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MARCH 2014


IP and patents
Phosphor technology
Q&A P.21

Lessons learned
boost LEDs P.33

SSL analysis P.65

Heritage Site
SSL highlights
architecture, limits
light spill P.26
Light Years Ahead
Setting the Standard for Dimmer Compatibility

CS161X Family of Dimmable LED

Driver ICs
The CS161X family of digital LED controller ICs have been
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wide array of dimmers worldwide. The CS161X's digital
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algorithm to provide smooth, flicker-free dimming in single
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2014 Cirrus Logic, Inc. All rights reserved. Cirrus Logic, Cirrus, the Cirrus Logic logo designs,EXL Core,
and the EXL Core logo design,TruDim and the TruDim logo design are trademarks of Cirrus Logic, Inc.

March Cover Story
Modern controls and solid-state lighting
enhance the features of Durham Castle
and Cathedral while reducing energy
usage. Specifiers were able to maintain
architectural integrity, mitigate light
pollution, and protect local wildlife. (See
p. 26; courtesy of Stainton Lighting
Design Services)

Intematix expands phosphor development and IP
to meet demanding SSL applications Maury Wright columns/departments

Regeneration throws light on Norman architectural
4 COMMENTARY Maury Wright
SIL talks foreshadow significant
heritage Caroline Hayes LED revenue growth

LED lighting progresses driven by lessons learned
Red and warm-white LEDs
James Brodrick, US Department of Energy wash Rabat walls
GE Lighting and CRS
Auroralia Awards Maury Wright
Electronics settle suit
Cree expands high-density COB family

53 OPTICS Evolucia wins optics patent

Tertiary optics deliver benefits in SSL product Microchip acquires Supertex

design Suleyman Turgut, Luminit LLC Acuity announces EcoDrive
family from EldoLED

UV-LED advancements extend the promise in
Lutron expands EcoSystem family
Sharp launches color-
curing Bill Cortelyou, Phoseon Technology tunable mid-power LEDs
Samsung LEDs target mobile devices
Simulation enables optimum LED streetlight
Osram adds color LEDs
for auto applications
heat-sink design Djordje Zivanovic, BUCK d.o.o., and
Richard Ozaki, Mentor Graphics Corporation

68 LAST WORD CSEM announces EU-funded LASSIE-FP7

large-area SSL module project
LED sources need to find a place in the recycling
stream Nigel Harvey, Recolight MARCH 2014 3




SIL talks foreshadow EDITOR Maury Wright

significant LED


revenue growth MARKETING MANAGER Kimberly Ayer

ART DIRECTOR Kelli Mylchreest

supplied internally in the case of vertically- AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT Debbie Bouley

integrated LED manufacturers. Japan at

t the 15th-anniversary Strategies in 21% and Korea at 15% were the next largest
Light conference held in Santa Clara, sources of LEDs for lighting.
EDITORIAL OFFICES PennWell Corporation,
California over February 2527, Strategies Meanwhile, Strategies Unlimited said LEDs Magazine
98 Spit Brook Road, LL-1
Unlimited reported that LED revenues hit retrofit lamps will become the largest near- Nashua, NH 03062-5737
$14.4B (billion) in 2013 with the projection term consumer of LEDs in SSL, and A-lamps Tel: +1 603 891-0123
Fax: +1 603 891-0574
for growth to $25.9B in 2018. There was mod- will lead the way despite the call for innova-
erate growth in the 7% range from 2012 to tive new form factors that fully leverage LED
2013 but the forward projection calls for sources. Evstratyeva said that in 2013 there SALES MANAGER Kelly Barker
double-digit growth over the next five years were 100M (million) LED retrofit lamps sold. (US EAST COAST)
Tel. +1 603 891 9186
driven by LED-based general lighting. Still, That sounds impressive until you consider SALES MANAGER Allison OConnor
some of the more interesting points were in that there are 50B sockets installed globally. (US WEST COAST)
Tel. +1 480 991 9109
the details in terms of the types of LEDs to In the lighting segments discussion, it was SALES MANAGER Jim Ajayi
be used and where they are made. the projected breakdown of the LED types to (EUROPE)
Strategies Unlimited analyst Katya be sold that perhaps was most surprising. In Tel. +44(0) 1992 656657
SALES MANAGER Holger Gerisch
Evstratyeva said that in 2013, general light- recent years, weve heard about low-cost mid- (FRANCE/GERMANY/
ing applications accounted for 30% of LED power LEDs taking over in lighting, and that AUSTRIA/SWITZERLAND) Tel. +49 (0) 8856 8020 228
sales clearly becoming the technology and would seem an appropriate trend in the cost- (JAPAN)
market driver after edging into the domi- sensitive lamps market. But Evstratyeva proj- Tel: +81 3 3219 3641
nant position in 2012 ( ects that low-and mid-power LEDs combined SALES MANAGER Mark Mak
The share of the LED market for general would, by 2018, only account for 35% of the Tel: +852 2838 6298
solid-state lighting (SSL) applications will LEDs sold into lamps based on component SALES MANAGER Monica Liu
hit 57% by 2018, according to the research. revenue. The actual number of components Tel: +886 2 2396 5128 ext: 270
Strategies Unlimited offered details about shipped would tell a far different story. SALES MANAGER Young Baek
suppliers to the LED lighting market and the Mid-power penetration will be greater (KOREA)
Tel: +82 2 2273 4818
types of LEDs used in different types of prod- in commercial and industrial applications. SALES MANAGER Dan Aronovic
ucts. For starters, a pie chart that segmented The mid- and low-power segment will (ISRAEL)
Tel: +39 972 9899 5813
where LEDs for lighting products are manu- account for about 50% of revenue by 2018.
factured was surprising. The US accounts for High-power LEDs will go from 50% in 2013 CHAIRMAN Frank T. Lauinger
31% of those LEDs sold into lighting. Evstra- to 15% in 2018. But superhigh-power, which PRESIDENT AND CEO Robert F. Biolchini

tyeva didnt detail the US sources but noted includes chip-on-board (COB) LED arrays, CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER Mark C. Wilmoth

that one particular company in the US has will represent 35% of the revenue in 2018. TECHNOLOGY GROUP
had notable success in lighting. Lower-power penetration will be driven by & PUBLISHING DIRECTOR
The company behind the US ranking is linear applications such as ceiling troffers. SUBSCRIPTIONS: For subscription inquiries:
Tel: +1 847 763-9540;
assuredly Cree. That companys focus on the Those in the audience at Strategies in Fax: +1 847 763-9607;
lighting market with its LED offerings has Light surely saw opportunity in the many e-mail:;
driven it to a dominant position in lighting, presentations that the conference com-
We make portions of our subscriber list available to carefully screened
whereas Cree is only the 6th ranked global prised. It will be a fun five years watching companies that offer products and services that may be important for
your work. If you do not want to receive those offers and/or information
LED supplier by revenue. Moreover, Crees the jockeying for leadership positions. via direct mail, please let us know by contacting us at List Services
LEDs, 98 Spit Brook Road LL-1, Nashua, NH 03062.
aggressive move into lighting products
Copyright 2014 PennWell Corp (ISSN 2156-633X). All rights
most notably, retrofit lamps in the past year reserved. Contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any
has helped drive LED revenue. Strategies Maury Wright, EDITOR form without prior written consent of Publishers.

Unlimited estimates the value of the LEDs

4 MARCH 2014

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Editorial Digest Phosphor Global Summit 2014

March 2628, 2014
LED modules advance SSL San Diego, CA

developments and light quality Photonics21 Annual Meeting 2014 March 2728, 2014
Brussels, Belgium

Light+Building 2014
March 30April 4, 2014
Webcasts Frankfurt, Germany

SSL 2014: LED technology Asian Lighting Exhibition (ALEEX) 2014

April 1417, 2014
advancements accelerate Guangzhou, China
the lighting revolution
Gulf LED Exhibition April 2224, 2014
Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Understand LED driver design and dimming RadTech UV & EB Technology

Expo & Conference 2014
techniques that can deliver optimal SSL products May 1214, 2014 Chicago, IL

Lightfair International 2014

White Paper June 35, 2014
Las Vegas, NV
Materials Matter:
The LED Show
The Material Selection Process September 1618, 2014 Los Angeles, CA


Aamsco Lighting .........................................50 Global Lighting Technologies .......................15 Radiant Zemax LLC .....................................25
Autec Power Systems..................................63 Henkel ........................................................18 Seoul Semiconductor Co. Ltd. .......................8
Carclo Technical Plastics .............................52 Indium Corporation .....................................31 Shanxi Guangyu LED Lighting Co. Ltd. .........61
Cirrus Logic...................................................2 Inpotron Schaltnetzteile GmbH....................39 Sharp Devices Europe GmbH ......................20
Citizen Electronics Co., Ltd. .........................17 Instruments Systems GmbH .........................5 Shenzhen Refond
Optoelectronics Co., Ltd. ..........................47
Cooledge Lighting .......................................13 Inventronics (Hangzhou) Inc. .......................37
Shrewdd Marketing .....................................39
Cree, Inc. ..................................................CV4 Ledlink Optics Inc. ......................................23
Signcomplex Limited ...................................38
E-Lite Semiconductor Inc. ...........................58 Lextar Electronics Corp. ..............................45
TE Connectivity ...........................................49
ebm-papst Inc. ..............................................7 Luminis Devices..........................................40
The Bergquist Company ..............................29
Edison Opto Corporation .............................42 Matrix Lighting Limited, Hong Kong ...........CV2
The Korean Consulate General ....................12
Epistar ..........................................................1 MBN GmbH.................................................14
Thomas Research Products ........................11
FSP Technology, Inc. ...................................36 Nichifu America Inc. ....................................67
Underwriters Laboratories .....................41, 67
Future Lighting Solutions.......................24, 55 Orb Optronix................................................64
Zhejiang Baikang Technological Co., Ltd. .....32
G-S Plastic Optics .......................................62 Proto Labs Inc. ...........................................35
Zhejiang LEDCOM Electronics Co., Ltd .........56

6 MARCH 2014

The spotlight shines on efciency.

In order to reach the desired lumen values in a small form factor, active cooling
may be required to effectively dissipate the heat produced by the LED components.
Active cooling technology offers thermal capabilities with inaudible noise thats
superior to passive heat sinks and raises performance while reducing the size of
the lighting xture. With an industry-leading, German-engineered compact fan and
an American-designed assembly, ebm-papst can provide the most reliable solution
for your LED cooling problems. To nd out more about custom Active Cooling
Solutions, visit The engineers choice

Introducing the Acrich MJT 4040
High-Voltage LED
Using our patented Multi-Junction
Technology, the MJT 4040 offers
increased brightness and light density
perfectly suited for your next
outdoor LED application.

1403leds_8 8 3/3/14 4:27 PM

news views

Red and warm-white

LEDs wash Rabat walls
LEC Lyon has supplied an LED lighting project in the his-
toric city of Rabat, the Moroccan capital that was recog-
nized as a world heritage site by UNESCO (United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) in June
2012. In-ground LED spotlights bathe Rabats historic walls
in red and warm-white light with the ability to stand up to
harsh temperature and vibration extremes. Moroccan light-
ing specialist Electrimar handled the solid-state lighting
(SSL) design.
LED-based lighting is increasingly finding use in
UNESCO sites in part because of concerns over light pollu- town area of the city. The walls protect the south and west
tion and the need for low-energy usage in older structures sides of the city and were built in the late twelfth century.
with dated infrastructure. For example, we previously cov- The walls stand 8m high and the 1.5-km lit section features
ered the Schrder project at the Grand Place in Brussels architectural elements that the city chose to preserve and
( highlight with the dual-color project.
The Rabat lighting was undertaken along with restruc- The walls encircle the old city of Rabat; the ones that are
turing of the Hassan II roadway that runs alongside the old- enlighted today are the ones that are the most visible, said


GE Lighting and CRS Cree expands high-density

Electronics settle suit COB family
Cree has announced the
GE Lighting has announced the settlement of a lawsuit that it filed in CX A1310, CX A1850, and
December 2012 against CRS Electronics over patent infringement in CXA2590 COB LEDs with light-
the area of LED lamp design. The GE and CRS lawsuit was waged over emitting surface (LES) diame-
US Patents 6,799,864 and 6,787,999. Those patents were focused on LED ters of 6, 12, and 19 mm, respec-
retrofit lamp designs. Specifically, GE said that the tively. The products are part of
patents cover lamp heat-sink designs and technol- Crees COB offering that the
ogies critical to replacing legacy lamps with LED- company terms high density
based products. Terms of the settlement have been and are designed to maximize the candela (cd) per dol-
kept confidential, but CRS will now pay for a license lar for directional applications, as opposed to the stan-
to the patents in question. dard-density products that are focused on maximum
The 864 and 999 patents cover technology lumens per dollar.
important to the long-life operation of LED-based Cree first announced the high-density concept back
lamps, said Steve Briggs, general manager of global in September 2013 with the 9-mm CXA1520 that offered
product management for GE Lighting. GE Lighting double the output of the prior Cree LEDs in the same
is offering non-exclusive licenses under the 864 and size ( The new products extend
999 patents to interested parties. We are pleased lumen output to beyond 13,500 lm at 5000K CCT and
with this settlement, which demonstrates our commitment to defend- to 11,500 lm at 3000K CCT. The 6-mm CXA1310, mean-
ing GE Lightings intellectual property across the globe. while, delivers flux in the 2000-lm range. Cree page 10 MARCH 2014 9

Rabat from page 9 says that the benefit from mid-power LEDs with low OCF that delivers 31,000-cd CBCP and a 9 beam
performance is industry best relative to the that is a match for the broad beam spread, at 15.4W. Scheidt compared that product to
LES sizes, and a smaller LES enables simpler, diffuse light requirements of the applica- a typical track fixture that uses a 44W Phil-
lower-cost control of the beam with smaller tion. He said Crees mainstream CXA family ips PAR20 ceramic metal-halide (CMH) lamp
optical elements such as reflectors. is also a good match to other applications that delivers 13,220-cd CBCP and a 10 beam.
The LEDs are available across the range with diffuse light requirements such as BR In fairness, the Philips CMH lamp is 86
of 2700K to 6500K CCT. Cree offers 80-CRI lamps and downlights. CRI and the Cree prototype is 82 CRI. But the
products across the board, 70-CRI products The high-density COB LEDs are targeted performance advantage of the LED option is
at the cool end of the spectrum, and 95-CRI at high-OCF applications including direc- clear. Scheidt said that a quality track fix-
products at the warm end of the spectrum. tional lighting ranging from PAR/MR LED ture sells for $200 in high volume and the
With the new product launch, Cree also replacement lamps to tracklights to even lamp for around $20 with those prices dou-
stressed a new way to consider LED perfor- low- and high-bay fixtures that need to focus bled if bought in individual quantity. He said
mance, and the match of LEDs to an appli- the beam. Primarily, the LEDs target appli- that the bill of materials for the LED light
cation, called optical control factor (OCF). cations that require maximum center beam engine was in the $34 range in high volume
Essentially the metric comes down to perfor- candle power (CBCP) and enable system per- including LED, driver, heat sink, and optic.
mance divided by surface area of the emitter, formance legacy sources cant serve. The track fixture includes a ballast and
whether the LED or LEDs under consideration To illustrate the advantages of the new that component is equivalent to the driver in
are in COB array or discrete form. products, Cree has assembled some pro- the LED light engine. But the point is that a
Paul Scheidt, product marketing man- totype light engines to which it compared track luminaire priced in the $200 range can
ager for LED components at Cree, discussed existing lighting fixtures and lamps based easily accommodate the cost of the LED light
applications and LEDs relative to OCF. He on legacy sources. For example, Cree has engine and deliver superior performance.
said applications such as linear troffers can demonstrated a CXA1310-based engine MORE:

