Sie sind auf Seite 1von 87
DEUTSCH ALS FREMDSPRACHE NIVEAU Al/1 Schritte | international Glossary XXL Deutsch-Englisch German-English Hueber Verlag English Translation and Adaptation: Jeannie Sanke Authors: Sophie Caesar (Familiarity and Understanding, Getting It All Down) Maria Jestis Gil Valdés (Listening and Pronunciation) Christiane Seuthe (Forms and Structures) ‘uellen: Seite 12 Foto: Albert Einstein: © picture-aliance / dpa Seite 19, 29 Karte: MHV-Archiv Seite 24 Foto: MHV-Archiv Seite 39 Foto: Biergarten; © Panthermedia / Robert W. Seite 49 Foto: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe © picture alliance / akg-images Seite 50 Foto, oben: Thomas Mann: © ullstein / Thomas-Mann-Archivy keiserin Elisabeth: © picturelliance / dpa; Ludwig I. von Bayern: © picture alliance / aksrimages Seite 60 Brandenburger Tor: © Landesarchiv Berlin Seite 68 rebergarten: @ iisblende.de Alle ren Fotos: Alexander Keller, MUnehen \Wir haben uns bemtht, alle Inhaber von Bild- une nicht aufgefinrt sein, 50 {rechten ausfindig 2u machen. Soliten Rechteinhaber hier ie der Verlag tir entsprechende Hinweise dankbar. Des Werk und seine Tele sind urheberrechtich geschitzt Jede Verwertung in anderen als den gesetalich zugelassenen Fallen bedart deshalo der vorherigen scheiflichen Einwiligung des Veriags. Hinweis 2u § 52e UmG: Weder das Werk nach seine Tele dirfen ohne ine solche Einviligung Uiberspielt, gespeichert und in ein Netzwerk cingespelt werden. Dies git auch fUr Intranets von Firmen und von nd sonstigen Bicungseinrichtungen. 3.2.1 | Die letzten Ziffern 2012 11 10.09 08 bezeichnen Zahl und Jahr des Druckes, ‘lle Drucke dieser Auflage kinnen, da unverlindert, rebeneinander benutzt werden, 1. Auflage © 2008 Hueber Verlag, 85737 Ismaning, Deuts Zeichnungen: Jérg Saupe, Dusseldort out: Erwin Schmid Satz: Typosatz W. Namisia GmbH, Munchen \Verlagsredaktion: Annette Albrecht, Hueber Verlag, Ismaning Redaktion: CoLibris-Lektorat Dr. Barbara Welze! Druck und Bindung: Ludwig Auer GmbH, Donauwérth Printed in Germany ISBN 978-3-19-451851-3 land Preface Dear Learner, in this XXL Glossary you will find, as its title suggests, much more than just a glossary. Each chapter includes the following sections: Vocabulary All new words are presented in the reer in which they appear in both the course book and the work: book, page-by-page, then alphabetically. Unlike a dictionary, this glossary allows you to learn words in ‘context so that their meaning is far more real to you than a dictionary entry Forms and Structures In this section, we explain grammar based on concrete examples from the course book and compare and contrast the structures with those of English. As the course proceeds, you will find continued refe- rence in newer sections to material in previous chapters to help reinforce your understanding and mas tery of these points The “Communication Strategies” go a step beyond grammar to help acclimate you to aspects of the spoken language that you will encounter. This subsection reviews things that one hears that can’t be found in the dictionary, ‘We have also included additional translation exercises in each chapter to help you get a better sense of your progress and mastery, allowing you to see more how German and English are similar and different Listening and Speaking As important as grammar, structure, and vocabulary are, without knowing the sound system, they are ‘of no use. In this section, we aim to give you the tools you will need not only to recognize the sounds ‘of German, but to reproduce them so that you can be understood, even when your structural knowled: ge is wea Getting It All Down Tiv this section, we provide numerous suggestions for helping you to learn German more effectively. As the program progresses, you will find some methods that work for you, perhaps some that do not, but you will add to your arsenal of study strategies. We place part mphasis on the use of a Leratagebuch (study journal) throughout \d Understanding juage exists apart from the culture in which itis couched. Here you will learn about the speaking areas of the world, their literature and arts, and aspects