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INTRODUCTION

The poultry industry has been persistently growing in the past years, this is because

of the rapid increase in population. According to the world livestock population statistics of

1987, the population of chicken was estimated to be 9.445 billion. The development in

poultry considerably is more advanced than any other species of livestock in relation to

agriculture particularly in the areas of the nutrition, genetic improvements, disease control,

management and organization of the dietary requirements. Until now the poultry is

considered to be the bedrock of the economy. The meat is widely consumed in other places

of the world; it has been in a constant demand and an excellent source of protein as well as

the B-complex vitamins with much lower cholesterol and saturated fats meeting the protein

needs of the poorest people on earth (Adu, 2009).

However, despite with these new innovations, the free-living parasites never cease

to pose threat to the industry. Especially in large scale sectors, where the control of this

parasites is always been a problem. The importance of controlling disease in poultry farm

needs no justification; it does indeed affect the enterprise either directly or indirectly in

terms of profitability. Gastro-intestinal nematodiasis is a common problem of fowls in the

tropical and subtropical countries of the world. It is also a great problem of poultry

population in the philippines. Among the nematodes, the Ascaridiagalli, Heterakisgallinae,

Capillariaspp infections are considered to be of great importance.

Thirteen plants species were used as anthelmintic and nine were used to combat

worm infestation in livestock and these include Carica papaya, Allium satirum, Areca

catecha, Ananascomosus, Nicotianatabacum, Cucurbitamoschata. Among these botanical

species, C. papaya (pawpaw) maybe reffered to as an ethno-veterinary remedy in this part


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of the tropics because of its adaptability, agro-ecological consideration and availability

(Mundy and Murdiati, 1991) and the anthelmintic efficacy of C. papaya latex in poultry

had been reported ( Adu 2009).

However, very limited data were available on the efficacy of papaya as dewormer.

Thus, the study was conducted to determine the efficacy of papaya seeds as dewormer on

native chicken. The result of this study will provide useful information on the anthelmintic

properties of Carica Papaya seeds be used against Ascaridia gallinarum, Heterakis

gallinae and Capillaria spp.infection in chickens. Furthermore, this will help the local

farmers, to improve their income by reducing production cost and lessen mortality.

Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to evaluate the different levels of papaya seeds

to native chicken. Specifically it aims to:

1. Determine the effective dosage of powdered papaya seeds that will expel the least

number of parasite eggs;

2. Identify the different parasites that will be expelled from the different levels of

powdered papaya seeds in Native chicken and;

3. Compare the profitability of using papaya seeds as dewormer.

Place and duration of the Study

This study was conducted at the Poultry project, MSU-Main, Marawi City on the
month of December 2016 to January, 2017.

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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Papaya, Carica papaya, is an herbaceous perennial in the family Caricaceae grown

for its edible fruit. The papaya plant is tree-like, usually branch and has hollow stems and

petioles. The leaves are palmate lobed, spirally arranged and clustered at the growing tip of

the trunk. Papaya trees can be male, female or hermaphrodite and the type of inflorescence

produced is reflective of this. Male trees produce many flowers on long, pendulous panicles

while female trees produce either solitary flower of clusters of a few flowers which are

yellow-green in color. Hermaphrodite trees produce bisexual flowers. The papaya fruit is a

large fleshy berry with smooth green skin that ripens to yellow or orange. The flesh of the

fruit is thick and succulent and ranges in color from yellow to red or orange. The fruit

contains many black wrinkled seeds. Papaya trees range in height from 210 m (6.633 ft)

and can live for up to 25 years. Plantations are usually replaced every 3 years to ensure

maximum productivity. Papaya may also be referred to as pawpaw and is believed to

originate from the Caribbean region on Central America (Source:

http//www.plantvillage.org).

Papaya, a tropical plant believed to have originated in southern Mexico and Central

America, is now cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. C. papaya is

cultivated for its edible ripe fruit; its juice is a popular beverage, and its young leaves,

shoots, and fruits are cooked as a vegetable. The fruits are a source of flavoring used in

candies, jellies, preserves, and ice cream. Shallow cuts on the surface of fully grown but

unripe fruits cause a milky sap or latex to ooze that is collected, dried, and termed crude

papain. Papain has many industrial uses, as well as milk-clotting (rennet) and protein-

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digesting properties. Nearly 80% of American beer is treated with papain, which allows the

beer to remain clear upon cooling. Papain is most commonly used commercially in meat

tenderizers and chewing gums. Cosmetically, papain is used in some toothpastes,

shampoos, and facial creams (http://www.drugs.com).

