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The companion fluxes for these wires are designated

with an F to represent flux. If only the F is designated, Table 23-9 Impact Requirements of the
it means a virgin flux that has not been mixed with any Weld Deposit According to Classification
crushed slag. If it is expressed as FS, the S indicates it is for Submerged Arc Flux
made solely from crushed slag or is a blend of crushed Required Minimum
slag with unused (virgin) flux. A number following the F Classification Impact Strength
or FS indicates the mechanical properties achievable. See 0
Table 23-8, page 766. 1 20 ft-lb at 0F
Fluxes are further described by their reaction with the
2 20 ft-lb at 20F
weld pool and weld metal. There are three general types
3 20 ft-lb at 30F
of fluxes.
4 20 ft-lb at 40F
1. Active fluxes are those that contain controlled 5 20 ft-lb at 50F
amounts of manganese and/or silicon. Improved
6 20 ft-lb at 60F
resistance to porosity and cracking are the results
of these alloys. These fluxes are used when the 8 20 ft-lb at 80F
plate has a certain amount of contamination on
it. This type of flux is used for making single- welding currents required by the process. In all other re-
pass welds with the fewest defects and the highest spects they produce results like those provided by other
quality. fluxes.
2. Neutral fluxes are those that will not produce any
significant change in the all-weld metal composi- They protect the weld pool from the surrounding air
tion. This type of flux is used for multiple-pass in an envelope of molten flux.
welding on plate that exceeds 1 inch in thickness. They act as a cleaning agent for the base metal.
3. Alloy fluxes are those that are used with a plain They may satisfy special metallurgical or chemical
carbon steel electrode to make alloy weld deposits. needs.
The alloying ingredients are found in the flux, not They may provide minerals or alloys to the weld
the electrode. It is essential that the welding pro- metal.
cedure be followed to achieve the proper alloy per- They guard against porosity caused by rusty plate.
centages. This type of flux is primarily used on low They provide maximum resistance to weld cracking.
alloy steel and for hard-facing. Specific fluxes are designed to work best with certain
electrodes, materials, and welding conditions.
Fluxes are granular, fusible mineral compounds. They They improve weld appearance.
contain various amounts of silicon, manganese, alumi-
num titanium, zirconium, and deoxidizers, which are Wire SizesSubmerged arc electrodes are furnished
bound together with a binder. in continuous lengths wound into coils or drums or on
Fluxes are classified on the basis of the mechani- liners. Standard sizes include 116, 564, 332, 18, 532, 316, 732,
cal properties of a weld deposit made with the flux in and 14 inch. Wire 116 inch in diameter is used for mak-
combination with any of the electrodes classified in the ing speed welds on steel ranging from 14 gauge to 14 inch
specification. For example, let us consider the classifica- thick. Wire 564 inch in diameter is used for welding mate-
tion F6A0-EH14. The prefix designates a flux. The num- rial 12 gauge and thicker. Wires 332 inch and thicker are
ber 6, which immediately follows this prefix, designates used when the gun is carried mechanically. The stiff wire
the mechanical properties. The A indicates as welded. decreases the flexibility of the cable, and the large pool
A letter P would have indicated postweld heat treatment of molten metal is hard to handle when welding is semi-
(PWHT). The digit after the letter designates the required automatic. Large sizes require high current and provide
minimum impact strength, Table23-9. The zero in the ex- high deposition rates. They can bridge the gaps when fitup
ample means that 20 foot-pounds are required at 0F. The is poor. Arc starting, however, becomes more difficult as
suffix that is placed after the hyphen gives the electrode wire size increases.
classification with which the flux will meet the specified
mechanical property requirements. The electrode in the Polarity DCEP is recommended for most applications.
example is in the high manganese classification. It produces smoother welds and better bead shape. It has
The fluxes used with submerged arc welding have greater penetration and better resistance to porosity. Fillet
the special characteristic of being able to carry the high welds also have deep penetration.

FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1 Chapter 23 775
DCEN has meltoff rates that are about one-third Gaps greater than 116 inch may be filled with SMAW,
greater and provide less penetration than reverse polarity. GMAW, or FCAW processes. Use the appropriate electrode
It is suitable for the following applications: for the base metal and weld quality required.
Conventional fillets in clean and rust-free plate Starting and Stopping Tabs It is general practice when
welding long seams on a tank to tack-weld pieces of steel
Hard-to-weld steels in which cracking and porosity,
at each end of the seam. By starting and ending in these
due to the admixture resulting from deep penetration, tabs, the possibility of cracking and weld craters may be
must be controlled eliminated. They enable the welding conditions to stabi-
Prevention of cracking due to deep penetration and
lize and maintain uniformity at the beginning and end of
heavy buildup in the root pass of deep groove welds the joint.
When changing from DCEP to DCEN at the same cur- In general, tabs should be similar in material and de-
rent, increase the voltage about 4 volts to maintain a simi- sign to the weld joint. They should be large enough to sup-
lar bead shape. port the flux and molten metal properly. Tabs are welded
or supported on the base metal in a manner that will pre-
Alternating Current Alternating current is recommended vent molten metal from dropping through any gaps.
for two specific applications:
Tandem arc welding for increased welding speed Flux CoverageInsufficient flux coverage permits the
Single-arc applications in which arc blow cannot be arc to flash-through and does not provide proper shield-
overcome and travel speed is slowed ing. Excessive flux produces a narrow hump bead. For
applications like roundabout, edge, and horizontal welds,
To maintain good arc stability, a higher current density a support may be needed to hold the flux around the arc
is needed for alternating current than for direct current. while welding. It can be a piece of fire-resistant material
clamped to the nozzle or flux dams tacked or clamped to
Joint Design Basic joints common to all welding are used
the work, Fig. 23-36, page 774.
for submerged arc welding. The process is a deep, pen-
etrating one. To avoid excess melt-through, the plates are Flux Depth A proper amount of flux is required to estab-
generally either butted tightly together or a backing bar lish the best welding conditions. A suitable depth of flux
is used. gives a fast, quiet welding action. If the layer of flux is too
Cleaning Rust, scale, and moisture cause porosity. A deep, the gases generated during welding cannot escape.
thoroughly cleaned joint gives the best welding results. The weld may have a shape somewhat like a mountain
All substances on the joint edges must be removed. If not, rangerough and unevenand it will be porous. A good
foreign matter will become entrapped in the weld zone indication of proper flux depth is smoke rising out of the
and cause porosity on the surface and beneath the surface. flux layer. A shallow layer of flux permits arc flashing
Use clean, rust-free wire and flux that has been screened and a porous weld.
to remove large particles and foreign matter. It is very important that the flux be kept clean and dry.
Dirty or damp flux produces an unsound, porous weld.
Position of WeldingPractically all welding should be Damp flux should be dried before welding.
done with the work level or in the flat position. Some
sheet metal may be welded slightly downhill. Heavy, Flux Recovery The unfused flux can be recovered dur-
deep-groove welding is sometimes done with the plate ing the welding operation. Recovery systems are available
at an uphill angle of 2 to 5. This helps keep the molten that use air power and others that use electrical power,
metal from running ahead of the arc. much like a shop vacuum system. There is great savings
in reclaiming the unfused flux, Figs.23-37 and 23-38. The
Fitup Joint fitup should be uniform and accurate since fused flux can also be recrushed and reprocessed. This is
it affects the appearance and quality of the weld. When usually done off-site by a company specializing in repro-
establishing welding conditions, the seams should be cessing fused flux. The reprocessed fused flux is mixed
butted tightly unless a root gap is specified. A gap may be with new flux in certain ratios.
required to secure penetration or to prevent weld crack-
ing or distortion of the plates. An insufficient gap gives Weld Backing The relatively high heats used in sub-
a weld an excessive crown or reinforcement. If the gap or merged arc welding cause a large pool of molten metal
bevel angle is excessive, burnthrough or a concave weld to be formed. Because the weld pool is highly fluid, it
will result. will fall through if the joint is not supported on the back