of daily life, This section also. aspires to help you avoid common missteps that many foreigners and learners make Self- Evaluation At the end of each chapter, you have the opportunity to evaluate your progress on the objectives in each unit, allowing you co give extra attention andor seek extra help in areas where you are not as confident in your new skills We hope that you find this volume helps you learn German with greater ease and P ip 8 more enjoyment, and we wish you every success Sincerely, the authors and editors PREFACE = 3 Contents 4 CONTENTS Preface Chapter 1 Vocabulary Forms and Structures Listening and Pronunciation Getting It All Down Familiarity and Understanding Self-Evaluation Chapter 2 Vocabulary Forms and Structures Listening and Pronunciation Getting It All Down Familiarity and Understanding Self-Evaluation Chapter 3 Vocabulary Forms and Structures Listening and Pronunciation Getting It All Down Familiarity and Understandit Self-Evaluation Chapter 4 Vocabulary Forms and Structures Listening and Pronunciation Getting It All Down Familiarity and Understanding Self-Evaluation 10 4 16 7 2 22 24 28 28 29 30 31 34 38 38 39 a 42 45 48 49 49 Contents Pare Chapter 5 Vocabulary 52 Forms and Structures 54 Listening and Pronunciation 58 Getting It All Down 58 Familiarity and Understanding 59 Self-Evaluation 60 Chapter 6 Vocabulary 6 Forms and Structures 64 Listening and Pronunciation 67 Getting It All Down 67 Familiarity and Understanding o7 Self-Evaluation 0 Chapter 7 Vocabulary 70 Forms and Structures 73 Listening and Pronunciation 7% Getting It All Down 7% Familiarity and Understanding 7 Self-Evaluation 78 Answers to the XXL Exercises 79 Answers to the Workbook Exercises 80 CONTENTS 5 flint Vocabulary/Kursbuch Kursbuch Seite 8 Page 8 ansehen to look at as haere: this that die the (definite article, femi ie Folge, -n consequence das Foto, 5 photo, photograph gut ‘good Guten Tag, Tella (iterlly, “good day” heen to hear Ihre your (possessive article, for imal addess ist > sein is +10 be mine ry (pessessive article meinen tro mea, © be of the opinion er Name, 1 same pasieren co happen sein (Vetb tobe Sie you (formal dle Sprache, 0 language sprechen; da sprichst, to speak cr spriche der Tag, -¢ ay and and was? what? we wh Seite 9 _ Page 9 aus here: from bisschen Title, ile bit Deutsch Germa cin bisschen a litte bit ine a/an (indefinite article) Englisch E Finnisch Finnal Finnland Fintan hier to be called: my/your his, her name is ch awvordnen to put in order Seite 10 Page 10 der Abend, © evening, al here: until auf Wiederscher bel die Dame, -a danke dle Frau, en gute Nache ggaten Abend ggaten Morgen hallo der Hers, aernational dee Kus, die Mama, -s meine Damen und Herren ier Morgen dic Musik (nvr Singular) lie Nache,“e oh 6 Ube das Wiederschen (nur Singular) willkommen Seite 11 ah ja der Dank (nur Singular) dic Entschuldigung, -en heralich Herzlich willkommen! ia die Kollegin, suchen viel vielen Dank h wei8, du wei erwei8, Seite 12 VOCABULARY 7. goodbye (literally: until we see each other again”) here: at lady thank you there: Mrs a good night or Me, ‘good evening good hi here: Mr national class that ane takes ladies and gentlemen oh bye Godock sceing each other again Page 11 thanks, gratitude then (adverb of time pardon (here: excuse me, pardon me) vo ack hearty, sincerely olleage (Female) to be conrect or a to look for, seck such, 2 Jot thanks 4 lor literally: bo As in what did you s 0 know (as in fetal know ledge Page 12 also, 100 sieben Vocabulary/Kursbuch dav pice vat e Favor te The (Gee are, rue ubetane saan ialand inal Franzimasch French lang ) Seite 14 Page 14 — ee sree meres) ie Gricchentond Goes dic Anmeldong, in the same syllable (Za, sel) or an <> (Strafie) it is alone at the end of a syllable (<0) or followed by a single consonant and then the next syllable (Name), ~ (Sie) In contrast, short vowels are followed by more than one consonant (kommen). The only real difference in pronunciation between long and short vowels is the length of the vowel: a long vowel is spoken longer than a short vowel, and short vowels are quickly cut off The Alphabet and its Pronunciation