
decompose, and not leave a lasting imprint behind, thus has a weighting of 5%. Renewable
focuses on how the energy is sourced, such as using water or wind. This section also focuses
on what the design is made of and how it can be reproduced, therefore it has a weighting of
10%, as effective renewable energy is ideal. Environmental impact is scored with lowest
environmental impact being awarded a higher mark. This is important as it looks at what
lasting damages can occur, which is highly unfavorable, thus this section is worth 5%.

The Availability of materials has a weighting of 15%, and consists of two sections, Local and
Recycled. Local refers to the resources being located within Vanuatu, and can be easily
sourced, this holds a great importance, as it determines if there will be additional costs, if
materials were needed to be transported from other countries. Additionally, it also
determines how likely the community will repair the design (should anything happen), as the
materials will be local and can begin maintenance straight away. Thus Local has a weighting

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of 10%, as it has many more positive aspects in comparison to Recycled materials. Recycled
refers to materials that the community can use from other constructions. In doing so, it allows
these materials to have a second life in constructing the design, thus it has a weighting of 5%,
as it is important to use materials that will go to waste otherwise.

2.3 Justification of Score


With regards to cost, Construction received a 7/10, this is due to it being a simple design to
construct, however, it did not receive full marks as it will require multiple people to help, as
the wood will be very heavy. Use received 5/10 as the turbine will only be used by the
waterfall, thus not needing continuous maintenance. However, it also received this score
because the cost of having electricity per household will be dependent on the community,
and what they deem to be fair. Maintenance received 8/10 as it will not need a large amount
of maintenance or repairs, therefore, will not cost large sums of money. However, when the
wood rots, or the gears inside need replacing it will cause a reasonable cost, thus it did not
get full marks.

With regards to Culture, Social received an 8/10, this is due to it allowing the community to
work together to build and maintain the design, it also enables them to grow as a community,
as they will be able to develop new ways of doing activities (such as building) and enable them
to have a new experience within schools and at home. Due to the design providing many
positive impacts it has received this high result, however, not full marks, as it could limit the
interaction individuals may have with each other, due to new technology. Land has received
a 6/10, although it will not take up much room, the turbine will be located under a waterfall
which will still use space. Additionally, the Artocarpus altilis trees will also use up space, as
there will be an increased amount, to allow a fast availability to the materials needed.

The Ease of Construction and Maintenance contains Feasibility and Maintenance. Feasibility
has received 8/10, as all the materials are local (with the exception of the rotor and gears)
thus it is a practical design that can we easily constructed, with regards to having all the
needed materials. Maintenance has received 8/10, as it is a very self-contained design that
should not require constant maintenance. It does not have full marks due to the fact that the
wood will eventually rot, and the rotor and gears will eventually need replacing and to replace

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these parts, it will involve multiple people to help, as the turbine is very heavy, thus it will
need a level of maintenance.

Climate has received a 6/10, as the design is very reliant on the climate to stay as it is, to allow
water flow of the waterfall. Without the water the turbine will not work, therefore, resulting
in a failed design, as it should be able to work all day and all year around. Additionally the
Climate will also effect the wood and how quickly it will rot, and how the rotor and gears
maintain themselves in the tropical climate. Geography has 6/10 also, due to having a high
dependence on the waterfall to stay as it is, if the waterfall changes in any way it can result
in the turbine not working.

Environmental Sustainability focuses on the design being Recyclable and Renewable.


Recyclable has been given a 9/10 as all of the materials will be used from the Artocarpus
altilis trees, apart from the rotor and gears, therefore it did not receive full marks. Due to
the design using water flow as the source of energy, the renewable energy subsection has
received 9/10, as it only uses renewable energy, however it lost a mark due to using
materials that are not biodegradable. Environmental impact has received a mark of 7/10, as
all the materials used will not impact the environment, as they are all biodegradable, except
for the rotor and gears. Additionally, there is a large possibility that trees will be chopped
down, thus this section has lost three marks.

For the Availability of Materials, Local received 8/10, as almost all the Materials are locally
sourced, and therefore allow the design to be constructed with ease in Vanuatu.
Additionally, recycled has received 6/10, as the materials used can be from items such as
broken canoes and ores, due to them being made from the same wood. Although not
specified in section one, using these items will allow the design to be produced in a shorter
length of time, as they will not have to wait for the trees to grow. This lower mark is due to
the likelihood of there not being enough recyclable wood, therefore, trees will still need to
be cut down.

