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1. ABSOLUTE PRESSURE: Pressure gauges give readings that

represent the difference between the pressure being measured
and the pressure of the atmosphere. These readings are
known as Gauge Pressure and can be converted to total or
absolute pressure by adding the barometric or atmospheric
For example: Air Compressor discharge pressure =
5.6kg/cm2 (g)

= 5.6 + 1.033

= 6.633kg/cm2

2. ABSORBER: A piece of equipment in which a gas or liquid is

taken in by contact with another material (or liquid/gas).

3. ABSORPTION: The taking up of a gas or vapor by a liquid, the

taking up of a liquid by a solid, or the taking up of energy (heat,
light, x-ray) another material.

4. ACETYLENE C2H2: A colorless, highly flammable gas that is

explosive when compressed, the simplest compound containing
a triple bond. On ASUs, concentration of C 2H2 in condenser
could lead to explosion. In case of increasing trend of
acetylene concentration, condenser liquid should be drained
gradually. Reason for such trend should be traced immediately,
such as a diesel engine running near air compressor suction
filters should be stopped.

5. ADSORPTION: The concentration of a gas, liquid or solid on

the surface of a solid. The adsorbing material can be
reactivated and reused.

Example: The adsorption of hydrocarbons on new beds (silica


6. ADSORBER: A piece of equipment used for adsorption.

7. AFTERCOOLER: Process vessel used for final cooling of a
process fluid after compression.

Example: Nitrogen Compressor After cooler

Air Booster Compressor After cooler

8. ALARM: A device (either light or bell or both) which indicates

that some function in the unit has exceeded its predetermined

Example: High Pressure, High Temperature Low Level, High


9. ALARM PANEL: That portion of a control panel used for

mounting alarm lights, etc.

Example: The top portion of ASU panel.

10. ALGAE: Seaweeds, pond scrums and a variety of microscopic

plants inhabiting fresh and salt waters.

Example: Algae growth in seawater intake pit which could

block the SW/CW plate exchangers.

11. ALIGNMENT: The positioning of two or more pieces of

equipment to form a line.

Example: Motor and pump, motor and compressor, etc.

12. ALUMINA: A desiccant, aluminum oxide (AL2O3) used for

drying gases.

Example: Alumina gel in gel dryers.

13. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: The temperature in the outside


14. AMMETER: An instrument to measure the magnitude of

electric current flow.
15. AMPERES (AMPS): A unit of measure of the electrical current
flow in a wire. It is similar to cubic meters of a liquid flow in a

16. ANALYSIS: A laboratory procedure to determine the

composition of a substance.

Example: Copper ammonia test (orsat analysis)

17. ANALYZER: An instrument used to measure the quantity of

one, several or all components of a process stream.
Example: O2 analyzers to measure O2 contents in pure
gaseous nitrogen, waste nitrogen, poor liquid, etc.

18. ANODE: The positive terminal of an electrolytic cell. An anode

can be made of carbon, zinc, or magnesium. Used to slow
corrosion or electroplating.

Example: Sacrificial anodes installed in Trickling Cooler, Water

Cooler, etc.

19. ANTI SURGE: Since compressor surge can only occur when
certain pressure and flow conditions are met, an anti surge
device generally consists of automatic instrumentation
designed to prevent these conditions. It may be actuated by
flow or pressure conditions, or both, and it may control either
flow or pressure or both.

Example: Anti Surge Controller for Air Compressors 32-PIC-


20. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE: The pressure at any point in an

atmosphere solely due to the weight of the atmospheric gases
(air) above the point concerned.

Example: Atmospheric pressure at sea level: 1.033 kg cm2

21. AUTO (Automatic): It refers to the operation of a chemical
unit, mechanical device, etc. without the assistance of operating
personnel. The opposite of Automatic Operation is MANUAL.
20. AUTOMATIC CONTROL: The ability to sense or measure the
value of a variable (flow, pressure, level, temperature, etc.) and
act to hold it at desired value (set point).

22. BACK FLUSH (Back Wash): Reverse the normal flow of liquid
through a screen or condenser to remove all the trapped

Example: Back wash cleaning operation for SW/CW Coolers,

filters, CW strainer.

23. BAFFLE (Heat Exchanger): Plates on a tube bundle used to

control the flow path on the shell side of a heat exchanger.

24. BEARING: A machine part that supports another part which

rotates, slides, or oscillates in or on it.
Example: Different kinds of bearing used in the plant, journal
bearing, thrust bearing, ball bearing, etc.

25. BLACK LIGHT: Ultraviolet light used in the inspection of

equipments to be used in oxygen service. Oil fluorescence
under black light.

26. BLANKETING: The process of putting nitrogen into the vapor

space above the liquid in a tank to prevent any air leakage into
the tank.

Example: N2 blanketing for LN/LO atm. tanks

N2 blanketing of flammable products

27. BLEEDING: Withdrawing from a line or vessel a small portion

of the contaminated material, usually by slightly crack opening
a valve in the line or on the vessel. Also, removing an air
pocket from a liquid line.

28. BLIND (Blank): A shaped piece of metal plate which is

inserted between the flanges to provide a positive means of
stopping the flow from either direction, isolating the pipe on
each side of the flange.
29. BLIND FLANGE: A circular plate with bolt holes used to cap
the flange on the end of a pipe.

30. BLOCK VALVE: A positive shut off valve which isolate or

interrupt the flow through a pipe or from a vessel.

31. BLOW DOWN: A stream, usually liquid, that is removed

continuously or periodically from a process generally for
cleanup purposes.

Example: Continuous blow down from CW Pit

32. BLOW OFF: To vent a gas to the atmosphere or another unit

through a passage provided for this purpose.

Example: Venting of air through PV-1110 is blow off.

33. BLOWER: Air brake type fan with the Expansion Turbine. It is
run by the energy available from the expansion of air (or WN) in
the turbine. Blowers or fan usually dont provide appreciable
pressure rise but are used to more large amount of gases.

34. BLOWING: The process of adding a compressed gas (nitrogen

or air) into a line in order to clear the line for unwanted

Example: Cleaning of oxygen/nitrogen pipelines with

pressurized GN in the commissioning period.

35. BOILING POINT: The temperature at which a substance is

converted to vapor.

36. BOIL UP: When heat is added to vaporize a liquid as in

distillations, the vapor evolved is termed as boil up. The boil
up rate is directly proportional to the heat added.

Example: Boil up of oxygen in the ASU condenser.

37. BONNET: The portion of a valve body through which the stem
leaves the body. The bonnet contains the stem packing. The
bonnet may be extra long for cold service or finned for hot
Example: 20-FV-7132/7142, etc.

38. BOOSTER PUMP: A machine used to raise the pressure level

of any field stream which has been previously subjected to a
pumping operation.

Example: Air Booster Compressor

39. BOURDON PRESSURE GAUGE: A mechanical pressure

measuring instrument employing as its sensing element, a
curved or twisted metal tube flattened in cross section and
closed on one end.

40. BRAKE: To brake is to stop. Either electric drive, overhead

crane, etc. when positive stop is necessary.

41. BREAKER BKR: Electrical device to open or close electrical

circuits to equipment. Can be either manual or electric
controlled. Some breakers are automated to open to protect
electrical equipment from over current, high temperature, etc.

42. BUBBLE CAP: Metallic caps covering holes in a column tray.

Vapor passes up through the liquid on the tray through slots in
the cap to the next tray.

43. BUBBLE CAP TRAY: A tray in a distillation column consisting

of a casting perforated with chimney like risers, which are
capped with bubble caps.

41. BUBBLE CAP COLUMN: A distillation column so concentrated

that the vapors generated in it pass upward through layers of
condensate contained on a series of tray.

The vapor passes from a given tray to the next above by

bubbling under a cap and out through the liquid layer. The less
volatile components of the vapor condense and the excess
liquid overflows to the next tray below and so on.

44. BUFFER SOLUTIONS: A solution which is a combination of

chemicals, which when added to another solution, resists any
change in hydrogen ion concentration (PH) on the addition of
an acid or a base.

