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COURSE CONTENTS

I - GENERAL OVERVIEW .

II - SUCKER PUMPING SYSTEM COMPONENTS .

III SYSTEM DESIGN AND SELECTION.

IV SURVEILLANCE AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION .

V MAIN PROBLEMS & TROUBLESHOOTING .

VI - PUMPING UNIT INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES .

VII SUCKER ROD CARE AND HANDLING PROCEDURES .


I GENERAL OVERVIEW
ARTIFICIAL LIFT APPLICATIONS :

Required
Req ired when
hen reservoir
reser oir pressure
press re is no longer

sufficient to lift fluids to surface due to :

Reservoir depletion .
Water p
production .

A/L APPLICATION CONDITIONS :

Enhancing the production of a weak flowing


well .

Producing a dead well .


Well System
y
Tubing head Separator
pressure
p pressure

Outflow

Static pres. = P
Pressure
at Inflow
formation
Pwf
Distance from well
Artificial Lift
P surf

The well:
Ph Flows if Pwf > Ph + Psurf

Dies if Ph + Psurf Pwf

Pwf Pr
Artificial Lift Decreases BHP and Increases Rate

Tubing curve #1
Boottomholle pressurre

PR
BHP1 Tubing curve #2
w/artificial lift

BHP2

BHP2 < BHP1


q 2 > q1
q1 q2 AOF

Flow rate
Artificial Lift Market
R i
Region N AL wells
No ll N b off W
Number Wells
ll AL as a % off ttotal
t l
wells

N America 546,820 568,681 96 %

E Europe
(excluding some
132 346
132,346 138 610
138,610 95 %
FSU countries)

Far East 152,502 156,207 98 %

S America 50,316 53,291 98 %

Middle East 7,548


, 15,645
, 48 %

Africa 5,303 10,885 49 %


W Europe
E 3 258
3,258 4 851
4,851 67 %

S Pacific 1,075 1,380 78 %


TOTAL 899168 949550 +/-
/ 95 %

Source - World Oil 2005


Artificial Lift distribution
worldwide
Total
Other
ESP 7%
14%
G Lift
Gas
8% Rod Pump
71%
FACTORS MANAGING A/L SELECTION :

WELL PRODUCTIVITY , PI .

WELL DEPTH .

WELL GEOMETRY ( VERTICAL OR DEVIATED ) .

WELL LOCATION ( OFFSHORE ONSHORE ) .

FLUID PROPERTIES ( GOR , API , VISCOSITY , CORROSIVE FLUIDS , SAND , TEMP. ) .

RIG AVAILABILITY .

POWER SUPPLY .

MATERIALS AND SPARE PARTS AVAILABILITY .

FIELD LOCATION ( LOGISTICAL ISSUE ) .

ECONOMIC FACTOR ( CAPEX & OPEX ) .

PERSONNEL EXPERIENCE .
S R PUMPING SYSTEM ADVANTAGES :
S.R.

SIMPLE ( CAN RUN EVEN WITH POOR DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ) .

APPLICABLE FOR REMOTE AREAS ( IN MOST PROBLEMS NO NEED FOR WORKOVER RIG ).

STRONG DRAW-DOWN CAPABILITIES .

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT ( NO EFFECT FOR BACK PRESSURE ON WELL PRODUCTION ) .

ECONOMIC WHEREVER APPLICABLE .

ABILITY FOR AUTOMATION AND TELEMETRY CONTROL .

PRODUCTION FLEXIBILITY TO ACCOMMODATE UNFORESEEN WELL


CHANGES ( FROM 30 BFPD TO 4500 BFPD ) .

PRODUCE AND EVALUATE UNKNOWN WELL PERFORMANCE .


S.R. PUMPING SYSTEM DISADVANTAGES :

PRODUCTION LIMITATIONS WITH DEPTH .

FREQUENT MECHANICAL FAILURES AND INTENSIVE MAINTENANCE & FOLLOW UP .

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ( POLLUTION AND OIL SPILLS ) .

POOR WELL CONTROL IN CASE OF UNFORESEEN BEHAVIOR .

POTENTIAL TUBING WEAR AND FREQUENT COMPLETION STRING REPLACEMENT .

NONECONOMIC IN CASE OF MIS-APPLICATION ( DEEP WELLS , HIGHLY DEVIATED WELLS


, HIGH GOR WELLS , HIGH SAND PRODUCTION WELLS , etc ) .
Production Vs. Depth For Rod Pumping

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
BFPD

2000
1500
1000
500
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Fluid Lift, ft X1000
BEST APPLICATION CONDITION FOR S.R. PUMPING SYSTEM :

VERTICAL WELL .

SHALLOW TO MODERATE WELLS ( > +/- 5000 FT ) .

LOW GOR WELL ( < 700 SCF/STB ) .

LIGHT TO SEMI VISCOUS FLUIDS ( < 500 CP ) .

ONSHORE WELLS .

LOW SAND PRODUCTION WELLS .

NON CORROSIVE FLUIDS .

LOW W/C PRODUCTION .

DEAD WELLS ( SAFETY IMPACTS ) .


II - PUMPING SYSTEM COMPONENTS


S.R. PUMPING SYSTEM
S.R. PUMPING SYSTEM COMPONENTS

1 - PUMPING UNIT .
2 - SUCKER ROD STRING .
3 - DOWNHOLE PUMP . 2
4- PUMPING HEAD ASSEMBLY .
5 - PRIME MOVERS .
6 - SAFETY AND PROTECTION SYSTEM.
SYSTEM 3


1 PUMPING ( SURFACE ) UNITS :

PUMPING UNIT IS USED TO CONVERT THE HIGH ROTARY SPEED TO LOW

RECIPROCATING MOTION ( GEAR RATIO FROM 30 TO 1 ) .

MAIN FUNCTIONS :

PROVIDE RECIPROCATION .

CARRY WELL LOADS .

PROVIDE THE REQUIRED TORQUE .


PUMPING UNIT TYPES :

API BEAM UNITS .

SPECIAL BEAM UNITS .

NON BEAM UNITS .


API BEAM UNITS


BEAM PUMPING UNIT COMPONENTS
A - CONVENTIONAL UNIT , REAR BASE MOUNTED UNIT
CLASS I LEVER

FULCRUM

FORCE

LOAD
ADVANTAGES :

THE MOST COMMON TYPE WORLDWIDE .

LOWER COST ( RELATIVE TO OTHER TYPES WITH THE SAME UNIT SIZE ) .

NO COMPLETE DISMANTLING WHILE WORKOVER OPERATIONS .

BI-DIRECTIONAL ROTATION INCREASES GEAR BOX RUNNING LIFE .

DISADVANTAGES :

NEED MORE SPACE AREA AND CONCRETE BASES .

LOWER TORQUE AND LOAD CAPABILITIES FOR SAME CONDITIONS


COMPARED WITH M-II ( ALMOST 2/3 OF MII ) .

MORE POWER CONSUMPTION .

HIGH AMP. FLUCTUATIONS EVEN IN CASE OF GOOD BALANCE COMPARED WITH


MII .
B - FRONT MOUNTED BASE UNIT ( MARK II )
CLASS III LEVER

FULCRUM

FORCE

LOAD
ADVANTAGES :

HIGHER TORQUE CAPABILITIES ( USED MAINLY FOR DEEP , HIGH LOAD WELLS ) .

MORE LOAD CAPACITY ( FASTER IN DOWN STROKE AND SLOWER IN UPSTROKE ) .

COMPACT GEOMETRY , SMALLER FOOTPRINT .

LOWER HP CONSUMPTION & EASIER BALANCE .

BETTER SMOOTHEN AMP. CONSUMPTION ALONG THE PUMPING SYCLE .

DISADVANTAGES :

NEED COMPLETE DISMANTLING WHILE W/O OPERATIONS .

HIGHER COST COMPARED WITH CONVENTIONAL .

UNI DIRECTIONAL ROTATION ( CCW ) .