Rabat from page 9 Fouad Bahechar, presi- LEC has been behind a number of Euro- Many industry experts have suggested
dent of Electrimar. Every 30m, the turrets pean SSL projects where LED-based light- that networked outdoor lighting is sim-
project over the street. We thought that this ing was installed in a novel manner while ply a necessity as the global population
rhythm was interesting to explore; thats the preserving the historic look and feel of a expands and the population growth is espe-
reason why we chose to use two colors site. For example, we covered a project in cially acute in major cities. We covered such
warm white for continuity and red for relief. Nmes, France that included pedestrian tun- sentiment at the 2012 Street & Area Light-
Challenges to the project included both nel lighting and roadway lighting mounted ing Conference expressed by Philips execu-
the environment and developing a system in curbs ( The Nmes tive Niels Van Duinen in a keynote (http://
that delivered accurate and uniform light. project, which in aggregate involved lighting Speakers at the Strategies in
The SSL products had to be shock-proof to manufacturers Comatelec, Ludec, Valmont,
handle traffic in the area and also to oper- and Philips Lighting in addition to LEC, was
ate in temperature extremes. Moreover, the ultimately selected as the first-place win-
project required a provision allowing adjust- ner in the Auroralia Awards for sustainable
ment of the beams. lighting projects (p. 43).
Bahechar chose LEC 5716-Allevard spot-
lights that are designed to be recessed in DRIVER ICs
grade. He said, LEC products are technical,
sturdy, and tailor-made. The variations of STMicroelectronics driver IC
the product family deployed integrate 67 and reference design enables
LEDs to light the 8m height. Additionally, networked street lights
LEC delivered a custom lens to spread the STMicroelectronics has announced the Light Europe 2013 conference voiced similar
white light over the walls and the red light STEVAL385LEDPSR evaluation board and opinions ( LEDs save
on the turrets. reference design for intelligent LED-based energy but adaptive controls are needed for
The specified fixtures can withstand street light designs. The design includes the maximum savings.
impacts of 20 joules and are rated IP-68 for STM8-microcontroller-based STLUX385A STMicroelectronics sees things similarly.
double protection against water ingress. digital power controller IC that can imple- Digitally controlled lighting is the key to
Moreover, LEC designed the fixtures to be ment the SSL driver functionality and saving energy in outdoor installations, said
adjustable after installation. Indeed, the enable networked LED street light designs Matteo Lo Presti, group vice president and
fixtures can be adjusted without the device with a choice of interfaces and adaptive general manager for the Industrial and Power
being dismantled or the seal compromised. control scenarios. Conversion Division of STMicroelectronics.

10 MARCH 2014

Thomas Research Products
SSL Solutions Faster Than The Speed Of Light

DC LED Light Engines For
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From the Authority on LED Power

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Designed to be standard, these boards are easy to seamlessly
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drop into a wide variety of existing luminaire form factors. A complete
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STs new solution for LED street lighting conversion regulator followed by a zero-volt- Mel Interiano. In other words, the shortest
packs 25 years of experience in power age-switching resonant stage that together distance between two points is a straight line.
conversion into a single, future-proof with the STLUX385A compose the complete Our patented Aimed Optics technology sim-
platform. As grids get progressively smarter, LED driver functionality. ply uses that principle to its fullest. We dont
cities will be able to control the streetlamps need to redirect the light path with optics,
to produce even greater savings because BUSINESS AND IP which creates inefficiencies.
all the key communications protocols are
already incorporated in the STLUX385A. Evolucia wins optics patent Microchip acquires Supertex
The companys reference design enables Evolucia has won a new US patent for the Microcontroller specialist Microchip
SSL street light manufacturers to quickly Aimed Optics technology that it uses in Technology has acquired analog and mixed-
bring intelligent designs to market. STMi- SSL products for outdoor applications. signal IC manufacturer Supertex includ-
croelectronics will supply the design with Patent 8,635,049, Light unit with light ing the latters LED driver IC technology.
full schematics, a detailed bill of materials, output pattern synthesized from multiple The acquisition of Supertex could impact a
and the required firmware. The STLUX385A light sources, was published on January number of application areas, although SSL
IC can handle both the power-regulation 21, 2014 ( As the is certainly a prominent one. Microchip
stage on the primary side of an AC/DC driver title implies, the Aimed Optics technol- has offered limited support for LED-based
along with implementing smart features and ogy is used to form the desired beam in lighting applications through its microcon-
adaptive controls. luminaires based on LED point sources troller (MCU) and analog IC portfolio, and
Indeed, the STLUX385A IC integrates full for applications such as the various IES the MCUs will be increasingly applicable as
support for a DALI (digital addressable light- (Illuminating Engineering Society) defined intelligence is integrated into more lamps
ing interface) network link. The peripher- roadway beam patterns. and luminaire products.
als integrated with the microcontroller can Evolucia has claimed that its optics tech- We are pleased to have Supertex become
enable implementation of 010V analog con- nology offers better efficiency than compet- part of the Microchip team, said Steve
trols and also interface with a variety of sen- ing optical technologies from other com- Sanghi, president and CEO of Microchip
sors. Digital communications facilities on panies. Most companies competing in the Technology. Supertexs deep domain knowl-
chip allow for a development team to add outdoor space use total internal reflection edge in high-voltage analog and mixed-sig-
Wi-Fi, ZigBee, and other network support (TIR) lenses on each LED to form the beam nal technologies, and strong position in the
with external ICs. pattern ( Evolucia medical, industrial, and lighting markets
The evaluation board allows development combines simpler optics and directional complement many of Microchip initiatives
teams to immediately experiment with SSL LED mounting in outdoor fixtures. in these areas. We believe that combining
system designs using a fully operational We aim the LEDs exactly where we want Supertexs business with Microchips ana-
driver. The design is capable of dimming the light to shine, which uses less energy to log business will enable significant syner-
based on programmatic or sensor control. create more light a key point recognized in gies and cross-selling opportunities.
Moreover, the design includes a power-factor the patent, said Evolucia CEO and chairman MORE:

12 MARCH 2014

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Redefining the Geometry of Light

Vancouver, BC I Austin, TX I

DRIVERS electronic components to the industry. and general manager of the eldoLED division
The new drivers target indoor applications of Acuity. EldoLED will showcase the prod-
Acuity announces EcoDrive and are based on a digital-power-control ucts to the European audience at the upcom-
family from EldoLED architecture that enables smooth dimming ing Light+Building trade fair.
Acuity Brands has entered the OEM mar- down to 1% of full scale. Moreover, output
ket after purchasing driver-maker EldoLED voltages are programmable and Acuity will Lutron expands EcoSystem family
last year ( and now Lutron has announced the EcoSystem
has launched the EcoDrive family under 5-Series LED driver family with support for
the Acuity banner. For Acuity, the EcoDrive dimming of LED fixtures down to 5% with
launch also marks the commissioning of a control enabled by the companys EcoSystem
new high-throughput, surface-mount-tech- lighting-network technology. EcoSystem is
nology production line that can yield 1 mil- an enhanced version of the DALI network
lion LED drivers and 5 million LED circuit that enables control of lighting. Lutron offers
boards annually. Indeed, the EcoDrive driv- luminaires, control panels, sensors, drivers,
ers come to market after Acuity added both and other elements with EcoSystem inter-
engineering and manufacturing resources. faces ( Moreover,
We have added significant engineering other luminaire makers including Cree and
resources to our solid-state lighting team offer the family in a variety of form factors. GE Lighting offer EcoSystem as an optional
and expanded our electronic manufacturing The products are key to Acuity expanding feature in some products.
capacity, said Mel Mendoza, Acuitys its OEM sales. We are excited about the Eco- The Series-5 drivers can allow any SSL
vice president of SSL. With the rapid Drive being an integral part of Acuity Brands manufacturer to add EcoSystem support
transformation to LED lighting technologies, lighting solutions, and even more excited to a luminaire. Lutron says the technology
we have made significant investments to about the value it offers to our OEM part- can boost energy savings 60% through occu-
enable us to provide delivery of high-quality ners, said Gilles Abrahamse, vice president pancy sensing and daylight harvesting, and


6503300 Lumen
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the driver is designed to help lighting spec- Zenigata mid-power LED simply has side-by-
ifiers deliver systems that meet stringent side emitters with different CCTs.
green energy codes. The driver family sup- Mini-Tiger LEDs are designed to be driven
ports loads up to 35W. The design includes by dual constant-current power supplies
an on-board microcontroller that simplifies with each channel delivering 120 mA to
lighting design and commissioning. the LED that has a typical forward voltage
The new 5-Series driver, which is rated for of 3.1V. For an SSL product to offer tunable
50,000 hours of lifetime operation, lets speci- performance, the design will require some
local control to vary the relative drive cur-
rents to the two LED channels. Sharp has
suggested that a link such as DALI would be
typically used to connect a luminaire based
on the LEDs.

fiers, contractors, and building managers eas-

ily accommodate change, said Eric Lind, vice
president of specification solutions at Lutron.
Spaces can now be easily rezoned without
rewiring during the design or commission-
ing phases, or throughout the building lifecy-
cle, making it an affordable, flexible solution
for reliably controlling LEDs.
The 2700K emitter delivers 32 lm from the
PACKAGED LEDs 120 mA drive current while the 6500K emit-
ter delivers 38 lm. Sharp said that the com-
Sharp launches color- bined CRI will be over 80 at a minimum.
tunable mid-power LEDs MORE:
Sharp Devices Europe has announced the
Mini-Tiger Zenigata LED family that includes Samsung LEDs target
emitters in two different CCTs, which allows mobile devices
the components to produce light over the Samsung Electronics has announced three
range of 27006500K. Sharp will demonstrate new families of packaged LEDs that tar-
the compact 4.230.9-mm LEDs for the first get usage in mobile devices and debuted in
time at the Light+Building tradeshow. The February at the Mobile World Congress in
LEDs will enable tunable SSL products that Barcelona, Spain. The products include two
can enhance health and productivity. LEDs in a reflector-integrated package for
The new LEDs add to the Zenigata fam- flash applications, one LED in a flip-chip
ily with a much smaller LED in a surface- package for flash applications, and two side-
mount-device (SMD) package. The Mini- view LEDs targeted at edge-lighting mobile
Tiger products are a departure from the device screens.
prior Zenigata-branded chip-on-board The ref lector-integrated devices are
(COB) LEDs. Indeed, the Mini Zenigata LEDs designed to enable a wider field of view (FOV)
announced last year are in a 1215-mm foot- or wider beam angle for the camera flash in
print ( As for a tunable high-end mobile devices. The wider FOV
CCT, Sharp has previously offered that fea- improves picture quality. The integrated reflec-
ture in larger COB LEDs, having launched tor design allows the LEDs to fit in a small foot-
the Tiger Zenigata with a 17-mm LES back in print within the mobile device. Indeed, Sam-
2012 ( That COB device sung said the reflector design includes optics
had visible stripes of different phosphor for- and diffusion features in the package.
mulations across the LES presumably the Samsung supplies the reflector-based
basis for the name Tiger. The new Mini-Tiger designs in a 3432 package that stands MARCH 2014 15

1.8mm high. The FH341A model delivers 165 view LEDs along the screen bevel. lamps (
lx at 1A and a minimum CRI of 80. The prod- Samsung is not alone in supplying side- The Oslon Compact family
uct is due shortly in a new Samsung Galaxy view LEDs. Seoul Semiconductor announced has a foot-
smartphone. The FH341B is even thinner at 0.6-mm side-view LEDs last March that it said print that allows the
1.4 mm and delivers 165 lx. offered a 10% advantage in lumen output at LEDs to be packed
The flip-chip Flash LED is offered in a the time ( closely for light-
smaller 2016 package and targets mid-range MORE: guide-based designs
mobile devices including products in smaller used in many turn indi-
form factors than the leading smartphones. Osram adds color LEDs cators; the LEDs deliver 120 lm at
Samsung said the phosphor deposition tech- for auto applications 700 mA ( That perfor-
nique using a cell-film technology improves Osram Opto Semiconductors has recently mance level is achieved even at 100C, which
color deviation by 40% and the LED will come added new colored LEDs in product fami- the products may experience in the enclosed
in at a new lower price point relative to earlier lies that target front-and rear-facing auto- chamber of an auto turn indicator or other
2016-packaged LEDs. motive lighting applications. The company vehicular lighting function. At room temper-
For screen-lighting, Samsung has also said that it is the first LED manu- ature the LEDs produce 140 lm.
has announced the MS062F facturer to transition red, orange, and yellow Osram employs a blue emitter manufac-
and MS082F LEDs. Both indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide tured using indium gallium nitride (InGaN)
of the devices are in (InGaALP) LED lines to 6-in. wafers epitaxial layers and a ceramic-based phos-
a 3810 package and a move that should result in lower phor that converts the energy to yellow light.
stand 0.6- and 0.8- component prices. Osram refers to the phosphor technology as
mm high, respec- Osram has a portfolio of LED products C2 for ceramic conversion.
tively. The low profile that target automotive applications includ- The LEDs are made using a thin-film, flip-
is crucial in allowing prod- ing the Oslon Black Flat LEDs designed to chip architecture called UX:3. The process
uct developers to mount the side- deliver forward-facing white light for head- includes removal of the growth substrate
after the epitaxial stage and flipping the chip
so that light is emitted from the bottom side of
the chip, which can maximize light extraction.
Moving to rear-facing applications, Osram
expanded the Black Flat family to include ver-
sions that can emit yellow and red tones that
are required for rear-facing auto lights and all
turn indicators Osram says that the expanded
family allows automotive engineers to cre-
ate complex tail lights using multiple LEDs
and powering the devices at different levels
to meet the various brightness requirements
associated with different operations such as
braking and reverse indication.
Also in the color LED sector, Osram said
it is the first to move to a 6-in. production
line. The company began conversion of blue
LED production for phosphor-converted
white LEDs starting back in 2011 (http:// The larger wafers allow the
production of more LED chips per wafer and,
assuming the manufacturer realizes accept-
able yield, lowers LED production cost.
The demand for light-emitting diodes in
red, orange, and yellow continues to grow. We
are keeping pace with this demand by being
the first manufacturer in the world to switch
fabrication to 6-inch wafers thereby also
expanding our capacity, said Aldo Kamper,
CEO of Osram Opto Semiconductors.

