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Media Studies

Old media technologies to new media technologies. The movies, music ECT. Produced/
watched and made for its target audience.

Old media technologies analogue/physical such as: Black and white television, radio, non-
digital photography, newspapers, CDs, cassettes, vinyl ECT.
New media technologies digital/non-physical streamed and highly accessible such as:
mobile phones, laptops, computers, tablets, streaming and downloads, digital radio, digital
films, and digital cameras.

The old media: the audience tends to be passive they sit and have the experience happen
to then not doing anything so not actively involved.
The new media: the audience is actively involved VR headsets, physically moving, gaming
needs human physical input, actively involved in the experience.
Henry Jenkins:
His argument is that there is no rules on the internet.
The most important thing about new media is convergence things coming together
different platforms merging.
4 important areas of convergence:
Technology converging gaming consoles and Televisions smart TVs doing many things on
1 device.
Social convergence social media.
Industrial convergence industries converging.
Textual convergence.
They own the film company that produced Skyfall.
They own the recording company that Adele is signed to.
They own the PlayStation and produced a new Skyfall game for the console.
They released a new TV when the film was released.

When they advertise the movie they: Play clips of the movie, they advertise those clips
playing on their new TV, they have Adele samples playing in the background, and they
include their gaming console - PlayStation with the new Skyfall game.

Between the old and new media technologies the internet/technology has allowed
everything to be stored as digital information (1s and 0s) on a computer.(Digitalisation)
YouTube Digital Media Convergence Video.
Many items/aspects of media coming together into 1 device.
Computing, telecommunication and media all inside of a digital environment
Old media Magazines, newspapers and radio into new media, streaming, downloads all
Professor Jeffrey S. Wilkinson produced an online survey to find out which technology best
represents media convergence.
World Wide Web (WWW), Mobile Phones, Multimedia computers, and Communication

Mid 90s where the internet experienced rapid growth Media Organisations saw the

News can be accessed in various forms: Television, Radio, Newspapers and the internet in
the form of apps and websites.
2016 55% of Britons used the internet to read or download the news online.
2007 This figure was at only 20%

The advantages of media convergence include affordability, accessibility, credibility, visibility

promotion, and audience being able to reach all audiences.
Many created ways of consuming films through the internet.
Consume media in any format.
Sony Walkman Discman Mini disc Walkman IPod IPhone and later versions of IPod.
What lies ahead in the future?
News on watches, VR headset movies and voice recognition all of which already exists.
Who is the audience:
How do you attract them?
What happens to the audience when they consume a text:
3 types of audiences:
Primary audience - For horror main are 16 25 year olds
Secondary audience for horror older people
Niche audience Audience for something very specific tiny audience
Also audience can be broken down by social grading:
A higher management, administrative and professional
B Intermediate management, administrative and professional
C1 junior management, admin/professional
C2 skilled manual workers
D semi skilled or unskilled workers
E casual workers/pensioners/unemployed
Young and Rubicam:
Advertising agency by your personality
- Explorer wants to explore
- Aspirer wants high lifestyle - wealthy
- Suceeder wants to succeed
- Reformer politicians
- Mainstream average person
- Struggler - struggling
- Resigned given up
How do you attract your audience?
- Use of genre and generic conventions
- Horror films attract a relatively young audience
- Rom coms attract predominately female audiences
- Violence or car chases are predominately male audiences

The effects model: Hypodermic needle theory passive audience injected with content
Moral panic present something enough in the media people think it is going to happen

Uses and gratification:

Diversion escapism information - pleasure information sexual stimulation
comparing relationships to your own
Opposite to the Effects model
The audience is not passive but active
The audience uses the text
Reception theory:
Developed by Stuart Hall
He believed the texts were ENCODED with meaning by the producers and this meaning was
then DECODED by the audience
Preferred reading:
Negotiated reading:
Oppositional reading:
This is where the audience decodes the message as the producer and wants them to agree
with it.
Maslows hierarchy of needs:
Psychological Safety love/belonging esteem self actualisation
The audience is in control:
Aspirational model

Editing Merging different shots to make a story line/meaningful sequence make it run
smoothly when you change / adapt / alter something to flow the assembling of shots
into a coherent sequence creating continuity. Make things that werent filmed at the same
time or in the same place, connect. Linear chronological order
Cut editing has a tempo rapid cuts creates a chaotic intense and exciting rapid
Diegetic - making
Camera work editing sound mise en scene
Dialogue music (score)
Diegetic sound that is made by something on the screen talking/cars on the road/raining
Non-diegetic sound that is not made by something on the screen narration/voice over
Mise-en-scene everything that you can see costume props set lighting actor
general looks casting of a particular person colour palette colour scheme chosen for a
particular reason