The German alphabet looks just like the English, with the addition of four characters. Unlike En} however, the letters’ sounds remain consistent and once you know the alphabet, you have almost the entire sound system mastered. Icis very important that letters be spoken at the front of the mouth, formed more with the lips and tongue than in English, particularly more so than American English. Although German has a reputati on of being guttural, English is actually far more so, aa Abends Tags Al <> cr [er] Herr be Abend <> os [es ists], Sie [2] eo ne CD ([fe:de] see next page ke the sound of > te guten Tag the zzin “pizza” a> du de [des] danke a> fu Vater [£}; wef wer November [¥] ff Finland see next page > ee goten we [vor] wersee next page cho ha [haz] Huber <> iks [zks] ——_Kylofon i |The Name <> psilon| ypsilon] Upsilon jow [5t] ja akin to the English see next page y" sound vert [fet] Kuna; heralich do ka (kc:] kommen see next page <> el [el] Demschland > essze StraBe emm [en] Morgen en [ Nacht sve next page 0 Ob > 6 Osterreich <> pe Polnisch see next page —p ku Quizlkvis] and In German, the is always pronounced as our , except in a few words borrowed from English. Likewise, the German is always pronunced as our except for foreign words, usually coming. from French or Latin like Vase, The Consonant The German is almost always followed by a , except in foreign words. Words with the in German are foreign themselves most of the time, The sound of is like an English as in kvetch”, which actually came into Yiddish from German, The Consonants and The German at the beginning of a word or syllable sounds like our <2>; itis voiced. As the final sound in a syllable or word (és, schils) it loses its voice and becomes voiceless like our <> ‘ on the other hand is always explosive. “72” in “pizza” or th the air stops before the the voiceless consonant comes out ts” in “hits Tis similar te The Consonant The German is always pronounced like our . It functions as a double s after long vowels (GSirafe) and dipthongs (bride). When writing on a keyboard that does not have international charac cers, it can be substituted with “ss” ‘The Umlauted Vowels , <6>, The two dots over these vowels signify that the vowel is being raised inside the mouth. We have a simi far phenomenon in English, when the plural of “man” becomes “men”, For more specifics on how to pronounce umlauts, see Chapter 8 of this volume. Syllabic Stress Gusen © kommen © Hauptbalmbof Most G be, ents, er, ger, ver xer~ Gespriich © Entschuldigung ‘an words are stressed on the first syllable, unless they begin with one of the prefixes Words that have come to German from foreign languages do not show this tendency Visitenkarte © Information Stress in Short Statements Guten Tag. Guten Morgen, Fras Schvétter In short statements, the final word gets the most emphasis as it tends to be the one with the most communicative importance. LISTENING AND PRONUNCIATION 15.——_flinfzehn Listening and Pronunciation/Getting It All Down Dipthongs There are three German dipthongs, two of which have multiple spellings ein /cais/eey> [Tt] __mein/Kakver [Ai Haus English: house, brown / [ Deutsch/Hauser — English: boy, koi Intonation Entschuldigung. % Teh beige Eva Baumann. % The intonation of a sentence indicates its conclusion and as such goes downward at the end of the Getting It All Down Learning how to learn a language efficiently is not just a matter of memorizing vocabulary and gram mar, Familiarizing yourself with learning strategies and trying them out may seem like an inordinately large investment of time and energy, but once activities become part of your study routine, it can great ly accelerate and enhance your learning experience. Not every suggestion works for everyone, bat most people find many of them helpf ‘One of the best habits to acquire is to contextualize vocabulary as you learn it. Language is not mathe- matics, and sentences don’t work like arithmetic, As helpful as bilingual dictionaries and glossaries are, they only do part of the job. Throughout the vocabulary list in this volume, for example, wherever the word “here” is noted, you