16 MARCH 2014

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+ funding
CSEM announces EU-funded LASSIE-FP7
large-area SSL module project
The CSEM (Centre Suisse dElectronique et de Microtechnique SA) Marsica Information & Technology of Italy, and Amires of the Czech
research organization based in Switzerland has announced the Republic. There are no details on how the participants will capital-
LASSIE-FP7 (Large Area Solid State Intelligent Efficient luminaires) ize on the project individually, other than that Regent will build a
project that over three years will seek to develop a new solid-state luminaire, but each of the organizations will gain skills and capa-
lighting (SSL) planar module for high-end luminaires. The European bilities that will help extend Europes capacity for delivering new,
Union (EU) provided 3.15 million ($4.3 million) for the project that innovative products, according to Ferrini.
will seek to use a hybrid of inorganic and organic technologies The timeframe of the project is somewhat questionable with
thereby delivering the efficacy and long the rapid commercial advancement of
life of high-power LEDs and the color- both LED and OLED technology around
tunable diffuse lighting of OLED panels. the globe. Tunable light sources should
CSEM implied that while LEDs are be commonplace in three years and
succeeding in general lighting applica- planar lighting will be as well, whether
tions, the relatively small point sources the implementation is based on LED
would always prove problematic in some edge lighting, OLED technology, or some
demanding architectural and professional other approach.
applications. OLEDs, meanwhile, remain We are conscious that the SSL
far too expensive for mainstream usage as domain is evolving fast and some targets
we covered in a recent feature article from need to be reached fast under the mar-
our February issue ( ket pressure, said Ferrini. However, on
CSEM hopes that the answer is a the one hand LASSIE-FP7 targets a real
hybrid approach. CSEM project coordi- breakthrough in terms of performance,
nator Rolando Ferrini said, The devel- which goes beyond the current expected
opment of new hybrid SSL modules, com- three-year roadmap for SSL. He also
bining the extremely high efficiency and said that some of the interim develop-
long lifetime of inorganic LEDs with innovative color-changing coat- ments of the research could be commercialized during the three-
ings based on reliable and stable organic fluorescent dyes, will pro- year term of the project.
vide new devices that go beyond the current technological bound- Ferrini was unwilling to disclose many more details about what
aries of SSL. the module might look like or how it would be implemented, citing
While the intent of the program is development of a module that the need to patent the developments. CSEM did say that the target
can be sold in a luminaire, the participants will also leverage the is the use of roll-to-roll manufacturing a technique that has been
work yielding innovative European-based SSL design and manufac- seen as one key way to lower OLED manufacturing costs. Current pla-
turing capabilities. The LASSIE-FP7 team includes a material sup- nar lighting products, including OLED-based designs and the LED-
plier, R&D players with simulation capability, processing experts, based Cooper Halo Surface Downlight pictured nearby, are based on
component designers and manufacturers, integrators and testing a rigid glass plane. The CSEM target of using roll-to-roll manufactur-
infrastructure, and last but not least a vendor of innovative-light- ing implies a flexible substrate that could offer both lower cost and
ing systems, said Ferrini. new luminaire forms. For example, the European based Holst Cen-
In addition to CSEM, the participants include Fraunhofer of Ger- ter has been working on such manufacturing on flexible substrates
many, the VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Regent Light- ( But for now the success that has been achieved
ing of Switzerland, BASF Schweiz of Switzerland, Gaiker of Spain, in OLEDs has been in batch processing on glass. MARCH 2014 19

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interview | PHOSPHOR IP

Intematix expands phosphor development

and IP to meet demanding SSL applications
MAURY WRIGHT interviews Intematix executive JULIAN CAREY on the state of intellectual property in
the phosphor area, Intematixs latest developments and patents, and applications from LEDs to
backlighting to remote optics.

hosphor remains one of the least
understood business/technology
angles of white, high-power LEDs
and solid-state lighting (SSL); the state of
intellectual property (IP) in phosphors is
equally confusing. Indeed, many compa-
nies hold IP that directly addresses phos-
phor formulations and how they are applied
and many more patents are tangentially
related. The phosphor IP trail is often hid-
den among LED manufacturers by cross-
licensing agreements. Still, the SSL industry
needs a better understanding of phosphor
patent rights and how patents may or may
not impact product development and usage.
Back in mid 2012, we ran an IP-cen-
tric article specifically on remote-phos-
phor patents and IP holdings (http://bit.
ly/1dONfQZ). The authors at IP Checkups
identified Intematix and Cree as holding Phosphor formulations such as those from Intematix are central to manufacturing LEDs.
major IP stakes in the area. Since Intematix
also supplies phosphors to LED manufac- 5,998,925, commonly called the 925 patent. phor-converted LEDs or remote-phosphor
turers we took the opportunity to question As market research firm Yole Dveloppe- SSL products would not require licenses
Julian Carey, senior director of marketing, ment points out, while LED phosphor IP is to Nichia or Osram phosphor patents (http://
on the state of the phosphor IP space. complex and rich with thousands of patent Have you developed a cus-
families, only a few patents have provided tomer base for those patents among LED
LEDs Magazine: Can you give us a significant returns to their owners in terms manufacturers or has the primary usage
quick foundation as to the history of phos- of market share, freedom of exploitation, been in remote phosphor applications?
phor-oriented patents that are both directly or additional revenue streams from royal- Carey: Today, Intematix is one phosphor
focused on LED products and perhaps that ties. Some of those patents are on the verge maker that is further addressing the
are more general in nature if there is an of expiring within the next 5 to 10 years trend toward high-quality light with its
impact on SSL? most notably, Nichias 925 patent, which is patented, advanced phosphor technology.
Julian Carey: High-brightness LEDs set to expire in 2017. In addition to being the only company
were originally developed around the 1990s that makes the patented GAL formulation,
by early producers of gallium nitride (GaN)- LEDs Magazine: Intematix announced Intematix patents also cover different
based blue LEDs in Japan after researchers its green GAL (green aluminate) phosphor wide-spectrum green phosphors called
from Nichia and a professor from Nagoya back in 2010 and touted it as an alternative LuAGs (for lutetium-aluminum-garnet).
University shared their formulation. The to YAG and other licensed phosphor formu- GAL generally offers a broader spectrum,
combination of blue LED chips with YAG lations. Indeed, at the time the company spe- higher thermal stability, higher CRI, and
(yttrium aluminum garnet) phosphor was cifically said that its customers and we higher quality of light compared to LuAG
patented by Nichia in 1996 via US patent No. assume that means customers making phos- formulations, but owning IP that covers MARCH 2014 21

interview | PHOSPHOR IP

both GAL and various LuAG formulations

enables Intematix to offer the more extensive
portfolio of broad greens and reds essential
to high-quality LED light.
Since the product introduction, GAL has
seen widespread implementation in LEDs
worldwide, which are its primary usage. The
performance of the material in terms of its
ability to reach high CRI, especially in combi-
nation with red, and its thermal stability has
driven adoption. These same characteristics
make it valuable in remote solutions as well.

LEDs Magazine: What has driven new The ChromaLit linear remote-phosphor optic from Intematix.
phosphor developments beyond IP issues?
Have the needs for better color quality and degree of stability means that manufactur- there are also different formulations in those
better color consistency over time been a ers can drive their LEDs harder and realize tubes. Some of the increase in pricing from
driving factor? What about lower costs? lower costs using fewer LEDs. China that we saw a few years ago actually
Carey: Growth in LED-based lighting in did affect the fluorescent market. The sec-
North America is estimated to average 38% LEDs Magazine: While this isnt a patent ond major reason is even though there was
annually between 2012 and 2016, according question exactly, a few years back there was instability triggered by Chinas actions, now
to a recent McKinsey & Company report. Now great concern over the availability of rare were seeing additional sources pop up all
that we are seeing LED use transition into earth materials needed for phosphors and over the world. Since its really not a monop-
general lighting, thanks to reduced pricing the possibility that China would limit export oly anymore, were seeing a much more bal-
anced market for these raw materials.
Generally, the improvements in LED tech-
Generally, a two- or even three-phosphor nology, phosphor technology, in addition to
strategy is needed to attain high CRI and high the semiconductor technology, the driver
electronics technology, all of that is going
R9, an indication of how well the light shows to far outrun any issues that we are going to
see in rare earth supply.
deep, saturated shades of red.
LEDs Magazine: Intemati x just
and accessibility of products with LED tech- of those elements. We have heard little about announced the award of a new red nitride
nology, quality of light has become the pre- the problem of late. Has that situation sta- patent back in December and another cov-
dominant requirement. This, in turn, has led bilized? Did the development of new formu- ering similar technology back in September
to a demand for more advanced phosphor lations help in anyway to avoid a shortage? 2012. What technology is covered by those
solutions and a much more complex mixing Carey: Base materials of most phos- patents, and is that technology already being
strategy. Generally, a two- or even three-phos- phors are very plentiful, but they have addi- deployed in packaged LEDs and/or remote-
phor strategy is needed to attain high CRI and tives or dopants, and those are where you phosphor optics? Has there been more recent
high R9, an indication of how well the light find these rare earth materials. So while innovation in green phosphors after GAL?
shows deep, saturated shades of red. the amount of rare earth materials in each Carey: Red nitride phosphors play a cen-
In addition to mixing strategy, phos- of these phosphors varies, its usually very tral role in extending the color range of LED
phor solutions for general lighting require small, but it can be more significant in some. applications like general lighting and dis-
a high degree of ruggedness. They are based Despite some of the news clippings that have plays including TVs, monitors, and tablets.
on very tough molecular structures and are appeared over the last few years, we have not Intematix red nitrides combined with GAL
lasting for upwards of 50,000 hours. Thus, seen any effect of rare earth pricing or insta- green phosphors, phosphor combinations
todays primary lighting phosphor options bility in the LED market overall. And the rea- covered by the companys previously issued
are green aluminate (such as GAL), red son for that is two-fold. First, the amount of patents, enable near-perfect color rendering
nitride, and YAG. Not only do these mate- phosphor generally used in LED applications up to 98 CRI. The XR red nitride also leads
rials have long lifetimes, but they also have as a fraction of the lumens produced is very in color stability with less than perceptible
high thermal stability, independent of life- small. It just doesnt contribute that much to 2-MacAdam-ellipse measured color shift in
time. For example, if you go as high as the overall solution cost. Thats in contrast accelerated aging testing. This performance
200C with GAL, you will only lose a very with fluorescent. Fluorescents have multi- results in lighting applications with long-
small degree of brightness this very high ple grams of phosphors in each product, and term color quality and consistency.

22 MARCH 2014

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interview | PHOSPHOR IP

LEDs Magazine: We understand, as you phosphor there have been continuing ques- linear application segment have a coating
said, that some of the most basic patents in tions as to whether your customers making that allows the products to appear white in
the phosphor area will expire in the coming SSL products with your ChromaLit optics the off state and therefore potentially appeal
years. As we discussed, the Nichia 925 patent might need license agree- more to lighting designers/
will expire. How will such an event impact ments with other compa- specifiers. What is the IP
the phosphor industry? Most of the major nies. Cree in particular has behind that technology? Is
LED manufacturers have cross-licensing said that any company mak- that a phosphor story or one
deals in place so it seems the impact there ing remote phosphor lamps based on yet another type of
might be minimal. But could it shake up the or luminaires needs to have a materials? Do you expect to
industry in other ways? cross-licensing agreement in patent that technology?
Carey: The expiration of the Nichia pat- place. You have insisted thats Carey: W hile we do
ent will remove a significant barrier and not the case. What is your have patents covering lin-
will allow broader use of the YAG materi- stance and how are you stand- ear remote phosphor, the IP
als covered by the patent. Patent activity ing behind your customers? Julian Carey, Intematix pertaining to the off-state
remains strong and it is now focused on Carey: Intematix is very appearance of our new lin-
emerging compositions, mostly addressing confident regarding its remote phosphor ear product would fall more into the trade
the need for more efficient and cost-effec- IP and stands behinds its remote phosphor secret area. The way the technology con-
tive red and green phosphors to be used in products. In fact, not only will Intematix ditions the light going into the optic dif-
display and general lighting applications. cover legal costs in the event of an infringe- fers from that exiting, which is why it shows
Differentiation opportunities remain, and ment litigation regarding its products, good appearance without affecting light
the development of any new compositions but it will also take responsibility for the output too much. Different types of inno-
with disruptive potential could still greatly defense of any such litigation. vations may be best served in our business
benefit its inventor. LEDs Magazine: Also with regard to with different IP strategies and these are
LEDs Magazine: In the area of remote remote phosphor, your latest products in the matters we consider to great extent.


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outdoor lighting | ARCHITECTURAL

Regeneration throws
light on Norman
architectural heritage
CAROLINE HAYES examines the regeneration of the lighting scheme at a UNESCO World Heritage Site in
England, where modern controls and solid-state lighting are used to enhance the buildings features
while project specifiers remain sensitive to the architectural integrity of the monument as well as
potential light pollution concerns.

n the north of England, the town of Norman architecture in England. It is the only
Durham is guarded by dual, imposing cathedral considered to retain most of its con-
monuments its castle and the citys temporary Norman craftsmanship and one
cathedral. As the 25th anniversary of the of the most important examples in the UK.
castle and cathedrals status as a United The World Heritage Site monuments
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural were lit by large, exterior, high-power-pro-
Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage jector high intensity discharge (HID) flood-
Site approached, a regeneration of the light- lights placed at ground level that had been
ing scheme was planned. The aim was to installed in the 1960s. They were deemed
enhance the aesthetics of the Norman mon- to be at the end of their serviceable life
uments, highlight the architectural features, and also outmoded. There was no attempt
subtly distinguish the two buildings when to conceal them and they gave a flat wash
viewed from a distance, vary lighting for spe- of light across the buildings, rather than
cial events while protecting the local wild- accentuating features. In addition, the
life, and significantly reduce energy costs. lamps and the control gear used were not
energy efficient.
History A new scheme was required to reflect the
William the Conqueror commissioned the modern role of the castle and cathedral,
castle to be built in 1073, to defend the set- where nighttime visitors are encouraged,
tlement on the peninsula along the River and where special events can have a custom-
Wear. It became the residency of Bishops ized lighting system to add aesthetic
of Durham, and buildings were added and appeal or highlight areas of interest.
altered to suit the needs of the day. Across the Another requirement was to save energy
green is the cathedral, which dates from 1093 a target of 33% reduction was set as well
and is acknowledged as the largest example of as to reduce light spill for the student
accommodation quarters in the castle, and The LED-lit entrance
CAROLINE HAYES is a contributing editor with also for the Pipistrelle and Natterer bat pop- to Durham castle.
LEDs Magazine. ulations locally.

