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•  An increase in welding speed increases productiv-

ity and improves the mechanical properties of the


weld metal and the heat-affected zones. The weld
metal is free from porosity and slag inclusions.
There are fewer problems with residual stresses
and plate deformation.
Electrode
Electrogas Welding (EGW)
Electrode
Feed Roll Electrogas welding can be done with solid metal cored
or flux cored electrodes. It is an arc welding process
using an approximately vertical welding progres-
sion with backing being provided by the molten weld
metal. It is used with or without externally supplied
shielding gas, which is determined by what type of
electrode is supplied.
Consumable Guide The electrogas welding process is similar to elec-
troslag welding. It is a fully automated method for
the welding of butt, corner, and T-joints in the verti-
Base Material cal position. It differs only in the welding current and
the medium used for protecting the weld pool from
Water-Cooled atmospheric contamination. Direct current, electrode
Copper Dam
positive is used instead of alternating current, and
shielding gas instead of granular flux may be fed into
Slag Bath the weld pool. It is possible to weld metal sections of
1
⁄2 inch to over 2 inches in thickness with a single pass
Weld and without any edge preparation.
Here again, water-cooled copper shoes span the
joint cavity and form a dam to contain the molten weld
metal. Flux cored, metal cored, or solid filler wire is fed
into the cavity by means of a curved guide, Fig. 23-47,
page 784. An electric arc is established and continu-
ously maintained between the filler wire and the weld
pool. Helium, argon, carbon dioxide, or mixtures of
these gases may be fed continuously into the cavity
to provide a suitable atmosphere for shielding the arc
and the weld pool. The flux core of the filler wire pro-
vides deoxidizers and slagging materials for cleaning
the weld metal. The base metal is melted and fused
Water as a result of the high temperature from the arc and
the molten slag. The molten slag forms a protective
Fig. 23-46  Essentials of consumable guide welding.  Adapted from coating between the shoes and the gases of the weld and
ESAB Welding and Cutting Products. a seal between the shoes and the surfaces of the work to
prevent air from entering the weld pocket. As the weld-
ing progresses, the copper shoes move upward. Welding
Because of resistance heating, the length of the tube is
is done with DCEP.
limited to approximately 40 inches. The tube can be ex-
The edges are square cut and are spaced from 11⁄16 to
tended, however, if a movable current contact is used. 7
⁄8 inch or more. The minimum spacing must be large
The consumable guide process has the following ad- enough to admit the wire guide and permit it to oscil-
vantages over conventional electroslag welding: late without arcing on the plate surfaces. Spacing that is
•• The welding machine is portable, lightweight, and too wide requires excessive filler wire and increases the
relatively easy to operate. welding time. Welding is done within a range of 500 to
•• Welding of thinner metals is possible. 700 amperes. Filler wire diameters can be used.

FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1–J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1–J12; SAW Job 23-J1  Chapter 23    783
Flux Cored Electrode

Wire Guide Plate 1

Gas
Shielding
Molten Slag*

Water
Circulation

Molten Weld/Metal

Solidifying
Weld/Metal

Solidified Metal

Water Connections
Plate 2

Completed Weld
* If welding done with an FCAW electrode.
Fig. 23-48  Verti-Shield stationary fixture and controls. The
physical specifications are: weight—57 pounds; ­dimensions—
Fig. 23-47  Basic components for electrogas welding. Note the 19.25 inches high, 24.25 inches wide, and 18.38 inches deep. 
point of entrance of the shielding gas. © Lincoln Electric

The Lincoln Electric Company refers to a variation of and is for use with 1⁄2-inch diameter consumable guide
the EGW as the Verti-Shield process, which is a mecha- welding, Fig. 23-48.
nized vertical-up welding process designed to maximize The electrogas process is used in the field erection
productivity when joining steel plates. Welding is done of pressure vessels and liquid storage tanks and in the
vertically in a single pass on either butt joints or T-joints. shop fabrication of large pressure vessels and heavy
There are two different methods that can be used: structures. Carbon, low alloy, high tensile, medium
1. Consumable guide tube process alloy, air-hardening, and chrome-nickel stainless steels
2. Movable dam process (butt joint with groove are successfully welded by this process. In field welding,
welds only) the work is enclosed in an all-weather shelter to protect
it from the elements and air currents that might disturb
The Verti-Shield stationary fixture and control consists the gas shield during welding. Alloy steels do not require
of a consumable guide fixture, automatic controls, and preheat and may be welded at 32°F, providing there is no
10-foot cable for 0.120-inch (3.0 millimeter) electrode, frost. Shrinkage, warpage, and distortion are avoided by
this process.