can see that the same word can have very different meanings dependi upon the context. Similarly, it is impossible to translate between languages word-for-word and retain any real m For example, the phrase *Wie geht es Hmen2” means “How are you?” but there is no one-to-one correlation: no one would ever say “How walks it to you?” — a literal teanslation — and ‘expect to be understood. Two ways, then, to approach vocabulary are to group items together the ‘matically so that the associations with other words strengthen the identifi cation of each one, and to learn words in situations where you have been. a0 exposed to them, such as phrases of sentences from the text, in ads you see fon the internet or in magazines, or expressions you hear, These situations ccan be noted on vocabulary cards 2s you make them for your own review. 2 You might have noticed that verb conjugation was presented here in tabular form. Only three forms have been covered so far, but more will follow in the units ahead, and you will be able to add onto that table at that time. A useful strategy is to create your own tables t0 chart patterns that you find, and it is always good to look for patterns within structures. Your tables should reflect the spatial manner in which you understand them, whether vertical or horizontal, in different colors or fonts, whatever resonates with you. sechzehn 16 -—_LISTENING AND PRONUNCIATION /GETTING IT ALL DOWN Familiarity and Understanding Familiarity and Understanding Learning another language means learning abou the culture in which that language is based, finding Mimilartice and differences with your own. In this section, we hope to provide you with an introduction to cultural norms and differences that will, hopefully, allow you to avoid gross misunderstandings, The Verb heiBen Very mach unlike English, German has two ways of saying what some dae aries This latter ease in German invokes the verb Bzifon, AS Jon wil ote below in "Making Induction” theres tfecvely no PE SiMenence inthe translation of Ic beige... and Mein Name ist... a8 they titi anean essntialy the sume thing, What is important o note is hat ass pena more common when mecting someone t0 ak “Wi bien Si?” aa Wie het a?" than ies co ask “Wie i Thr Name?® which sounds ‘more official. beifen is equivalent to the French s“appeler, Uamiarse, or the Italian chiamars Spanish Making Introductions Shaking, hands in lugs or kisses on the cheeks are reserved for very close relationships. eting is common practice in formal situations, less so among friends and family. Teh bin Jelena Savic Tam Teh beige Maria Ze. May name is (I am called). Mein Name ist Otto Case! My name is Mein Name ist Larry. My name is One ean also give just the surname. This is common in professional situations: Ze! “The titles Fraw and Herr are not used while introducing oneself, neither with the verb sein nor with the verb beilfen Among friends, groups of acquaintances, in family settings Ich bin Erik Tam eb Ieife Jean Claude My name is (I am called) In more familiar situations, avoid using the phrase Mein Name ist FAMILIARITY AND UNDERSTANDING 17 siebzehn Familiarity and Understanding When asking for someone else’s name, it is better to err on the side of caution and speak with the formal cxameles Wie hvitcn S What is your name? (How are you called? Wie ist Tbr Name? What is your name Between young people, or when addressing. child examples We heist du? What is your name? (How are you called? Wier bist du? Who are you! To introduce someone ele: cvamoies Das ist Fran Terzer This is Ms l- Das ist (ie) Jana/{der) Perr. This is (the) Jana/{the) Petr. = Whether an article is atached toa first mime of a fkiend who is introduced to someone else depends on the Du or Sie? When in doubt, err on the side of caution and use Sie. A native speaker will tell you when to use ic. In general, Sie is always used in business, work and professional situations until such time as individuals decide to use di Young people always use dv with cach other, and adults addressing younger children use du. Friends, family ‘members, and God are addressed as du, Adults tend to use