UNI-DIRECTIONAL

MORE SENSITIVE FOR FLUID POUNDING AND VISCOUS FLUID AT HIGH SPEEDS .
HEAVIER C/W NEEDED ( TO OVERCOME THE NEGATIVE STRUCTURAL UN-BALANCE )
C- ENHANCED GEOMETRY UNIT (PHASED CRANK )
IT IS A CONVENTIONAL UNIT GEOMETRY BUT WITH CRANK PHASE ANGLE
( FROM 9 TO 15 DEGREE ) .

IT HAS THE SAME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONVENTIONAL UNIT BUT


WITH BETTER TORQUE AND LOAD CAPABILITIES ( UNI-DIRECTIONAL
ROTATION
O O ( CW
C ) ..

COMMON TYPES ARE :

MAXIMIZER II ( MAX II ) , MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL .

REVERSE MARK ( RM ) , MANUFACTURED BY LUFKIN .

HRS TYPE ( CHINESE ) .


D - AIR BALANCED UNIT
THE COUNTER BALANCE IS PROVIDED WITH AIR COMPRESSOR NOT
COUNTER WIGHT ( MANUFACTURED BY LUFKIN ONLY ) .

ADVANTAGES :

LIGHT WEIGHT ( CAN BE USED FOR OFFSHORE APPLICATIONS ) .

ULTRA LONG STROKE BEAM UNITS ( COULD REACH 240


240 ) .

USED FOR DEEP WELLS , ULTRA-HEAVY LOADS , HIGH PRODUCTION WELLS .

IT HAS THE GREATEST UNIT SIZES ( COULD REACH 2560,000 in-Ib ) .

EASY TO BE BALANCED , BI-DIRECTIONAL .

DISADVANTAGES :

VERY EXPENSIVE COMPARED WITH OTHER TYPES .

AIR COMPRESSOR AND ACCESSORIES REQUIRE FREQUENT MAINTENANCE .

POTENTIAL HAZARDS IF SOME GASES INTER THE AIR COMPRESSOR .

LESS COMMON TYPE .


SPECIAL BEAM UNITS


LOW PROFILE UNIT ( WHEN HEIGHTS ARE CRITICAL) .

ROAD-RUNNER
ROAD RUNNER UNIT ( TRAILER MOUNTED FOR TEMPORARY
/ REMOTE APPLICATIONS ) .

BEAM BALANCED UNIT ( CHURCHILL ) NO C/W , ( FOR VERY


SHALLOW LOW LOADS WELLS ) .
Low-Profile Pumping Unit - Strap jack

Low clearance applications such as under


sprinkler systems

Urban, scenic, and visually sensitive areas

Higher cost than conventional units


ROAD-RUNNER UNIT :

TRAILER MOUNTED FOR TEMPORARY / REMOTE APPLICATIONS


Beam Balanced Unit

Smaller sizes for shallow and/or low volume wells (usually 57 or 80


gear reducer sizes are largest available)

Counterweights are loaded on rear of walking beam.


NON BEAM UNITS


THERE ARE OTHER LATE TECHNOLOGY FOR PUMPING UNIT TYPES
WITHOUT BEAM THAT HAVE BEEN INTRODUCED IN THE LATE YEARS
OF 20 th. CENTURY .

ROTAFLEX ( LONG STROKE UNIT ) , FROM WEATHEREFORD .

MORLIFT UNIT , FROM NOV .

CORLIFT UNIT , FROM NOV .


Ultra Long Stroke Pumping Unit -
R t fl ( Max.
Rotaflex M SL.=
SL 366 ) .

Longer strokes provide higher pump


compression ratios to prevent gas lock
problems

Fewer cycles and reversals on pumps


and rods

Production rates to 6,000


6 000 BPD

High system efficiency and cost


effectiveness
e ec e ess for
o deep, troublesome,
oub eso e, a
and
d
high-volume wells

Alternative to:

Electric submersible pumps

Hydraulic jet pumps

Large conventional units


Corlift 18-120

High performance, artificial lift unit for oil


and gas applications; direct mounted,
lower profile .

Maximum Load Rating: 18,000 lbs


Variable
V i bl stroke
t k llength:
th 0-120"
0 120" .
Variable stroke speed: 0-6 spm
(depending on rod load) .

Powered by a slightly modified National


Oilwell standard hydraulic skid .

Benefits include low setup costs, minimal


ground disturbance, easy installation and
long stroke advantages
advantages.

Applications include oil and gas well


production sites,, remote areas where
p
pump jack set up is expensive, and de-
watering gas wells.
THE API UNIT DESCRIPTION IS :

Structural load
Gear reducer Max. stroke
Unit type rating X 100 lb
torque
q X1000 in-lb length
g

MII 912 D 365 144

C 640 D 305 120

A 1280 D 470 240


THE SMALLEST PUMP JACK SIZE IS :

C 6.4 D 32 - 16

THE LARGEST PUMP JACK SIZE IS :

A 2560 D 470 - 250


Standard API Sizes
API Reducer Torque API Structural API Standard Stroke
R ti
Ratings X 1000,
1000 in-lb.
i lb R ti
Ratings X 100,
100 lb.
lb L
Lengths,
th in.
i
80 48
114 143 54
160 173 64
228 200 74
320 213 86
456 246 100
640 256 120
912 305 144
1280 365 168
1824 427 192
470 216
2560
240
2 SUCKER RODS :
SUCKER ROD IS USED TO TRANSMIT THE MOTION FROM THE PUMPING UNIT TO THE D.H.P

IT IS MANUFACTURED AT A STANDARD DIMENSIONS , LENGTHS : 25 FT AND 30FT ( +/- 2 in ) :

A API SUCKER ROD GRADES :

TENSILE ROD TUBING


WT. SIZE , in COUPLING SIZE , in
GRAD STRENGTH ROD
APPLICATION Ib/ft
E , SIZE ,
in Ib
in-Ib in FULL SLIM

85000 - Low loads , corrosive 1/2 0.726 2 1/16 -- 1


K
100000 environment
5/8 1 135
1.135 2 1/16 1 1/2 1 1/4
90000 - Medium loads , non-corrosive
C 3/4 1.634 2 3/8 1 5/8 1 1/2
115000 environment

7/8 2 224
2.224 2 7/8 1 13/16 1 5/8
Medium to Heavy loads some
115000 - 1 2.904 3 1/2 2 3/16 2
D types for corrosive (D-90 ) ,
140000
others for non-corrosive ( D-78 )
1 1/8 3.676 3 1/2 2 3/8 --
B NON API SUCKER ROD GRADES :

THESE TYPES ARE :

1 ULTRA HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH GRADES .


1.

2. FIBERGLASS RODS .
TENSILE STRENGTH
, APPLICATION
3. HOLLOW RODS . GRADE
in-Ib

4. COILED RODS . N-97 , S-88


EXTRA HEAVY LOADS
T 66
T-66 140000 150000
140000-150000
CONDITIONS
5. ROTOR RODS . UPCO 50

FIBERGLASS TYPE :

VERY LIGHT WEIGHT S.R. REDUCES LOADS & TORQUE TO


PROVIDE MORE PRODUCTION CAPABILITIES IN DEEP
WELLS , CORROSION RESISTANT , BUT IT HAS SPACING
PROBLEM ( STRETCH +/- 4 TIMES STEEL RODS ) ,
DIFFICULT FISHING AND SHORT PUMP LIFE PROBLEMS
DUE TO EXCESSIVE WEAR , MOREOVER BOTTOM-HOLE
TEMP. BELOW 200 F .
C OTHER ROD ACCESSORIES:

ROD COUPLINGS ;

COUPLINGS ARE USED TO CONNECT S


S.R.
R

CLASS ( T ) COUPLINGS ,,,, LOW CORROSION EROSION RESISTANCE .

CLASS ( S ) COUPLINGS ,,,, MEDIUM CORROSION EROSION RESISTANCE

CLASS ( T ) HR COUPLINGS ,,,, HIGH CORROSION EROSION RESISTANCE .