26 MARCH 2014

The new solid-state
lighting system
accentuates some of
the historic stonework
at Durham Castle.

Landmark lighting
Stainton Lighting Design Services and Urbis
Schrder designed the scheme, which was installed
by AK Lighting and Signs. Anthony Smith, director,
Stainton Lighting Design Services explained that
the plan was to change the viewing experience dur-
ing the hours of darkness and to provide a landmark
lighting scheme, which would stimulate the areas
nighttime economy.
There was also some confusion among visitors
who viewed the castle and cathedral from the city
below from certain viewpoints, the cathedral
tower appeared to rise from the castle. A way to
distinguish the two buildings, using the lighting
scheme, was added to the plan.
A primary aim was to maintain a subtle, but
observable contrast between the color temperature
of the castle and cathedral, said Smith. This would
allow the site to be viewed as a coherent World Heri-
tage Site, while allowing the individual buildings to
retain their identities. To offer an alternative view-
ing experience by day and night was another prior-
ity, which required luminaires to be located unob-
trusively where they could not be easily seen. The
floodlights were placed closer to the buildings than
the ones they replaced, between 1 and 3m (or 39
ft) from the buildings. The closer positioning also
eliminated the need for additional window reveals MARCH 2014 27

The Norman architecture
of Durham Castle and
Cathedral, seen from the
city of Durham below.

as the new system produced less light spill Stainton specified the combination of wide, replacements to be provided with the exact
into the buildings windows. This was a medium, and narrow, and horizontal and same characteristics.
particular benefit in the castle keep and the vertical beams, including those with 90 for Some of the detail that the lighting made
parts of the cathedral that are used for stu- a low horizontal line or a long vertical line on more prominent was commented on by long-
dent accommodation. particular areas. For each floodlight, a spe- term members of castle staff, who reported
The proximity of the customized Urbis cific position was designated, with a specific that they had not noticed some of the inter-
Schreder Neos 1, Neos 2, and Noctis 225 LED lens combination. esting stonework features before.
floodlights and bespoke Philips eW Reach Despite the options and configurations, Part of the design concept regarding dis-
floodlights serve to highlight the fabric and all variances in color temperature were tant views of the buildings was to provide
fine masonry work of both buildings without within 100K. The customization was also a subtle but observable contrast between
being visible themselves. Paul Johnson, Urbis practical. Smith points out that although the color temperature of the castle and the
Schreders regional sales manager, north of the specification for each luminaire was cathedral. Two color temperatures were
England, explained the pains that the project bespoke, the selection of LEDs will allow selected for each building 3000K and
went to in making the lighting unobtrusive,
with the Neos being coated in a color that was
specifically selected to match the stonework
against which it was positioned. Similarly,
the Noctis floodlights were positioned flush
into the ground so they could light up specific
areas without being visually intrusive. The
castle courtyard, Johnson added, is an area of
high traffic and so again, unobtrusive lighting
was a requirement for the free-flow of pedes-
trian foot traffic. High-power Cree XP-E and
XR-E LEDs were used in the floodlights, with
seven optic types provided by Carclo.
Each light was tailored to where it was to
be located. Johnson declared, All Neos lights
are, to some degree, bespoke, but none as
bespoke as this 95% was non-standard,
he said, referring to the individual light com-
bination of the 64 LEDs used in each light.

Less light spill throughout the property

benefits the students boarding in the
castle keep quarters during term time.

28 MARCH 2014

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outdoor lighting | ARCHITECTURAL

3500K for the castle, and 3500K and 4000K wherever possible and, where clipped the impact of any archaeological finds. There
for the cathedral. The variance in color cable was replaced, the fixing holes had were constant archaeological checks, in case
temperatures on each building offers con- to be reused. Although 46 luminaires were any articles of interest were found. As tes-
trast and depth to the abutment areas, com- removed and more than 250 installed, no timony to the care taken, more than 1 km
mented Smith. However, as the main color new holes were able to be drilled into the (or more than 3000 ft) of new underground
temperatures are 3000K on the castle and fabric of either building, meaning that cable was installed the majority within
4000K on the cathedral, the color difference cable power or control had to use exist- the cathedrals medieval graveyard with-
of 1000K is still evident when the buildings ing cable routes. There are only two loca- out any delays to the project.
are viewed from a distance. tions where a luminaire has been set in an Cabling and luminaires on the roofs of
existing location. The use of lead P-Clips both buildings represented a particular
Masonry preservation throughout was specified, and these were challenge. A robust platform was needed to
The historical nature of the buildings, parts manufactured by contractor AK Lighting mount each luminaire but also had to pro-
of which stood on consecrated ground, and Signs specifically for the project. This vide termination control and power circuits.
meant that great care had to be taken with seamless positioning all had to be achieved The platform also had to be unfixed so it
situating the luminaires. A key planning despite the 500% increase in the number of could be moved for repairs to the lead roof-
constraint, reveals Smith, was that the luminaires used throughout the buildings. ing; it had to be heavy enough not to shift
existing cable network was to be reused The archaeological heritage also meant or tip in the wind, but light enough to be
that there was a risk of finding buried arti- taken up to the roof manually, as a crane or
facts that could cause costly delays. This was similar was not practical in this case. The
another reason to use only existing cable solution was to carry component parts up
routes or previously undisturbed ground.
Equipment was limited to being buried Close but discreet LED-based floodlights
300 mm below ground level. Ground- illuminate the Norman architecture that
work was therefore undertaken early inspired later Victorian-Gothic design at
in the installation phase to minimize Durham Castle.

30 MARCH 2014

Solder and
Despite more luminaires being used than in Fluxes for LEDs
the original lighting scheme, the target of 33%
energy savings was surpassed.
to the roof and assemble the roof-mounted was decided upon. This is one of the most Solder
luminaires there. As a result, no part common protocols used with LED technol- Paste
weighed more than 20 kg (approximately ogy and offers control and flexibility, says
44 lb). In all, eight mounting arrangements Smith. Johnson believes this is the first part-
were used. The design was also used for four wireless DMX implementation.
lanterns in the courtyard, which required Luminaires were grouped into zones that Flux-Coated
mounting height of 1.4m (approximately 4 connect wirelessly to the main DMX control-
ft, 8 in.) and 0.5m (approximately 1 ft, 7 in.) ler. Each zone has a DMX receiver, which uses
outreach from a free-standing bracket. a traditional cable link between the lumi-
naires to form the DMX network. A problem
Wildlife encountered in constructing the wireless sys- Flux
Another vital part of the project was to tems was that the building did not always lend
preserve the wildlife around the area. A itself to an ideal line of sight between trans-
bat survey was undertaken and identified mitter and receiver. Some of the walls are 2m
three existing roosts for bats. Most of the (6 ft) thick. The radio signals, says Johnson, Thermal
bats around the site are Pipistrelle bats but were sent over the building and around with Interface
there are also Natterer bats, which are rel- repeaters and aerials. Radio surveys verified
atively rare and which forage in trees and the prime locations for the two transmitters
vegetation. Both species are characterized and five receivers used in the wireless system.
by roosting in the crevices of old buildings. Remote access to the DMX controller was via NanoFoil
To respect the wildlife, no roosts were the LPC1 lighting controller from Pharos.
lit and foraging sites or commuting routes It has 512 channels and real-time control of
were not lit directly. In these areas, timers playback selection and lighting levels for light-
and movement sensors were used to switch ing sequences and automation. This was also
lighting on 90 minutes after sunset and off adapted by Urbis, who built the housing for the
90 minutes before sunrise. drives and control gear.
The LED lighting used high output bins As a result, special events can have a spe- Learn more:
with low or nonexistent emission of ultravi- cific lighting sequence. There are five to six
olet (UV) or blue light to mitigate the envi- programs set in the control HQ sited in
ronmental impact of the scheme. Trees one of the cathedral offices and the porters
and ground cover were not lit and exist- lodge in the castle, but, says Johnson, for
ing lighting of trees and ground cover was serious slideshows, other sequences can
removed. Where lighting was necessary, it be programmed via a PC to produce color
was directed and featured low spill. A close schemes and to highlight particular areas.
offset approach to lighting buildings avoided One of the main causes for celebration
unnecessary spillage. Louvers and glare of the project is that it was awarded third
guards were fitted, as appropriate, to lumi- place in the Auroralia 2013 Best Initiatives
naires to reduce spillage. in Urban and Sustainable Lighting category
An ecologist inspected the final, installed for its energy savings (p. 43). Despite more
scheme and the design was commended for luminaires being used than in the original
its ecological considerations. lighting scheme, the target of 33% energy
savings was surpassed, with an annual
Lighting control energy consumption reduction of 78%.
One of the main aims of the original plan Smith adds that even if the scheme used the
was to design a control system that could same switching protocol as the original, it
reconfigure the lighting for specific events. would achieve energy savings of 60%. The
Rather than a hard-wired system, which final installed lighting will save approxi- ASIA CHINA EUROPE USA
would require new cable routes, a partly mately 18,500 (around $30,360) per year
wireless DMX (Digital Multiplex) system in energy costs at todays prices, he says. 2014 Indium Corporation MARCH 2014 31

programs | DOE SSL

LED lighting progresses driven

by lessons learned
SSL uptake is happening much faster than that of CFL products, reports JAMES BRODRICK of the
US DOE, but a new report uses lessons learned to outline steps the industry should take to move
forward more rapidly.

olid-state lighting (SSL) implications for the future. The
has made impressive prog- result is a compilation of analysis
ress over the past decade, and recommendations for consider-
emerging as a promising new tech- ation by manufacturers, standards
nology that could fundamentally organizations, energy-efficiency
alter and improve lighting systems, programs, retailers, specifiers, and
and significantly lower energy use other stakeholders intended to
and costs. Benefiting from lessons stimulate further discussion and
learned from the market introduc- to aid in the continuous course
tion of compact fluorescent lamps corrections needed to achieve SSL
(CFLs) in the 1980s and 1990s, technologys full potential. The
actions taken by the US Department report is available online at www.
of Energy (DOE) in Gateway, Caliper,,
Lighting Facts and other programs and we will examine some of the
(Fig. 1); energy efficiency programs; key lessons here.
and standards organizations have
helped industry avoid some of the Lesson 1: Rigorous testing require-
problems that plagued CFL mar- ments adopted in the early days of
ket development. Still, the lighting SSL development were necessary to
industry faces challenges in the SSL counter exaggerated claims of per-
transition and can continue to ben- formance by some manufacturers,
efit from lessons learned in the early but they eventually led to unreason-
stages of SSL deployment. ably high testing costs.
Efforts by the DOE and other The exploding number of prod-
organizations have positively ucts and product variations com-
impacted the experience of LED- ing to market has created a test-
lighting adopters. Indeed, the adop- ing burden that can boost product
tion of LED lighting is happening far prices and slow product introduc-
faster than did the adoption of CFLs, tions, which in turn can slow mar-
FIG. 1. Shown is an example US DOE Gateway installation
although not nearly as fast as some ket adoption and associated energy
consumer electronics technologies
with solid-state lighting from Spring City Electrical in New savings. Family grouping policies
(Fig. 2). The success is in part due
York's Central Park. have been the primary means used
to standardized testing, minimum by energy-efficiency programs for
performance and reporting requirements, whose products perform well. addressing the testing burden issue.
and publication of testing and demonstra- Looking ahead, however, the full perfor- The voluntary qualification and listing
tion results that have made it more difficult mance and energy savings potential of SSL groups such as the DesignLights Consor-
for poor-performing SSL products to remain is far from realized or assured. With that tium (DLC), Energy Star, and DOE LED Light-
on the market, and rewarded manufacturers in mind, the DOEs new report, Solid-state ing Facts should consider increased coor-
lighting: Early lessons learned on the way to dination to continue to reduce the testing
JAMES BRODRICK is the lighting program market," analyzes actions taken thus far and burden on manufacturers, while maintaining
manager at the US Department of Energy. identifies challenges, new lessons, and their the integrity of product data through random MARCH 2014 33

programs | DOE SSL

verification testing. In addition, the Market share (% of units) ier to specify various LED prod-
lighting community should con- ucts in the same space. Revised,
sider continuing to seek methods Smart new, or additional color rendering
and strategies to reduce the overall 7 phone metrics are needed to accurately
testing burden on manufacturers, 6 characterize the color rendering
as confidence in LED performance 5 2013: After 6 years capability of all light sources.
continues to increase. 1980: Philips releases LEDs have reached
4 frst commercial CFL
LED a market share of Lesson 5: The color delivered
3 2007: LSG releases over 4%
Lesson 2: Despite the promise of frst viable LED by some LEDs shifts enough over
long life, theres no standard way 2 replacement bulb time to negatively impact adop-
1986: After 6 years
to rate the lifetime and reliability 1 on the market, CFLs tion in some applications.
of LED lighting products. CFL had only reached The ability of LED lighting
Variability in lifetime and reli- 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 a penetration products to maintain chroma-
Years since market introduction of <0.1%
ability of similar products needs ticity over long lives has been
to be reduced to improve mar- demonstrated by the DOE L Prize
FIG. 2. The uptake of LED lamps is much steeper than it was for
ket adoption of LED products. winner, but not all products per-
CFLs but trails the pace of consumer electronics products such
There are many sources of fail- form at that level, and perfor-
as mobile phones.
ure in SSL products that must mance can vary significantly
be accounted for (Fig. 3). Uncer- (Fig. 4). Color stability measure-
tainty is slowly being reduced, as efforts a range of lamps or luminaires with similar ment and prediction methods are needed to
are made to standardize methods for pre- appearance, but with different photometric enable performance comparisons between
dicting lifetime and reliability. Standards performance. When an LED lighting product LED lighting products. Theres a need for
developers are working on new tools and is superseded by one with greater lumen out- energy-efficiency programs and product
metrics, some of which will still be limited put, manufacturers should consider keeping information qualification standards that
in their usefulness, but these tools and met- both in the product line. Developing one or include color stability metrics.
rics are needed to address this challenge. more forms of relative testing standards may Efforts to establish new methods and met-
Some manufacturers are providing longer help manufacturers manage the cost of test- rics for color stability assessment should
warranties for products serving key applica- ing product families. continue. With standards and metrics, color
tions and market sectors, which represents shift can rightfully be included in a yet-to-
another way to overcome uncertainty. Inno- Lesson 4: The range of color quality avail- be-developed comprehensive lifetime rating
vative product designs and increased use of able with LED lighting products, and the
lighting controls may further complicate the limitations of existing color metrics, may Driver
measurement and reporting of LED product confuse users. (control circuit)
lifetime and reliability in the near future, While the availability of LED products
and all market actors need to work together with a range of color qualities may be an LED package
to explore the effect of such features on life- asset in one sense, the variability also
time and reliability, as well as educate users. presents a number of challenges. Address-
ing these challenges will require a range (power supply)
Lesson 3: Although specifiers prefer com- of coordinated industry efforts. Retailers Housing

plete families of products, the rapid evolu- should continue their efforts to provide 31%
tion of LED technology presents a challenge clear information regarding color quality,
to manufacturers in creating and maintain- especially the difference between CCTs.
ing complete product lines. Efforts to improve the consistency of infor-
Specifying families of luminaires allows mation on product packaging should also
for a consistent look and feel throughout continue, and industry should establish
a space and can also standardize mainte- effective color communication tools to sim- FIG. 3. The chart depicts the distribution
nance and spare parts. But manufactur- plify product selection. of 29 failures over 34 million operating
ers sometimes lack the time to develop full At the same time, the lighting research hours for one manufacturers family
product ranges, or find it difficult to keep community should consider establishing of LED outdoor luminaires (source:
products consistent with one another when performance criteria for color rendering that Appalachian Lighting Systems). Because
LED packages and drivers are changing so will ensure acceptability to a majority of LEDs are just one component out of
rapidly. Without the option of product fam- users. Standards organizations should con- many that can cause failure, a DOE-led
ilies, some specifiers may have trouble using sider establishing tighter tolerances for chro- industry working group recommends a
LED products across their projects. maticity bins, to reduce product-to-product systems approach to solid-state lighting
Manufacturers should consider providing variability at the same CCT, making it eas- lifetime and reliability.