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Conclusion
At this current point in time only a small percentage of Vanuatu has access to electricity.
Through using this design, of a water turbine, it will allow electricity to be generated, which
will result in the community growing and developing in areas such as education, as they will
have access to the internet and better technology. It is through the design containing many
favourable qualities that it satisfied the majority of the criteria, such as being biodegradable,
low in cost and mainly constructed from local materials. By using local materials, the turbine
can be constructed quicker and more cost effectively. However, this will be achieved by
deforestation, therefore, it received a score of 72.5%. Although it meets most of the criteria,
it would be recommended to not implement this design within Vanuatu. The materials used
for the turbine would be too heavy for people to construct and as such is not a realistic
design. As it is too heavy it could also result in the turbine not rotating, due to having too
much friction. This could be resolved by changing the materials used, which are lighter in
weight, therefore, allowing the turbine to rotate and be constructed.

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Appendix

Individual Reflection
Throughout this process I have learnt that within my team there are those who like to lead
and those who like to follow and be instructed on what to do. This has caused problems as
myself, and one other, have tried to communicate what needed to be done. However, the
remainder of the team required a deeper explanation and frequent reminders. This was
most evident during the Stakeholders report, as we had to push and remind certain
teammates of deadlines. However, on the day of submission, we were still waiting on them
to finish their sections until only a few hours before the deadline. This poor organisation
and inability of certain team members to be independent is detrimental to the
Stakeholders. For example, if the chosen Stakeholders were children, a great deal of
research is required to understand their struggles and how the project would benefit them.
An in depth analysis is needed to shape the project so it minimalizes negative impacts upon
all Stakeholders. Therefore, through identifying their struggles, it enables the team to work
more effectively in improving our weaknesses.

Through my research of a potential design, to provide Vanuatu with power, I have been able
to learn about Vanuatu and their Culture. One important thing I learnt, was about Vanuatus
Sacred land, which they call Taboo land. I have learnt that Vanuatu has less than 10% of land
for the public, while the other 90% is privately owned and used for farming and private
housing (Australian Government, 2010). Due to having such a lack of space to build upon, it
has resulted in Vanuatu having a limited supply of electricity. Through knowing this, it
allowed me to take into account the limited areas in which a design can be built upon.
Vanuatu has a strong faith, and to be oblivious to their values would be highly immoral and
disrespectful. Through addressing this issue, in terms of lack of space, it has allowed me to
be more specific in my research to ensure the design will not damage the community and
their values. I believe this will benefit the stakeholders, mainly the elder individuals within
the community, as it will not have a negative impact on their culture.

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Calculated weight from section 1.4
Turbine Volume:
V = (1 x 0.5 x 0.5) (0.8 x 0.3 x 0.3)
= 0.25 0.072
= 0.178 m3 for one turbine
= 0.712 m3 for all 4 turbines

Pipe Volume (taking into consideration to pipe is hollow with a 0.2m thickness):
V = ( (0.3/2)2 x 0.5) - ( (0.1/2)2
= 0.032986722 m3
0.033 m3

Total Volume of turbine and pipe:


V 0.745 m3

Weight = Density x volume


= 400 x 0.745
= 298 kg

Calculation of Power from Section 1.4


Power Generated
E = (1/2 * m * V2)/t
= (1/2 * 100 * 312)/3600
31.35 Watts

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Materials used for Stator:

Ebay. (n.d.). Magnet Wire 28 Gauge AWG Enameled Copper 810 Feet Coil WINDING 155c
Red. Retrieved from
https://www.ebay.com/p/Magnet-Wire-28-Gauge-AWG-Enameled-Copper-810-
Feet-Coil-WINDING-155c-Red/1640827230?iid=171154241787

Materials used for Rotor:

First 4 Magnets. (n.d.). 50 x 50 x 20mm thick (C8 Grade 3) Ferrite Magnet 6.8kg Pull.
Retrieved from
https://www.first4magnets.com/rectangular-magnets-c35/50-x-50-x-20mm-thick-
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