Sie with each other until a relationship becomes familiar with time and circumst Expressing Gratitude Danke or Vielen Dank are expressions of thanks. Generally, chey are used frequently A Bit about bitte The word “diste” in German means both “please” when asking for something and “you're welcome” after an expression of gratitude. Ic is ao used when presenting something, such as “here you are” or “here you go”. It ean also be used to ask someone to repeat something you did not hear the fitst time, either by itself or as part of “Wie bere?" Finally, “ja, bitte” or “bitte schin” is used to open a dialogue between a functionary and a customer, such as summoning the next person in line at the post office, Context will tell you which sense is appropriate Greetings and Farewells Until 10 or 11 a.m., the greeting Gutem Morgen or the short form Morgen! is used After thar up till about 6 p.m. one says Guten Tig ot Tig! In southern Germany and in Austria, Griff Gott (God greets you) is heavily used, and in Switzerland, its Swiss equivalent Griiei is used during the day After 6 p.m., Guten Abend or N’ Abcud! (collognial) is common, Only when leaving for the evening or going to bed ate Gute Nacht! or Nacht! appropriate achtzenn «18 FAMILIARITY AND UNDERSTANDING Familiarity and Understanding In work and more formal situations, Auf Wiederseben is the most commonly used cxpresion of farewell. This) is less formal, similarly 10 “bye bye” oF “bye” in Bash, The Italian expression Cino is heard more all the time all over the German speaking areas of Europe. In southern Germany and in Austria, Ses works both fbr greetings and farewells. Austria has recently also seen the rise of Baba, a local form of our “bye-bye”. In Switzerland, the general formal farewell is Auf Wiederbuege. When answering the telephone, it is customary to answer with one’s name (both first and last but atleast with the last name) and with the intonation going up 1 "Hier Kabler, When saying good-bye, instead of Auf Wiedersben (sehen toward the end: “Angell Merkel, refers to secing), on the phone one says Auf Wiederhiven (Hoven referring to hearing), What is your name? Until the 1980s, German women generally took their husbands’ surnames after marriage and dropped their vociden names, Nowadays, when marrying, Germans have the option of raking the spouse’s name (men can take their wives’ names), of byphenating both names or keeping their surname. Children of those who hyphenate frames or keep their name, however, must have either the ast name that both parents share, or they must aks the last name of one of the parents, The most common surnames in Germany are those of old professions, such as Miiller (miller), Sehmide (blacksmith) and Sebneider (tailor). Where is German spoken? Globally, German is the ninth most spoken native lan ‘guage; in Europe, itis the most common native tongue: 100 million Europeans are native speakers. “Approximately 82 million live in Germany, followed ‘by Austria with 8 million, 64% of the Swiss popula tion speaks Swiss German, (Schwyzerduitsch), includ ing the entire northern part of the country bordering con Germany. Tess well known isthe Fiet that some 60000 residents of eastern Belgium, along the German border, spcak German as their native language and have their own representation in the Brussels parliament Liechtenstein, the smallest Alpine state, is also ‘German-speaking, as isa significant portion of the population of Luxemburg There are ethnic German minorities in the north of Italy in South Tyrol aswell 3s in southern Denmark In both regions, German is an official co-language. There ae also enclaves of German speakers in many Easeern European counties, most notably in Russia (the so-called Volga Germans), Romania and the ‘Coech Republic: In all, 20 million people worldwide speak German as a frst or second foreign language (a8 of 2000) 15 milion of whom are Europeans FAMILIARITY AND UNDERSTANDING 19 neunzehn Familiarity and Understanding Historical Notes In October of 2005, and for the first time in Germany’s history, a woman, Angela Merkel, was elected Chancellor of Germany. She succeeded Gerhard Schrisder and brokered the establishment of the Grand Coalition ( Grofe Koaltion) of the CDU (the Christian Democratic Union) and the SPD (Social Democratic Party of Germany) whereby ministers come from both parties. Merkel, who holds a doctorate in physics ‘was born and raised in East Germany, where her father was a Lutheran pastor, a politically difficult position to hold under the SED (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) regime, which officially tolerated religion but in fret discoruraged it actively zwanzig --20.