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What is ecology? the study of living things.

What provides the needs of living organism? habitat.


What does abiotic mean? non living.
What does biotic mean? living.
What are the factors? temperature, soil, water

Explain population. all members of a species in one given


area

What is species? a group of organisms that are physically


similar

What is an ecosystem? community (biotic & abiotic


factors)

What is a direct observation? what you can see or feel

What is an indirect observation? you can see signs, but can't see the
organism

Explain natural
selection. individu
als with characteristics best suited for the environment will survive and produce offspring with
same
characteristics

What allows an organism to survive in certain conditions? adaptations

What is a niche? an organism's job or role in the


environment

What is birth/death rate how many animals are born or die


within a given amount of time

What is immigration? animals coming into a


population

What is emigration? animals leaving a population


The Parts of the Cell and Their Functions

I. Organelles

A. Cells are made up of small parts that each have a specific job to do for the cell to function.

1. organelles = the small structures that make up a cell; each organelle performs a special function
to

help the cell do its job for the organism.

2. Some of the most important jobs in the cell include making and transporting proteins, releasing

energy from food, controlling what enters and leaves the cell, and getting rid of wastes.

B. While plant and animal cells have several of the same organelles, there are some structures that
are

found only in plants and not in animals.

C. Many of the organelles found in cells are made up of or are surrounded by membrane and,
therefore,

would not be found in prokaryotic cells.

II. Organelles Found in Typical Eukaryotic Cells

A. cell membrane

Type of cell: both plant and animal

Location: forms outer boundary of cell; surrounds cytoplasm; separates the cell from its
environment

Description: made up of a double layer of fats (called lipids) with some proteins scattered
throughout;

the proteins form tiny openings or passageways in the membrane called pores

Function: 1. controls what moves into and out of the cell (only certain materials can get in or out;
ex.

food, oxygen, and materials go in and wastes and cell products move out)
2. provides protection and support for the cell

Other: it is flexible so it can change shape under pressure; by allowing things to move in and out,
it

helps maintain homeostasis

B. nucleus

Type of cell: both plant and animal (only in eukaryotic cells)

Location: found within the cytoplasm; separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear membrane

Description: largest organelle; made up of 3 parts:

1. nuclear membrane = thin layer that surrounds the nucleus; contains pores to let materials in and
out

2. chromosomes = thin threadlike structures made up of DNA (controls cell activities and provides
the

information or recipe the ribosomes need to make proteins )

3. nucleolus = makes ribosomes (which make proteins)

Function: controls all of the cells activities; controls which proteins are made

Other: chromosomes contain genes that control the characteristics of an organism and pass on the
traits

C. cytoplasm

Type of cell: both plant and animal

Location: found inside the cell membrane but outside the nucleus

Description: clear, thick, jellylike material; contains a large amount of water (about 70%) and
chemicals;

may sometimes appear to be grainy (this grainy appearance comes from the organelles floating in
it)

Function: contains all the organelles outside of the nucleus


Other: the cytoplasm is constantly moving or streaming through the cell

D. cytoskeleton

Type of cell: both plant and animal

Location: found throughout the cytoplasm

Description: a web of long tubes and fibers made of protein

Function: supports the cell and helps the cell keep its shape; also helps certain cells move

E. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Type of cell: both plant and animal

Location: extends from the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane; found winding throughout
the

cytoplasm; rough ER is usually found near the nucleus

Description: folded, tubelike membrane; rough ER has ribsomes on it; smooth ER lacks ribosomes

Function: moves materials (especially proteins) around the cell; acts like a conveyor belt or
passageway;

is the cells transportation system

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass
and takes up space by having volume. This includes atoms and anything made up of these, but not
other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.[1][2] More generally, however, in
(modern) physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because a universal definition of it is
elusive; for example, the elementary constituents of atoms may be point particles, each having no
volume individually. Matter is usually classified into three classical states, with plasma
sometimes added as a fourth state. From top to bottom: quartz (solid), water (liquid), nitrogen
dioxide (gas), and a plasma globe (plasma).
All the everyday objects that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are ultimately composed of
atoms. This ordinary atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particlesusually
a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a cloud of orbiting electrons.[3][4] Typically, science
considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. By
contrast, massless particles, such as photons, are not considered matter, because they have neither
rest mass nor volume. However, not all particles with rest mass have a classical volume, since
fundamental particles such as quarks and leptons (sometimes equated with matter) are considered
"point particles" with no effective size or volume. Nevertheless, quarks and leptons together make
up "ordinary matter", and their interactions contribute to the effective volume of the composite
particles that make up ordinary matter.

Matter exists in states (or phases): the classical solid, liquid, and gas; as well as the more exotic
plasma, BoseEinstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quarkgluon plasma.[5]

For much of the history of the natural sciences people have contemplated the exact nature of
matter. The idea that matter was built of discrete building blocks, the so-called particulate theory
of matter, was first put forward by the Greek philosophers Leucippus (~490 BC) and Democritus
(~470380 BC).[6] In bulk, matter can exist in several different forms, or states of
aggregation, known as phases,[42] depending on ambient pressure, temperature and volume.[43]
A phase is a form of matter that has a relatively uniform chemical composition and physical
properties (such as density, specific heat, refractive index, and so forth). These phases include the
three familiar ones (solids, liquids, and gases), as well as more exotic states of matter (such as
plasmas, superfluids, supersolids, BoseEinstein condensates, ...). A fluid may be a liquid, gas or
plasma. There are also paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of magnetic materials. As
conditions change, matter may change from one phase into another. These phenomena are called
phase transitions, and are studied in the field of thermodynamics. In nanomaterials, the vastly
increased ratio of surface area to volume results in matter that can exhibit properties entirely
different from those of bulk material, and not well described by any bulk phase (see nanomaterials
for more details).