45. BUNDLE (Heat Exchanger): A bunch of tubes and the

attached tube sheet(s) of heat exchanger.

46. BUS BAR: A copper, aluminum, silver, etc. bar of various sizes
used to carry current in electrical switchgear.

47. BUS: Network of energized sections of switchgear.

48. BUTTERFLY VALVE: A pan cake type valve with a gate

pinned at top and bottom allowing the gate to turn across or in
line with flow.

49. BYPASS: An alternate route around a piece of equipment.

50. BY-PRODUCT: A product from a chemical process that is not

considered the principal material.

C: Degree centigrade

51. CABLE (Electrical): Electrical conductors of copper,

aluminum, etc.

52. CALIBRATION: Determination of the accuracy of an

instrument by finding its variation from some standard

Example: Calibration of pressure gauge, meters, etc.

53. CANAL: A large deep ditch filled with water.


a) Relating to a tank: Maximum volume

b) Relating to a specific equipment, a unit or to a plant:
Maximum production or output
a) Capacity of Fire Water Tank
b) Capacity of Nitrogen Compressor
55. CASCADE: It refers to a control system involving two or more
controllers. One instrument measure a process variable (as
temperature or pressure) and resets a second process
condition (as flow) through another controller.

Example: Cascade system for Airflow 22-FIC-2615 with

analyzer 32-AIC-3924

56. CATALYST: Any substance which affects the rate of a chemical

reaction and which, in general, remains unchanged at the end
of the reaction.

57. CATHODIC PROTECTION: System by which D.C. charge is

induced across underground pipes to stop/slowdown corrosion.

Example: Cathodic protection system for all underground pipes

of CW, Potable Water, IA, process streams in the plant.

58. CAUSTIC: Sodium Hydroxide or caustic soda, mostly used to

neutralize acids. Caustic has a sharp pungent odor, is a heavy
musky liquid and is extremely hazardous to the skin and eyes.

Example: 50% caustic solution is used in cooling water system

to improve the PH value.

59. CAVITATION: If a centrifugal pump suction head is low, suction

is plugged, then cavitation may occur, which is the formation
and collapse of vapor bubbles in the liquid. A crackling sound is
produced by cavitation due to violent collapse of vapor bubbles.
It causes pitting and erosion of the impeller.

60. CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR: A compressor that uses

centrifugal force to impart pressure and velocity to a gas is a
Centrifugal Compressor. High velocity gas from the impeller
passes through the diffuser, which is of larger radius where its
velocity decreases and pressure increases.

61. CENTRIFUGAL: Moving I a direction away from a center or

62. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP: A pump that imparts velocity to liquid
by centrifugal force and then converts some of the velocity to

63. CHANNEL HEAD: A compartment at each end of a shell and

tube heat exchanger which distribute the tube side fluid to the
tubes or the inlet end or collect the fluid from the tubes on the
outlet end.

64. ARGE (To Fill): To fill with some prescribed amount.

Example: Charging of 50 kg caustic soda into the CW pit.

65. K GAS: A gas used to check the calibration of an analyzer.

Example: Check gas for analyzer calibration.

66. CHECK VALVE: A valve with an internal flapper that will allow
liquid or gas to flow in one direction only.

67. CHLORINE: A chemical used to treat water to stop the growth

of aquatic life.

Example: Use of sodium hypochlorite in SW pit.

68. CHROMATOGRAPHY: An analytical technique used to

determine the individual impurities in a sample of chemical
liquid or gas. Unit chromatographs are used on the process
streams to detect impurities in the products, such as

69. CO2 (Carbon Dioxide): 350 ppm in the air.

Example: CO2 in the process air stream is removed in

Molecular Sieve Absorbers.

70. CO2 (Extinguisher): A fire extinguisher using liquid carbon

dioxide stored under pressure for use as an extinguishing
72. COLD END: The piping and equipments at the cold side of
heat exchangers is called cold end.

73. COLLECTION HEADER: A header which has several lines

draining into it.

Example: WG header in which WG lines from two heat

exchangers meet.

74. COLOR COMPARISON: Which is done to check C 2H2

concentration in a liquid air/oxygen sample in 4A test.

75. COLUMN: A distillation vessel in which liquid material are

separated from one another by utilizing the boiling point
difference between the materials.

76. COMBUSTION: Any chemical action producing noticeable light

and heat.

77. COMPOUND: A substance which may be decomposed into

two or more elements by chemical change.

78. COMPRESSOR: A machine used to raise a gas pressure

above atmospheric pressure.

79. CONCENTRATE: To increase the amount of dissolved

substance by evaporation.

Example: As liquid oxygen evaporates in the condenser,

acetylene concentration increases.

80. CONDENSATION: The transforming of a gas to a liquid.

81. CONDENSATE: Water formed by condensing steam.

82. CONDENSE: To transform from the gaseous state to the liquid

state. For instance, steam is cooled and condensed to water to
form condensate.
83. CONDENSER: A heat exchange that is used to condense
vapors to a liquid.

84. CONDUCTION: The flow of heat through a solid.

85. CONDUCTIVITY: A measurement of resistance of a substance.

80. CONTROLLER: An instrument device which maintains a

process variable at a specific rate.

Example: 32-LIC-2431 cooling water line to EV cooler.

86. INDICATING CONTROLLER: An instrument that indicates a

variable reading and actuates a secondary device to maintain
the specified rate.

Example: 32-FIC-2421 maintains TC flow at specified rate of

say 80 m3/hr.

87. CONTROL ROOM: A room from which the operator and

technical personnel control the process.

88. COOLER: A heat exchanger that is used to cool a process

material down to a lower temperature.

Example: Oil coolers on the compressors.

89. CORROSION: Wear on metal caused by nature (moisture, air,

etc.) or a process material (acidic atmosphere, etc.)

90. CORROSION RACK: A rack used to hold coupons of various

metals to measure the corrosion rate of these metals in a
process stream.

91. COUPLING (Machinery): The connection device between two

pieces of rotating equipments, such as between an electric
motor and a pump.

92. COUPLING (Pipe): A short pipe sleeve with internal threads

used to join two sections of pipe.

93. CRANE: A petrol or diesel lifting device with a long boom and
capacity for lifting heavy equipments.
94. CRITICAL SPEED: The RPM at which a rotating piece of
equipment shakes or vibrates as it passes through different
speed ranges, usually occurs during startup.

95. CRYOGENICS: Extremely cold gases and liquids which are at

a temperature of 150C or colder. Oxygen, Nitrogen, Argon,
Helium, Hydrogen, and Methane are some of the most common
cryogenic gases.

96. CWR: Cooling Water Return

97. CWS: Cooling Water Supply

98. CYCLE: An alternation or switching of something such as

equipment or machinery.

Example: Regeneration cycle for Molsieve Absorbers every 4~5


99. DECANT: To pour from one vessel to another under gravity or

by a pump.

Example: Decanting of LN from atm. tank to LN tanker through

a pump.

100. DECANTER: A vessel used to decant or to receive decanted


101. DELTA P ( P): The difference in pressure between two points

in a process system.

Example: P between top and bottom of lower column on


102. DELTA P ( T): The difference in temperature between two

points in a process system.

Example: T for oil entering and leaving a cooler.

103. DEMISTER: Equipment used in boilers, vaporizer, vessels to
remove the mist from the evolving vapors.

Example: Demister pad for TC cooler.

104. DENSITY: The weight of a material from a given volume.

Example: Density of water = 1 gm/cc.

105. DESICCANT: A drying agent used to dry instrument air,

process gas, etc.

Example: Silica gel

106. DESIGN CONDITIONS: The conditions under which a piece of

equipment is designed to operate.

Example: Design temperature of air separation unit feed stock

is 42C.

107. DEVIATION: An instrument term. Any instantaneous

difference between set point and control point.

108. DEW POINT: Temperature at which a vapor or gas begins to

condense to a liquid.