34 MARCH 2014

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programs | DOE SSL

for LED lighting products. Manufacturers

and related industry committees should
continue to share test methods and data for
use by standards organizations, and these
organizations should consider incorporat-
ing the new knowledge generated into stan-
dards for color stability.

Lesson 6: Some LEDs flicker noticeably,

which may negatively impact adoption in
some applications.
Whereas conventional lighting technolo- New lamp 4000 hr lamp
gies exhibit flicker in a fairly similar manner 5300 lux @ 1.26m 5300 lux @ 1.26m
that in many cases can be remediated with
appropriately designed ballasts, there is sig-
nificant variation in flicker for LED sources. FIG. 4. A new lamp and an identical product after 4000 hours of operation show what
Standards organizations should consider would be unacceptable color shift in many applications.
developing a measurement procedure for
flicker and a flicker metric that accounts for and when dimmed, accounting for depen- of neurological impacts, and degradation in
frequency, so manufacturers can communi- dencies on the selection of control equip- task performance for different applications.
cate product performance (Fig. 5). ment if applicable. The lighting research
Manufacturers should consider evaluat- community should consider conducting Lesson 7: LEDs can cause glare, which
ing and communicating the flicker perfor- research to establish thresholds for detec- may negatively impact adoption in some
mance of their products both at full output tion of (and perhaps objection to) flicker, risk applications.
programs | DOE SSL

Some of the glare issues with SSL have the implications of glare control when estab- cacy over the dimming range, and should
been caused or exacerbated by the drive lishing efficacy standards for products. improve predictability of dimming perfor-
to increase lighting output (e.g., by using mance for specifiers and buyers. In addition,
higher-output LEDs) and reduce cost (e.g., Lesson 8: Achieving high-quality dimming industry should continue the development
by using fewer LEDs), so one challenge in performance with LED lamps is difficult, but of advanced dimming circuitry compatible
addressing glare will be finding the bal- the situation is improving. with phase control, as well as forward-look-
ance between potentially competing goals. While theres no standard definition of ing standards for phase-cut dimmers and
The industry should continue working on dimmable, the ability of all incandescent lamps, and should continue developing and
developing LED lighting solutions that sources to dim smoothly down to light lev- promoting alternative approaches that have
dont increase glare relative to incumbent els below 1% serves as the unofficial bench- the potential to avoid many of the compati-
technologies. DOE and research organiza- mark, and the comparatively poor dimming bility issues inherent to phase control.
tions should consider routinely including performance of many LED lamps is limiting
glare assessments in product and applica- their adoption. Retailers, manufacturers, Lesson 9: Greater interoperability of light-
tion evaluations and demonstrations. and organizations promoting the purchase ing control components and more sensible
Where a standard glare assessment meth- of dimmable LED integral lamps should con- specifications of lighting control systems
odology isnt available, these organizations sider increasing their education efforts in are required to maximize the energy sav-
could work toward establishing new meth- this area, alerting buyers to potential dim- ings from LED lighting.
ods and metrics for glare assessment. Man- ming problems and working together to The controllability of LEDs significantly
ufacturers should continue to optimize their develop better, clearer, and more consistent increases the potential for energy savings.
use of optical solutions that reduce source means for communicating dimming guid- LED technology is poised to bring high-per-
luminance, especially for applications where ance to buyers. formance, low-cost control of output level
the incumbent light source is much lower Industry should consider developing and color to many lighting applications
in luminance than a typical LED source. LED lamps capable of high-performance, for the first time. Integrating lighting con-
Energy-efficiency programs should consider incandescent-like dimming with high effi- trols with a communication network offers
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As the market matures, maximizing the energy savings from LED
lighting systems will become increasingly dependent on maximizing
the successful installation of lighting controls that suit the use and High Power CLH driver
the user. Industry should continue to develop and refine educational
and certification programs aimed not only at selecting and design-
ing for control strategies but at ensuring that the specified lighting
control equipment suits both the use and the user and is correctly
installed and fully commissioned.
Manufacturer consortia should continue their efforts to develop
open-standard specifications and compliance testing programs that
allow lighting control products to be brought to market that offer
new features and deliver some level of interoperability. Energy-effi-
ciency organizations should consider focusing their lighting control
incentive programs on interoperable equipment.

Lesson 10: Lack of LED lighting product serviceability and inter-

changeability has created market adoption barriers in certain sectors. IP66


Early experiences with some LED lighting products has shown that,

while the LED packages themselves may be long-lived, driver failure or

shifting color can cause what initially looked like a successful installa-
tion to fall short of client expectations. Modular luminaire designs may
allow for only the failed component to be replaced, reducing the risk of
unmet lifetime expectations and also entailing lower life-cycle costs.
Knowing that tomorrows products will perform better than
todays can make it hard for lighting designers to decide when to start
specifying LED products. Luminaires designed with interchangeable
components, such as LED modules or light engines, allow users to | Tel: 858-546-2834
take advantage of evolving LED technology by, for example, easily
upgrading to deliver higher efficacy or the ability to control color MARCH 2014 39

programs | DOE SSL

temperature when such features become to innovation and better product designs. ities, energy-efficiency programs, retail-
available. Industry should consider adopting Energy-efficiency programs should con- ers, and consumers evaluate LED lighting
standardized modular interfaces and sider explicitly allowing for nonconventional products. But keeping pace with LED light-
developing products with serviceable or form factors and functionality and, where ing technology is a challenge for qualifica-
interchangeable components. possible, should move away from program tion programs that have minimum perfor-
designs built around the concept of one-for- mance requirements. Efficiency programs
Lesson 11: Existing lighting infrastructure one product substitutions. should consider prioritizing the develop-
limits the full potential of SSL; more effort Buyers are more likely to buy products not ment of custom options that help users iden-
is needed to open the doors to new lighting compromised by the legacy infrastructure if tify quality LED lighting products. These
systems and form factors. those products offer compelling functionality. programs should target energy-efficiency
Almost the entire SSL market remains Manufacturers, lighting educators, the DOE, performance that will produce significant
focused on products that fit into the exist- and others could induce earlier customer energy savings if the technology is widely
ing infrastructure of legacy lighting prod- acceptance of lighting products by frequently adopted in the market.
ucts. While this is a necessary and expected raising the issue of what SSL is capable of Efficiency program requirements need
consequence of introducing a radically new when unconstrained by existing infrastruc- to keep pace with LED technology devel-
technology into a mature market, this cur- ture. Manufacturers with innovative product opment, balancing energy efficiency, light-
rent focus sharply limits the potential of the designs at the ready will be in the best posi- ing quality, and cost considerations. Testing
new technology. tion to leverage this new opportunity. and documentation requirements should be
Government organizations, codes and streamlined as much as possible, while still
standards bodies, and specifiers need to be Lesson 12: Programs that provide ways to maintaining confidence in qualified prod-
mindful that their lighting requirements identify quality LED products have helped uct performance claims. Wherever possi-
may restrict product form factors, function- support market adoption. ble, data should be shared across the vari-
ality, and system operation. Careful develop- Verified test data and independent prod- ous performance verification programs, to
ment of these requirements opens the door uct qualification are essential to help util- save time and expense for all participants.



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UL and the UL logo
go ar
are trad
emarks of UL LLC 2014 BDi 40132 LEDs 01-14
focus on Auroralia Awards
Sustainable Lighting
At the Light Festival on December 7, 2013 in Lyon, France, lighting manufacturer Schrder
and the LUCI (Lighting Urban Community International) network of cities focused on
sustainable lighting announced the winners of the Auroralia 2013 Awards. This 5th
annual program jointly organized by LUCI and Schrder identified urban projects in
Nmes, France; Ibarra, Ecuador; and Durham, England as first, second, and third prize
winners, respectively. Moreover, Heidelberg, Germany won special recognition. The awards
ceremony followed a judging session in November where jury members with vastly different
backgrounds argued the merits of different projects in terms of the energy-efficient LED or
other lighting involved, the applicability of controls and color capabilities, and the size and
breadth of the various projects. Here MAURY WRIGHT highlights the winners and other
impressive entrants.

Nmes, France in the city were 150W. The panel appreciated the atten-
The city of Nmes and transportation authority Nmes tion to aesthetics and the use of new types of fixtures that
Mtropole won recognition for a project focused on the truly leveraged the advantages of LEDs in form factor and
urban community with a specific intent to accommodate mounting options.
pedestrians in terms of lighting and passageways and also
novel lighting of the roadways that connect the city cen-
ter to the A54 motorway. We covered parts of the project Ibarra, Ecuador
in an article last year ( The project The city of Ibarra, Ecuador won for a lighting project
included LED-based lighting of pedestrian tunnels and encompassing a major urban park Parque Bulevar
Cntrica located at the foot of the Imbabura Volcano.
The 240,000-m 2 area serves residents and tourists alike
hosting cultural, entertainment, educational, and sports
activities. The project was an excellent example of the
combination of energy-efficient LED lighting with green
energy sources in this case a new hydroelectric sup-
ply to enable a major sustainable project. The project
delivered excellent lighting with 180 lx on sports areas and
75 lx on pedestrian and bicycle paths. Both figures were
far greater than requirements. Yet the city projects 43%

walkways, and roadway lighting intended to guide traf-

fic in and out of the city. The city said the project brought
human-scale comfort and safety to the area while preserv-
ing the cultural value and aesthetics. Much of the project
was a new installation so figures on energy savings were
not available. But the average power of the LED luminaires
used was 56W whereas many of the legacy luminaires used MARCH 2014 43

focus on
energy savings compared to if the park had been lit
with legacy sources. The jury panel was impressed
with the citys determination to offer citizens and
visitors a better quality of life while caring for the
environment. Moreover, the development could lead
to increased tourism and economic development.

Durham, England
The Durham, England project was focused on the
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization) World Heritage Site compris-
ing the Durham Castle and Cathedral. We covered
this project in far more detail in this issue (p. 26).
The project was especially interesting as it involved
an outdoor lighting system that had to do a brilliant job of light- heating supplied by renewable sources. The outdoor lighting sys-
ing the iconic architecture while also protecting the local environ- tem will feature a comprehensive network for preventive mainte-
ment including preservation of the roosts of Pipistrelle bats. The nance and adaptive control based on the Owlet system, and LED
jury panel lauded the lighting design for using a DMX control sys- luminaires in neutral and warm CCTs based on location. The jury
felt that the Heidelberg project could become a great blueprint for
new urban development and sustainable lighting, although the
development was still in the very early stages of build-out at the
time of the judging process.

Sabadell, Spain
Sabadell, Spain sought to install 7585 LED luminaires comprising
29% of the overall public city lighting as part of a program to meet
European Union guidelines on energy efficiency. The city broke
new ground by using
an ESCO (energy ser-
vices company) model
to finance the lighting.
ESCOs are fairly promi-
nent in North America,
but less so in Europe,
especially in major light-
ing projects. The ESCO
provided the upfront
investment, and will
tem and tunable lighting as it simultaneously limited the effects recover the cost and pre-
to mostly white hues that maintained the historical aesthetics and sumably make a profit
improved the visitor experience. over the 10-year term
of a maintenance con-
tract. The installation
Heidelberg, Germany also includes a network
Heidelberg, Germany nominated the redevelopment of an indus- that enables adaptive
trial area into a mixed-use business, entertainment, and residen- control and automatic
tial district that will include a comprehensive environmentally- meter-reading capabil-
friendly footprint ranging from lighting to water use to power ity for accurate deter-
generation. The Bahnstadt project will ultimately be larger than mination of power
the old city or Altstadt area and will include living space for a pop- usage. Sabadell projects
ulation of 5000 and 7000 jobs. The development will rely on pas- energy savings equal to
sive house standards as a construction method and district-wide 1,040,000 ($1,431,000)

44 MARCH 2014

focus on
per year and that likely equates to a good deal for the
city and ESCO. Moreover, the city had sought to reduce
light pollution. And the new luminaires accomplish the
goal, eliminating uplight.

Los Angeles, California

The city of Los Angeles nominated a tunnel light-
ing project near Los Angeles International Airport on
Sepulveda Boulevard running underneath the air-
port runways. Los Angeles was a third-place winner in
2012 for its broader LED streetlight program that is the
worlds largest (
The 2013 project was perhaps the easiest of the 2013 entries to dis- Old Bridge, a zone protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
sect in terms of LED-based lighting technology and the advantages Moreover, the city did an outstanding job of maintaining the his-
afforded over legacy systems because the new installation replaced toric look, dismantling the legacy post-top lanterns with mercury
an existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) installation. A total of vapor sources and sending them to MinelSchrder for refurbish-
572 LED luminaires replaced 750 HPS fixtures. Moreover, the city ment with Schrders LensoFlex 2 LED modules. The retrofit will
reduce the total energy required to power the lighting from 55 kW
to 10.6 kW. Savings are projected at 81% or 178,266 kWh per year.
The project is being realized in a way that has minimum impact
on residents and visitors and will ultimately result in far superior
lighting and a better outdoor experience to go with the sustain-
ability of the project.