ANTI-FRICTION COUPLINGS ,,,,,, FOR SEVERE FRICTION AND DRAG FORCES .

PONY RODS :

SHORTER RODS ARE USED TO COMPLETE THE TOTAL LENGTH OF ROD STRING
WHILE PUMP SETTING .

COMMON LENGTHS : 2 ft , 4 ft , 6 ft , 8 ft , 10 ft .
SINKER BARS ( WEIGHT BARS ) :

IT PROVIDES EXTRA WIGHT ABOVE THE PUMP TO :

1 KEEP THE ROD STRING IN TENSION AT DOWN-STROKE


1. DOWN STROKE

2. CENTRALIZE ROD FOR BETTER PLUNGER FUNCTIONING .

3. AVOID ROD BUCKLING ( ONE OF MAJOR PROBLEMS ????? ) .

COMMON SIZES 1 1/8 THROUGH 1.5 WITH 3/4 OR 7/8 PIN END .

CARBON STEEL TYPE .

ALLOY STEEL TYPE .

STABILIZER BARS :

IT IS USED ABOVE THE PUMP VALVE ROD TO CREATE STIFFNESS ,


PROTECT VALVE ROD GUIDE AND EXTEND PUMP RUNNING LIFE .
ROD GUIDES AND CENTRALIZERS :

THEY ARE USED TO BETTER CENTRALIZE ROD STRING INSIDE THE TBG. IN
ORDER TO MINIMIZE ROD / TBG. MUTUAL WEAR .

FIBERGLASS OR TEFLON TYPE ( MOLDED OR RETRIVALBE ) .

WHEEL OR ROLLER TYPE ( FOR CROOKED HOLES ) .

POLISHED ROD ;

IT IS POLISHED TO PROVIDE A GOOD SEAL AGAINST THE STUFFING BOX TO


AVOID OIL LEAKS .

SIZES : 1 1/8" , 1 1/4" , 1 1/2" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,, LENGTH 8 FT THROUGH 35 FT.

POLISHED ROD MATERIALS;

PISTON STEEL , moderate to heavy loads , non corrosion .


SPREY METAL , moderate to heavy loads , good corrosion / abrasion .
HIGH STRENGTH , extra heavy loads , good corrosion / abrasion .

NOTE : POLISHED ROD EXTENSION CAN BE USED TO UNSET THE


PUMP FOR KILLING THE WELL BEFORE DISMANTLING THE WELL
HEAD .
ROD SYMBOL :

SIZE 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8

SYMBOL 4 5 6 7 8 9

EXAMPLES :

ROD CONFIGURATION 87 , IT MEANS TAPER 1" AND 7/8" .

ROD CONFIGURATION 65 , IT MEANS TAPER 3/4" AND 5/8" .

ROD CONFIGURATION 97 , IT MEANS TAPER 1 1/8" , 1" AND 7/8" .


3 DOWN HOLE PUMP ( DHP ) :

MAIN TYPES OF DHP ARE :

A- TUBING PUMP ( TP ) IT HAS TWO MAIN TYPES :

i - THE PUMP BARREL RUN WITH COMPLETION WHILE PLUNGER , WHILE


PLUNGER AND S.V. RUN WITH S.R. ( WHEN PLUNGER SIZE IS SMALLER
THAN TUBING SIZE ,, 2.75
2 75 pump inside
i id 3.5
3 5 TUBING )
NOTE : IN SOME MODELS THE S.V. RUNS WITH BARREL .

ii - THE COMPLETE PUMP RUNS WITH COMPLETION AND SUCKER ROD


ENGAGED THE PUMP WITH ON/OFF TOOL ( WHEN PLUNGER SIZE IS
SMALLER THAN TUBING SIZE ,, 3.75
3 75 PUMP WITH 3.5
3 5 TUBING ) .
ADVANTAGES :

LARGE PRODUCTION VOLUMES ( COULD REACH 3000 BFPD ) .


SAND PRODUCTION WELLS ( TUBULAR PUMPA-PUMP OF HF ) .

DISADVANTAGES :

WORKOVER RIG TO REPLACE DAMAGED BARREL .


WORKOVER RIG TO REPLACE UNFISHABLE S.V.
VERY EXPENSIVE .
USED FOR SHALLOW WELLS ONLY ( < 3000 FT ) .

B- CASING PUMP ( COMPLETION LESS PUMP ) :

LARGE SIZE ( 5 ) PUMP IS RUN AND SET INSIDE THE CASING , BUT THIS
TYPE IS UNFAVORABLE DUE TO :

POSSIBLE CASING DAMAGE .


ROD FISHING CONSTRAINS .
POOR RES. MONITORING .
NO WELL CONTROL IN CASE OF EMERGENCY .
C ROD PUMPS ( COMMONLY USED ) :

SYMBOL DESCRIPTION FEATURES


TYPE
THIN WALL , HIGHER RATE , BUT
RWB STATIONARY STICKING
BARREL PROBLEMS

BOTTOM HOLD HEAVY WALL CLEANING


C G SO
SOLIDS
S
DOWN RHT
TRAVELING BARREL AND DEBRIS

THIN WALL
RWT ,,,, ,,,,
TRAVELING BARREL

LOWER RATE ,
HEAVY WALL RESISTS STICKING ,
RHA
BARREL HIGH DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE

TOP HOLD DOWN

HIGHER RATE ,
RESISTS STICKING ,
RWA THIN WALL BARREL
LOW DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE
D H P COMPONENTS :
D.H.P.

BARREL ( HEAVY & THIN WALL ).

PLUNGER ( SOFT-PACKED
SOFT PACKED , METAL SOLID , METAL GROOVED ) .

TRAVELING VALVE & STANDING VALVE ( TV & SV ) .

SETTING ASSEMBLY ( CUP TYPE , MECHANICAL SET , ANCHOR


PUMP SET ) .

VALVE ROD , CONNECT PLUNGER WITH S


S.R.
R ( 3/4
3/4" , 7/8
7/8" , 1 1/16"
1/16 ) .

OTHER ACCESSORIES .
PUMP NOMENCLATURE :

30- 225 RHAC 24- 6 - 2


PUMP ANCHOR :

IT IS A TECHNIQUE BY WHICH THE PUMP CAN BE SET AT ANY DEPTH ( IT CAN BE


EQUIPPED WITH THE PUMP AS TOP OR BOTTOM HOLD-DOWN ) .

MAIN TYPES :

HARBISON-FISHER ROTATION TYPE ( NOT EFFECTIVE , WEAK ) .

WEATHERFROD STROKE SETTING TYPE , ( GOOD PERFORMANCE ) .

MAIN APPLICATIONS :

PRODUCE
O UC TUBING
U GCCRACKED
C WELL ( DELAY THE NEED FOR
O WORKOVER
O O ).

PRODUCING LOST PUMP WELLS ( DELAY THE NEED FOR WORKOVER ) .

PRODUCE WELLS WITHOUT SEATING NIPPLES WITHOUT WORKOVER JOB ,


( SPECIALLY IN REMOTE AREAS OR UNAVAILABLE RIGS ) .
+

4 PUMPING HEAD ASSEMBLY WITH NORMAL TUBING HANGER .

PUMPING ADAPTOR .

BOP .

STUFFING BOX .

PUMPING TEE .

FLOW LINE AND CASING CONNECTIONS .

PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE GAUGES .


PUMPING ASSEMBLY WITH KTH HANGER
.
5 PRIME MOVERS :

THE PUMPING UNIT CAN BE DRIVEN BY :

i ELECTRICAL MOTORS :

ARE MANUFACTURED WITH 4 TORQUE MODES FOR ALL OF THE FOLLOWING


TYPES :

NEMA C TYPE ,,, 5% SLIP FACTOR , 250 % STARTING TORQUE CAPACITY .

NEMA D TYPE ,,, 5 13%


3% S
SLIP FACTOR
C O , 270
0%S
STARTING
G TORQUE
O QU CAPACITY
C C .