Choice of Welding Process


JO B TI P
In general, the selection of the welding process (manual,
Behavior at Work semiautomatic, mechanized, or automatic) depends on the
When at work, leave your stereotypes proper evaluation of each job. The three processes have
behind. They get in the way of good teamwork. With the following applications and advantages.
your fellow workers, you have a common goal to keep
the company prosperous. With customers, you have a
Manual Welding Applications
mutually profitable exchange partnership, where you
provide the service and the customer provides the •• Out-of-position welding in which a large, highly fluid
marketplace. weld pool would spill
•• Relatively short welds

784   Chapter 23   FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1–J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1–J12; SAW Job 23-J1
•• Light and heavy gauge metals •• When the contour of the work is irregular and fitup
•• Nonrepetitive jobs is not accurate enough for automatic/mechanized
•• Jobs that are costly or difficult to fixture guiding
•• Jobs in which fitup cannot be controlled
•• Jobs in which it would be difficult to retain flux Semiautomatic Advantages
­because of the shape of the work •• Produces welds of desirable appearance and high
•• Jobs where obstructions of one kind or another make quality weld metal characteristics
it impossible to make an uninterrupted weld •• Higher welding speeds than hand welding
•• Less slag and weld spatter
Manual Welding Advantages •• Reduced costs
•• Can be done indoors or outdoors
•• Can be done in any position and in inaccessible Mechanized and Automatic Welding Application
locations •• Highly repetitive jobs that can be fixtured
•• Can weld a wide range of alloys and dissimilar
metals Mechanized and Automatic Advantages
•• Low cost, portable equipment •• Pushbutton arc striking
•• High rate of weld metal deposition
Semiautomatic Applications •• Welds have smooth, even appearance
•• Jobs in which you can take advantage of the addi- •• Heavier construction than manual and ­se­miau­tomatic
tional meltoff provided by currents higher than those equipment
possible with manual processes •• Higher current capacity than manual or semi-­
•• Jobs that are repetitive enough so that a high degree of automatic equipment
skill can be acquired •• Increased welding speeds
•• Medium and heavy metals •• Self-contained travel mechanism
•• When the continuous wire feed increases the welding •• Reduced electrode loss
time (duty cycle) •• Machine precision
•• When complicated shapes or extremely large •• Minimum slag removal
­weldments make fixturing for the automatic/­ •• Reduced problem of heat distortion
mechanized application too difficult •• Accurate, continuous control and fewer weld rejects
•• When the penetration, which is deeper than that pro- due to automation
duced by other manual processes, is an advantage •• High mechanical properties of welds

CHAPTER 23 REVIEW

Multiple Choice 3. Because of the shallow penetration characteristics


Choose the letter of the correct answer. of FCAW, groove angles must be increased, the root
opening expanded, and a smaller root face must be
1. Which piece of equipment is not required for
used to ensure CJP? (Obj. 23-1)
FCAW-S? (Obj. 23-1)
a. True
a. Shielding gas and control unit
b. False
b. Power source
c. Wire-feeding mechanism and control 4. Which gun travel angle is used for FCAW to keep
d. Gun the lag from running ahead of the weld pool?
(Obj. 23-2)
2. FCAW can be used for code work and produces
a. Push
readiographic quality welds. (Obj. 23-1)
b. Work
a. True
c. Drag
b. False
d. Compound

FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1–J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1–J12; SAW Job 23-J1  Chapter 23   785
5. FCAW-G electrodes require an electrode extension Review Questions
of approximately how many inches? (Obj. 23-2) Write the answers in your own words.
a.  1⁄4 to 1⁄2
11. What is the function of the flux in the core of an
b.  3⁄8 to 1½
FCAW electrode? (Obj. 23-1)
c.  1⁄4 to 1½
d.  3⁄4 to 2 12. Name and explain the various welding variables
used for FCAW. (Obj. 23-2)
6. FCAW-S electrodes may require electrode exten-
sions as great as ______. (Obj. 23-2) 13. Describe the gun travel and work angle, offset,
a. 1 inch polarity, and electrode extension for making a 2F
b. 2 inches weld on a T-joint with the FCAW-G electrode.
c. 3 inches (Obj. 23-3)
d. 4 inches 14. When making a groove weld with FCAW-G elec-
7. When making a fillet (2F) weld the electrode should trodes, describe the width and height of the weld in
be pointed at the bottom plate, with one electrode relation to the groove. Also what is required to en-
diameter offset so that the weld metal will wash up sure good root penetration? (Obj. 23-3)
on the vertical plate. (Obj. 23-3) 15. What does the M designator mean on an E71T-1M
a. True electrode classification? (Obj. 23-3)
b. False 16. Sketch the FCAW-G and FCAW-S process sche-
8. Which type of electrodes are best used outdoors or matics and label and highlight the differences.
in drafty areas? (Obj. 23-4) (Obj. 23-4)
a. FCAW-S 17. List six functions of the flux as used for the SAW
b. FCAW-G process. (Obj. 23-5)
c. Innershield® 18. Describe how the flux depth should be determined
d. Both a and c for SAW. (Obj. 23-5)
9. Which flux cored electrode requires a different gun 19. With all other conditions held constant with SAW,
than GMAW? (Obj. 23-4) an increase in wire size will affect penetration and
a. FCAW-G deposition in what way? Fully explain your answer.
b. FCAW-S (Obj. 23-5)
c. Dual Shield® 20. Sketch the basic components of the ESW and EGW
d. FabCO® processes. Label and highlight the differences.
10. Which of the following weld processes in not (Obj. 23-6)
considered to be an arc welding process?
(Objs. 23-5 and 23-6)
a. FCAW
b. SAW
c. ESW
d. EGW

INTERNET ACTIVITIES

Internet Activity A
Use the Internet to find out about OSHA Regulations (Standards 29CFR) Part
1926 Safety and Health Regulations for Construction, Subpart J Welding and
Cutting (1926.350 to 1926.354), Part 1926.353 Ventilation and protection in
welding, cutting, and heating, (a) (4).
Internet Activity B
Use your favorite search engine to find out about the U.S. DOT and use of ESW
on bridges.

786   Chapter 23   FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1–J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1–J12; SAW Job 23-J1
Table 23-10  Job Outline: Flux Cored Arc Welding Practice with Gas Shielded Electrodes (Plate)

Electrode1 Shielding Gas2 Welding Current


Wire-Feed
Plate Gas Speed Electrode AWS
Recommended Thickness Weld No. of Type Size Flow (WFS) Extension S.E.N.S.E.
Job Order Material (in.) Joint Weld Position Passes AWS (in.) Type (ft3/h) Volts Amperes (in./min) (in.) Reference
1st Steel 1
⁄4 Flat Surfacing Flat (1C) Cover E71T-1 1
⁄16 Carbon 30–40 25–30 310–365 275–375 1 Not
plate plate dioxide applicable
2nd Steel 1
⁄4 T Fillet Flat (1F) 2 E71T-1 1
⁄16 Carbon 30–40 25–30 310–365 275–375 1 Entry level
dioxide
3rd Steel 1
⁄4 Lap Fillet Horizontal 1 E71T-1 1
⁄16 Carbon 30–40 23–30 310–365 275–375 1 Entry level
(2F) dioxide
4th Steel 3
⁄8 T Fillet Horizontal 6 E71T-1 1
⁄16 Carbon 35–40 23–30 310–365 275–375 1 Entry level
(2F) dioxide
5th Steel 3
⁄16 Butt Square- Flat (1G) 1 E71T-1 1
⁄16 Carbon 30–40 23–30 310–365 275–375 1 Entry level
groove dioxide
with
backing
6th Steel 3
⁄8 Butt V-groove Flat (1G) 2 E71T-1 1
⁄16 Carbon 35–40 23–30 310–365 275–375 1 Entry level
with dioxide
backing
7th Steel 3
⁄8 T Fillet Vertical 2 E71T-1 0.045 Carbon 35–40 25–27 180–220 275–340 3
⁄4 Entry level
(3F) dioxide
8th Steel 1
⁄2 Butt V-groove Vertical 3 E71T-1 0.045 Carbon 35–40 25–27 180–220 275–340 3
⁄4 Entry level
with (3G) dioxide
backing
9th Steel 1
⁄2 Butt V-groove 2G 6 E71T-1 0.045 Carbon 35–45 26–30 220–275 340–500 3
⁄4 Entry level
with dioxide
backing
10th Steel 1
⁄2 T Fillet 4F 3 E71T-1 0.045 Carbon 35–45 25–27 180–220 275–340 3
⁄4 Entry level
dioxide
11th Steel 1
⁄2 Butt V-groove 4G 6 E71T-1 0.045 Carbon 35–45 27–28 190–220 300–340 3
⁄4 Entry level
with dioxide
backing
23-JQT13 Steel 3
⁄8 Butt, Fillet and 2F As E71T-1 0.045 Carbon 35–45 25–30 180–275 275–500 3
⁄4 Entry level
lap, groove 3F required dioxide qualification
T 4F to attain test
2G weld
3G size