Phases are sometimes called states of matter, but this term can lead to confusion with
thermodynamic states. For example, two gases maintained at different pressures are in different
thermodynamic states (different pressures), but in the same phase (both are gases).

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of science related to the
planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its
atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planets physical characteristics, from earthquakes to
raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary
science, but with a much older history. Earth science is a broad term that encompasses four main
branches of study, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields.

There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the
Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate
and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth's
environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth
processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose
people to these dangerous events.

The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure
of the Earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Typically, Earth
scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to
build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. Earth science affects our
everyday lives. For example, meteorologists study the weather and watch for dangerous storms.
Hydrologists study water and warn of floods. Seismologists study earthquakes and try to predict
where they will strike. Geologists study rocks and help to locate useful minerals.Earth scientists
mainly work in the fieldclimbing mountains, exploring the seabed, crawling through caves, or
wading in swamps. They measure and collect samples (such as rocks or river water), then they
record their findings on charts and maps. A volcanic eruption is the release of stored energy from
below the surface of Earth.[9]
Plate tectonics, mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes are geological phenomena that can
be explained in terms of physical and chemical processes in the Earth's crust.[10]

Beneath the Earth's crust lies the mantle which is heated by the radioactive decay of heavy
elements. The mantle is not quite solid and consists of magma which is in a state of semi-perpetual
convection. This convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly. The
resulting process is known as plate tectonics.[11][12][13][14]

Plate tectonics might be thought of as the process by which the Earth is resurfaced. As the result of
seafloor spreading, new crust and lithosphere is created by the flow of magma from the mantle to
the near surface, through fissures, where it cools and solidifies. Through subduction, oceanic crust
and lithosphere returns to the convecting mantle.[12][14][15]

Areas of the crust where new crust is created are called divergent boundaries, those where it is
brought back into the Earth are convergent boundaries and those where plates slide past each
other, but no new lithospheric material is created or destroyed, are referred to as transform (or
conservative) boundaries[12][14][16] Earthquakes result from the movement of the lithospheric
plates, and they often occur near convergent boundaries where parts of the crust are forced into the
Earth as part of subduction.[17]

Volcanoes result primarily from the melting of subducted crust material. Crust material that is
forced into the asthenosphere melts, and some portion of the melted material becomes light
enough to rise to the surfacegiving birth to volcanoes.[12][17]
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type
of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic
force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields such as electric fields, magnetic fields, and light and
is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature. The other three
fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction and gravitation.[1]

Lightning is an electrostatic discharge that travels between two charged regions.


The word electromagnetism is a compound form of two Greek terms, lektron, "amber",
and magntis lithos,[2] which means "agnesian stone",[3] a type of iron ore.
Electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called
the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the
same phenomenon.
The electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects
encountered in daily life. Ordinary matter takes its form as a result of intermolecular forces
between individual atoms and molecules in matter, and is a manifestation of the electromagnetic
force. Electrons are bound by the electromagnetic force to atomic nuclei, and their orbital shapes
and their influence on nearby atoms with their electrons is described by quantum mechanics. The
electromagnetic force governs the processes involved in chemistry, which arise from interactions
between the electrons of neighboring atoms.

There are numerous mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field. In classical


electrodynamics, electric fields are described as electric potential and electric current. In Faraday's
law, magnetic fields are associated with electromagnetic induction and magnetism, and Maxwell's
equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by
charges and currents.

The theoretical implications of electromagnetism, particularly the establishment of the speed of


light based on properties of the "medium" of propagation (permeability and permittivity), led to
the development of special relativity by Albert Einstein in 1905.

Although electromagnetism is considered one of the four fundamental forces, at high energy the
weak force and electromagnetic force are unified as a single electroweak force. In the history of
the universe, during the quark epoch the unified force broke into the two separate forces as the
universe cooled. The electromagnetic force is one of the four known fundamental forces. The
other fundamental forces are:

the weak nuclear force, which binds to all known particles in the Standard Model, and causes
certain forms of radioactive decay. (In particle physics though, the electroweak interaction is the
unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism
and the weak interaction);
the strong nuclear force, which binds quarks to form nucleons, and binds nucleons to form nuclei
the gravitational force.
All other forces (e.g., friction, contact forces) are derived from these four fundamental forces
(including momentum which is carried by the movement of particles).

The electromagnetic force is the one responsible for practically all the phenomena one encounters
in daily life above the nuclear scale, with the exception of gravity. Roughly speaking, all the
forces involved in interactions between atoms can be explained by the electromagnetic force
acting between the electrically charged atomic nuclei and electrons of the atoms. Electromagnetic
forces also explain how these particles carry momentum by their movement. This includes the
forces we experience in "pushing" or "pulling" ordinary material objects, which result from the
intermolecular forces that act between the individual molecules in our bodies and those in the
objects. The electromagnetic force is also involved in all forms of chemical phenomena.

A necessary part of understanding the intra-atomic and intermolecular forces is the effective force
generated by the momentum of the electrons' movement, such that as electrons move between
interacting atoms they carry momentum with them. As a collection of electrons becomes more
confined, their minimum momentum necessarily increases due to the Pauli exclusion principle.
The behaviour of matter at the molecular scale including its density is determined by the balance
between the electromagnetic force and the force generated by the exchange of momentum carried
by the electrons themselves.