ULTRA HIGH SLIP TYPE ,,, 30 40% SLIP FACTOR , 270 % STARTING TORQUE CAPACITY . (
THIS TYPE RECUES STARTING LOAD AND TORQUE LIKE SOFT STARTER , BUT ITS COST
IS VERY HIGH ) .

NOTE : VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE ( VSD ) CAN BE USED FOR SOFT STARTING AND
ADAPTING UNIT SPEED WITHOUT CHANGING SHEAVES .

ii DIESEL ENGINES .

iii GAS ENGINES .


Electric Motor Slip :

When the load on an electric motor increases, the motor slows down (slips)
as it develops more torque to handle the increased load
load.
Slip is the difference between motor speed at no load and the motor speed
at full load as a percentage of no load speed :

(No Load RPM - Full Load RPM) / No Load RPM

F example,
For l if a 1200 RPM motor
t operates
t att 1104 RPM under
d ffullll lload:
d
Slip = 100% (1200 - 1104) /1200
= 8%


6 SAFETY AND PROTECTION SYSTEM :

PRESSURE SWITCH ( SECURE THE WELL AGAINST HIGHER AND LOWER


WELL HEAD PRESSURES ) .

VIBRATION
O SWITCH
S C (S
SECURE
CU THE U
UNIT AGAINST
G S SSTRONG
O G VIBRATION
O ).

STUFFING BOX AND POLISHED ROD TO AVOID OIL SPILLS .

ELECTRICAL MOTOR UNDERLOAD AND OVERLOAD PROTECTION .

PUMP-OFF CONTROLLER CAN BE USED FOR FULL SYSTEM CONTROL


III - S.R. SYSTEM DESIGN AND SELECTION
Required Information
Targett Production
T P d ti (oil ( il and
d water)
t )
Pump p seating
g depth
p .
Current well completion
Dynamic fluid level or pump intake
pressure .
Well Head pressure .
Fluid p
properties
p ( sp.gr
p g , GOR , .etc. ) .
Beam Pumping
p g System
y Design
g
Subsurface pump
Size
Type
Materials

Rod string
Rod string configuration
Grade
Coupling size

Surface pumping unit


Size
Type

Prime mover
SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ( Rule of Thumb ) :-

ALWAYS MAXIMIZE SL AND MINIMIZE SPM ( IF THE AVAILABLE PUMPING UNIT SIZE CAN
ACCOMMODATE THE TORQUE ) .

MAXIMIZE PUMP SUBMEGENCE .

UNIT STRUCTURAL LOADING SHOULD NOT EXCEED 75 % OF ITS RATING ( TO


ACCOMMODATE THE FUTURE CONSTRAINS ) .

GEARBOX TORQUE LOADING SHOULD NOT EXCEED 75 % OF ITS RATING ( TO


ACCOMMODATE THE FUTURE CONSTRAINS ) .

SUCKER ROD STRING LOADING SHOULD NOT EXCEED 80 % OF ITS RATING ( TO


ACCOMMODATE THE FUTURE CONSTRAINS ) .

PLUNGER MINIMUM LENGTH IS 3 FT ,,, INCREASE 1 FT EACH 1000 FT OF WELL DEPTH .

PLUNGER FIT RANGED FROM 0.003


0.003 TO 0.007
0.007 ( INCREASED WITH VISCOSITY ,
DECREASED WITH DEPTH ) .

PUMP BARREL LENGTH SHOULD NOT BE LESS THAN 2 TIMES THE MAX. SL .

POLISHED LENGTH SHOULD NOT BE LESS THAN 3 TIMES THE MAX. SL .

ALWAYS INSTALL SAFETY CLAMP .

KEEP FROM 2 TO 3 FT DISTANCE BETWEEN THE CARRIER BAR AND STUFFING BOX .

KEEP BOTH TUBING AND ROD STRING WITHIN SUFFICIENT TENSION .


CONTINUED

Design production volume = slightly below target production volume to keep


from starving the pump.

Max lift (p
(pressure)) should be based on minimum fluid levels at the maximum
system pumping rate.

System
y power should be based on max pumping g rate at max pressure plus extra
for start-up torque requirements. Electric is preferred if available.

Slower in viscous oil to allow rod fall on the down-stroke

Faster (SPM > 8) in sandy fluids to keep sand in solution and moving.

Pump speed should be slow enough to allow the compression chamber to


completely fill .

The multiplication of SL & SPM should not exceed 1440 .

Follow the rule ( longer , deeper & slower ) whenever possible .

Use high strength and tapered rod string for deep wells , to reduce rod loading .
CONTINUED

for gassy wells use smaller pump size , deepen plunger to improve
compression
p ratio :

Compression ratio = total stroke volume / un-swept volume .

for heavy oil wells , minimize speed , maximize pump size , use slim
couplings or COROD to avoid piston effect .

for sandy wells , maximize pump size and pumping speed to keep sand in
suspension .

for unknown well performance , start the well with the minimum parameters
available , then re-optimize after close monitoring .
Casing , Tubing and Pump Sizes

Over size
RW Insert RH Insert TH Tubing
Casing Tubing Sucker rod Tubing
pump , pump , pump ,
size size , max size , max pump ,
max max max
max
5/8 slim hole
2 7/8 1 1/2
coupling
1 1/4 ----- 1 1/2 2
3/4 slim hole
3 1/2 2 1/16
coupling
7/8 slim hole
4 2 3/8 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 3/4 2 1/4
coupling

4 1/2 2 7/8
1 slim hole
2 1 3/4 2 1/4 2 3/4
coupling
5 2 7/8

5 1/2
3 1/2 1 1/8 2 1/2 2 1/4 2 3/4 3 3/4
6 5/8

7 4 3/4
4 1/2 1 1/8 3 1/4 2 3/4 3 3/4
7 5/8 5 3/4
SINKER BAR WEIGHT CALCULATION
THERE ARE SEVERAL DESIGN SOFT WARE PROGRAMS
IN THE MARKET LIKE :

Purchasable soft wares .

1 . S ROD .
2 . DAIG$$ .
3 . ECHOPUMP
C O U .
4 . RODSTAR .

, Free soft wares .

1 . LOADCALC.
2 . QROD .
SOME DESIGN EXAMPLES USING QROD

AND LOADCALA PROGRAMS


IV SURVEILLANCE AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
S R SYSTEM SURVEILLANCE IS VERY ESSENTIAL TO :
S.R.

EVALUATE AND OPTIMIZE THE WELL PERFORMANCE .

IMPROVE THE OVERALL SYSTEM EFFICIENCY .

REDUCE THE DOWN TIME AND OPERATING COST .


1 PERIODICAL WELL SURVEILLANCE :

DAILY WELL MONITORING PLAN .

CONDITION
MONITORINGITEM
NORMAL HIGH LOW

PRODUCTION
SUBSURFACEPUMP
SUBSURFACE PUMP
IMPROVEMENTOR
WELLHEADPRESSURE OK PROBLEMORFLOW
FLOWLINE
LINELEAK
RESTRICTION

PRODUCTION SUBSURFACEPUMP
WELLHEAD
OK IMPROVEMENT OR
IMPROVEMENTOR PROBLEM OR
PROBLEMOR
TEMPRATURE
W/CINCREASED RESRVOIRDECLINE

DAILYCHECKUPFORPUMPINGUNIT(LOOK&LISTEN),NOISE,VBELTCONDITION,
ALIGNMENT,STUFFINGBOX,GASVENTING,OILSAMPLING..etc.
MONTHLY WELL MONITORING PLAN .

CONDITION
MONITORINGITEM
NORMAL HIGH LOW

SUBSURFACEPUMP
RESERVOIR
PRODUCTIONTEST OK PROBLEMOR
IMPROVEMENT
RESERVOIR DECLINE
RESERVOIRDECLINE

THEPROBLEMWILLBEIDENTIFIEDBASEDON
DYNAMOMETERTEST OK
DYNOCARDANALYSIS

SUBSURFACEPUMP
PROBLEM OR
PROBLEMOR
DFLMEASUREMENT OK RESERVOIRDECLINE
RESERVOIR
IMPROVEMENT
DYNAMOMETER TEST ANALYSIS :

DYNAMOMETER IS AN INSTRUMENT BY WHICH THE S.R. LOAD VARIATIONS ARE MEASURED


ALONG THE ROD PUMP CYCLE ( UPSTROKE & DOWN STROKE ) .

