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arti ngineering hysical Gen ats 2 je) ae? ee 2) E> cas ‘Mir Publishers ===" CBS Publishers & Distributor: MOSCOW INDIA rt Y. LAKHTIN | ENGINEERING PHYSICAL METALLURGY Translated from the Russian by Nicholas Weinstein Mir Publishers Moscow a ces CBS PUBLISHERS & DISTRIBUTORS 4596/1 A, 11-DARVAGANJ, NEW DELHI-110002 First published 1963 Second printing 1966 Third printing 1968 | Fourth printing 1971 | Fifth printing 1975 + Sixth printing 1977 He onssnicxom sone ISBN : 81-239-0602-1 First Indian Edition : 1998 Copyright © 1983 by Butterworth Heinemann ‘This edition has been published in India by arrangement with Butterworth Heinemann, U.K. Ail right reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced of transmitted in any. form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system without permission, in writing, from the publisher. This reprinted edition is authorized for sale in India only. Published by S.K: Jain for CBS Publishers & Distributors, 4S96/1A, 11 Darya Ganj, New Delhi - 110 002 (India). Printed at : Asia Primograph, Shahdara, Delhi - 32 CONTENTS Chapter {. Crystal Stencture of Metale i. tee ee ne Eb Atomic Structure of, Metals... « 18. Crystallographic Notation ‘of, Atomic’ Planes 4-4. The Structures of Actual Metal Crystals - ‘= 1-5. Properties of Metals sree eee Chapter 2. Sollditication and Metal lagot Structure... FI. Solidification of Metals. 2 66. ee ee ee eee 22, Metal Ingot Structure oe ose se ee es Cagpter 3. Plastic Deformation and Secrystallisation in Metals. $1. Plastic Delornmation 2: Recovery and Ress tatitation Chapler 4. Methods Yor Studying Metal Structure... . Eh Mecrostructare aphy} 2. ee ee Chapter 5. ‘The Mechanical Properties of Metais . . 5-1, Mechanical Testing of Metais . . 52. Tension Tests... 2 ete ‘dness. Tests. -Chapier 6. Binary Alloys, Constitation and Equiliertum Disgrame G1. General Principtes of Phase Transformations in Alloys . 2, The Phase Rule and Equilibrium Diagram... 6. $238 834 eas 888 ssgauaa a 6 Contents 3, Equilibrlum Diagram of 3 Binary System in Which the Com nenis Form s Mechanical Mixture of Crystals in the Solid ‘State end Are Completely Mutually Soluble in the Liquid State... 6-4. Equilibrium Diagram of a System Whose Components Are Mu- tually Soluble in Both the Liquid and Solid States... . 65. Equilibrium Diagram of a System in Which ihe Components Have Unlimtted Solubility in the Liquid State and Form Chemical jounds Upon Solidification... . 66. Eaalliniace Bt tagram of a System Whose ‘Components “Are ‘Sub: ‘opic ject to Allotr 67. Diagrams of Ternary Systems... 2-2 eee eee Chapter 7. The Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram 2... . .. PA Won. 2 we ee sees 7-2. The lron-Catbon “Bauilibrium Diagram . . it wee Transformations ©. i se ee ee ee Chapter 8 Phase Transtormations In the Iron-Carbon System... . | Bl. Formation of Austenite (Transformations That Occur in Heating 8-2. Austenite Grain ‘Growth in Heating ee ee 8-3. Transformation of Austenite into Pearlite (Isothermal Decom- Bes osition of Austenite) .. . . : 64. Transformation of Austentte Upon” Continuous Coating . 8-5. Martensitic of anstormation im Steeh ow. eee eee 8S Teapering of Steel... eee ee ee ee ee C7 Seeing Se ee ee C -oter +. Kieat Treatment of Steel... 2-1. ee ee 9-1, Annealing of Steel... . . 9-2. Normalising of Steel 0.5 93. Hardening of Steel... - 9-4, Fompering of Stel... 0, 95, Sub-Zero Treatment of Steel 9-6. Defects Due to Heat Treatment of Steels... .....-- Chapter 10. Surtece Hardening of Steel 2 02... eee 10-1, High-Frequency 1 Induction Hardening . . . 10-2. Hardening with Electric Contact Resislance Heating . 10-3. Hardening with Electrolytic Heating . eae 10-4. Oxyacetylene Flame Hardening... 6-60.56 - Chapter 11. Chemical Hest Treatment of Steel (Case- Hardening) MeL. Physical Principles Involved {a Chemical Hest Treatment Nitriding of steal . vane Cyaniding and Carbonttriding “of Sted S252 11-5, Diffusion Coatings .... 