Brussels, Belgium
Another lighting project of a UNESCO World Heritage Site was
the focus of the entry from Brussels, Belgium. The citys Grand
Place has been relit in a dramatic fashion with a color-tunable sys-
tem that can present dynamic effects. We covered the first phases
of the project in late 2012 and featured it on our cover (http:// The city has now completed the installation of
faade lighting across all of the buildings surrounding the plaza.
Select areas use LED projectors to display historic images on
building walls. The Auroralia jury was fortunate to get a private
installed a network for control and automated maintenance. The tour of the Grand Place project and see a dynamic night-time pro-
baseline energy savings of the project are 70% and that figure could gram. Ironically, some of the jury questioned the justification for
be increased through dimming the LED luminaires. The city also the use of colored lighting in the project and the value it brought
projects 75% savings in maintenance costs. But perhaps the most to visitors. Others felt that the color programs could increase tour-
impressive result is the light quality. The city staggered brightness ism and boost the economy, more than covering the price premium
by zone to help drivers adapt to lighting changes
with the time of day. Furthermore, the system
uses an asymmetrical beam distribution that
The Auroralia jury was composed of journalists that cover the
directs the lighting with the flow of traffic and
eliminates driver glare. For more information on sustainable lighting space from a variety of angles ranging from enabling
the challenges and benefits of LED tunnel light- technologies such as LEDs to urban planning. The panel included Maury
ing, see our recent feature ( Wright of LEDs Magazine, Paul James of Mondo Arc , Britta Hlzemann
of Licht , Charlotte Fauve of Ecologik , Albert Punsola of Ciudad
Mostar, Bosnia/Herzegovina Sostenible , Tom Rampelberghe of Light Partner , and Olivier Namias of
Lux. There were no firm rules that guided the judging process but rather
Effective LED-based lighting projects arent
just for major cities, as witnessed by the Mostar lengthy discussion interspersed with multiple rounds of balloting. The
project that covers the Old City area and the panel considered 26 city projects from Los Angeles to Russia to India.

46 MARCH 2014

Entries span the globe
In addition to the Auroralia entries featured in our main article,
there were also entries from Lisbon, Portugal; Lyon, France;
Hamburg, Germany; Chennai, India; Cairo, Egypt; Bryansk,
Russia; Sifok, Hungary; Setbal, Portugal; Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil; Passau, Germany; Pocking, Germany; Medelln, Colombia;
Mlaga, Spain; and Marienhafe, Germany. The projects span
the range of small district lighting retrofits to city-wide projects.
Most of the projects were totally based on LED lighting, although
a few include a mix of LEDs and the latest-generation HID
products that are less efficient than LEDs but much improved
over prior generations.
Consider the Cairo entrant, lighting of the new Cairo Festival
City mixed-use development that will be home to 13,000
residents and 50,000 workers. The project utilizes 150W and
250W metal halide (MH) fixtures on main roadways and 53W
LED luminaires on residential streets. The designers used DALI
(digital addressable lighting interface) to connect the lights and
enable dimming during low traffic hours. The development also for the RGB fixtures. In any event, the LED lighting is 80% more
includes a mix of LED and compact fluorescent (CFL) lighting efficient than the former lighting in the plaza and reduced main-
for landscapes and tenance cost by a factor of four.
building exteriors.
The Cairo entry had
perhaps the broadest Jyvskyl, Finland
array of different The Kuokkala Bridge had undergone a retrofit of the architectural
lighting applications and faade lighting back in 2002, but until recently the roadway
and fixture types in the was lit by globe-shaped luminaires housing HPS lamps. The city of
competition. Jyvskyl and its citizens liked the globes that had become a rec-
While there were a ognizable element of the bridges architecture, but sought a more
few new developments
among the entries such
as Cairo, more typically
the projects were
retrofits. For example,
Sifok upgraded
roadway and park lighting with more than 2000 LED fixtures.
Traditional LED streetlights were the largest part of the project
but it also included decorative style lighting in the downtown
district. The retrofit project is delivering 555,324 kWh annual
energy savings.
Passau is another city that realized substantial savings with
the retrofit project nominated to Auroralia (shown here). The
project included an upgrade of almost 2500 fixtures with LED
lighting. Annual energy consumption went from 1,482,000 kWh
to 300,000 kWh. Pocking is a smaller German city that installed
781 luminaires taking energy consumption from 235,000 kWh energy-efficient lighting option. Indeed, the bridge was arguably
annually to 46,000 kWh. overlit with inefficient sources. The city ultimately replaced the
Setbal is another example of a project that used a mix of fixtures with luminaires from Ketonen Oy that integrate an LED
LED and HID lighting. The city used high-pressure sodium (HPS) light engine from Valopaa Oy and new globes made by Elkamet.
to light some of the arterial roadways. But the downtown area The city determined that the bridge needed a light level of 1 cd/m 2
is lit with LEDs and the city says that the project has resulted in and the installation delivers 1.5 cd/m 2 using 3000K warm-white
its citizens making greater use of parks and walkways after dark. sources. Even though cooler sources would have been more effi-
The new lighting maintains a historic look, and the city is saving cient the city is still realizing 74% energy savings that will yield an
266,727 kWh annually. Indeed, the Auroralia Awards drew many 11-year payback. The bridge was part of a broader city plan called
noteworthy projects that both boost quality of life for residents Environmentally Friendly Outdoor Lighting that among other
and help trim global energy use and carbon emissions. things has seen streetlights upgraded and networked.

48 MARCH 2014

Bkscsaba, Hungary Terra Maxi LED fixtures from Schrder. We will get to the energy sav-
Bkscsaba nominated a downtown modernization project centered ings in a minute, but the city has received significant response from
around Szent Istvn square for the Auroralia Awards. The project the public about the project. The city said 90% of the public reaction
included both new installation and retrofit of post-top and suspended has been positive and that the residents have an increased apprecia-
acorn-style luminaires with Nagy-Kecskemet, Panon2, Terra Midi, and tion for the importance of streetlighting. Moreover, the city said the
broad-spectrum white light makes the buildings
and monuments appear in their natural color and
beauty, whereas the prior lighting had made them
appear to have a yellow coat. The new lighting uses
6924 kWh less energy than the old lighting.

Tartu, Estonia
The city of Tartu has undertaken the first phase
of a streetlight retrofit replacing around 500 leg-
acy fixtures with LED luminaires. Even with
the first phase the city decided to install adap-
tive controls that will adjust light levels based
on the traffic present at different times of the
night. The city projects energy and maintenance
cost savings of 35,000 ($48,000). In its Auroralia
application, the city specifically noted that the
new lights would improve the quality of life for

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residents and visitors. Indeed, the nearby photo depicts excellent city with an environmental outlook. The city was concerned about
uniformity. And remember that the level can be reduced. The city carbon emissions and the impact of lighting on wildlife including the
also said that the new fixtures minimize light pollution. local bat population. By the end of 2013, the city had retrofitted all but
700 municipal fixtures to LEDs. The project has delivered 87% energy
savings and reduced carbon by 184 tons. The city hopes to retrofit the
Oldenburg in Holstein, Germany remainder of its lighting this year. Payback for the entire project is
The City of Oldenburg relies on tourism and foresaw LED lighting as expected to be five years, and the lights are rated for 35 years of life.
a way to show residents and visitors that it was a forward-looking The LED lighting is delivering light levels 20% higher than required.

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Carclo Optics was the rst to bring you the ability to search for the perfect
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Tertiary optics deliver benefits

in SSL product design
LEDs are relatively directional light sources but require secondary and tertiary optics to meet the
needs of lighting designers and specifiers. SULEYMAN TURGUT explains how tertiary optics are often a
necessity for proper lamp and luminaire performance and can be cost-justified in new SSL products.

hen the use of tertiary optics or FIG. 1. A GE Lighting PAR38 the secondary optic is
diffusers is an after-thought in lamp with a tertiary optic. a TIR-based collima-
the design of lamps and fixtures, tor. The tertiary optic
the designer ends up facing many integration Tertiary optic is an interchangeable
and performance issues after project comple- examples accessory that is eas-
tion. Conversely, tertiary optics can deliver One example of a ily replaced by the
many benefits in LED-based lamp and lumi- real-world product that customer in the field.
naire design when conceived at the start of the has all of these optical com- The accessory kit also
product development. Lets discuss the con- ponents is GEs LED PAR38 includes a linear spread
cept of collimate then diffuse for solid-state lamp (Fig. 1). The LEDs with optic that provides for lin-
lighting products and review real-world exam- the primary optic are ear or elliptical illumination
ples. We will consider various formats of ter- positioned at the base patterns at the target plane.
tiary optics like film, rigid panels, and injec- of the lamp; a reflec- The easy and flexible use of
tion-molded parts along with a discussion on tor surrounds the tertiary optics of different
how high- and low-performance optics differ. LEDs with a circu- kinds was what the designers
LEDs have introduced a greater level lar Fresnel lens posi- of the product had in mind from
of complexity to fixture and lamp design. tioned at the output the outset. As a result, the design of
Lighting designers have had to learn new aperture. Both the reflec- the secondary optics and the heat sink
techniques to control the light from these tor and Fresnel lens are considered to be sec- were optimized for use with tertiary optics.
new light sources, as well as new terminol- ondary optics. A diffuser is placed on top of One last example is an LED architectural
ogy associated with these techniques. While the Fresnel lens to clean up non-uniformity lighting fixture (Fig. 3). Here the secondary
the radiation from a bare LED with a pri- caused by the Fresnel structure and adjust optic is again a TIR- or parabolic-reflector-
mary optic can be fairly wide (8090), it is the beam to medium and flood angles. based collimator. The tertiary optic is an
considered to be directional when compared Another example is an LED recessed interchangeable accessory that is installed
to a conventional source like an incandes- downlight (Fig. 2). Here the secondary in the field and serves two functions: to
cent filament. In projection applications optic is the reflector that colli- mix the red, green, and blue com-
where the target plane of illumination is mates the radiation from the ponents of the illumination in air
more than 0.5m distant, the directional LEDs and the tertiary optic before hitting the target plane,
nature of an LED is not alone sufficient for is a diffuser that increases and to shape the beam
most lighting uses. Indeed, a secondary optic the beam angle as well pattern. Architectural
such as a total internal reflection (TIR) lens performing a hiding lighting installations are
or reflector is required to collimate the function that pre- typically complex for two
beam to somewhere between 3.515. A ter- vents someone from main reasons. First,
tiary optic such as a diffuser can also be seeing the LEDs the distance of the
required to improve the color and/or spa- under direct view- fixture from the
tial uniformity as well as shape the beam to ing conditions.
suit the photometric requirements. In the M R16 - FIG. 2. A
lamp sector, Soraa typical LED-
SULEYMAN TURGUT is director of sales, relies on yet a differ- based recessed
Luminit LLC. ent structure. Here downlight. MARCH 2014 53


illumination or target plane can be differ- tions these fixtures require very narrow
ent for each project, and the target or object beam angles (e.g., 13.5) and the illumina-
of illumination is always different in size and tion target is usually larger than the spot size
orientation (e.g., horizontal or vertical). Sec- of the fixture and varies with each project.
ond, a variety of diffusion angles (symmet- The diffuser accessory provides the flexibil-
rical and asymmetrical) can be offered as ity for the same fixture to be used in multiple
options to help customize the fixtures to installations by allowing for multiple beam
accommodate many of these variables in a angles in the same fixture (Fig. 4).
lighting project. Cleaner target plane: Regardless of how
well designed the secondary optic is, there
Collimate then diffuse benefits will be always be some level of non-unifor-
These four examples help illustrate the con- mity in the intensity or color at the target
cept of collimate then diffuse that many LED plane. In spot lamp applications with nar-
lighting designers use in specification proj- row beam angles, a small-angle tertiary
ects. There are four main benefits of using optic or diffuser (e.g., 2 or 3.5) works well
this design concept: to maintain the punch while removing stria-
Single secondary optical design: If a tions in the illumination plane (Fig. 5).
diffuser is designed into the product from the
beginning, there is no need to redesign the sec- Materials, formats, and options
ondary optics for a different project or installa- Now lets discuss the material and manufac-
tion that requires a different beam angle. turing aspects of tertiary optics. Materials
Reduced total cost: When only one for tertiary optics are available in both thin
reflector or TIR secondary optic is required, film around 0.25 mm and thick sheet options
there is only one mold to be manufactured, around 3 mm (Fig. 6). Rolls of thin film up to
instead of multiple. Due to a single stock- 600 mm in width are common, but for linear
keeping unit (SKU), the inventory costs are fixtures (e.g., wall grazers and washers) the
also reduced. mini-roll format allows for easier assembly
Flexibility: The same fixture can be used and integration. For small fixtures or lamps
in multiple projects since the beam angle less than 150 mm in size (e.g., recessed
change is a simple as changing out a win- downlight, PAR lamps, etc.), where the vol-
dow. For instance, due to the long throw in umes are higher and selling prices lower, the
architectural lighting applica- injection-molded format using thicker mate-
rial is the best option. Molding allows for the FIG. 4. The same fixture with different
diffuser to double as the window of the fix- tertiary optics delivers vastly different
ture or lamp and the tertiary optic. lighting effects (images courtesy of City
Polycarbonate is the preferred plas- Theatrical).
tic of choice for lighting applica-
tions. Its available in UV-stable the diffusion mechanism. High-performance
versions for outdoor applica- holographic diffusers incorporate a sub-
tions and in UL-listed versions micron surface relief pattern on top of a very
to meet flammability require- clear substrate. Through a combination of dif-
ments that are typically dictated fraction and refraction, the diffusion (which
by the class of the LED driver. occurs only on the surface of the substrate) is
extremely efficient (up to 92%) independent
Holographic versus of thickness and provides precise angular
volumetric diffusion beam control.
There are also different approaches Lower-performance diffusers, such as
to tertiary optics that must meet volumetric diffusers, incorporate scat-
application requirements. Tertiary tering elements within the volume of the
optics are available in low- and substrate. These diffusers typically are
high-performance versions. less efficient in the 3070% transmission
The main difference lies in range. The optical properties of volumet-
ric diffusers are very dependent on thick-
FIG. 3. An Elation Lighting ness and provide little or no control of the
architectural wall washer. beam angle of a lamp or fixture.