DYNAMOMETER TEST PROVIDES THE FOLLOWING VALUABLE DATA :

ACTUAL ROD LOADS ( PEAK AND MIN. ) .

ROD STRESS CALCULATIONS ( AS % OF GOODMAN ) .

ACTUAL GEAR BOX TORQUE LOADING .

PUMPING UNIT BALANCE CONDITION .

T.V. & S.V. PERFORMANCE .

D.H.P. PERFORMANCE ( PUMP CARD ) .

PUMP INTAKE PRESSURE .

PUMP DISPLACEMENT .

ACTUAL PUMP FILLAGE .

EFFECTIVE STROKE LENGTH ( S.L. ) .

PUMP STROKE PER MIN. (SPM ) .


PUMPING MECHANISM :

1 UP-STROKE
UP STROKE ( SUCTION ) :

P2 < P3 & P1 .

T.V.
T V CLOSES , S
S.V.
V OPENS .

2 DOWN-STROKE ( COMPRESSION ) :

P2 > P3 & P1 .

T.V.
T V OPENS , S
S.V.
V CLOSES
SUBSURFACE PUMP MECHANISM VIDEO
TYPICAL PUMP CARDS
SOME ACTUAL DYNAMOMETER RUNS
ANALYSIS
2 REAL TIME WELL SURVEILLANCE :

LOCAL SURVEILLANCE :

BY USING ROD PUMP ( SAM ) CONTROLLER AND READ ALL DATA LOCALLY AT
WELL SITE , 24 HRs./ DAY , 7 DAYS/ WEEK .

TELEMETRY SURVEILLANCE :

BY USING TELEMETRY SYSTEM TO TRANSFER ALL WELL SIGNALS ( PRESS. ,


TEMP. , ROD PUMP CONTROLLER DATA , MOTOR DATA ) TO CONTROL ROOM
FOR FULL ACCESSIBILITY 24 HRs./ DAY , 7 DAYS/ WEEK .

VERY IMPORTANT NOTE :

WELL SITE CHECK-UP WILL REMAIN VERY ESSENTIALS EVEN WITH


TELEMETRY SURVEILLANCE .
ROD PUMP CONTROLLER ( RPC ) ADVANTAGES :

STOPS THE WELL AT CERTAIN PUMP FILLAGE TO MINIMIZE FLUID POUNDING .

REDUCES MECHANICAL FAILURES AND IMPROVES THE SYSTEM OVERALL


EFFICIENCY .

PROJECT THE DAILY WELL PRODUCTION RATE .

FULL WELL CONTROL AGAINST HIGH/LOW LOADS , HIGH/LOW RPM , HIGH/LOW


AMP. , etc..

FULL HISTORICAL DATA FOR RUNNING TIME , LOADS , DYNO-CARD , etc..

REAL TIME SYSTEM PERFORMANCE MONITORING AND EVALUATION ( PUMPING


UNIT , RODS , D.H.P. , etc

POWER SAVING .
ROD PUMP CONTROLLER DISADVANTAGES :

RESTART TIME & CONSEQUENT STROKES ACCURACY ( PRODUCTION LOSSES IF


NOT ACCURATE ) .
MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL FAULTS , LOGISTICAL ISSUES TO KEEP IT HEALTHY .

DIFFICULTY TO ADJUST PUMP FILLAGE IN GASSY WELLS ( EXPECTED PRODUCTION


LOSSES ) .
POSSIBLE PUMP PLUGGING FOR SANDY , PARAFFINIC & ASPHALTIC WELLS .

SHORTENS ELECTRICAL GENERATOR RUN LIFE ( FULL/NO LOAD VARIATIONS ) .

SHORTENS ELECTRICAL MOTOR RUN LIFE ( START/STOP VARIATIONS ) .

DIFFICULT W/C AND D.F.L MONITORING .


POSSIBLE FLOW LINE PLUGGING ( OIL FREEZING IN STATIC CONDITION ) IN WINTER
SEASON .
EXTRA HEAVY LOADS AND DRAG FORCES IF USED IN HIGHLY VISCOUS OIL .
VSD PUMP OFF CONTROLLER :

IT IS THE LATEST VERSION OF PUMP OFF CONTROLLER TO AVOID MOST


PROBLEMS OF THE OLD VERSION .

FEATURES / ADVANTAGES :

CONTINUOUS ADJUSTING FOR THE SPM BASED ON PUMP FILLAGE .

CAN INCREASE THE UP-STROKE SPEED AND DECREASE DOWN-STROKE SPEED


( SEPARATELY ) .

USED IN HIGHLY VISCOSE WELLS WITHOUT EXTRA HEAVY LOADS OR ROD FLOATING .

NO SAND OR PARAFFIN PLUGGING .

NO MOTOR OR GENERATOR DAMAGE .

NO RESTART TIME OR CONSEQUENT STROKES PROBLEMS .

NO FLOW LINE PLUGGING .

ACCURATE W/C AND D.F.L MONITORING .

NO NEED TO ADJUST PUMP FILLAGE .


V MAIN PROBLEMS
O S & TROUBLESHOOTING
O S OO G
Equipment Failure
Real Time Monitoring will lower failure frequencies and
pre ent catastrophic fail
prevent failure;
re th
thus
sqquickly
ickl pa
paying
ing for itself

E
Early
l Detection
D t ti off Wear
W or Corrosion
C i Related
R l t d Damage
D
Will Prevent More Expensive Repairs Due to
Catastrophic Failure .

Inspect All Equipment When Pulled for Well service


Inspect
p for Corrosion Damage,g , Wear , etc ..
This will help in minimizing the failure frequency .

Failure Analysis and Failure Tracking are the keys to


determining corrective action to take.
S
SURFACE
C PROBLEMS
O S
1 GEARBOX OVERLOADING :

THE GEARBOX IS OVERLOADED WHEN THE ACTUAL APPLIED TORQUE EXCEEDS


THE GEAR BOX RATING , THIS MIGHT CREATE DAMAGE FOR GEAR BOX TEETH
OR SHAFT ( DO NOT EXCEED +/- 75 % OF THE TORQUE RATING TO ACCOMMODATE FUTURE
CONSTRAINS ) .

REASONS :

IMPROPER UNIT SIZE SELECTION FROM START-UP ( THE SELECTED UNIT CAN NOT
HANDLE THE WELL LOADS ) .

UNIT UNBALANCE ( 90 % OF OVERLOADING IS DUE UNIT UNBALANCE ) .

SUDDEN CHANGE IN WELL CONDITION .

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS :

SELECT LARGER UNIT SIZE TO .


REBALANCE PUMPING UNIT .
RE OPTIMIZE
O THE PUMPING
G PARAMETERS
S TO
O MEET THE SUDDEN
S WELL CHANGE
C G (S
START
WITH MINIMIZING THE SL ) .
Relative Gearbox Life VS loadingg
30

25

20
ars

15
Life, yea

10

0
100 0%
100.0% 110.0%
110 0% 120 0%
120.0% 130 0%
130.0%
Percent Overload
LOAD

LIFE
Fatigue Fractures-Normally Caused by
Overloading
Destructive Pitting-Poor Lubrication or
Overload
American Slow Speed Shaft-Design Defect
Crankshaft Failure and Resulting
Catastrophic Unit Failure due to
Shaft Deflection and to Sticking
Pump
2 PUMPING UNIT MISALIGNMENT :

IT APPEARS AS :

MOTOR AND GEAR BOX SHEAVES MISALIGNMENT WILL SHORTEN THE V BELTS RUN
LIFE AND CONSUME MORE POWER .