109. DIAPHRAGM: A thin flexible sheet of material, which is used

as a transmission media in pumps, valves, switches and

110. DISTILLATE: The product of distillation formed by condensing


111. DISTILLATION: Distillation is the separation of the constituents

of a liquid mixture by partial vaporization of the mixture and
separate recovery of vapors and residue. In general, distillation
is the term applied to vaporization processes in which the vapor
evolved is recovered, usually by condensation.

112. DISTILLED WATER: Water which has been evaporated and

condensed leaving behind all of its major impurities. Distilled
water is used as boiler feed water and in the laboratory to
prepare high purity solution.

Example: Distilled water is used to prepare Orstat Test


113. DOUBLE VALVE AND VENT: To close off two valves in the
same line and vent between these valves.

114. DOWN COMER: It is a conduit or pipe provided for passing

liquid from one distillation tray to the tray below.

115. DOWN STREAM: A point in the direction of flow away from the
point in question.

116. DRIER: A vessel filled with a chemical, so that the gas (or air)
can pass through and the moisture absorbed by the chemical.

117. DRUM Oil): A container in which oil or other chemicals are


118. DRYER: Is a device for removing moisture from solids, liquids,

or gases. Generally, drying refers to the removing of a liquid
(water) from a solid by evaporation.

119. DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHER: A fire extinguisher using a

sodium bicarbonate base powder as an extinguishing agent
and CO2 in a cartridge as the expellent gas.

120. EFFICIENCY: Method of showing how well a unit is operating

in converting and recovering materials.

Example: Ratio of materials IN to products OUT.

121. EFFLUENT: Is a term used to denote some type of discharged


Example: the waste water that leaves on plant.

122. EMERGENCY TRIP: A device (either electric push button or
manual) installed to shutdown a machine or system in the

Example: Emergency push buttons for pumps/compressors

installed on the panel.

123. EMERGENCY VENT: A vent system which is set to vent when

the pressure of a vessel reaches the maximum safe pressure.

Example: Emergency vent of LIN/LOX atm. tanks.

124. ENDOTHERMIC REACTION: A chemical reaction which

absorbs or takes in heat.

125. ENTRAINMENT: Liquid droplets or solid particles carried along

in a vapor stream, generally due to velocity, turbulence or upset
of the process.

Example: Entrainment of water droplets from TC cooler.

126. ENTRY: Defined as introduction of the entire person into a

vessel or equipment, or insertion of any portion of the body into
a vessel or equipment where there is possibility of injury.

Example: Entry Permit is required before any of the

maintenance crew enters the Nitrogen Compressor housing.

127. EROSION: The wearing away of material, often metal, by fluid

moving at relatively high velocity across the surface which is
affected. It is physical process not a chemical process.

128. EVAPORATES: To convert into vapors leaving behind any

solid or residue.

129. EVAPORATOR: A device used to vaporize liquid into gas, as

Blow Evaporator.

130. EXOTHERMIC REACTION: A chemical reaction in which heat

is given off.
131. EXPANSION: Physical characteristics of materials which
makes them grow when their temperature increases (or
pressure decreases).

132. EXPANSION JOINT: Mechanical device used to compensate

for expansion force. Sometimes called Expansion Bellows.

133. EXPANSION TURBINE: A rotary equipment actuated by

reaction current of fluid (WN or AIR) and drops pressure of fluid
by expanding the gas molecules, thus producing cold.

134. EXPLOSIMETER: A portable instrument used to measure the

concentration of combustible gas or vapors.

135. EXPLOSION: A chemical reaction or change of state which is

effected in an exceeding short space of time with the generation
of a high temperature and generally a large quantity of gas.

136. EXPLOSION PROOF: A housing which is capable to contain

the inside or outside explosion within itself.

137. EYEWASH: A piece of personnel safety equipment designed

to allow the eyes to be flushed with water in case of exposure
to harmful chemicals.

Example: Eyewash with shower provision near SW Pit, CW Pit

and Sanitary Pit.

138. F (Fahrenheit): Temperature scale water freezes at 32F,

and boils at 212F.

139. FACE SHIELD: Is a plastic head or hat mounted shield used to

protect face in performing certain types of work.

Example: Face shield is used while handling chemicals for

cooling water system.

140. FAIL SAFE: A system designed and installed so that in case of

trouble, it will shut itself down before a hazardous condition
arises, or before damage can be caused to equipment.
Normally, control valves are designed to be either Instrument
air fail to open or Instrument air fail to close to be in line with
fail safe conditions.

141. FAULT (Electrical): A short or ground in electrical cables or


142. FEED STOCK: Material which is introduced into a vessel for


Example: Air is feed stock for ASU-32.

143. FILTERS: Mechanical device used to clean foreign materials

from a fluid.

Example: Duracell filter to clean the feed air.

144. FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT: A device which regulates the

supply to the process in accordance with a signal from a
controller. Usually, it is a pneumatically or electrically operated

145. FIRE EXTINGUISHER: Any of the various portable devices

used to extinguish a fire by the ejection of a fire inhibiting
substance such as water, carbon dioxide, or chemical foam.

146. PUMP: Used for furnishing water to plant fire lines in an

emergency. We have 2 main fire water pumps and one jockey
water pump.

147. FIRE WATER: Water from plant fire lines used for

148. FLAPPER: The swinging seat in a check valve.

149. FLASK: A glass vessel used in laboratory work.

150. FLOATING HEAD: Internal head on the return end of a

multiple pass heat exchanger bundle.

151. FLOATING ROOF: A type of roof (steel or plastic) which floats

upon the surface of the stored liquid, used to decrease the
vapor space and reduce the potential for evaporation. No such
floating roof on our plant.

152. FLOOD: When liquid flowing down across the trays of a

column is great enough to prevent vapor from flowing upward
through the trays.

153. FLOODING: When the rate of liquid flowing down a column

exceeds the capacity of a down comer, the result is an increase
in liquid level on the tray. This increases the pressure
differential across the tray, which in turn causes more liquid to
backup through the down comer. Ultimately, the column will fill
with liquid and cease to operate.

154. FLOW SHEET: A sketch that describes the flow of materials

through a given unit or plant.

155. FLUID: A substance tending to flow.

156. FLUSHING: The removal of suspended contaminants in a line,

tank or vessel.

157. FOAM: A froth of bubbles on the surface of liquid, often caused

by an organic contaminant or from a high PH.

158. FOULING: The disposition of undesirable components on the

shell or tube side of the heat exchanger and reducing the
exchangers efficiency.

159. FREEZING POINT: The temperature at which freezing (from

liquid to solid phase) occurs. Freezing point of water is 0C.

160. GAS: A phase of matter in which molecules are widely

separated. A gas does not have a definite volume or definite

161. GATE VALVE: A positive shut-off valve utilizing a gate which

when moved between two seats causes tight shut-off. When
fully open, produces small pressure drop.
162. GAUGE: An instrument for measuring pressure, level, etc.
163. GAUGE PRESSURE: Pressure read on a gauge which is
calculated as the absolute pressure less normal atmospheric

164. GEAR PUMP: A pump with gears inside the housing. As the
gears turn, cavities are created which allows the liquid to be
moved from the suction of the pump to the discharge. A
positive displacement pump.

165. GENERATOR: A machine which produces electrical power.

Example: Emergency Generator (40-G-0001)

166. GLOBE VALVE: A valve with a moving seat, usually circular,

which moves into a circular opening to shut-off. Usually used in
throttling service.

167. GRADUATE: Graduated marks on a glass vessel indicating

the volume of the liquid inside.

168. GRAMS: Meaure of weight in metric system.

Example: 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams = 2.2 pounds

1 gram = 0.0353 ounce
I microgram = 1,000,000th of a gram

169. GROSS: Total

170. GROUND (Electrical):

a) Cable installed from frame of electrical equipment to

prevent possibility of shock.

b) A phase of circuit which has shorted to ground.

171. H2O: Symbol for water.

172. HAND CONTROL: To control the flow by adjusting a valve by


173. HAND JACK: A mechanical jack operated with a lever by

hand. A control valve closed or opened on hand jack will not
operate under controller signal.
HEADER: A line which has several lines adding or removing

Example: Instrument Air header on ASU

174. HEAT EXCHANGER: A vessel used to exchange heat from

one fluid to another.