Papaya has been used widely in folk medicine for many ailments: the juice for

warts, corns, cancers, tumors, and thickened skin; the roots or their extracts for cancers of

the uterus, syphilis, the tropical infection, hemorrhoids, and to remove mineral concretions

in the urine; the unripe fruit as a mild laxative or diuretic, and to stimulate lactation, labor,

or abortion; the ripe fruit for rheumatism and alkalinizing the urine; the seeds for intestinal

worms or to stimulate menstruation or abortion; the leaves as a poultice for nervous pains

and elephantoid growths, or smoked for asthma relief; and the latex for psoriasis,

ringworm, indigestion, or applied externally as an antiseptic or to heal burns or scalds, or

applied to the cervix to contract the uterus (http://www.drugs.com).

Anthelmintic Properties of Papaya

The phytoprinciple benzyl isothiocyanate is an active principle responsible for

anthelmintic activity. The metabolic pathways in general and carbohydrate pathways in

particular and neuromuscular coordination are the major targets sites of action of

anthelmintic compound. The compound Benzyl isothiocyanate exerted its action by

inhibiting energy metabolism and by affecting motor activity of the parasites, as developed

by in vitro studies (Ravindra M.G et al., 2007). Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole

anthelmintic in papaya seed extract (Kermanshai, R. et al., 2000).

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Papain, also known as papaya proteinease I, is a cysteine protease enzyme present

in leaves, fruits and seeds of papaya seeds of papaya (C. papaya) and mountain papaya (

Vasconcellea pubescens A.D.C syn. V. cundimarcensis). Papain consist of a single

polypeptide chain with 3 disulfide bridges and sulfuhydryl group necessary for activity

of enzyme which is responsible for digestio of nematodes cuticle. (Bauri et al., 2015).

Related Studies

The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous and crude extract of Carica papaya seeds

was studied in Isa Brown commercial layers infected naturally with nematodes. The faecal

egg counts showed a remarkable and significant reduction in the levels of the identified

helminths. The reduction in faecal egg counts was more pronounced with the aqueous

extract than crude extract administered. The effects of the C. papaya seed extracts in this

study therefore showed that C. papaya extracts can serve as a source of chemical substance

for use in the development of effective anthelmintic agents (Ameen, et al., 2011).

As cited by Adu, et al (2009), in his study Potency of Pawpaw ( Carica papaya)

Latex as an Anthelmintic in Poultry Production conducted on Nasarawa State University,

Shabu-Lafia, Nigeria. The knowledge of adaptive research in animal health care by

conducting field experiments as to the efficacy of a botanical species-Carica papaya in

eradicating/checking worm burden in poultry due to the identified limitations against the

use of conventional anthelmintics. Oven dried ground latex of pawpaw was the

medicament used in treating the birds at 16 weeks following artificial helminth infestation.

From the results obtained, it was confirmed that the anthelmintic potential in Carica

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papaya latex used in the experimental flock was responsible for the varying helminth egg

per gram at faecal analysis following medication.

The cost of Ethnobotanical Anthelmintic per kg is PhP 70.00 while the Commercial

Dewormer is PhP 1,200.00. This project is part of the research program entitled

Development of Sustainable Production System for the Darag Chicken (Gallus gallus

domesticus Linn.) in Western Visayas (Bede P. Ozaraga et al., 2015).

Experiment was carried out to assess the efficacy of ethanolic extract of papaya

(Carica papaya) and neem (Azadirachta indica) plant seeds on Ascaridia galli infectivity

in broiler chicken. The FEC post treatment values of treated groups were significantly

(P>0.05) decreased as compared to the untreated group. It was concluded that the ethanolic

extract of both the papaya and neem was effective in controlling the Ascaridia galli

infection in chicken. However, papaya extract was found more effective than neem (S.

Feroza, A.G et al., 2016).