PUMPING UNIT MISALIGNMENT AGAINST WELL HEAD WILL CREATE MORE FRICTION
AT WELL HEAD BETWEEN POLISHED ROD AND STUFFING BOX , THEN W/H LEAK OR
POLISHED FAILURE .

POOR LEVELING FOR THE GROUND BEFORE INSTALLATION CREATES POOR LAY OUT
AND UNIT INSTABILITY .

PITMAN ARMS MISALIGNMENT WILL NOT EQUALLY DISTRIBUTE THE WELL LOADS ON
BOTH SIDES , THIS COULD CREATE BEARING FAILURE OR WALKING BEAM TWISTING
.

BRIDLE MISALIGNMENT WITH HORSE HEAD , WIRE CAN FALL AT ONE SIDE AND
FURTHER DAMAGE CAN HAPPEN .
3 CRANK PIN ( WREST PIN ) BEARING FAILURE OR STUCK & CRANK
HOLE DAMAGE :

THIS IS CONSIDERED THE WORST PROBLEM COULD HAPPEN FOR


THE PUMPING UNIT THAT COULD LEAD TO EQUIPMENT COMPLETE
LOSS , EXCESSIVE REPAIR COST AND LONG DOWN TIME .

FAILURE CAUSE :

UNIT MISALIGNMENT .
POOR INSPECTION AND LACK OF LUBRICATION .
WRONG INSTALLATION .
UNIT OVERLOADING .
PIN NUT LOOSENING .

TROUBLESHOOTING :
KEEP THE UNIT IN GOOD ALIGNMENT .

FOLLOW PROCEDURE WHILE INSTALLATION ( CLEAN HOLE WITHOUT CREASE , TIGHT


THE NUT , PUT THE STOPPER LOCK ) .

INSPECT FOR NOISE , LOCK STOPPER , GREASE PERIODICALLY ( EVERY 6 MONTH ) .

AVOID UNIT OVERLOADING .


Broken Crank Pin Caused by
Continuously Pounding Fluid
COMPLETE UNIT FAILURE DUE TO SEVERE
MISALIGNMENT OR LOOSEN BOLTS
Resulting
g Unit Catastrophic
p Failure
from Broken Crank Pin
4 - Wireline/Bridle
Wi li /B idl Failures
F il :
Wear and/or Fatigue both External and Internal - from Abrasive Wear
(External) and From Individual Wires Moving Relative to One Another
(Internal) .
FAILURE CAUSE :
Unit overloading .
unit misalignment .
C
Corrosion
i problems
bl .

CORRECTIVE ACTION :
keep the unit within its normal load and good alignment .
change in case of damage .
Grease it in case of humid environment .
5 UNIT UNBALANCE :

OVER-BALANCE :

C/W CREATES COUNTER BALANCE EFFECT EXCEEDS THE WELL


LOADS ( DOWN-STROKE AMP. HIGHER THAN UP-STROKE ONE ) .

FOR REBALANCE ,,, MOVE C/W INSIDE .

UNDER-BALANCE :

C/W CREATES COUNTER BALANCE EFFECT LESS THAN THE WELL


LOADS ( UP-STROKE AMP. HIGHER THAN DOWN-STROKE ONE ) .

FOR REBALANCE ,,, MOVE C/W INSIDE .

BOTH OVER-BALANCE AND UNDER-BALANCE CONDITIONS CAUSE :

MORE POWER CONSUMPTION .

SHORTEN PRIME MOVER RUN LIFE .

CAUSES GEAR BOX OVERLOADING .


D
Down-Stroke
St k Up Stroke
Up-Stroke

Load = Weight Rods +


Weight of Fluid

Load = Weight of Rods

CBE = Weight of Rods + 1/2 Weight of Fluid


Counterbalanced System

A A

100 lbs.

50 lbs. 150 lbs.


Up-Stroke
p
Counterbalanced System

A A

100 lbs.

50 lbs. 50 lbs.
Down-Stroke
6 POLISHED ROD FAILURE :

POLISHED ROD FAILURE JUST BELOW THE CARRIER BAR REPRESENTS +/- 90 %
OF FAILURES .
FAILURE CAUSE :
Tighten Rod clamp with over-torque ( creates excessive stresses ) .
Unit misalignment
g against
g well head.
Mishandling .
Corrosion problems .
Improper polished rod type selection .

CORRECTIVE
CO C ACTION
C O :
Never apply over-torque for Rod clamp ( use two clamps for
deep wells and high loads ) .
Better unit alignment .
Never use pipe wrenches to tight or dismantle polished rod .
Replace it in case of Corrosion .
Use proper polished rod type .
7 STUFFING BOX LEAK :

Incase of stuffing box leaking , oil spilled out of the well creating pollution and
environmental impacts and may lead to unsafe operations .
CAUSES :
Poor greasing .
Excessive tightening.
polished rod or well head misalignment .
corroded polished rod .
F
Free water
t production
d ti .
High well head pressure .

CORRECTIVE ACTION :
keep proper and periodical greasing .
never over-tight stuffing
ff box .
Replace corroded polished rod .
keep well head and polished rod in good alignment .
always keep high well head pressure and water production wells in
close monitoring .
DOWNHOLE
O O PROBLEMS
O S
1 FLUID POUNDING :

PROBLEM NATURE :

INCOMPLETE PUMP FILLAGE CREATES A HAMMERING EFFECT FOR S.R.


& D.H.P. IN THE DOWN STROKE ( SEE ATTACHED SKETCH ) :

REASONS :

INSUFFICIENT PUMP INTAKE PRESSURE .


PUMP INTAKE RESTRICTION .

FLUID POUNDING CAUSES SEVERE PROBLEMS LIKE :

PUMPING UNIT BASE VIBRATION ( LOOSENS THE BOLTS ) .


GEAR BOX TEETH DAMAGE .
S.R. PREMATURE FATIGUE FAILURE .
ROD UNSCREW FROM BOTTOM .
D.H.P. FAILURE ( T.V. , VALVE ROD BREAK ) .
ROD BUCKLING AND EXCESSIVE TBG. WEAR .
FLUID POUNDING NATURE :
FLUID POUNDING TROUBLESHOOTING :

RE-OPTIMIZE THE PUMPING PARAMETERS ( S.L. , SPM & P.S. ) .

USE PUMP OFF CONTROLLER TO MATCH PUMPING RATE WITH THE


ACTUAL WELL PRODUCTIVITY .

USE CHARGER VALVE ( SAND CHECK ) TO MINIMIZE THE EFFECT OF


POUNDING .

CHECK PUMP INTAKE FOR RESTRICTION ( THIS COULD BE


CONSIDERED IN CASE OF POUNDING AT HIGHER DYNAMIC LEVEL) .

INCREASE PUMP SUBMERGENCE IF POSSIBLE .


2 GAS POUNDING AND GAS LOCK :

PROBLEM NATURE :

GAS SEPARATED AND ACCUMULATED INSIDE THE PUMP


REDUCING THE VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY , IF IS NOT MINIMIZED
IT WILL CREATE COMPLETE GAS LOCK .

REASONS ARE :

HIGH GOR OR FOAMY FLUIDS .


POOR GAS VENTING WHILE PRODUCTION .

GAS POUNDING CAUSES SEVERAL PROBLEMS LIKE :

REDUCING PUMP VOLUMETRIC EFF.


COMPLETE PUMP OFF IN CASE OF GAS LOCK .
GAS POUNDING TROUBLESHOOTING :

IMPROVE GAS VENTING THROUGH ANNULUS .

MINIMIZE PUMP SPACING TO IMPROVE THE PUMP COMPRESSION


RATIO .

MAXIMIZE S.L.
S L AND P
P.S.
S AND MINIMIZE SPM ( LONGER , LARGER ,
DEEPER AND SLOWER CONDITION ) .

INSTALL PUMP BELOW PERFORATIONS TO ALLOW FOR GRAVITY


SEPARATION ( IN CASE OF SUFFICIENT RAT HOLE AND NO SAND
PRODUCTION ) ,, THIS IS THE MOST EFFICIENT SOLUTION
SO UTION .