175. HIGH LIMIT (Alarm): An alarm (with light & bell) at which some
tripping is set to save the equipment and process.

Example: High High Temperature (TAHH-2615) Air to Cold

Box, puts the unit to unload Air Compressor

176. HIGH SPEED TRIP: A mechanical device actuated by

centrifugal force which in turn activates a switch or trip valve, to
shutdown a turbine, engine, should it over speed.

173. HOSE: Utility hose is of fiber and rubber used for nitrogen, air
or water.

177. HOSE CABINET: Cabinet for fire hoses, strategically located.

Easily put in service by one man by pulling the hose out.

178. HOT WORK: Work involves fire, flame, spark, etc. Needs
special work permit allowing fire to be used for the equipment

179. HOUSEKEEPING: Keeping work area and equipment in safe,

clean usable condition.

180. HYDRANT: Fire hydrants on plant fire water distribution

181. HYDROCARBONS: A compound containing only hydrogen
and carbon.

Example: Methane, Ethane, Acetylene, Propane, etc.

182. IA (Instrument Air): Dry, oil-free air which is used to operate

instruments. It may be air from Mol Sieve or IA from IA
package. Dry GN can also be used as instrument nitrogen.

183. IMPELLER: The part of a centrifugal pump or compressor that

imparts velocity to liquid or gas, then convert velocity to
pressure. Impellers may be open, partially open, or enclosed.

184. INBOARD: A term used to describe the location of seal,

bearing, shaft end, etc.

Example: Part of a pump, i.e. seal or bearing nearest to the

motor would be inboard seal or inboard bearing.

185. INDICATOR: A chemical compound which changes color as

the .PH changes from acid to base, or from base to an acid.

Example: As used in cooling water tests.

186. INERT: Referring to something which has no chemical

reactivity such as inert gas (as GN).

187. INERT GAS: A gas mixture of gases which contains only trace
quantities of oxygen (as GN).

188. INHIBITOR: A compound which slows or stops a chemical


Example: Corrosion Inhibitors are used for Cooling Water


189. INJECTION: A liquid added to a stream or another liquid to get

the desired results.

Example: Sodium Hypochlorite is injected to Seawater Pit.

190. INLET: The point where something enters, the pipe, trench,
etc. that carries the incoming stream.

191. INSULATION: Materials used in walls, ceilings, and around

pipes and machinery to retard the passage of heat (or cold) and


a) Perlite powder in cold boxes and storage tanks (to avoid

heat leak)
b) Foam glass insulation for the pipes around storage tanks
(to avoid heat leak)
c) Acoustic covers for AIR/GN/ABC compressors (to avoid

192. INTEGRAL CONDENSER: Condenser inserted inside of a


Example: ASU main condenser

193. INTERCOOLER: Cooling device between two heat producing

sections, as an intercooler which removes heat of compression
between the low pressure stage and the high pressure stage of
a compressor. An intercooler cools after the high pressure

Example: Intercoolers for AIR/GN/ABC

194. INTER FACE: The point at which two dissimilar liquids are

Example: Oil and water in the Industrial Waste Water Pit.

195. INTERLOCK: A device on system used to prevent a return to
original condition after an interruption has occurred. Usually,
used on shutdown valves and shutdown system (shutdown of a
section of the unit or whole unit). In some machines, some
parameters are interlocked for safe startup.

a) If Expansion Turbine trips due to low oil pressure, it cannot
be restarted until oil pressure is normal
b) Air Compressor cannot be started until all interlocks

196. INTERSTAGE: The point or points between discharge and

suction of a stage for a compressor or a pump.

197. ISOLATE: Prevent material from entering or leaving a piece of


Example: Isolation of SW/CW Cooler.

198. JUMPER: Electrical connection which bypasses or

temporarily connects two items.

190. JUNCTION BOX: A box used for the termination of electrical

wires or pneumatic instrument leads.

199. KILOWATTS (KW): A measure of electrical power.

Example: 1 kilowatt = 1,000 watts

1 kilowatt = 3 / 4 horsepower/746 watts

200. LAZY ROD: An extension affixed to a valve wheel that makes

the valve easier and safer to operate.

201. LBS (Pounds): A unit of measure of weight or pressure.

202. LEAK TEST: A procedure for locating leaks in the process

equipments by filling the equipments with compressed air or
nitrogen, and applying liquid soap to the outer area to be

203. LIMIT SWITCH: A mechanically actuated switch (electric or

pneumatic) which is actuated when the variable (pressure,
temperature, level, etc.) to which it is attached reaches its set
limit, or a valve, on which this switch is attached, opens or

Example: Limit switches on KVS for Mol Sieve Adsorbers

204. LINE: Pipe from one point to another. Used for transferring
liquid or gas from one place to another.

205. LIQUID LEVEL: The height to which a liquid has accumulated

in a container.

206. LOCKOUT: A term used to describe the locking out of electrical

equipment for maintenance.

207. LOG: To write down certain operating conditions.

208. LOOP: Either electronic or pneumatically linked group of

instruments concerned with one primary variable.

Example: 32-PIC-1110 Loop

209. LOUVERS (Dust Louvers): Mechanical opening in the air

suction filter which changes air direction.

210. LOW LIMIT: Certain preset lower limit point below which the
variable should not go.

a) Low level for EV Cooler
b) Low seal gas pressure for Expansion Turbine

LOX: Liquid Oxygen

211. MACHINEST: One who uses machine tools (lathe, drill press,
mill, etc.) to reproduce machine parts from metal, plastic, etc.

212. MAKE UP: Feed need to replace that which is lost by leakage
or normal use in a close circuit, recycle operation.

Example: Make up water for Cooling Water Pit.

213. MANAGEMENT: The collective body of those who manage

and direct all plant activities.

214. MANHOURS: A term used to describe the number of hours

that it will take, or has taken, to do a particular job.

215. MANIFOLD: A piping arrangement which allows one stream of

liquid of gas to be divided into two or more streams.

216. MANOMETER: A gauge for measuring the pressure of gases

or vapors.

217. MANUAL:

a) Mode of operation requiring man to adjust or manipulate,

operate to automatic.

b) Book specifying operational instructions and


218. MANWAY-MANHOLE: An opening in a vessel large enough for

a person to enter the vessel, flanged openings normally on
vessel, tanks, etc.


Controller. Generally used where automatic control is not
needed or not practical. This device can be manually operated
to control a process variable. It also indicates the state of
process at the same time.

Example: 32-HIC-3207 for LN Product

32-HIC-3558/3568 for LO & IC Pumps Recycle

220. MATTER: Anything that has weight and occupies space.

221. MAXIMUM (Max.): The greatest quantity or value attained in a
given case.

222. MEASURED VARIABLE: A signal that is a measure of the

process variable, generally, the output of a measuring
instrument or transmitter.


a) Used primarily on rotating equipment in place of packing to

keep product from going to the atmosphere.
b) Mechanical assembly that forms a leak-proof seal between
flat rotating surfaces to prevent high pressure leakage.

224. MEGAWATTS (MW): 1,000,000 watts.

225. MEGGER: An instrument to produce a DC voltage to test and

read the dielectric strength of electrical equipment in ohms.

226. METER: a) Instrument or means of measuring.

b) Metric unit of length: 1 meter = 39.37 inches.

227. METHANE (CH4): Natural gas

228. MICRON: A unit of length equivalent to 1/1,000,000 of a meter.

Used for vibration measurement.

229. MINIMUM (Min.): The least acceptable amount.

230. MIXTURE: A combination of two or more substances in which

each substance retains its chemical nature and identity.

231. MM (Million): An abbreviation symbol for a million. M = 1,000

so MM = 1,000 x 1,000 = 1,000,000.

232. MOLECULES: The smallest unit into which substances can be

divided and retain all of its chemical and physical properties.

233. MONITOR: Nozzles on fire hydrants, or individual risers to

provide fixed fire water stream for cooling or fire fighting without

234. NTP (Normal Temperature Pressure): 0C and one


NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide or Caustic): Strong solution of

sodium hydroxide have a pH of 14. They are used to neutralize
acids (see Caustic).