2... - bee Chapter 12. Minor Constituents and Alloying Elements in Steel . . Carburising of Steele... ee ee ee : 42-1. Effects Produced by the Minor Constituents... -..... 12-2, Distribution of Alloying Elements in Stel... 2... .. 12-3. Effects of the Alloying Elements on Phase Transformations in aa, Structural Gases ‘ol Alloy Stes ol! Contents Chopter $9. Stel. ee 131. General Classification... . 13-2. Ordinary and Improved Carbor 12-3. Quality’ Casbon Structural Steets 13-4. Carbon Steels for Castings 13-5. Free Cutting Steels 13-6. Low-Alloy truct! 13-7. Alloy Structural Steels 13-8. Tool Si . Be Magnetic Steels and Alioys - 13-13. Alloys with Definite Expansion Chapter 14. Cast Irom and Ite Heat Treatment > Mel Grey Cast [ron 2 2 ee wee 142. Hest treatment of Cast fron, . . - 14-3. Malleable Cast Iron. 6-1 ee ee Chapter 15. Copper and Ste Alloys . IS1. 18 Brass : 15-3, Bronzes . . . . Chapter 16. Nickel and It» Alloys . Chapter 17. Aluminium and (ts Alloys . 17-1, Aluminium. . see ee 17-2. Classification of Aluminium “alleys | . 17-3. Non-Heat-Trestable Wr: t Aluminium * Alloys “ 17-4. Heat-Treatable Wrought Aluminium Altoys . . . 17-5. Alumintum-Base Casting Alloys... 0... 0. Chapter 18. Magnestum ond its Alloys... 6.20 ee ee 16-1. Magresium .. 1&2, Magnesium Alloys Chapter 19. Titanlum and Ite Alloys... ee ees Chapter 20. Zinc, Lead, Tin, and Their Alloys. 2... 2 ee es 0-1, Zinc and Its Alloys... eee ee eee 20-2. Lead and tts Alloys sy pee 203. Tin and Hts Alloys... 0 ee cee ee Chapter 21. Babbitte (Antiltietion Alloy)... 6 ee ee ee Chapter 22, Rare Metals and Their Alloys. 2. 0. ee ee Bibliography . . 2... 20 rare Subject Index... eee ee ee ee eee ee 88 PREPACE This book should be of particufar aid to new engineering personnel, only recently engaged in industry, in coordinating their theoretical know! with the actual engineering Practice they encounter and should also help them to better understand special treatises on physical metallurgy and heat treatment. More experienced engineers may use it to renew their theoretical knowledge on the subject. The book may be expediently employed as supplementary reading by students of metallurgical and mechanical engineering institutes and technica! schools attending courses in general physical metallurgy. One aim of the author was to elucidate the latest developments made in engineering physical metallurgy, both in the Soviet Union and in other countries. Principal attention Is given to the physical nature of the phenomena described. The author does not claim to have made a complete exposition of ali the aspects of physical metallurgy. His intention was merely to set forth the fundamentals of physical metallurgy and heat treat- ment of steel, cast iron, and nonferrous metals in a consecutive and easily understandable manner. LIST OF RN—rate of nucleation RG—rate of crystal growth @, », c—lattice parameters R,—equilibrium interatomic distance —free energ: Ace crete feathalpy) T—-absolute temperature, de grees Kelvin S—entropy AT — degree Sot supercooling T,—equilibrium freezing tempe- ratuce T,—actual freezing temperature —positive dislocation —negative dislocation %_—ultimate strength BaAn—Brinetl hardness number 5—relative elongation ¥~—relative reduction of ares Sy-—cohesive strength ‘<,_—shear strength T,—recr stallion temperature Ta-—melting point in the abso iute temperature scale SYMBOLS p—electrical resistivity ET femperature coefBclent of re- sisttvity pemaametle pe permeability —magnetie tnduction H—magnetising force K—magretic susceptibility f—intensity of magnetisatton 5 residual magnetic induction ortional limit oayela point o,—elastic iimit jnrtaturel togarithm Rockwell hardness, Scale C Rockwell hardness, Scale B AE \— Vickers hardness number Sa inn + strength Gg—fatigue Hmit Vi, critical cooling rate '—curtent frequency )- diffusion coridelent R= gas constant 81+ endurance limit for complete stress reversal