The present study has been realized in the farm protein for all (PPT) located in

Tori Sogbe in the Atlantique-Littoral province, from May to June 2011. The situation

before the treatment is identical with the groups. The 300 hens have been separated into 6

groups of 50 hens which have been differently treated: The group 0, group of witness

receives no treatment. Treatment 1 (2.5g/L of citrate of piprazine solution) for the group

1; treatment 2 (2.5g/L of papaya seeds solution) for the group 2 ; treatment 3 (2g/L of

papaya seeds solution) for group 3 ; treatment 4 (3g/L of papaya seeds solution) for group 4

; treatment 5 (4g/L of papaya seeds solution) for group 5. At state 1, it is to say before the

treatment, the average quantity of the Eggs Per Gram (EPG) are statistically the same. In

other words, the situation before the treatment is identical with the 6 groups. After the

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treatment, they have noticed a difference highly significant between the treatments with an

efficiency rate of -50% for the witness group ; 80% for the treatment 1 ; -14% for the

treatment 2 ; 4% for the treatment 3 ; 16% for the treatment 4 and 65% for the treatment 5.

In conclusion, we can retain that papaya seeds, no matter what is their dosage, have

reduced significantly the number of EPG comparing to the witness group. But that

reduction remains lower than the one of citrate of piprazine. Moreover, the more the

dosage of papaya seed increases, the more the reduction of Ascaridia galli parasitical eggs

is important (Dougnon, T.J et al., 2009).\

The Anthelmintic activity of papaya ( C. papaya ) latex against patent A. galli.

Expreimental infection with 1000 infective eggs in chicken was studied. There was a

significant, strong correlation between the percentage decrease in EPG counts and a single

dose of papaya latex 20% given to the birds (r=0.98: PH 0.05). There was also a very high,

negative correlation between adult A. galli. Numbers recovered from the experimental birds

and the single doses of papaya latex 20% (r=0.996; P=0,067). A single dose of 1,447.89 mg

of papaya latex 20% completely freed the birds from the parasite while the untreated,

infection controls harboured a mean number of 50 adult wormsndang (Purwati and Simon

He.,No year Stated).

Fajimi and Taiwo ( 2005) stated that papain is capable of digesting bacteria and

parasitic cells, hence its use as an anthelmintics and antibiotics.

Carica papaya locally known as papaya. Papain is the substance that is found in

Carica papaya which can reduce helminth infestation in poultry. Anthelmintic property can

be obtained for chicken by feeding 50 papaya seeds (De Padua et al., 1999).

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Papaya also found as an anthelmintic against other helminths (Satrija et al,, 1994; Murdiati

et al., 1997; Lamtiur, 2000; Fajimi et al., 2001; Rahman, 2002) rather than Ascaridia galli.

The efficacy of the combined dewormer was evaluated based on the reduction of

worms, which was estimated by establishing egg per gram (epg) counts before and after

administering the dewormer. One egg is equivalent to 100 eggs per gram of feces (Coles,

1988).

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experimental Birds

Twenty six (26) native chickens, not less than 6 (six) weeks of age weighed at 0.75

to 1kg with no history of previous deworming was purchased from Lumbatan, Lanao del

Sur and brought to Pancatan residence, Marawi City.

Experimental Design & Treatments

The study was laid out in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments

and replicated 3 times containing 2 birds per replication. The treatments were as follows:

T1= Control (without papaya seeds)

T2= 2ml powdered papaya seeds per chicken

T3= 4ml of powdered papaya seeds per chicken

T4= 6ml of powdered papaya seeds per chicken

Preparation of Papaya seeds

The seeds were collected from the fresh fruits of ripe papaya at the fruit shack in

5th street, MSU-main campus, Marawi City. The seeds were cleansed and sundried for 5

days, grounded and powdered. The powdered seeds were then stored at room temperature

prior to administration.

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Administration of Powdered Papaya Seeds

Before the experimental trial, the experimental birds were tested for the presence of

parasites and all of them were found infected.

Powdered papaya seeds was diluted and given to the chickens every 4:00 oclock in

the afternoon using 10ml syringe according to treatments. Administration of papaya seeds

was done for three (3) consecutive days. To ensure the effectiveness of powdered papaya

seeds the same procedure was repeated after ten (10) days.

Collection of Fecal Samples

Fresh feces were collected and put in a cleaned and sanitized vials. The vials were

then placed in an iced container and transported to Regional Disease Diagnostic

Laboratory (RADDL), Cagayan de Oro City for fecalysis. The egg counts were done using

the Mc Muster Egg counting technique.