INSTALL GAS ANCHOR ( SEPARATOR ) , SEE THE FOLLOWING


SKETCH .

USE VSP ( VARIABLE SLIPPAGE PUMP ) .


Pump intake below perforation
GAS SEPARATOR
Variable slippage pump VSP
3 SUCKER ROD FAILURE ( ROD PARTING ) .

A TENSILE FAILURE :

IT APPEARS AS A BOTTLE NECK SHAPE DUE TO ROD ELONGATION


WHEN USING IMPROPER ROD TYPE OR CREATES EXCESSIVE
TENSION TO FREE STUCK PUMP , ( ACTUAL APPLIED LOADS
EXCEEDS THE ALLOWABLE LOADS ) .

TROUBLESHOOTING :

BETTER ROD TYPE SELECTION DURING THE INITIAL DESIGN .

NEVER EXCEED THE ALLOWABLE ROD LOAD RATING DURING TRIALS


TO FREE STUCK PUMP .
B CORROSION FAILURE :

THE ROD IS PARTED DUE TO AREA REDUCTION AS A RESULT


OF CORROSION ( CHEMICAL REACTION BETWEEN STEEL
AND CO2 , H2S OR ACID .

TROUBLESHOOTING :

USE CORROSION RESISTANT ROD TYPE .

USE CORROSION INHIBITOR .


C FATIGUE ( MECHANICAL ) FAILURE :

It originates from a local increase in stress as small, progressive


stress cracks that advance, upon each applied load, with the action
of fluctuating or cyclic stresses to rupture, or final shear tear.

SUCH TYPE IS CONSIDERED THE MOST COMMON TYPE WORLD WIDE .


REASONS :

IMPROPER MAKE-UP

IMPROPER CARE AND HANDLING FOR SUCKER ROD .

SEVERE FLUID POUNDING .

EXCEED ROD ENDURANCE LIMIT .

MANUFACTURER DEFECTS .

USING OLD RODS WITHOUT INSPECTION .

PUMP TAGGING DOWN .

TROUBLESHOOTING :

FOLLOW API CARE AND HANDLING PROCEDURE .

FOLLOW API MAKE


MAKE-UP
UP PROCEDURE ( USE TORQUE GAUGE ) .

RE-OPTIMIZE THE WELL PUMPING PARAMETERS TO MINIMIZE FLUID POUNDING .

NEVER EXCEED THE ENDURANCE LIMIT .

NEVER USE UN-INSPECTED RODS .


D - ROD COUPLING UNSCREW & COUPLING / PIN FAILURE :

IN SOME CASES , THE FAILURE OCCURRED AS COUPLING UNSCREW OR


FAILURE

REASONS :

OVER MAKE-UP TORQUE .

UNDER MAKE-UP TORQUE .

OLD DIRTY WORN THREAD COUPLINGS .

SEVERE FLUID POUNDING .

EXCESSIVE COUPLING WEAR .

TROUBLESHOOTING :

ALWAYS MAKE-UP RODS WITH TORQUE GAUGE .

NEVER USE OLD DIRTY COUPLINGS .

RE-OPTIMIZE WELL PARAMETERS .


POOR HANDLING DURING OPERATIONS
E - ROD BUCKLING TENDENCY :

BUCKLING TENDENCY HAPPENS DUE TO COMPRESSION LOADS IN THE DOWN


S O
STROKE ( THE ROD
O SHOULD
S O BE KEPT UNDER TENSION
S O IN ALL CONDITIONS
CO O S).

PROBLEMS RELATED TO BUCKLING :

EXCESSIVE ROD AND TUBING WEAR .


SUCKER ROD FAILURE OR UNSCREW .
VALVE ROD AND VALVE ROD GUIDE DAMAGE .
REASONS :

SEVERE FLUID POUNDING .


EXCESSIVE ROD SPEED ( EXCEEDS FREE FALL SPEED ) .
HEAVY VISCOUS OIL .
IMPROPER ROD STRING DESIGN .
PUMP TAGGING .

TROUBLESHOOTING :

ELIMINATE POUNDING AND OPTIMIZE SPEED SPECIALLY IN HEAVY VISCOUS WELLS


USE SINKER & STABILIZER BARS TO CENTRALIZE RODS AND KEEP IN TENSION .
NEVER KEEP PUMP STRONGLY TAGGING DOWN .
4 - DOWN HOLE PUMP FAILURE :

THE PUMP STOPS PRODUCTION DUE TO MECHANICAL DAMAGE , CORROSION


DAMAGE OR PLUGGING .

REASONS :

CORROSION ( IMPROPER MATERIAL SELECTION ) .


EXCESSIVE SAND ABRASION ( FOR PLUNGER , BARREL AND T.V. & S.V. ) .
SEVERE FLUID POUNDING .
SCALES , ASHPALTINE & PARAFFIN PLUGGING .
POOR REDRESSING IN WORKSHOP .
PUMP TAGGING DOWN .

TROUBLESHOOTING :

PROPER MATERIAL AND SIZING SELECTION .


USE SAND FILTERS OR TUBULAR ( PUMPA-PUMP ) FOR HEAVY SAND PRODUCTION .
FOLLOW-UP API PROCEDURE FOR PUMP REPAIR .
USE CORROSION INHIBITOR ( IN CASE OF CORROSIVE FLUID ) .
APPLY REGULAR CHEMICAL TREATMENT .
NEVER KEEP THE PUMP SEVERELY TAGGING DOWN .
Downhole Equipment Failure
WOW!!!
How much force is necessary to do this
damage?g

Solids trapped
b
between the
h barrel
b l
& the plunger also
increase loads on
th upstroke!
the t k !
Downhole Equipment Failure

Split traveling valve


cage from
f fl id
fluid
pound.
Downhole Equipment Failure

Fractured nickel-
carbide
bid standing
t di
valve seat from
fluid pound.
Downhole Equipment Failure

Pump tagging

stress
t fatigue
f ti
Wear
5 TUBING WEARS AND CRACKS :

PROBLEM NATURE :

LONGITUDINAL TBG. WEARS AND CRACKS APPEAR AS A RESULT OF


MUTUAL FRICTION BETWEEN S.R.
S R COUPLINGS AND TBG
TBG.

COMMONLY EXISTS IN THE BOTTOM SECTION OF TBG. STRING ( +/- 90 % ) .

IT IS CONSIDERED AS ONE OF THE COMMON PROBLEMS OF S.R. SYSTEM


WORLD-WIDE .

PROBLEM IMPACT :

INCREASES WORKOVER FREQUENCY .

INCREASES OPERATING COST .

INCREASES MATERIALS CONSUMPTION

INCREASES PRODUCTION LOSSES .


Non--anchored Tubing
Non
No buckling

Neutral point

Buckling

Downstroke Upstroke

Breathing F
TBG CRACKS REASONS :
TBG.

ROD BUCKLING ( HIGH SPEED , INSUFFECIENT SINKER BAR , FLUID


POUNDING , PUMP TAGGING DOWN ) .

TUBING BUCKLING ( UNANCHORED TUBING OR APPLY INSUFFICIENT


TENSION ) .

USE SUCKER ROD SYSTEM IN CROOKED HOLES .

FREE WATER PRODUCTION ( REPRESENTS THE MAIN CRITICAL REASON


SINCE IT INCREASES MUTUAL FRICTION BETWEEN RODS AND TUBING ) .

PRESENCE OF CORROSIVE FLUIDS ( ENHANCES THE EROSION CORROSION


EFFECT ) .
HOW TO MINIMIZE TUBING WEARS AND CRACKS :

ELIMINATE ALL REASONS OF ROD BUCKLING .

APPLY PROPER TENSION FOR TBG. STRING ( YOU MAY USE KTH HANGER ) .

USE ROD GUIDES OR WHEEL GUIDES TO CENTRALIZE RODS INSIDE TUBING .

ELIMINATE WATER SOURCE ( APPLY WSO JOBS IF POSSIBLE ) .

USE ANTI-FRICTION COUPLINGS AND BLAST JOINTS IN THE HOT SPOTS .