235. NITROGEN: A chemical element, symbel N, atomic number 7,

atomic weight 14; it is a gas, diatomic (N 2) under normal
condition, about 79% of atmosphere is N2.

236. NITRITE FILM: Anti-corrosion nitrite film on the inner surface of

pipes, coolers, etc. through which cooling water is passing.

237. NON-CONDENSABLE GAS: A gas from chemical processing

units (such as a distillation column) that is not easily condensed
by cooling.

Example: He purge on ASU to remove this non-condensable

gas which could blanket the condenser.

238. NON-RETURN: Check valve.

239. NOZZLE: The extension on a hose or pipe that controls the

flow from them. A small spout.

240. O2 (Analyzer): An instrument that analyzes the product stream

(GN and indicates ppm of oxygen on it.

241. O2 (Oxygen): Atmospheric gas. 20.6% O2 in the atmosphere.

242. OFF-SPEC: A product which does not meet the purity

specifications or standards of a material.
243. OPERATOR (Oper.): One who actually does the controlling of
the flow, level, temperature, and pressure of the production

244. ORIFICE: A thin plate with an opening in it. Used to cause a

precise calibrated pressure drop in the flowing stream.

245. ORIFICE FLANGE: One of the two flanges between which an

orifice plate is held.

246. O-RING: Gasket in the form of ring, usually oval in cross

section, can be of rubber or metal.

247. ORSAT: A piece of laboratory apparatus used to determine the

composition and quantity of gases by reaction of the gases with
various chemical solutions.

Example: ORSAT on ASU is used to check O 2% in WN, PL,


248. OUTBOARD: For bearings, bearing away from coupling.


See I-3

249. OUTPUT: Power signal or energy delivered by an instrument or


250. OVER CURRENT: Current which is above the capability of the

electrical equipment.

251. OVER CURRENT RELAY: A protective device installed in a

switchgear to open the electrical circuit if a preset over current

252. OVERHEAD CRANE: A lifting device built over machinery or in

a shop to handle heavy objects.

253. OVERRIDE: A device which interrupts the path of a signal and

usually takes over control of the end variable.
254. OVERSPEED: To go beyond safe or top operating speed on a
piece of rotating equipment.

255. OVERSPEED TRIP: An automatic device that cuts power off

(or any other source of energy) of a rotating machine if it
reaches preset trip point.

Example: Over speed trip for ASU Expansion Turbine is

19,500 rpm and turbine inlet valve HV-3401 will shut.

256. OXIDATION: A type of reaction in which oxygen is utilized to

oxidize (chemical change) a particular component or
components from one form to a more desirable form.

257. OXIDE: A compound of oxygen with another element or with a


Example: CO2, NO3, etc.


a) Cleaned thoroughly of all particles of dirt, lint, oil, etc. and

does not fluoresce.

b) Clean enough to be installed in oxygen service.

259. PACKED COLUMN: A distillation column which is packed with

reaching, rings, saddles or other ceramic china-like material to
aid in liquid vapor contact during distillation.

- Common types of Rushing Rings

260. PACKING: A device or material used to present leakage of

pressure. Primarily used in valves and pumps to seal a product
from atmosphere.

Example: Asbestos, Teflon, lead and carbon packing.

261. PACKING GLAND: A metallic ring used to keep packing in

262. PARALLEL FLOW: Flow of material in the same direction of
another flow but remaining separate from the other flow.

263. PH: The negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration.

Solutions having PH below 7.0 are acid. Solutions having a PH
above 8.0 are basic. A PH of 7.0 8.0 is neutral, neither acid
nor base.

264. PHASE: A term used to describe one component of electrical


265. PINCH BACK: To partially close a valve.

266. PIPE: A long tube or hallow body used to conduct/transport a

fluid, gas or finally divided solid.

267. PIPE FITTER: A plant maintenance classification of work

centered about pipe and/or tubing installation or removal.

268. PIPE RACK: Support for pipes usually 4 5 meters above the
ground in areas where trucks and cranes operate.

269. PISTON: That portion of a reciprocating pump/compressor

which receives force from the power medium, in turn transfers it
to the fluid being handled.


271. POINTER: A manually or pneumatically adjusted pointer on the

chart that indicates the position of the set point.

272. POWER SURGE OR FAILURE: A voltage drop in the electrical


273. PPM (Parts Per Million): This term is used to define the
quantity of impurities in chemicals, regardless of what they may
be. This quantity is referred to on a weight basis, such as 1
pound of impurity in 1 million pounds of refined product.

274. PRESSURE: A measurable force. Can be above or below

atmospheric pressure.
275. PRESSURE DISTILLATION: If the operative pressure of a
distillation column is greater than atmospheric, it is called
pressure distillation.

276. PRESSURE DROP: Difference in pressure between two given

points. Decrease in pressure due to friction which occurs when
a liquid or gas passes through a pipe, vessel or other piece of

277. PRESSURE GAUGE: A device having a metallic sensing

element such as a flexible curved tube (bourdon tube) or
flexible diaphragm which deforms under fluid pressure (See

278. PRESSURE RATING: The operating (allowable) internal

pressure of a vessel, tank or piping used to hold or transport
liquids or gases.

279. PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE: A valve that releases or

holds process system pressure (that is, opens and closes)
either by preset spring tension or by actuation by a valve
controller to assume any desired position between full open and
full close.

Example: Oil pressure regulations for Expansion Turbine PCV-


280. PRESSURE RELIEF: A valve or other mechanical device

(such as rupture disk) that eliminates system over pressure by
allowing the controlled or emergency escape of liquid or gas
from a pressured system.

281. PRESSURE SWITCH: A switch that is actuated by a change in

pressure of a gas or liquid.

282. PRESSURE TEST: Testing of equipment, using a gas or liquid

as a testing medium.

283. PRESSURE VESSEL: An enclosed vessel in which a pressure

greater than atmospheric is maintained.
284. PRIME: To put a pump into working condition by pouring liquid
into pump to displace vapor or gas (normally air from a water

285. PRODUCT: The desired end components from a particular


Example: GN/LN/GO/LO are products from ASU.

286. PROPORTIONAL BAND: The adjustment on an instrument

controller that determines the change in controller output for a
change in controller input or set point.


response that is proportional to deviation and to duration of


controller that is proportional to deviation, duration of deviation
and rate of change of deviation.

289. PSV (Pressure Safety Valve): An automatic pressure relieving

device for over pressure protection of equipment.

290. PUMP: A machine that raise, transfer fluids. Used in the plant
to circulate cooling water, liquid oxygen, etc.

291. PUMP, CONTRIFUGAL (Volute Type): Consist of one or more

impellers mounted on a rotating shaft. The liquid enters the
impeller at the center, or eye, and is thrown outward at high
velocity into the volute of the pump casing. The function of the
volute is to catch the impeller discharge and convert velocity
head into pressure head while conducting the liquid to the
discharge nozzle of the pump casing.

292. PUMP, DIAPHRAGM: A metering pump which uses a

diaphragm to isolate the operating parts from pumped liquid in
a mechanically actuated diaphragm pump, or from hydraulic
fluid in a hydraulically actuated diaphragm pump.
293. PUMP, DUPLEX: A reciprocating pump that has two liquid
cylinders. Duplex pumps have a more steady discharge
pressure than do simple pumps.

294. PUMP, MULTI-STAGE: Centrifugal pump with two or more

impellers mounted on the same shaft. The discharge from one
impeller is conducted by the suction eye of the next impeller,

293. PUMP, OIL: A pump of the gear, vane, or plunger type, usually
an integral parts of the automotive engineer; it lifts oil from the
pump to the upper level in the splash and circulating systems,
and in force-feed lubrication it pumps the oil to the tubes
leading to the bearings and other parts.