Note: The conditions given here are basic and will vary with the job situation, the results desired, and the skill of the welder.
  787

Other FCAW-G electrode types and sizes may be substituted. The specific manufacturer’s parameter recommendations should be used. E70T-1 electrodes can be used for the flat (1) and horizontal (2) positions.
1

Use of 75 to 80% Argon, balance CO2 can be used with the E71T-1M electrodes, for less smoke, spatter, and a very smooth stable arc. Penetration will be reduced from 100% CO2. Better weld pool control will be p
2
­ rovided for out-of-position welding.
Refer to AWS S.E.N.S.E. documents QC10:2008, and QC11-96 for additional information.
3
788  

Table 23-11  Job Outline: Flux Cored Arc Welding Practice with Self-Shielded Electrodes
Electrode1 Welding Current DCEN
Wire-Feed Electrode AWS
Recommended Plate Weld No. of Size Arc Speed Extension S.E.N.S.E.
Job Order Material Thickness Joint Weld Position Passes Type (in.) Volts Amperes (in./min) (in.) Reference
1 Steel ⁄16 in.
3
Flat Surfacing 1C Cover plate E71T-11 0.068 18–20 190–270 75–130 3
⁄4 Entry level
plate
2 Steel ⁄16 in.
3
Butt Square groove 1G 1 E71T 0.068 15–18 125–190 40–75 5
⁄8 Entry level
with backing
3 Steel ⁄16 in.
3
T Fillet 2F 1 E71T 0.068 18–20 190–270 75–130 5
⁄8 Entry level
4 Steel 10 gauge T Fillet 2F 1 E71T 0.068 15–18 125–190 40–75 3
⁄4 Entry level
5 Steel 1
⁄4 in. T Fillet 3F 1 E71T 0.045 15–18 140–160 90–110 3
⁄8 Entry level
6 Steel ⁄16 in.
3
Lap Fillet 1F 1 E71T 0.068 18–20 190–270 75–130 3
⁄4 Entry level
7 Steel 10 gauge Lap Fillet 1F 1 E71T 0.068 18–18 125–190 40–75 3
⁄4 Entry level
8 Steel 1
⁄4 in. T Fillet 4F 1 E71T 0.045 16–17 140–160 90–110 3
⁄8 Entry level
9 Steel 3
⁄8 in. Butt V-groove with 1G 2 E71T 0.068 20–23 270–300 130–175 3
⁄4 Entry level
backing
10 Steel 1
⁄2 in. Butt V-groove with 2G 1 E71T 0.045 15–16 120–140 70–90 3
⁄8 Entry level
backing 2–3 16–17 140–160 90–110
4–6 17–18 160–170 110–130
11 Steel 1
⁄2 in. Butt V-groove with 3G 1–3 E71T 0.045 17–18 160–170 110–130 3
⁄8 Entry level
backing
12 Steel 1
⁄2 in. Butt V-groove with 4G 1 E71T 0.045 15–16 124–140 70–90 3
⁄8 Entry level
backing 2–3 16–17 140–160 90–110
4–6 17–18 160–170 110–130
23-JQT22 Steel 3
⁄8 in. Butt, Grooves and 2F As E71T 0.045 16–18 140–170 90–130 3
⁄8 Entry level
lap, fillets 3F required
T 4F to attain
weld
2G size
3G

1
Other FCAW-S electrode types and sizes may be substituted. Always use the specific manufacturer’s parameter recommendations. Because of the unique nature of the self-shielded electrode the Lincoln ­Innershield NR-211MP
was used for the development of this table.
Refer to AWS S.E.N.S.E. documents QC10-2008 and QC11-96 for additional information.
2
Table 23-12  Job Outline: Semiautomatic Application of the Submerged Arc Welding Process

Welding Current
Electrode1/flux DCEN
Plate Electrode
Recommended Job Thickness Weld No. of Size Arc Extension AWS S.E.N.S.E.
Order Material (in.) Joint Weld Position Passes Type (in.) Volts Amperes (in.) Reference
1 Steel 3
⁄8 T Fillet 1F 1 F6A2-E1M12 1
⁄16 37 400 1–2 Not applicable
  789