Philips Fortimo
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Ordering Information


Optical modeling
One of the most valuable tools used by opti-
cal engineers and designers in the product
development phase is optical and lighting
simulation software. Its been difficult to
model the behavior of tertiary optics in the
past. Today packages like LightTools from
Synopsys, TracePro from Lambda Research,
various tools from Optis, and Zemax from
Radiant Zemax are now compatible with
FIG. 5. A diffuser producing the spot beam on the right eliminates the striations BTDF (Bi-directional Transmittance
evident in the beam on the left. Distribution Function) data. This data
describes how a ray of light behaves after
entering and exiting a diffuser. This data
has been collected for a variety of off-axis
incident angles; thus it is useful in simulat-
ing wide-angle sources like LEDs.
In conclusion, to avoid issues in fixture
and lamp performance after project com-
pletion we recommend considering the use
of tertiary optics in new fixture and lamp
designs. The main benefits include single
secondary optical design, reduced total cost,
FIG. 6. Tertiary optic materials on the left and finished products on the right. flexibility, and a cleaner target plane.

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science | UV CURING

UV-LED advancements extend

the promise in curing
The year 2013 witnessed an expansion of LED usage in UV curing applications with higher-power
emitters enabling faster cure times across a variety of life science and industrial applications, writes
BILL CORTELYOU, and component lifetimes have increased as well.

hen people hear the terms light-
emitting diodes or LEDs, most m Monomer
people think of visible LEDs for o Oligomer
lighting applications. Indeed, LED tech- p Photo-initiator
nology is used increasingly throughout the Ink/coating
world for indoor lighting, outdoor lighting,
street lighting, automotive, and signage.
But there are many other industrial appli- o m
cations such as curing (drying) and counter- m p p
feit detection. Ultraviolet (UV) LED technol- o
p o o m o m
ogy for curing is one of the market segments p m p m p p
that has gained worldwide acceptance and o
p o o m o m
continues to grow. Lets examine the state p m m p p
p o
of UV curing technology and consider how Liquids applied: o m
p o
inks, coatings,
well LEDs are fulfilling promises of taking p m
adhesives p
over that space. UV-LED exposure
causes chemical reaction
UV-LED curing refers to a technique that
Liquids harden,
utilizes energy output from the LEDs in the
fnal product is UV cured
UV spectrum to treat inks, coatings, adhe-
sives, and other UV-curable materials. The FIG. 1. UV light instigates a chain reaction resulting in curing of materials such as
energy generated by the UV light triggers a inks or adhesives.
chain reaction resulting in polymerization
of the material, thus hardening or curing the The color of the light emitted or corre- are many benefits driving companies to
material (Fig. 1). For more background on sponding energy of the photon is determined move toward acceptance of UV-LED technol-
UV-LED curing, see UV LEDs ramp up the by the energy gap of the semiconductor mate- ogy such as higher productivity and a more
quiet side of the LED market (links on p. 63). rial. A number of companies that make LEDs environmentally-friendly solution, which
Traditionally, mercury-based UV lamps used for general illumination also make LEDs more and more end customers are demand-
have been utilized for curing, but now more that radiate in the UV spectrum. ing. As manufacturers are developing UV-
energy-efficient and environmentally- LED curing systems, knowing how the key
friendly LED-based UV technology has Advancements in UV-LED curing sub-components work together will help in
proven a superior solution for many applica- It is an accepted fact for many industries creating the optimum system and thereby
tions. LED curing technology uses semicon- that LED lamps provide many advantages reducing the overall environmental impact
ductor-based LEDs to project the UV light including lower energy consumption, lon- of the process and at the same time main-
when an electric current is passed through ger lifetime, improved robustness, smaller taining or improving productivity and prod-
them. When an LED is forward-biased, form factor, and faster on/off switching. uct performance.
electrons are able to recombine with elec- Those advantages are also important in cur-
tron holes within the device, thus releasing ing applications. Application segments
energy in the form of photons. UV-LED curing technology has advanced Curing is a broad market with many appli-
significantly in the past few years and is now cation niches. But lets consider some of the
BILL CORTELYOU is president and CEO of readily available for a variety of applications major application segments:
Phoseon Technology. in printing, coatings, and adhesives. There Printing: The UV curing process has been MARCH 2014 59

science | UV CURING

in use in the printing industry for more than LED 385/395/405 nm LED only
thirty years. LED curing technology for UV LED Relative
LED 365 nm range intensity
printers is rapidly replacing older technol-
Mercury lamp
ogy with compelling advantages of better 355 365 385 395 405 415
Wavelength (nm)
economics, system capabilities, and envi-
ronmental benefits. UV-LED curing technol- intensity
ogy is ideal for the UV curing of inks in dig-
ital inkjet, screen, flexographic, and other
printing processes. Wavelength (nm)
Coatings: A significant number of coat-
ings are cured worldwide today with UV- UVC UVB UVA Visible light Infrared
LED sources in applications ranging from 100-280 nm 280-315 nm 315-400 nm 400-700 nm 700-1800 nm
traditional materials such as flooring and
cabinetry to advanced electronics. Material FIG. 2. The spectral energy distribution of UV LEDs is different from that of legacy
development and long-term performance mercury lamps that were broadly used in the past.
testing will further open markets in the
areas of automotive, electronics, residential, have UV-LED-curable chemistries along with LED curing lamps were installed on equip-
and commercial construction materials. aggressive technology and product roadmaps. ment at the 2013 show, up from 10 instances
Adhesives: UV adhesives are a great tool Although the monochromatic nature of during the 2011 show for an 8x increase. Cur-
in modern assembly and manufacturing UV-LED lamps requires special consideration ing uses ranged from pinning to full cure
processes with UV-LED electronic control from the chemists, it has not been a long-termand many of the printers were 100% UV-
and stability, ensuring excellent results in impediment as once thought. LED based.
a wide variety of UV-LED adhesive appli- One of the most exciting aspects of utiliz- Attracting the highest ever number of
cations from medical devices to the most ing a UV-LED curing process is that it opens entrants in its history, the Label Industry
advanced consumer electronics. many new process possibilities with its Global Award for Innovation,
precise electronic control of energy sponsored by Label &
Snapshot of 2013 delivery. Many users have tai- Narrow Web, Labels
2013 was another year of strong growth lored their processes to achieve & Labeling, and Nar-
in UV-LED adoption. In the last few years, results unattainable through roWebTech maga-
there has been much discussion around the other means. Today there zines, was jointly won
rate of adoption and usefulness for the wide are many proprietary by Mark Andy and Flint
range of UV curing applications. Essentially, uses of energy con- Group Narrow Web. Flint
the question has been Will UV-LED cur- trol across varying Group was honored for its
ing technology fulfill its promise? Well, applications. Ekocure UV-LED ink technol-
the answer is yes! In fact, it has exceeded ogy, which the judges described as
the promise and will continue its strong Recent milestones providing improved cure response,
growth, accelerate, and open new UV cur- Consider the milestones reached cost and productivity savings, waste
ing markets. in 2013. The Labelexpo Europe FIG. 3. An air- reduction, energy savings, and
The early concerns of output, lifetime, and 2013 tradeshow reflected large- cooled UV-LED enhanced safety that will undoubt-
cost have all been met with rapid technol- scale UV-LED adoption. The curing system. edly have a significant impact on
ogy and product improvement. Today, UV- event validated the claims of rapid the future of the label industry.
LED curing technology meets a wide range adoption of UV-LED curing. The Mark Andy was recognized for its
of application requirements and is continu- show reported record-breaking attendance complementary ProLED ink curing technol-
ing to improve at a rapid pace. Lamps of 16 figures by attracting 31,795 visitors (up 11% ogy, which delivers high production rates and
W/cm 2 , which cure at the highest of speed over 2011) from 158 countries (up from 123 50% energy savings.
requirements, have been shipping in volume in 2011) with nearly 600 exhibitors (up from
for more than two years. Lamp manufactur- 550 in 2011). Everywhere they looked, attend- More material formulation suppliers
ers routinely quote lifetime expectations in ees saw UV-LED curing systems being imple- At the advent of UV-LED curing, some ten
excess of 20,000 hours of on-time double mented on machines. To UV LEDs tradi- years ago, very few types of inks, coatings,
what was quoted a few years ago. Soon, lead- tional strength of digital inkjet were added and adhesives were compatible with UV-LED
ing manufacturers will be producing lamps rotary screen printing, area curing, offset, technology. As Fig. 2 shows, the spectral
promising even longer lifetimes likely and flexographic printing. energy distribution of UV LEDs is quite
around 30,000 hours, matching or exceed- Comparing Labelexpo 2013 to Labelexpo different from that of mercury lamps and
ing the life of various curing installations. 2011 proves just how rapidly the industry has indeed is in a much narrower band. That dif-
Nearly all UV-curable materials providers adopted the technology. More than 80 UV- ference required new material formulations.

60 MARCH 2014

science | UV CURING

Today, large numbers for applications such as edge

of material vendors tout coating, roller coating, and
their support for LED for- digital printing. UV-LED
mulations. New resins, technology drastically
monomers, oligomers, reduces energy con-
and photo-initiators are sumption and sig-
being developed, expand- nificantly reduces
ing new possibilities in work-piece surface
UV-LED cured materi- temperature. Edge coat-
als. Not only inks but also ing lines utilize UV LEDs to
coatings and adhesives are more efficient in delivering higher FIG. 4. A water- ensure consistent, high-quality
now widely available that are either spe- energy to the media, thus driving cooled UV-LED results. Machines can be made
cially formulated for LED or work with both not only increased throughput and curing system. more compact due to small form
LED and traditional sources. process flexibility but also envi- factor; speed can be increased
ronmentally-friendly and energy-efficient due to consistent UV output; and the dif-
Increasing performance solutions. End users are rapidly moving to fuse nature of UV-LED light can be used to
UV-LED lamp technology has advanced to UV-LED curing technology due to the accu- more effectively cure shaped surfaces that
a point where it now offers enough power mulation of benefits. Figs. 3 and 4 show air- previously required multiple lamps at var-
and capability to support a very wide range and water-cooled UV curing products. ious angles.
of existing and new industrial applica- The advancements are opening new UV LED is a perfect match for roller coat-
tions. With compatible material formula- applications. Due to recent advances in ing lines, both for controlled gelling and
tion, UV-LED energy output is now equiv- high-powered air-cooled products, UV-LED full-cure stations. The benefits include bet-
alent or better than traditional UV curing curing technology now enables the wood ter factory floor utilization due to shorter,
lamps. UV-LED curing units have become coatings industry to leverage the technology more efficient lines; increased uptime with
science | UV CURING

FIG. 5. Flat-panel display manufacturing is one of several applications enabled by

UV-LED sources.

no degradation in UV output; lower-cost utilized for decorative bottle printing for

input stock due to lack of infrared heat; and glass containers for spirits, health and beauty,
reduced operating costs by more efficient wine, cider, beer, bottled water, soft drinks,
electricity use and no need for costly air- food, and the promotional glassware indus-
ducting systems. try. This decorating process utilizes UV-LED
While technically not a wood application, light sources for curing inks on glass contain-
creating a natural wood-grain look on diverse ers to improve the quality of print.
materials is made possible with UV-LED Printing braille with UV LED allows for
cured ink-jet printing. By using a combina- rapid personalization and flexibility for
tion of pinning and full-cure lamps, a realistic labels and packaging. If you want to change
look and more important, feel is enabled the message frequently (e.g., change the
by creating texture to mimic the grains of date, name, language, etc.), all you need to
natural wood. This is especially valuable in do is update the computer running the line.
decorative and accent applications. If you use a traditional stamping method
instead of printing, you will need a new
New applications enabled by UV LEDs pair of wheels for each change. In addition
There are many new applications being to personalization and flexibility, the print-
enabled by UV-LED technology. Consider ing line allows for higher-quality printed
advanced flat-panel display manufactur- braille on the packaging. This makes the
ing for cell phones, OLED TVs, and touch labels easier to read with increased language
screens (Fig. 5). UV-LED technology is a differentiators.
great fit and offers more consistency with The applications extend to decorative
less heat transmitted to the panel. By elim- uses. Decorative printing processes allow
inating heat damage of electronic compo- for ultrahigh gloss, matte, and holographic
nents, LED technology can be used on more effects. Cast and cure is a fast-growing
materials to improve manufacturing yields. technology that creates a holographic-style
UV-LED curing technology is also being decorative finish on a variety of substrates

62 MARCH 2014

science | UV CURING
for sheet-fed and web applications. Cold foil and dimensionally-precise additive manu-
is the application of metallic foil, in line, at facturing will both benefit from the precise
press speed in an infinite spectrum of colors. energy delivery and low heat-load capabil-
These effects can be created with UV-LED ity of the UV-LED systems. Undoubtedly,
technology in a wide variety of environments. additional applications will emerge as the
The low-temperature benefits of UV LEDs UV-LED ecosystem advances. Materials
also extend the usage range in terms of sub- formulators will have an expanded choice
strates. Due to the low heat generation, UV of their key constituents including mono-

2014 will see a continued rapid increase in

UV-LED adoption along with a number of new
UV-LED applications where traditional curing
solutions are not practical. 5-YEAR WARRANTY
LEDs support curing on surfaces such as mers, oligomers, resins, and photo-initia-
wood, metals, ceramic tiles, plastics, glass, tors exclusively developed for LEDs charac-
and plastic for 3D textured printing. Pinning teristic UV output. DC INPUT
of successive layers allows textures that pro- Regulator issues will also drive the tech- CUSTOM DESIGN &
vide for depth and realism. Additionally, cur- nology forward. Legislative and non-govern- MODIFICATIONS
ing of adhesive or coating in successive layers mental organizations worldwide continue to
provides for better adhesion and flow control. address concerns around products contain- DIMMING OPTIONS
ing mercury. The European Unions Reduc-
Projecting UV-LED curing tion of Hazardous Substances (RoHS II)
2014 will see a continued rapid increase in places emphasis on finding suitable alterna-
UV-LED adoption along with a number of tives to mercury-containing devices while
new UV-LED applications where traditional the United Nations' UNEP program targets
curing solutions are not practical. Advanced the removal of mercury. UV-LED lamps today
display technology such as flexible, high-res- offer cost-effective and capable solutions for
olution organic LED (OLED) and high-speed the majority of curing requirements.