294. PUMP, RECIPROCATING: A positive displacement type of

pump consisting of plunger or a piston moving back and forth
within a cylinder. With each stroke of the plunger or piston, a
definite volume of liquid is pushed out through the discharge

295. PUMP, ROTARY: A positive displacement pump used mainly to

pump liquids, which are either too viscous or too difficult to pick
up suction with a centrifugal pump. There are many types of
rotary pump designs, one of the most common being the gear
type, in which two gears mesh and rotate toward each other
within a very close fitting casing. The liquid is trapped between
the gear teeth and the casing and carried around to the
discharge side of the pump. The meshing gear teeth prevent
the liquid from returning to the suction side.

296. PUMP, SIMPLEX: A reciprocating pump that has one liquid

cylinder on a single drive.

297. PUMP CASING (Volute):

a) Makes the liquid being pumped increase in presure rather

than speed.

b) The part of the pump enclosing the impeller.


a) Opposite of pump suction.

b) The pressure of the liquid coming out from the pump


a) The inlet side of the pump.

b) The pressure in the line leading into the pump

300. PURGE:

a) To displace the vapors in a line or vessel usually with fresh

air or an inert gas (GN).

b) The cleaning or removal of existing materials by

displacing with another medium

301. PURITY: Free from contamination.

Example: GN purity: 99.99% N2: 0.001% O2 Oxygen:

99.99% O2

302. RACK OUT: To open an electrical circuit by rolling (or racking)
out the breaker section of the switchgear.

303. RADIAL BEARING: A bearing to restrain/restrict radial forces.

304. RADIATION: The transfer of heat through space (similar to a

beam of light) without affecting the intervening space.

305. RASCHING RINGS: Small cylindrical rings used in packed

type distillation columns (See Packed Column).

306. RATIO: The amount of one material or component in relation to

another material or component.

307. RATIO CONTROL: To regulate one variable in proportion to

another variable.
308. RAW MATERIAL: A crude, unprocessed or partially processed
material used as feedstock for a processing operation.
Example: Air as feedstock for ASU.

309. REACTION: The interaction of a compound with itself or other

compounds to form one or more compounds.

310. REACTOR: A vessel utilized to mix two or more components

together and initiate and sustain a desired, controlled reaction.

311. REACTIVATION: See Regeneration.

312. READINGS: Collecting of data related to the operating job,

measured in Nm3, Kg/Cm2G, degrees centigrade, amperes, etc.

313. REBOILER: A tubular heat exchanger placed at the bottom of

a distillation column or stripper to supply necessary column
heat. (Reboiler at the bottom of upper column which is also a
condenser for lower column).

314. RECIPROCATING: Back and forth, up and down, in and out.

315. RECIRCULATION: The re-passage of one or more of the

components of a stream through a given system.

Example: LO2 circulation through circulating I.C. pump.

316. RECTIFICATION: A form of distillation by passing vapor

through liquid on a tray which has collected by condensing the
vapor previously passing through the tray.


a) That portion of the products of process which is

resubmitted to the process.
b) To route a stream back to a location where it came from.
318. REDUCING STATION: A valve installation that is used to
reduce a pressure to a lower level pressure.

Example: 32-PIC-3963 to reduce the GN pressure from 11.65

to 5.0 kg/cm2G.

319. REFLUX: That portion of the condensed vapors that is

returned to the top tray of the column (32-FIC-3223).

Example: Pure liquid N2 refluxes from lower column to upper


320. REFLUX RATE: Rate of addition of cold liquid to a column in

order to remove heat.

321. REFLUX RATIO: The ratio of the amount of condensed vapor

returned as reflux to the amount removed from the system as

322. REGENERATION: In general, any process by which a spent

material is made available for reuse. For example, reactivation
of dryers, absorbers.

323. REGULATOR: A valve which directly controls the flow of liquid

or gas through a line, usually actuated by an instrument to
control pressure, temperature, or flow conditions.

Example: Oil pressure regulator for Expansion Turbine.

324. RELAY: A device that is operated by a variation in the

conditions in one electric circuit and serves to make or break
one or more connections in the same or on other electric circuit.

325. RESET BUTTON: An electrical switch designed to restore

another switch to its original position when actuated.

326. RESUSCITATION: Oxygen for asphyxiation. Unit is in Shift

Supervisor office.

327. REVERSE CURRENT RELAY: A protective relay to trip

electrical switchgear in case the current should flow in the
wrong direction.
328. ROTA METER: A device which presents a continuously varying
size orifice, proportional to the flow through it, by means of a
tapered tube containing a float. The position of the float is
proportional to the flow.

329. ROTATING SHIFT: The changing schedule worked by shift

operating group. Rotation is from morning shift 7 AM 3 PM, to
afternoon shift 3 PM 11 PM, to night shift 11 PM 7 AM.

330. RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector): A device

containing resistor whole value changes with temperature
changes. It is, therefore, used to measure temperature.

331. RUPTURE DISC: A pressure relief device that will break or tear
if the pressure reaches its bursting limit. Usually, a thin piece of
metal or a composition material designed to rupture (split) at a
given pressure.

332. STP (Standard Temperature Pressure): 15.5C and 14.696


333. SAFETY: Is eliminating or avoiding hazards in your work area

or work procedures.

334. SAFETY COMMITTEE: A Committee whose members are

representatives of different sections of the Operations, Security
and Administration. They meet once a month and hold safety
walks to improve upon the safety matters.

335. SAFETY COMMITTEE MEETING: Meeting held on monthly

basis to discuss the safety matters related to plant and

336. SAFETY EQUIPMENT: Various equipments used by an

individual for his personnel protection.

Examples: Hard hat, coverall, goggles, safety shoes, etc.

337. SAFETY ORIENTATION: A session held with all new
employees/workers during their first day/week of

338. SAFETY SHOWER: A shower that can supply potable water to

wash chemicals, etc. of a person.

339. SAFETY VALVES: Are pressure relieving devices placed on

equipment and pipelines operating under pressure. Their
purpose is to protect the equipment and personnel from
disastrous failures resulting from possible excess pressure.
They are spring or weight loaded and set to open at a specific
excess pressure.

340. SAFETY VALVE SEAL: Normally, safety valve systems have

no isolating valves, but if the safety valve is on such a line or
vessel, which cannot be depressurized to do the maintenance
job on the safety valve, an isolating valve can be provided, but
that should always be in locked open position (car seal open).

341. SAFETY WALKS: An inspection made for the purpose of

finding and correcting unsafe items and/or conditions, thereby
making the area safe to work in.
SAMPLE: A representative part of chemical, (Product) taken
from a large tank or stream.

Example: LO2 sample from LO2 atm tank for acetylene check.
GN2 sample ex-column

342. SAMPLE TAP: A device consisting of a valve and small tubing

for the purpose of extracting a sample.

343. SANDBLAST: Sand is projected at high-speed by the use of

compressed air. This method is used to remove rust or paint
from metal.

344. SANITARY SEWER WATER: Sewer water originating in

restrooms, sinks, drinking cooler, etc. All the sanitary water
from plant/administration building is collected in a pit from
where it is pumped to RC treatment station.

345. SATURATED: To dissolve a sufficient amount of a substance,

so that no more of that substance can be dissolved.
346. SCAFFOLD: Platform (temporary) used to reach inaccessible
areas. It provides a safe platform to work from.

347. SCALE:

a) A chemical deposit left when water or other materials are


b) A visual indication of the range of the instruments, may be

0 to 100 per cent of the range.

348. SCOTT AIR PACK: Self-contained breathing unit for use in

contaminated areas. A unit can work for 30 minutes.


a) A device for the removal, or washing out, of entrained

liquid droplets or dust, or for the removal of an undesired
gas component from process gas stream.

b) A piece of equipment designed to remove a particular

component from a gas or vapor stream usually by counter
current contact with a liquid.

350. SEAL:

a) Any device or system that creates a non-leaking union

between two mechanical or process system elements, for
example, gaskets for pipe connection seals, mechanical
seals for rotating members such as pump shafts, and liquid
seals to prevent gas entry.

b) A tight, perfect closure or joint.

351. SEAL FLUSH: Used with mechanical seal to minimize or dilute

possible product leakage. Also acts as cooling medium.