776 Chapter 23 FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1
Unfused Flux Operating Variables The welds produced by the
submerged arc welding process and the GMAW or
Flux FCAW processes are affected by similar changes
and adjustments in the operating variables (voltage,
Steel Plate current, wire-feed speed, travel speed, electrode
extension, and nozzle angle). Review Chapter 22
Deposited Weld
Metal as necessary. There is some difference in regard
to electrode extension. Normal electrode extension
Deposited Amount of Flux (Fig. 23-39A) may be used for most applications.
Number of Weld Metal Flux Fused Amount of Flux Savable Some welding engineers, however, recommend
Wires (lb) (lb) Deposited (lb) (lb) long electrode extension. Nozzle attachments are
Single 1 1 2 1 available that increase the electrode extension to ei-
Twin wire 1 1 3 2 ther 2 or 3 inches, Fig. 23-39B. The welding cur-
Tandem wire 1 1 34 23 rent passing through the longer lengths of exposed
filler wire preheats the wire so that it melts more
Fig. 23-37 Flux recovery data. quickly in the arc. This reduces costs by increasing
the deposition rate and the speed of welding.
Electrode Size At a fixed current setting, electrode size
affects the depth of penetration. Penetration decreases
as the size of electrode increases. Smaller filler wires
are generally used in semiautomatic equipment. Sizes of
0.035 to 332 inch are generally used.

Contact Tip

Nozzle Flux

Electrical Visible
Extension Extension

Fig. 23-38 Air powered flux recovery system that mounts easily Contact Tip
on submerged arc welding equipment. Welding Engineering
Co. Inc. Linc-fill

side. The most common forms of weld backing are steel

backing bars, weld metal backing copper, or flux. When Electrical
steel bars are used, they usually remain as part of the Work
weldment. Weld metal backup in the form of a weld bead Extension
on the back side also remains as part of the weldment.
Copper is one of the best materials to use. It is nonfus-
ible and is a good conductor of heat. The copper back- B
ing bar is often liquid cooled. Flux may be placed at the
bottom of the groove to act as a support for the molten Fig. 23-39 (A) Normal electrode extensions. (B) Use of nozzle
weld pool. extension for long electrode extension. Source: The Lincoln Electric Co.

FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1 Chapter 23 777
groove welds. The procedure is difficult to set
up, Fig.23-41, and can be justified only on long
welding runs or on production work. At least
one arc should be a.c.
The two-wire series power technique obtains
high deposition rates with minimum penetra-
tion into the base metal. It is used extensively for
hard-surfacing materials. Each filler wire op-
erates independently; it has its own feed motor
and voltage control. The power supply cable is
connected to one welding head, and the return
power cable is connected to the second welding
head instead of to the workpiece. The two filler
wires are in series. The welding current travels
from one electrode to the other through the weld
pool and surrounding material. The two elec-
trodes are mounted at 45 to each other. Either
alternating or direct current can be used, depend-
Fig. 23-40 A SAW set up for making continuous or intermittent dual fillet ing upon the application. Alternating current
welds on bridge girders, stiffeners, or box beams. A side beam c arriage is being is preferred for mild steel or stainless steel,
used in conjunction with head and tail stocks. This allows for the most advanta- whereas direct current should be used for non-
geous welding positions for the highest productivity and quality. This would be ferrous metals. DCEP gives deeper penetration
considered an automatic application of the SAW process because of the sensing than DCEN.
prods being used to track the joint. Pandjiris

For automatic/mechanized submerged arc welding, filler

wires are larger to take advantage of higher currents and
higher deposition rates. Sizes of 564 to 732 inch are generally
used with currents from 200 to 1,200 amperes. Large elec-
trodes have hard starting characteristics.
With all other conditions (other than WFS) held con-
stant, an increase in wire size reduces the deposition rate
and penetration. An increase in current corresponding to
an increase in electrode size increases the deposition rate
and penetration.