McMaster counting technique

Parasitological examination was done by floatation techniques following the

standard procedures. Afterwards, the fecal samples were placed in McMaster counting

chamber to count the egg present in feces. The chambers containing the samples were

allowed to stand for 5 minutes to allow the eggs to float. Then it was examined under the

microscope at 10 x 10 magnifications. Total number of eggs was determined by adding all

eggs found from two square set then multiplied by 100. The result was expressed as the

total egg per gram (EPG) of feces.

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The following data were gathered:

1. Number of parasites expelled from the different dosage of powdered Papaya seeds;

2. Identification of parasites from the different levels of powdered papaya seeds.

3. Return of Investments (ROI).

Statistical Analysis

All the data gathered were processed and analyzed using SPSS version 20 with

homogeneity of variance tested using Lavenes test. Significant differences among

treatment means were also analyzed using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at P<0.05.

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RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The Eggs per Gram (EPG) of feces from different treatments during the two

collection period from Native Chicken are shown in Tables 1.

Table 1 Total number parasites expelled from Native chicken treated with different levels
powdered of papaya seeds.
Treatments Period of Fecal Collection
1st Collection 2nd Collection
d**
Without papaya seeds 158 126d**
2ml powdered papaya seeds 90c 93c
4ml powdered papaya seeds 57b 58b
6ml powdered papaya seeds 46a 37a
Columns having different superscript means significant based on LSD at P 0.005, ** means highly
significant(P0.01).

Results showed highly significant (P0.001) on the number of parasite expelled

from native chicken treated with different dosage of powdered papaya seeds in both 1st and

2nd collection. The EPG of feces is more pronounced in fecal samples found in untreated

birds compared to treated groups.In this current study, the efficacy of papaya seeds is

determined through the least number of Egg counts. The pronounced reduction of fecal egg

count from the treated group could be due to the Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) substance

present serve as an anthelmintic property of powdered papaya seeds ( Ravindra et Al.,

2007 ; Kermanshai, et al., 2000). According to the study of Ameen et al., (2011) the

anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous and crude extract of Carica papaya seeds is exhibited

on a remarkable reduction of the levels of identified helminths on layers infected naturally

with nematodes. Ameen et. Al., (2010) also indicated that papaya seeds had its anthelmintic

effecacy against nematodes, based on his study on Haemonchus contortus in dwarf sheeps.

He stated that the effects of the C.papaya seed extracts were broad spectrum in action. The

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papain compound present in the C.papaya seed extracts could have caused reduction in

worm load through this same mechanism that culminates in exhaustion and death of

worms. Since the aqueous and crude extract of C.papaya significantly reduced the faecal

egg counts of the helminths, it could serve as an anthelmintic agent. Effendy et al. (2014)

also observed the same on Dwarf sheeps treated with different levels of papaya seed

extract. The results from this study suggests that extracts from C. papaya seeds could be of

potential use as alternative anthelminthic to synthetic dewormers in therapeutic or sub-

therapeutic use for production animals.

On the other hand, there were only three (3) eggs identified from all treatments
throughout the fecal collection. These are Heterakis gallinarum., Ascaridia gallinae.,
Capillaria spp. (shown in table 2 & 3) were identified in both first and second fecal
collection.

Table 2. Total mean of Heterakis gallinae, Asacaridia gallinarum, Capillaria spp.expelled


during the first collection of Native Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
Treatments Heterakis Asacaridia Capillaria
gallinae. gallinarum spp.
Without papaya 33.67d** 11.33d** 7.67c**
2ml powdered papaya seeds 28c 1.67a 0.33a
4ml powdered papaya seeds 17b 1.67a 0.33a
6ml powdered papaya seeds 10.33a 4.33b 0.67b

Birds treated with 6ml dosage of powdered papaya seeds revealed the lowest

number of Heterakis gallinae, followed by 4ml, 2ml, and control with 10.33, 17, 28, 33.67

in descending order. On Ascaridia galli the highest number value were obtained from the

untreated birds (11.33), followed by 6 ml dosage of powdered papaya seeds (4.33); and

followed by 2ml and 4ml dosage of powdered papaya seeds both had the same value(1.67).