352. SEAT:
a) To fit correctly in or on a holder such as to seat a valve in a

353. SENSIBLE HEAT: The amount of heat required to raise or

lower the temperature of matter without a change of state.


A point at which the controller is adjusted to regulate the

process. The set point is defined in the same units of
measurement as in the measured variable.

355. SHAFT (Pump Shaft): A round piece of steel with impeller

mounted, suspended in bearings. Motor shaft A round piece
of steel with rotor mounted, suspended in two bearings.

356. SHELL: The outer housing of a heat exchanger, covers the

tube bundle.

345. SHELL SIDE: Referring to heat exchanger, the space or area

between the tubes and outside shell.

357. SHIFT: Group of employees assigned to work the same hours (

7 3, 3 11, 11 7) rotating per given schedule. Shifts are
identified as A, B, C and D.

358. SHIFT ALLOWANCE: An amount of money added to shift

workers earning to compensate him for the inconvenience of
working shifts.

359. SHIFT SUPERVISOR: The person that is head of a given shift

group. He is responsible for all actions of his assigned group,
such as safety, production and general performance identified
by Shift Supervisor A, B, C or D.
360. SHORT: Term used when two phases of electrical circuits get
together or one phase goes to ground.

361. SHUTDOWN: A situation when the continuity of operation is

interrupted. A supply flow or source of power has been lost or
intentionally closed off.
362. SHUTDOWN BUTTON: A switch (knob) that stops supply of
power to machinery.

363. SIEVE TRAY: A plate with a large number of small holes drilled
in it. The tray has weirs and comers similar to the bubble cap
tray, but no bubble caps. The vapor passes through the plate
holes, through the liquid level maintained by the weir, and on to
the next ray. Sieve trays allows for much higher column
capacities for same diameter vessel than do bubble caps.

364. SIGHT GLASS: A glass provided on oil return lines from

compressor/motor bearings to show the condition of the oil.

365. SIGNAL: An electrical or pneumatic signal from the process

equipment to a control instrument.

367. SINGLE PHASE: Describes a type of low voltage power used

in residence and small industrial motors.

368. SINGLE STAGE PUMP: A pump in which the head is

developed by a single impeller.

369. SKIRT: The border or area around the bottom of a tank or

vessel. Usually supports the tank or vessel.

370. SLEEVE BEARING: A bronze, aluminum, Babbitt or plastic

sleeve supporting and restricting a rotating or reciprocating

371. SLINGER RINGS: Used in pumps or compressors that do not

have forced feed lubrication. A ring that rotates with the shaft,
taking oil from the sump and supplying to the bearings.

372. SLOW ROLL: The operation of a piece of rotating equipment

at a speed below the normal speed.

373. SOAP TEST: Test method used to detect leaks, because the
soap and water make bubble at the leak.

374. SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE: A chemical used to avoid

biological growth in seawater system.
375. SOLENOID: An electrical device that starts or stops flows
using an electromagnet to activate the valve.

Example: Mol sieve KVs are solenoid operated valve.


Ratio between the density of one gas or liquid and the density of
another. For example, water is base for liquids, air is base for
gases. It is the density of a substance (liquid or gas) divided by
density of the standard (water or air)
377. SPECIFIC HEAT: Quantity of heat required to increase the
temperature of a unit volume of substance by 1C.
SPECS: Specifications

378. STAINLESS STEEL (SS): Any of a large and complex group of

corrosion resistant iron chromium alloys, sometimes
containing other elements also as nickel, silicon, tungsten, etc.

379. STANDARD CONDITIONS: Conditions that do not change

routinely. They have a recognized and permanent value.

Example: Reflux flow rates for a certain mode on ASU (FIC-


380 STANDBY: A machine or equipment which is in a state of

readiness for use but which is not presently needed.

Example: Standby oil, cooling water pumps, seawater pumps

381. START-STOP KNOBS: A knob (or push button) control usually

located at motor (or on the Control Room panel) to start and
stop the motor.

382. START UP: To bring into operation a piece or pieces of

383. STATIC HEAD: Pressure of a fluid due to head of fluid above
some reference point.

384. STATIC PRESSURE: Pressure due to weight only, without


385. STOPCOCK: A valve type used in laboratory equipment.

386. STROKE: The distance a reciprocating engine or compressor

will travel through 180rotation of crankshaft.

387. SUBCOOL: The further cooling of condensed material to the

desired temperature.

388. SUBLIMATION: Transformation of a solid to a gas without

passing through the liquid state.

Example: CO2 gas CO2 solid (dry ice)

389. SUBSTATION: An assembly of equipment in an electric power

system through which electric energy is passed for
transmission, transformation, distribution.

390. SUCTION: Inlet side of a pump, compressor, fan. Also, the

pipe or duct that forms the suction.

391. SUCTION HEAD: Height of a column of liquid that would exert

a pressure equal to suction pressure.

392. SUCTION PRESSURE: Pressure in the line (suction line)

leading into the pump.

393. SUMP: A pit or tank which receives and temporarily stores

drainage at the lowest point of circulating or drainage system.

Example: Oil sumps for compressors.

394. SUMP PUMP: A small, single stage vertical pump used to drain
shallow pits or sumps.
395. SURGE: A sudden change in flow, level, temperature,
pressure, etc. Normally refers to electrical or compressor
system malfunction. Electrical surge usually consists of large
variation in voltage or amperage in a system. When
compressed fluid flows back toward the compressor, due to
some restriction at the discharge end (as a closed valve, high
pressure, etc.), it is said to be in SURGE.

396. SURGE TANK: A vessel installed in a line to absorb and

dampen the pulsations of the material being pumped through
the line.

Example: TC between air compressor and mol sieve.

397. SWITCH: To change from one to another, usually involving

pumps, compressors.

Example: TC pumps switching over.

398. SYMBOL: One or two letters used to designate one atom of an


Example: H, O, Cl, etc.

399. SYNCHRONIZE: The act of connecting two electrical

generating systems together.

Example: AC/ABC/NC with Soft Starter and Main Breaker

400. TANK: A receptacle designed to hold or store liquids.

Example: Atm. for tanks for LO2 & LN2

401. TANK TRUCK (Tanker): A truck with a tank on it for hauling


402. TEMPERATURE: The degree of hotness or coldness

measured on a definite scale in F or C.

403. TEMPERATURE BULB: The enlarged portion of thermal

system which is placed inside a thermo-well to sense the
temperature of a line or vessel. It is part of a hermetically
sealed and pressurized system.

404. TEMPERATURE CONTROL: Temperature is the control

variable from which a control output is determined. The output,
in turn, controls the heating or cooling medium to maintain the
desired temperature.

405. TEMPERATURE GRADIENT: The difference in temperature of

materials in various stages of processing. For example,
temperature gradient between the inlet and outlet of a tube

406. TEMPERATURE PROFILE: Is a series of temperatures taken

at various points across a vessel.

Example: TI-III-1, 2, 5, two indications for 1st stage AC bearing.

407. THERMOCOUPLE: A means of measuring temperature using

parallel wires of different metals. The wires are coupled
together at the end near the temperature to be measured. The
electric current created by dissimilar metals increases as
temperature rises and decreases as temperature falls. This rise
and fall is measured, calibrated and indicated on a meter or

408. THERMOMETER: An instrument for determining temperature

consisting typically of a glass bulb attached to a fine tube of
glass with a numbered scale and containing a liquid (as
mercury or colored alcohol) that is sealed in and rises and falls
with changes of temperature.

409. THERMOPILE: Several dissimilar metals arranged alternately

which generate an electric current when the junctions are
heated, more sensitive than a thermocouple.

410. THERMOWELL: A tube housing, one end closed and inserted

into a vessel, pipe, etc. as a protection for a thermocouple or
temperature bulb.

411. THRESHOLD LIMIT: This refers to the exposure, either by

breathing or skin contact, of chemical compounds which may
injure a persons health. Limits have been determined for the
amount of material in the air or skin contact which will affect a
human or animals health.

412. THROTTLE: To control a flow through a line with a valve.

Usually refers to the manual operation of a hand valve.