Multiple-Wire Techniques Multiple arcs, Fig. 23-40, in-

crease meltoff rates and direct the arc blow to provide an
increase in welding speed. Two electrodes fed through the
same jaws from one power source increase the deposition
rate by 50 percent on work such as large, flat-position fil-
lets and wide groove welds in which fill-in is a major con-
sideration. The two arcs pull together, causing back blow
at the front arc and forward blow at the trailing arc.
When two wires are being run into the same welding
pool and power is being supplied by one power source,
this is generally referred to as the twin electrode SAW Fig. 23-41 This is a submerged arc tandem set up with two
electrodes; there could be three, four or more electrodes. Each
process. electrode has its own head as can be seen. In this case the heads
Multiple-wire, multiple-power arcs, in which two or are staggered to weld on the opposite sides of the weldments to
more electrodes each have a separately controlled power help control distortion. Note the side beam carriage that will move
source, provide high speed on both fill-in and square the arcs along the fixed weldments. Lincoln Electric

778 Chapter 23 FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1
Thinner materials may be welded with a square edge. advanced student to practice a number of butt, lap and T-
A backing bar is often necessary. Heavy materials may be joints with the process.
beveled. The material may be only partially beveled so that If your school does not have submerged arc welding
a relatively heavy root face remains. Welding is often done equipment, the process can still be observed by using ex-
from both sides. Fillet welds up to 34 inch may be made isting GMAW or FCAW equipment. Use of the constant
without beveling. Fillet weld penetration is deep. voltage power source and wire feeder can be used up to its
The flux is supplied from a hopper that is either output and wire diameter capability. A joint can be set up
mounted directly on the welding head or connected to the in the flat position and the flux placed directly on the joint
head by tubing. The bare filler rod is fed into the head to facilitate not having a flux delivery system. Since this
from a coil or reel. will be done semiautomatically, care must be taken not
to get the end of the gun in the molten slag or weld pool.
Submerged Arc Surfacing The term surfacing is used Semiautomatic submerged arc welding can be used on
to describe the application of welding a layer of metal on those jobs for which submerged arc welding would be de-
a surface to obtain a desired surface dimension or other sirable, but the fully automatic process would not be suited
physical properties such as corrosion resistance. The SAW for economic reasons or physical limitations.
process is often used to surface carbon steel with stainless The semiautomatic application is similar to the automatic/
steel. This is a very economical way to obtain a corrosion- mechanized application in that the welding operation
resistant vessel for the petrochemical or power plant in- takes place beneath a blanket of flux, but the hand gun is
dustry. In some cases a typical round electrode is used; guided manually. The electrode is a continuous wire that
in other situations a strip is used. The strip produces a is fed through the center of a flexible welding cable and
much wider weld with less penetration in the carbon steel. through a gun to the arc. The flux is deposited by gravity
As the arc moves back and forth across the edge of the on the joint from a welding gun. The flux also can be de-
strip, it moves the heat energy over a much wider area. posited by force feed from an air supplied system.
This reduces the dilution effect and makes the whole pro- Equipment includes the welding machine, the conical
cess more efficient. In many cases the required chemical flux container and welding nozzle, wire reel, wire-feeding
analysis can be obtained in one pass, whereas when using mechanism, and the control unit for the control of wire
a solid round electrode, several layers may be required. It feed and arc voltage, Fig. 23-42, page 780.
takes a special welding head and drive system to change Semiautomatic submerged arc welding is essentially a
from feeding a conventional round electrode to feeding small wire process. It is possible to weld 34-inch plate hav-
a strip. The strip widths commonly used vary from 916 to ing a square edge with filler wire 564 inch in diameter and
over 9 inches, with a thickness of 0.024 inch, which en- 600 amperes of welding current. Each side is welded with
ables a band of the strip width and some 332-inch depth to one pass. The resultant weld is smooth, penetrating, and
be deposited in a single pass. Deposition rates can be as spatter-free. Appearance is similar to that obtained with
high as 44 pounds per hour. flux cored electrode welding.
Semiautomatic Submerged Arc WeldingSemiautomatic Process CharacteristicsIn comparison with automatic/
submerged arc welding is being replaced by solid wire, mechanized submerged arc welding, the semiautomatic
metal cored wire, and flux cored wire welding. It is still process has the following characteristics:
used to some extent for hard-surfacing. Two examples of this
It can follow irregular shapes.
process are Squirt Welding, a Lincoln process, and Union
Welding can be done without fixtures or with only
Melt, an ESAB process. If the school welding shop has this
simple fixtures.
type of equipment, it would be an added experience for the
Equipment is easily portable, and the process is highly
The cost of equipment is lower than for the
automatic/mechanized process.
The semiautomatic process can be used for any of the
Safety following broad applications:
When youre not using a piece of
equipment, turn if off. If the equipment is going to be When the gun can be dragged along the joint, provid-
left unattended, or is not in service, just completely ing accurate guiding
disconnect it from its power source. When the work can be rotated and the gun held in
position by hand

FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1 Chapter 23 779
Wire Reel
Filler Wire

Manually Wire-feed Drive Motor

Held Gun Wire Feeder Control System

Flux Hopper


Welding Machine

Auto Torch

Flux Electrode

Work Work Lead

Fig. 23-42 Schematic diagram of component units needed for submerged arc welding. Source: Hobart
Brothers Co.

When the work can be rotated and the gun held in a variable. Note the bead appearance and penetration char-
simple locating fixture acteristics of these welds compared to the other arc weld-
When both the gun and the work can be moved by ing processes you have experience with.
special fixtures.
Power Source Constant voltage d.c. power sources are
used for the SAW process. These machines can be of
Submerged Arc Welding the transformer rectifier type, inverter type, or engine-
Semiautomatic Practice Job driven generator type. Make certain the power source
has sufficient output voltage, amperage, and duty cycle
Instructions for Completing for the welding you will be doing.
the Practice Job
Wire Feeder Use the same feeder as for the FCAW prac-
Complete the practice job according to the specifications
tice setup with as large a diameter as possible for the feeder
given in the Job Outline, Table 23-12, page 789. Set up
and power source being used; 116 inch would be best.
for welding as you did when practicing with the FCAW-S
process. Gun Use the same gun as for the GMAW or FCAW-G
If your school has automatic or mechanized SAW practice. Since shielding is provided by the flux, you
equipment, you should practice its operation as well. will not be using the gas shielding. Leave the gas nozzle
Set up for welding as you did when practicing with the in place and recess the contact tube 332 to 14 inch. This
GMAW process. will help you gauge the electrode extension while weld-
This job should provide about 4 to 6 hours of practice ing. Use the largest diameter gas nozzle available.
depending upon the skill of the individual student and
the capability of the equipment. After completing this Electrode Extension The electrode extension is set be-
job, you may wish to practice with other forms of joints fore welding starts. It can range from 1 to 2 inches. You
and various thicknesses of material. A wide range of cur- will have to visualize the extension by looking at the joint
rent (WFS) and voltage should be employed. Develop a and the flux depth plus the recess into the gas nozzle,
good understanding of the results of changes in the basic Fig. 23-43.