APPLY CORROSION INHIBITION PROGRAMS .

MINIMIZE PUMPING SPEED .


VI PUMPING UNIT INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
1 - PUMPING UNIT INSPECTION
WIRE LINE ASSEMBLY

Look for corrosion


Check for broken wires
Check for kinks
Measure size of wire rope
Check condition of carrier bar
L k att alignment
Look li t with
ith wellll h
head
d
FOUNDATION

CHECK LEVEL IN BOTH DIRECTIONS .


LOOK FOR WASHOUT AROUND THE EDGES .
LOOK FOR MOVEMENT AS THE UNIT RUNS .
CHECK TIE DOWN BOLTS FOR TIGHTNESS .
CHECK CONDITION OF CONCRETE SURFACE .
LOOK FOR CRACKS .
STRUCTURE AND FASTENERS
Listen for unusual noises such as creaks, pops,
squeals, etc.
Check
Ch k ffor cracks
k
Look for bent or twisted parts
Look
L k ffor signs
i off prior
i repairs
i
Look for excessive corrosion
Check
Ch k ffor lloose jjoints
i rust stains
i
Check for broken or missing bolts
Check condition of ladder
STRUCTURAL BEARING
ASSEMBLIES
Vi
Visually
ll iinspectt h
housings,
i caps and
d retainers
t i ffor cracks
k
and/or signs of movement (rust stains)
Look for metal shavings,
shavings pieces of bearings
bearings, seals
seals, snap
rings, etc. on the ground beneath the bearing assemblies
Listen for popping,
popping creaking or groaning noises
Collect sample of old grease from the relief fitting and
look for metal particles in grease as well as other
contamination
STRUCTURAL BEARING
ASSEMBLIES - CONTINUED

Check crank p
pin to crank jjoint for signs
g of p
poor fit

Check for signs of endplay in crank pin bearings

Check for signs of misalignment of walking beam


and equalizer/pitman assembly.
Surface Equipment Failures
CRANK ARMS AND COUNTER
WEIGHTS
Visually inspect the slow speed shafts fit in the bore of
the crank especially if clamp on crank

Look for cracks in crank around slow speed bore and


around counter weights .

Look for cracks between crank pin holes .

Visually inspect counter weights for cracks .

Check weight bolts .


GEAR REDUCER
Check for cracks in the gear case, bearing carriers, etc.

Inspect the slow speed shaft and seals .

Visually inspect gear oil, look for signs of contamination .

Inspect the slow speed gear .

Inspect the intermediate assy.

Inspect high speed gear .


GEAR REDUCER - CONTINUED

Look for signs of loose bearings (in the bearing


carriers) .

Inspect the brake assembly and adjust brake if


required .

Check condition of belts .

Check the gear reducer sheave .

Check prime mover sheave .


Gear Reducer
Proper Wiper Operation
Adequate
q Lubrication
Adequate
dequate
Lubrication is
necessary for
long reducer
life.
Corrective Pitting-Normal in New Reducers
Sh
Sheaves and
dBBelts
lt
Horsepower Losses Result from Worn Out Sheaves
or if Belt Tension is Inadequate Replace Sheaves if
Worn or Damaged and Replace Belts if Cracked or
Frayed .

Sheave Alignment is Critical to Belt and Sheave Life .

Belts Found on the Ground Can Signify the


Possibility
y of a Serious Down-hole Problem or
Sheave Misalignment Either of Which Should be
Investigated and Corrected Before Putting Unit Back
On-Line
2 - Pumping Unit Maintenance
schedules
h d l

The following is the minimum


recommended procedures for a
good PM Program:
Pumping Unit Maintenance
Daily
y
1. LOOK - Really look at the unit on a daily basis to observe any
changes in the units alignment, pitman to crank spacing, wire-line
tracking, and any thing else that has changed in the past 24 hours
which may indicate a problem beginning to manifest itself.
itself These
changes should be reported and/or corrected as soon as possible or
at least checked out by a qualified service representative for
confirmation of further action to be taken.

2. LISTEN Really listen for any noises such as gearbox or structural


bearing rumbling, popping, clicking, squalling, squeaking or any
other noises that may indicate the beginning of a bigger problem.
problem
Any changes in the sound of a pumping should be reported and
further investigated to prevent a more in depth problem or possible
catastrophic failure.

3. APPLY the brake slowly but firmly to assure it is in good working


condition. Should the brake need adjustment or is not working
properly, it should be reported and/or corrected immediately.
Pumping Unit Maintenance
Monthly

1. Continue with the LOOK, LISTEN, and APPLY.

2. Check the oil level in the gear reducer to ensure it is


at the proper operational level .

3 Review all bolts condition visually .


3.
Pumping Unit Maintenance
E
Every Si
Six M
Months
th
1. Continue with the LOOK, LISTEN, and APPLY.

2. Check the significant bolting for proper bolt tightness. Additionally, this
should also be done two weeks after any unit is set and put into operation.

3. Take a sample of the reducer oil. after the unit has been shut down for a time
sufficient enough to allow for oil to drain .

I - Take a typical sample, preferably in a glass .

II - Check the sample for possible contamination by sludge, dirt, water,


metal or any other foreign material and compare the collected sample
with
i h new oil
il condition
di i .
III - Report any problems or leakage.
4. Grease the structural bearingg assemblies
and report any detected problems such as
metal flakes in relieved grease.

5. Issue a complete pumping unit inspection


sheet to the designated Company
representative for his determination of
further work required.
NB :
N.B.

Preventative maintenance, by definition, is decisive


counteraction to keep any piece of equipment from
premature failure.
p

The PM inspection and tasks should be documented


and the reports should be kept in the well file.
VII SUCKER
S C ROD
O CARE
C & HANDLING
G PROCEDURES
OC S

( According to API RP 11 BR )
R d care & h
Rod handling
dli procedure
d
cycle
1. Storage practices .

2. Loading & unloading practices .

3. Running & pulling practices .


Storage procedure

1. Store separately according to grade , size & condition .

2
2. Use wooden racks with proper spacing ( avoid buckling ) .

3. Put wooden spacer between each layer .

4. Clean , grease and use coupling & thread protectors ( for


condition II rods ) .

5. For packaged rods , use supports under crosswise binder .

6. Protect rods with suitable coating or paint ( in case of corrosive


environment or weather humidity ) .
7
7. Al
Always P
Prevent
t rods
d from
f metal
t l to
t metal
t l contact
t t.
Correct

wrong
packaged

unpackaged
Loading & unloading practices
1. Never use fork to lift the unpackaged rods ( to avoid rod scratching and
pending due to excessive flexing ) .

2. Load and unload unpackaged rods by hand ( single to prevent bowing ) .

3. Transfer rods to well location on flat dick trailer .

4. Never use pickups to load rods even if few rods ( to avoid rod scratching
and pending due to excessive flexing ) .

5. It is preferable to use rod boxes with same dimensions of storage


racks .

6. Protect rods with suitable coating or paint ( in case of corrosive


environment ) .
7
7. Never place rods on ground at well site ( rig walk is recommended )).

8. Never put handling tools on top of rods nor run over by trucks
Correct

wrong
Running & pulling practices

1. Never lay down rods to ground in double ( tailed into the derrick in
suitable hangers ) , rods can be lain down in single .

2. Use proper handling tools and inspect them for damage periodically .

3. Never use pipe wrenches for make-up .

4
4. Make
M k sure th
thatt pin
i th
thread
d and
d coupling
li are clean
l and
d in
i good
d condition
diti
while make-up .

5. Never exceeds the recommended torque as per API in order to avoid


coupling or pin thread failure ( recommended using power tong ) .

6. Keep rods straight and centered while make-up also start every
connection by hand to avoid cross threading.
7. Inspect rods for damage , wear before re
re-running
running .

8. Never exceed 90 % of the allowable rod tension in case of stuck pump .


Correct

wrong
Correct

wrong
wrong
Excessive tension
Correct Incorrect Wind
Questions
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