413. THRUST: The force entered endwise through a shaft to give

forward motion.

414. THRUST BEARING: A Babbitt or ball bearing used to restrict

axial movement.

415. TIME CARD: Cards on which the hours worked by employees

are recorded.

416. TRAINING CENTER: The site of our basic operator training.

417. TRANSDUCER (Converter): A device to change one form or

energy to another, as electric to pneumatic. Used to convert
electric signal to pneumatic signal.

418. TRANSFER: To move material from one place to another,

usually by pumps.

419. TRANSFORMER: Two common types, one changes the

current potential (voltage) up or down, the other changes the
type of current from A.C. to D.C.

420. TRANSMITTER: A device that issues signals. Its source of

power can be either pneumatic or electronic. Its input signal
which controls its output is usually a physical force as pressure,
difference pressure, electrical power.

421. TRIP: Term used when a piece of electric or mechanical gear

is opened, either manually or automatically.

422. TUBE SHEET: The section in a heat exchanger which

separates the fluid flowing through the tubes from the fluid in
the shell and holds the tube in place.

423. TUBE SIDE: A term used to describe the internal portion of the
tubes in a heat exchanger.
424. TURBIDITY: Slight cloudiness of in a solution (liquid) caused
by fine suspended particles.

425. TURBINE: A rotary engine actuated by the reaction or impulse

or both of a current fluid (as water, steam, gas). See Expansion

426. TURNAROUND: The shutdown period for an operations unit,

usually for mechanical reconditioning. The period from the end
of one run to the beginning of the next, i.e. off-stream to on
stream period.

427. UTILITY: One of the non-process (support) facilities for a

manufacturing plant. Usually considered as facilities for cooling
water, seawater, instrument air, fire water, effluent treatment,

428. UTILITY STATION: Central locations or stations throughout the

plant where plant utilities are readily accessible to operators
and maintenance personnel.

Example: Potable water, plant air, instrument air, process

water, seawater, cooling water, etc.

429. UTILITY HOSE: A hose used for air, water service.

430. VACUUM: Any space from which air or fluid or gases have
been completely or partially removed. Its pressure is measured
in relation to air pressure (760 mm) as expressed in mm of

Example: Interspaces in road tankers and LOX and LIN

vacuum insulated line.
431. VACUUM GAUGE: A gauge indicating the degree of negative

432. VALVE: Any of numerous mechanical devices by which the

flow of liquid, gas or loose material in bulk may be started,
stopped or regulated by a movable part that opens, shuts or
partially obstructs one or more ports or passageways.

433. VALVE (3-way): A valve having three ports usually flowing into
bottom and out either of the other two, depending on handle

Example: TCV for all compressor oil system.

434. VALVE, ANGLE: A type of valve which effectively utilizes globe

valve seating principle while providing for a 90turn in piping. It
is less resisting to flow than the globe valve.

Example: Valves on cryogenics service.

435. VALVE, BUTTERFLY: A valve that is extremely durable,

efficient and reliable. It derives its name from the wing-like
action of the disc which operates at right angles to the flow.

Example: Mol sieve KVs

436. VALVE, CHECK: Non-return valve (NRV). It stops the

backflow in the piping; works automatically.

437. VALVE, GATE: This type of valve, as a rule, should be used as

a stop valveto turn on and shut off the flow, as opposed to
regulating flow. It gets its name from the gate-like disc which
operates at a right angle to the path of flow (See Gate Valve).

438. VALVE, GLOBE: The flow through globe valves follow a

changing course, causing increased resistance to flow and
considerable pressure drop. Most suitable for throttling flow. It
is named after its globular body (See Globe Valve).
439. VALVE, NEEDLE: Designed to give fine control of flow in small
diameter piping. Its name derived from its sharp pointed
conical disc and matching seat.

Example: Sampling valves

440. VALVE, PLUG: A valve fitted with a plug that has a hole
through which fluid flows and that is rotatable through 90 for
operation in the open or closed position. Also known as plug
cock. Not in common use on cryogenic plants.

441. VALVE BODY: The base housing or main part of a valve to

which the piping is connected.

442. VALVE POSITIONER: A device that modulates an instrument

air supply to the actuator of a control valve. Its input signal,
which controls the amount of modulation, is usually the output
signal from a pneumatic or an electronic controller.

443. VALVE SEATS: Internal parts or part of a valve against which

a gate or plug make a seal. Usually integral with the body.

444. VALVE STEM: The rod by means of which the disk (gate) or
plug is moved to open or close a valve. In case of cryogenic
valve, it may be very long to reduce transfer of heat/cold.

445. VALVE STROKE OR LIFT: The actual travel of valve from a

closed position to a fully opened position, or vice versa.

446. VAPOR: A substance in the gaseous state which can be

condensed by cooling or compression.

447. VAPOR PRESSURE: The pressure exerted by a vapor which

is in a state of equilibrium with a solid, liquid or solution at a
specified temperature.

448. VAPOR CLOUD: Normally, the term refers to large cloud of

gas released.

449. VAPORIZER: An exchanger in which LN 2/LO2 is heated until it

vaporizes. Heat may be direct or indirect.
Example: Seawater LO2/LN2 vaporizer uses seawater for

450. VARIABLE: A quantity or other condition which is subject to


451. VENT: To release or depressurize into the atmosphere. To

equalize the interior of a vessel with the outside atmosphere.

452. VENT VALVE: A valve provided for the discharge of pressure

from tanks, vessels, etc.

453. VENTILATE: Use an air mover (fan) to force air into a vessel
that is already open to the air and ventilate until only fresh air is
in the equipment.

454. VENTURI TUBE: A constriction that is placed in a pipe and

causes a drop in pressure as fluid flows through it, consisting
essentially of a short straight pipe section or throat between two
tapered sections. It can be used to measure fluid flow rate (a
venture meter) or to draw fuel into the main flow stream, as in a

455. VESSEL: A container in which materials are processed,

treated or stored. For example pressure vessels, storage

456. VIBRATION: A continuing periodic change in a displacement

with respect to a fixed reference.

457. VIBRATION MONITOR: Which indicates vibration and axial

displacement for equipments.

Example: Vibration monitor on ASU indicates vibration and

axial displacement for

Expansion Turbine, Air Booster and Nitrogen Compressors.

458. VISCOSITY: The resistance to flow displayed by a fluid (liquid

or gas)

459. VOLATILE: A substance which can easily be vaporized.

460. VOLT: One volt shall be taken as that electro motive force
which will establish a current of one ampere through a
resistance of one ohm.

461. VOLTAGE DIP: A momentary or prolonged drop in voltage.

462. VOLUME FLOW RATE: The volume of the fluid that passes
through a given surface in a unit time.

Example: m3/hr. For gases, it is usually corrected: to NTP to

compensate for temperature and pressure.

463. VPM: Volume per million (See PPM)

464. VOLUTE: A spiral casing for a centrifugal pump designed so

that speed can be converted to pressure without shock.

465. VORTEX: The cone formed by a swirling liquid gas

466. WARNING BOARD: A small board used by electrical section to

hang on the panel of the machine which has been electrically

467. WASTE WATER, INDUSTRIAL: Drain from different

equipments as Cooling Water Pit, Cooling Water Pumps, Oil
Tanks which will be mainly water with traces of oil.

468. WATT: Work is being done at a rate of 1 watt when a constant

current of 1 ampere is maintained through a resistance by an
EMF of 1 volt.

469. WEEPING (Column): When the vaporizer velocity in a column

is too low, liquid is allowed to drain back through the sieve
trays. This is called weeping.

470. WEIGHT: A measure of force of attraction between earth and

an object.

471. WEIGHBRIDGE: Weigh scale to measure the weight of

LN2/LO2 tankers.
472. WEIR: A flat or notched dam or barrier to liquid flow on a
column tray (See Down Comer).

473. WORK PERMIT: A written permission by the Shift Supervisor

to maintenance staff to do any job on the plant. For fire
permission, a separate column in the same permit is filled. For
isolation of HT motors, separate permit is filled.