780 Chapter 23 FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1
Inspection and Testing After the weld is completed, use
Nozzle the same inspection and testing procedures that you have
learned in previous welding practice. Examine the welds
Contact Tube
for bead formation and fine ripple appearance. It is impos-
sible to determine the physical characteristics of a weld
by its appearance. However, a weld that shows good fu-
sion along the edges, has normal convexity, is free from
Flux Depth
Electrode Wire.
Approximately 1 in. undercut and surface defects, and has fine, smooth ripples
Note Extension
of Approximately usually meets the physical requirements.
11/2 in. Steel Plate
3/8 in. Thick Electroslag Welding (ESW)
Electroslag welding (ESW) was developed for the weld-
ing of vertical plates, ranging in thickness from 1 to
14 inches, with a single pass. The plate edges require no
Fig. 23-43 Practice job using semiautomatic application of sub- Electroslag welding process can be used in the au
merged arc welding process.
tomatic or mechanized applications. The equipment
used for electroslag welding consists of a carriage as-
Welding TechniqueBefore starting, check all weld-
sembly, which moves upward along the joint, and a mul-
ing control settings. Drive rolls and the wire guide tube tiple set of feed-wire guide assemblies that can be made
should be correct for the wire size and type being used. to oscillate horizontally, Fig. 23-44 (p. 782). Copper
The gun, cable, and nozzle contact tip should also be cor- shoes are positioned against the joint to act as a dam.
rect for the wire size and electrode extension being used. The filler wire is fed to the weld zone through a nozzle
in a vertically down feed (while the weld progression is
Starting the Arc After the proper electrode extension vertical-up). The welding operations are controlled from
has been established, pour a layer of flux into the joint. a panel board and may be automatically, mechanically,
Flux at both ends of the joint can be supported with or semiautomatically controlled.
sheet metal. Rest the electrode tip in the root of the The fusion of the base metal and the continuously
joint approximately 1 inch from the edge of the joint. fed filler wires takes place under a heavy layer of high
The trigger is pressed to start the arc. The mechanical temperature, electrically conductive molten flux. The
feed will take care of advancing the electrode. Welding filler wires may be either solid, metal cored, or flux
is stopped by releasing the trigger. Since you will not cored. For welding plates up to 5 inches in thickness,
be able to see the weld pool (it is submerged below the only one electrode may be used. Two electrodes are
layer of flux), you will have to judge your travel speed generally used for plates 4 to 10 inches thick, and three
on feel. If you weld too slowly, the fillet weld will be electrodes for 10- to 14-inch thicknesses. When neces-
too large; if you weld too quickly, the fillet weld will sary, the electrodes may be oscillated to provide bet-
be too small. The nozzle should be able to be dragged ter distribution of weld metal. It is a high heat process.
on the joint to help steady and control the electrode Voltage ranges from 42 to 52; and amperage, from 500
extension. to 640, depending on the thickness of metal. The power
is alternating current.
Gun Angle Use a drag travel angle about the same as The plates are set up in a vertical plane with the
that used for stick electrode welding. The work angle square edges spaced from 1 to 1516 inches, according to
varies with the type of joint and thickness of mate- the thickness of the plate. Water-cooled copper shoes
rial. Drag the nozzle along the joint to deposit a single form a mold around the joint gap and give form to the
stringer bead of approximately 12-inch leg size. weld. The shoes are mechanized so that they can move
vertically upward as the weld proceeds. A prepared
Operating Variable Four major variables affect the weld- block is placed under the plate edges to close the joint
ing performance with the SAW process: arc voltage, cur- cavity. Granular flux is poured into the cavity, and the
rent (WFS), travel speed, and electrode extension. The weld pool is established with the filler wires. At first
flux depth must not be too deep or too shallow. Do not only the flux is fused into molten slag.
allow flash-through to occur, and only a slight amount of The extreme heat produced by the resistance heating in
smoke should be observed coming out of the layer of flux. the weld pool, molten flux, and electrode cause the base

FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1 Chapter 23 781
Flux Hopper

Wire Feed Drive


Molten Slag
Vertical Drive
Molten Weld

Copper Shoe Power Source

Water System
Power Leads


Fig. 23-44 Basic components of an electroslag welding operation. Note the travel rail that provides
the vertical up-and-down movement.

metal to melt. The weld is formed by the two sides of the joint being welded and two
formed by the water-cooled water-cooled copper shoes, Fig.23-46. This bath contains
plates. It is homogeneous the molten weld metal and slag. The tube, or guide, is
and has good penetration connected to the positive side of a rectifier power source
into the base metal and DCEP. The heat necessary to melt the guide, the filler
smooth, clean weld faces, wire, and the joint edges being welded is generated by
Fig. 23-45. the passage of the welding current through the electrode,
molten flux, and weld pool. The guide tube and filler wire
Electroslag Welding with melt at a rate that determines the welding speed.
a Consumable Guide The consumable guide process operates equally well
Consumable guide weld- on direct current or alternating current. The constant volt-
ing, or CG as it is referred age power source is recommended.
Fig. 23-45 A square groove to in the trade, is a method Consumable guide welding is not a true submerged
butt joint made with the electro- that is used to weld verti- arc welding process. It uses an arc only at the start of the
slag process in steel plate cal beam joints. process to generate heat for the melting of the slag. As
3 inches thick. It had a 1-inch root A tube that is coated soon as the bath of molten slag is established, the slag
opening and was welded in with slag-forming and al- causes the arc to be extinguished automatically. Another
1 pass. The completed weld is
1 inches wide with 18-inch face loying elements guides a characteristic of the slag is low conductivity. This in-
reinforcement. Welding was done filler wire from the wire- creases resistance heating from the passage of the elec-
in the vertical position, travel up. feeding unit into a bath tric current.

782 Chapter 23 FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1