While on Capillaria spp. the highest number value were 7.67 on the untreated, followed by
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0.67 on the 6ml of powdered papaya seeds and the least is 0.33 on both 4ml and 2ml of

powdered papaya seeds. From this experiment and the result obtained, it could be

established that C. papaya seeds has certain chemical components that are high

anthelmintic attributes in poultry with satisfactory efficacy. This result was supported by

of Fajimi et al., (2001) who confirmed the efficacy of the aqueous extract of seeds of

carica papaya against Oesophagostomum, Trichuris and Trichostrongylus parasites. The

same author reported a reduction of egg counts in nematodes on birds treated with papaya

extract. As stated by Bauri et. al (2015); review on use of medicinal plants to control

parasites, his study stated the seeds exhibit antiamoebic activity. Aqueous extract of seeds

showed over 90% efficacy against Oesophagustomum, Trichuris and Trichostrongylus.

The latex containing papain having anthelmintic properties against intestinal nematodes of

poultry e.g. Ascaridia galli., and Capillaria spp., showed 77.7 % reduction in eggs per

gram in faeces. The extract showed effective activity against larvae of Ancylostoma canium

in mice.

Table 3.0 Effects of papaya seeds treatment on the specific kind of parasite expelled
durinsg the second collection.

Treatments Heterakis Asacaridia Capillaria spp.


gallinae. gallinarum
Without papaya 31.67d** 6.33d** 4.00c**
2ml powdered papaya seeds 28.33c 0.00a 1.67b
4ml powdered papaya seeds 16b 2.67c 0.67a
6ml powdered papaya seeds 11.67a 1.00b 0.67a

On the 2nd collection period, significant (P0.01) reduction of Heterakis gallinae,

Ascaridia gallinarum and Capillaria spp. were pronounced on 6ml powdered papaya

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seeds than the other treatments (shown in table 3). This result is supported by Dougnon et

al. (2009) who stated that any dosage of papaya seeds have reduced significantly the

number of EPG comparing to the witness group. But that reduction remains lower

compared to citrate of piprazine. Moreover, the more the dosage of papaya seed increases,

the more the reduction of parasitical eggs is important. Although, Endang Purwati and

Simon He., (__) reported that the dosage of papaya seeds had a strong correlation on the

percentage egg count (r= 0.98: PH 0.05). There is also no adult A. gallinarum recovered

from the experimental birds from a single dose of papaya extract which results to a

negative correlation(r=0.999; P=0.067).

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Cost and Return

The cost and return of using papaya seeds as an anthelmintic compared to commercial

dewormer (pipearazine) is shown in table 4.

Table 4. cost and return analysis of papaya seeds and commercial dewormer.
Parameters Papaya seeds Commercial
dewormer
Gross income (Php)/ bird 300 300
Cost of chicken 100 100
Cost of feeds/bird/day 1.87 1.87
Cost of papaya seeds 1
Cost of grinding papaya 14
seeds
Cost of commercial dewormer 0 46
cost of housing and 100 100
facilities
Total expenses 215.87 247.87
Total net return 85.13 52.13

The data revealed that papaya seeds gave a higher net return with 85.13 pesos

compared to commercial dewormer with 52.13 pesos. According to the findings of

Ozaraga et al.,(2014) he stated that the higher net return of papaya seeds is mainly due to

lower cost of processing while the cost of commercial dewormer is 1200 pesos in the

market. Therefore, using papaya seeds is more economical than commercial dewormers.

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The study was conducted in MSU-main campus, Marawi City, Lanao del sur with a

total of 26 native chickens randomly distributed into four (4) treatments namely: T1-control

(w/o papaya seeds); T2-2ml powdered papaya seeds; T3-4ml powdered papaya seeds; and

T4-6ml powdered papaya seeds. The experiment lasted for 1 month. Deworming was

conducted for two (2) consecutive trials with ten (10) day interval period per

administration. Prior to administration, the experimental birds were tested for parasite and

all of them found to be positive. The treatments were administered for three (3) consecutive

days following the three (3) collection period of fecal samples. Throughout the

experimental trials, chickens were fed the same kind of feeds. Using the Analysis of

Variance (ANOVA) of the Complete Randomized Design (CRD) the following results

were obtained:

1. Different levels of powdered papaya seeds significantly affected the number of EPG

expelled.