UV LEDs ramp up the quiet side of the LED market

Relative to visible LEDs, UV LEDs are a quiet market at only $30 million, yet recent breakthroughs
in radiant power and intensity have enabled the displacement of mercury-vapor lamps in applica-
tions including UV curing and counterfeit detection.
SETi and the USDA document UV LEDs extending shelf life of fresh produce
Sensor Electronic Technology Inc reports that LEDs in the UVB spectral band can double the shelf SUPPORT
life of refrigerated produce after a study based on strawberries that was conducted with the US
Department of Agriculture. DISTRIBUTION

LUXeXceL demonstrates its patented manufacturing technology for printable optics SUPPORT
A new methodology to design and manufacture optics for LED lighting was presented at the Bre-
genz, Austria LED professional Symposium and explained in detail in various workshops. AUTEC.COM 805.522.0888

LED Engin announces UV LED for demanding curing applications

LED Engin has announced the Gen 2 family of ultraviolet (UV) LEDs that radiate in the 365-nm
band and that target curing applications for industrial, life science, and other uses. The company
asserts that the LEDs deliver four times the power density of competing UV LEDs. MARCH 2014 63



FEBRUARY 24 - 26, 2015


m Ca rli T: +1 650 94
Carli 946 3163
6 3163 E: tca
rli @pennw
nnw Mary Donnelly T: +1 603 89
Mar 891 9118
1 9118 E: mar
yd@ pennwe



Simulation enables optimum LED

street light heat-sink design
DJORDJE ZIVANOVICand RICHARD OZAKI describe a thermal-design methodology that enabled the
development of a new self-cleaning heat sink for an outdoor LED luminaire using simulation tools.

ompanies are striving to design Outdoor luminaire design mum heat dissipation surface?
innovative and reliable solid-state BUCK is a company in Belgrade that pro- Where will the hottest air pockets be
lighting (SSL) products while reduc- duces luminaires for architectural and med- formed?
ing the cost of product development and ical illumination. The company has expanded Optimizing the heat-sink design empiri-
time to market. At the same time, the pace its work to outdoor luminaires, and they took cally would require a lot of time and money.
of LED-based product innovation has on a joint project with Panasonic Serbia to The R&D team decided to use software simu-
increased dramatically and is a primary con- create a self-cleanable heat sink for outdoor lation and analyses to speed up the develop-
tributor to lighting companies overall prof- lighting fixtures that would improve on an ment time. The computational fluid dynam-
its and market share. The challenges in this existing extruded heat sink. Thermal design ics (CFD) software they chose, FloEFD from
environment include increasing product is critical in SSL products because high tem- Mentor Graphics, provides guidance and
complexity and the time and cost required peratures can reduce an LEDs light output help so that engineers who are not CFD spe-
to create physical prototypes. The challenge and cause color shift
is especially acute in that SSL development effectively shortening the
is a multidisciplinary undertaking requiring components useful effec-
optical, electronics, mechanical, and ther- tive life. Indeed, heat dissi-
mal skills. Thermal design is especially pation design is a key fac-
important in terms of SSL product reliabil- tor in the performance of
ity, and simulation can be critical in devel- high-power LEDs.
oping a good thermal-management scheme The thermal manage-
in a timely manner. A recent luminaire ment of a street luminaire
development by BUCK d.o.o. illustrates the is particularly challenging
advantages afforded by simulation. because the ambient tem-
Simulation tools can help lighting manu- perature changes depend-
facturers meet tight market windows even ing on season and location. FIG. 1. Thermal simulation of the original heat-sink design,
with constrained engineering resources. Such Finding the optimum solu- showing airflow in FloEFD.
tools allow the development team to perform tion for thermal problems
more and more sophisticated analyses earlier can take 80% of the time the development cialists can perform fluid flow, cooling, and
in the development process. Successful prod- team spends on designing a new product. other analyses as part of their design process
ucts today must be more ergonomic and envi- During the design development phase of and within their product design tool.
ronmentally efficient. Developing such prod- the street light fixture, the R&D team started
ucts, especially in a way that the products can with the question, How can we solve the cool- CFD simulation
meet customers desired price points, requires ing of LED modules in the most efficient way? The software allows engineers to perform
the design team to evaluate more approaches Based on years of experience in designing heat CFD automatically without the atten-
to elements such as thermal than could rea- transfer equipment, the answer was easy: Take tion of a trained specialist. This automa-
sonably be considered if prototypes of each the heat away from the LED module, provide tion means that product designers can try
approach had to be constructed. enough surface-to-heat dissipation, and pro- out a succession of ideas on a design with-
vide good airflow. out risking the project deadline, while also
DJORDJE ZIVANOVIC is an industrial But some questions werent so easy: reducing simulation time compared to tra-
designer at BUCK d.o.o. RICHARD OZAKI is How much airflow is needed to take the ditional CFD tools.
a senior application engineer for European heat away at 55C ambient temperature The CFD software also makes it relatively
customers in the mechanical analysis division from the 140W high-power LED module? easy to conduct what-if tests. FloEFD helps
of Mentor Graphics Corporation. In what way can we provide the opti- create multiple variations of designs by MARCH 2014 65


modifying parametric CAD configurations, preparation within the CATIA environ- accumulate and erode surfaces. This lets
which can then be analyzed without hav- ment. Engineers use a configuration wiz- the engineers visualize where dirt will fall
ing to reapply loads, boundary conditions, ard to prepare the solid model by applying out of the flow and gather on the heat sink,
material properties, and the like. The engi- loads and boundary conditions and finally or preferably be carried out of the heat sink.
meshing the model before The use of thermal simulation software
analyzing it. By design- both significantly shortened the develop-
ing the heat-sink model ment time of the SSL product and provided
in CATIA as a mechani- operational details that would have been
cal model and simulat- difficult to obtain otherwise. The result
ing with FloEFD from the for BUCK was the design of a new heat-sink
thermal standpoint, the model with vertical fins, which features a
thermal properties can be higher airflow for the self-cleaning effect
attached to all the poten- that prevents dirt deposition (Fig. 3).
tial shapes considered for The self-cleaning heat sink has a simi-
the heat sink, and the LED lar mass to the original one, but it doesnt
module that is the source need as much additional work and time on
FIG. 2. With optimization in the thermal simulation of heat. the milling machine. The simpler manufac-
software, the team was able to verify quickly and reliably After the design optimi- turing process resulted in not only cost sav-
whether the dirt deposition on the heat sink could lead to zation of the heat sink, the ings but also significantly reduced main-
malfunction while the luminaire is working. team obtained data on the tenance in the end product, and achieved
number, height, and thick- longer product life.
neer simply compares the results among the ness of the fins that would provide the best
many design options to choose the best pos- possible heat dissipation for the LED mod- Modeling the LEDs
sible design. ules (Fig. 1). As part of the optimization pro- The team also utilized a new FloEFD LED
The simulation software enables product cess, the team also wanted to test the effect module feature that delivered reliable results
designers as well as specialists to acceler- on cooling of dust accumulation over the top effortlessly. The values from the FloEFD simu-
ate key decisions at their workstations as of the heat sink. lations were within 3% of the results obtained
they experiment with design scenarios Dust/dirt deposition reduces the avail- later by measurements on the physical model.
and as they hone in on the best, most effi- able surface area for heat
cient, reliable, and cost-effective design. transfer, creates addi-
This intuitive virtual prototyping process tional thermal resis-
allows designers to optimize a product dur- tance for heat to get to
ing the design stages, with that first phys- the ambient, and reduces
ical prototype often being the design that the amount of airflow that
goes into final manufacturing, delivering can travel between the
the best design at lower cost, and getting it heat-sink fins removing
to market faster than ever before. heat. In the simulation,
Without simulations, the R&D team the team added a com-
would have needed at least 6 to 10 physi- ponent to represent dirt/
cal prototypes, and the team still wouldnt dust placed over the top of
have been able to guarantee they had the the heat sink (Fig. 2).
best solution. Empirical testing would have FIG. 3. Thermal simulation of the new heat-sink design with
cost a minimum of three additional months Self-cleaning design dirt deposition.
of development time and at least 500 in In addition to optimum
prototype costs. By using FloEFD, they cut cooling, the goal of the team included The LED module in FloEFD simulates
thermal simulation and management time designing a self-cleaning heat sink. The an LED component as a compact package
down to one month. desired self-cleaning effect requires high based on either a simple two-resistor model
air velocities relative to natural passive con- or an advanced measurement-derived
Solid modeling vection standards, in order to minimize dirt model. The detailed model includes a
The team performed the series of simula- deposition. The airflow was simulated using unique solution to the challenge of design-
tions in FloEFD based on a parameterized the FloEFD particle study feature. The par- ing SSL and allows thermal and photomet-
CAD model created in CATIA V5, a solid ticle study feature in the simulation soft- ric models of LEDs obtained from testers to
modeling tool. FloEFD V5 is a concurrent ware permits injection of virtual particles be used in FloEFD under constant-current
CFD product, and that allows the model with a material diameter and mass into the operating conditions.
to be immediately available for analysis fluid flow to determine where particles will The model correctly accounts for power

66 MARCH 2014


that is emitted as light when calculating the radiation). Light

heat dissipation in the LED, with the tem- quality from the
perature, power consumption, and light LEDs can also
output (hot lumens) predicted by the soft- be calculated to
ware. A starter pack of commercially avail- see whether they
able LED models is provided as part of the meet the design
module, which also includes the ability to goals for light out-
account for absorption of radiation in semi- put and uniformity.
transparent solids such as a lens in front of The BUCK designers used the
the LED, and the ability to simulate a circuit FloEFD thermal simulation software embed- FIG. 4. The final award-winning LED
board as a compact model with biaxial ther- ded in CATIA to meet the goal of designing industrial luminaire with the self-cleaning
mal conductivity. a new heat sink with vertical fins, a higher heat sink.
A company-specific LED model can also airflow, and a self-cleaning effect that pre-
be input and simulated by specifying for- vents dirt deposition. By using the ther- LED-based luminaire called Tangram (Fig.
ward current for the LEDs. The software cal- mal simulation software, they significantly 4) also won a Good Design Award from the
culates the correct thermal heating power shortened the development time and were Chicago Athenaeum Museum of Architec-
and a physically validated operating tem- provided with details they couldnt other- ture and Design.
perature. It allows building of an accurate wise see to analyze their prototype. They
thermal radiation analysis that is capable of also were able to obtain the experience that ACKNOWLEDGMENT
simulating absorption of radiation in semi- contributes to faster and better solutions of The authors wish to acknowledge the support
transparent solids such as glass, as well as future problems. The new heat-sink design received in writing this article from Mircea
taking into account effects such as refrac- enabled the company to reduce the cost of Slanina, the responsible account manager
tion, specular reflection, and wavelength manufacturing and maintenance as well as working with TRIAS microelectronics SRL, a
dependency (spectrum properties of the extend the product life. The companys final Mentor Graphics distributor.









ULL and the UL
U logo ar
e trademarks
k of UL LLC
C 2014
2014 BDi 40132.3
40132.3 LEDs
LED 01-14 MARCH 2014 67

last word

LED sources need to find a place in

the recycling stream
Although LEDs boast the advantage of long operational life, the growth in solid-
state lighting means that LED producers and government agencies need to have
appropriate disposal plans in place, says NIGEL HARVEY, chief executive of the UKs
WEEE-compliant recycling-service-provider Recolight.

EDs currently represent less than 0.1% and recyclers is often difficult because fluo- LEDs may be treated through a separate pro-
of the lighting waste stream. It will be rescent, LED, and filament lamps often look cess if collected as a single LED-only load (and
many years before lighting incorporat- similar. Also, with such low levels of LEDs cur- verified through the audit trail that confirms
ing LED technology starts to be returned in rently requiring recycling, user and recycler no mercury contamination). This will allow
appreciable quantities. However, some are sorting would be expensive and time consum- the standard to be relevant both now and in
already asking how these devices will be ing. Furthermore, if LEDs were not put in the the future when the level of LED waste lamps
recycled when they finally reach end of life. GDL recycling container, they is expected to grow.
LED producers should be aware that they might be put in general waste LED products do contain
need to comply with the national Waste Elec- and sent to a landfill. trace amounts of rare earths
trical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Co-collection helps to (typically at picogram levels).
legislation implemented in most European establish an LED retrofit The quantities are so small
Union member states. This involves joining waste collection process for that there is currently no eco-
a collective WEEE compliance scheme, such the longer term, when the per- nomic incentive to separate
as Recolight. Obligations for members include centage of LEDs in the waste them out and also no tech-
a duty to provide data regarding tonnages of stream will rise. nology available to recover
product put on the market, as well as recy- Waste LED retrofits can them. However, ensuring LED
cling their share of waste lamps. be recycled with other WEEE lamps are collected together
However, the collection and recycling of because they do not contain with fluorescent lamps means
LED lighting products themselves is already mercury. They are, in some ways, more sim- that as technologies develop and economics
being considered in the European standard- ilar in nature to other WEEE than to fluo- change, they can be available as a discrete
ization committee responsible for treatment rescent lamps. Nevertheless, where they are waste stream for appropriate treatment.
standards for waste electrical equipment. co-collected, they should be treated as mer- The proportion of LED luminaires cur-
Because they look the same as other cury-bearing lamps because there is a real rently arising as waste is negligible; they
lamps, in many European countries LED ret- risk they may have some mercury contam- only arise as returns to the producer now.
rofits are collected along with waste fluores- ination. Breakages in waste-lamp contain- Wherever possible, waste LED lumi-
cent lamps, in the same containers. ers may cause some fugitive mercury emis- naires should be collected separately from
Waste LED lamps are classified as non-haz- sions. Co-collected waste LED lamps would conventional luminaires. This is principally
ardous, whereas waste fluorescent lamps are therefore go through the same crushing and because in the long term there may be value
hazardous (because of the presence of mer- separation process as for fluorescents. This in separating out the LED chips.
cury). In the UK, the Environment Agency (EA) would not apply to waste retrofit LED tubes, Luminaire recycling usually involves
has taken the position that waste LEDs and which are not suitable for crushing. These some manual dismantling of the luminaire,
fluorescent lamps can be commingled or co- do need to be separated, decontaminated, which is then placed through a WEEE
collected, despite existing requirements that and put through a general WEEE shredder. shredder (as it would be non-hazardous) to
hazardous and non-hazardous wastes should This position is likely to be enshrined separate plastics, metals, and other com-
be separated. This is a logical and pragmatic within the draft waste-lamp treatment stan- ponents. These go on for further recycling
approach; the sorting of lamp waste by users dard. However, the draft also states that waste and recovery.

68 MARCH 2014

21ST 23RD OCTOBER 2014



Strategies in Light Europe is in its 5th year of providing Europes most comprehensive conference For more information on
and exhibition for the applications and technology of solid-state lighting. The event brings together exhibiting please contact:
designers, technologists, marketers, and fnanciers. It offers a platform for the best networking
opportunities and a forum for the sharing of ideas and experiences in the latest technologies and Worldwide
market developments. Virginia Willis
T: +44 1992 656 663
Over 900 Registered Attendees
55 Countries Represented
Johann Bylek
65 Exhibitors
T: +49-89-90480-143
2 Conference Tracks
F: +49-89-90480-145
3 Workshops E:
1 Investor Forum
45 Presentations

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versatile LED light.

As the developer of the rst lighting-class LED, were not scrambling to adapt to change; we are the
changeand we wont stop until LED lighting is everywhere. Design in Cree LED modules and get one
consistent light source with a choice of Sunset or WhiteLight dimming for applications ranging from
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COMPATIBILITY TESTING AND A 5-YEAR WARRANTY. how our full portfolio of LED modules
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