2. Different levels of powdered papaya seeds significantly expelled three (3) types of

parasite eggs namely Heterakis gallinae, Asacaridia gallinarum and Capilllaria

spp.

3. Among the treatments 6ml of powdered papaya seeds is more effective in

controlling parasites.

From the above results, it is concluded that the papaya seeds can be effectively used

as dewormer to native chicken. Moreover, economic analysis also shows that using

powdered papaya seeds is more economical than commercial dewormer.

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RECOMMENDATION

Based on the results of the study, further studies are recommended to elucidate more

the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya seeds. The following studies that can be undertaken:

1. Anthelmintic efficacy of papaya seeds extract in broiler and layer chickens.

2. Comparative efficacy of powdered papaya seeds and papaya seeds extract on

growth performance of native chickens.

3. Growth performance of native chicken supplemented with different levels of

powdered papaya seeds.

4. Anthelmintic efficacy of powdered papaya seeds administered through drinking

water in broiler and layer chickens.

5. Comparative efficacy of papaya seeds and other ethno-botanical dewormer on

Native chicken.

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APPENDIX TABLES

APPENDIX TABLE 1.ANOVA for Egg per Gram (EPG) of feces in 1st collection
Sum of squares Degree of Mean Frequenc Sig.
Freedom (df) square y (f)
Between groups 3022.667 3 1007.556 14.602 0.001**

Collection 1 (Within 552 8 69


groups)
3574.667 11
Total

APPENDIX TABLE 2.ANOVA for Egg per Gram (EPG) of feces in 2nd collection
Sum of squares Degree of Mean Frequency Sig.
Freedom (df) square (f)
Between groups 1536.333 3 512.111 8.407 7

Collection 2 (Within 487.333 8 60.917


groups)
2023.667 11
Total

First collection

APPENDIX TABLE 3.ANOVA for Egg per Gram (EPG) of feces of Heterakis galli.
Sum of squares Degree of Mean Frequency Sig.
Freedom (df) square (f)
Between groups 1308.917 3 436.306 6.898 0.13

Heterakisgalli. 506 8 63.25


(Within groups)
1814.917
Total 11

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APPENDIX TABLE4. ANOVA for Egg per Gram (EPG) of Ascaridiagalli.
Sum of squares Degree of Mean Frequency Sig.
Freedom (df) square (f)
Between groups 187.583 3 62.528 5.07 0.3

Ascaridiagalli 98.667 8 12.333


(Within groups)

Total 286.25 11

APPENDIX TABLE 5. ANOVA for Egg Per Gram (EPG) of Capillaria Spp.
Sum of squares Degree of Mean Frequency Sig.
Freedom (df) square (f)
Between groups 117.583 3 39.194 21.379 .000**

Capillaria spp. 14.667 8 1.833


(Within groups)

Total 132.25 11

Second collection

APPENDIX TABLE 6. ANOVA for Egg Per Gram (EPG) of Heterakis galli.
Sum of Degree of Mean Frequency Sig.
squares Freedom (df) square (f)
Between groups 1438.917 3 479.639 5.659 0.022

HeterakisSpp 678 8 84.75


(Within groups)
Total 2116.917 11

APPENDIX TABLE 7. ANOVA for Egg Per Gram (EPG) of Ascaridia galli.
Sum of Degree of Mean Frequency Sig.
squares Frequency (df) square (f)
Between groups 69.667 3 23.222 3.357 0.76

Ascaridiagalli 55.333 8 6.917


(Within groups)

Total 125 11

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APPENDIX TABLE 8. ANOVA for Egg Per Gram (EPG) of Capillaria Spp.
Sum of Degree of Mean Frequency Sig.
squares Freedom (df) square (f)
Between groups 22.25 3 7.417 2.697 0.116

Capillaria spp. 22 8 2.75


(Within groups)

Total 44.25 11

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APPENDIX FIGURES

Appendix figure 1.Imagess of Heterakis gallinae

Appendix figure 2.Images of Capillria Spp.

Appendix figure 3. An image of A. gallinarim (round) and Heterakis gallinae


(elongated)

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Appendix figure 4. Salt Solution. Appendix figure 5. Weighing of fecal samples.

Appendix figure 6. Wire mesh Appendix figure 7. RADDL apparatus

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