-——_FAMILIARITY AND UNDERSTANDING Self-Evaluation Self-Evaluation a When listening, | can understand (Hiren) forms of salutation (greetings) and farewell when someone is introducing him /herself: eb heife ...3 Mein Name it ...; Ie bin the person's origins: Ich komme aus his/her language: Ich spreche Titrisch In written texts, I can understand (Lesen) personal information (names, addresses, phone numbers, e-mail, postal codes, place of residen Loan produce the following oral structures (Sprechen) ctings and farewells: Hi fo! Guten Tag. Auf Wiederseben. Introductions: Mein Name ist... Ib bef .. Ich bin Introducing another person: Das ist Frau Huber [Asking for someone on the telephone: Ist Frau Sill da, bi Talking about my origins and the languages I speak: Ich komme aus... Ic sp Spell Using forms of courtesy: bitte/danke a name or other information: M- U-L-L-E-R Lean produce the following written forms of text (Schreiben) fill out a form with personal information (name, place of birth, address, e-mail and place of residence a simple e-mail or text message 2 simple personal ad with some personal data SELF-EVALUATION 21. einundzwanzig, Vocabulary/Kursbuch Kursbuch 21 Page 21 Seite 18 Page 18 der Bruder, brother ~ die Ble (aut Plural) parents (only plural) clic Familie, 2 family die Gesehwister jour Plural) siblings (only plural) der Freand,-c friend die Grofeltern (nur Plural) grandparents (only plural) sgeboren sein to be born der GroBvater, “er grandfather sie Grof grandmother das Kind, -c child bier here dder Mann, “er here: husband jeert ne die Oma, 5 grandma, nana, granny mps leben to live der Opa, -s grandpa, dic Mutter, nother der Partner, partner (male) schwierig ule dic Partnerin, -n dee Text,e te partner (female ns Rate ps wolnen to lve (asa resident) der Sohn, *¢ son die Tochter, dlauglter der Ver father Seite 19 Page 19 _ ankrewren vo matk with a check Seite 22 Page 22 fase here incorrect ————_—____—“seest leimand ery.good (Vienna dialect) sh h man ‘one (personal pronoun Australien wera coder or denn docs nor translate Berl lintrreehisch Austrion expresses fiiendly curiosity richtig, correct er he (personal proaoun, die Schwester, 1 sister nominative sehr die Haupestad, £e capital i sehr gut od ihe you, yall, you all (personal studieren to study (at univers pronoun, fila, plural, Wie geh's? How are you? How's it nominative ing? im Moment the moma wo? whe dias Katrtchen, note card angie) dee Moment, -¢ moment Page 20 die Pars party (note German pluzall) schoo already ach oh schreiben ro write you (personal pronoun, sie she (personal pronoun, sn familiar, dative) ular, nominative) es gehe sox sie (Plural they (personal pronoun, Ihnen you (penional pronoun, for plural, nominative) mal, dative) Usanda igonda na ja oh well, you know wir Wwe (personal pronoun, pl nicht so gut not 50 good, Ho $0 well ral, nominativ spielen to play super super Seite 23 Page 23, - Wie geht es dir How are you! (informal) alt old Wie geht es Thnen? How are you? (orm das Alter (nur Singular) age (only singulat} die Zeichnung, -en drawing, sketch ausfillen to fll out der Geburtsort, -¢ ace ofb _escie divorced haben wo have las Heimatland, * home counery zweiundzwanzig — 22,—S= VOCABULARY Vocabulary/Arbeitsbuch liegen in naclsprechen die Pevsonatien (nar Plu dic Telefonnummer, liber weshei er Wohnort, -¢ lie Zahl, en Seite 24 das Baby, -s biden inal lie Freundin, -nen die Gruppe, “1 das Jabr,-c jede/jeder Kanada das Ke noch noch ein: der Satz, sich vor stellen (sich nip ¢ Seite 25 andere te Angabe,-n das Befinden (nvr Singular) ecient neutral die Person, -en dey Plural -¢ ddr Posessivarsbel ddr Singular, Seite 26 bald bis der Gr, * (Ge) Mein no (negative article makes the noun single located in (vba bs just Been personal information telephone number here: abo macried widowed place of rescence number Page 24 baby (note German plural!) to form friend (female) soup Caneda nome played in sequence sill, yet Yet aga, one more time oneself to introduce oneset Page 25 piece of information, detail condition, stare feminine iposesivearticl Page 26 everything until ‘your (possessive article, familia, singular) bey the science of medicine Norddeutschland okay (ok) Seite 27 Alles Liebe dic Frage, -0 lie Landkarte, liebe lieber das Lirungrvert, PPS. PS. der Winsergarion, viele Grige Arbeitsbuch Seite 94 geld die Ubung, -en Seite 95 _ Frankreich blatichen Seite 96 Libanon Seite 98 Portwgal Seite 99 deus sprmebig Seite 100 andl nur Singular} VOCABULARY northern Germany “in!” and “hye!” Coutbern German ard Austrian) __Pese27_ all the best question ps winieraarden familiar errr dosing ;_Page'94 —_ yellow ‘ren red Page 95 0 elap, plana Hpi Page 96 Lebanon Page 98 Portngat Page 99 normal Page 100 23 dreiundewanzig Forms and Structures Questions with an interrogative pronoun (W-Fragen) II As a reminder, wie essentially translates as “how” in English, but is also used in many cases where English would use “what” cxomples Wie ist Ihre Advess:/Telefonnummer? What's your address? Wie ist Ibr Name? What's your name? wie can also combine with other words to create other interropatives, Wie alt sind Sic? Wie lange dauert die Fabri? ‘The Preposition of Location in (Lokalpréposition) camsles Wo sind Siegeboren? ~ In Chicago, in Amerika, in Deutschland ‘Wo wobmen Sie? (Ich wohne) in Frankreich, in Bern, auf Oahu, Most places where one can live use the preposition én when responding to a wo question, but islands require auf, corresponding, to the difference between living in California but on Oahu, (Leb wobne in Kalifornien, anf Onn.) Personal Pronouns (Personalpronomen) Il examples Das it Timo. Ev kommt aus Finnland, — This is Timo, He is from Finland. Das ist Corinna, Sie komm ans Wis This is Corinna, She is from Vienna, The third person singular (used when talking about another person instead of to the person) in German has different pronouns for masculine and feminine. There is also a neuter pronoun, es, (Das ist das Brandenburger Tor. Es ict in Berlin.) You will learn more about this in Chapters 4 and 6. plural samples Das sind Victor und Andris, These are Victor and Andrés. Sie kommen aus Spanien. They come from Spain Das sind Greta und Veronika. These are Greta and Veronika Sie kommen aus Selweden. They come from Sweden, Once nouns become plural, gender is no longer an issue, And they all have the same pronoun: se If you find all these uses of sie confusing, that’s not unusual at the beginning. Look under Getting Tt All Down in this chapter for more on how to deal with all those sies, vierundewanzig 24 +=“ FORMS AND STRUCTURES Forms and Structures Das ist/sind examples Dat ist Antonio Banderas. Er kommt aus Spanien, ‘This is Antonio Banderas. He comes from Spain. Das sind Melanie Griffith wnd ihre Muster Tippi ‘These are Melanie Griffith and her mother Tippi Hedven. Sie kommen aus Amerika. Hedren. They come from America Notice that here, 100, the verb changes when saying das sind to introduce more than one person. Tn English, but in German, only the verb changes. The question ar, however, even if asking about more than one person: Wer ist das? the pronoun changes from “this” or “that” to will remain sing 4 Possessive At les (Possessivartikel) singular cules ity Dias miei Matin This is my husband, n Woist mein Kind? ‘This is my child, £ Das és. meine Schmester und ‘This is my wife, and plural das sind meine Bltern these are my parents. singular m Wie ist Tbr Famitienname? What is your last name? 2 Wot Ibe Kind? ‘Where is your chile? Wie dst Thre Adrese? What is your address? plural Wher Komamen bre Eltern? ‘Where are your parents from? Like h, German nouns can have one of three genders: masculine, fem nine or neuter. Unlike English physical gender most of the time. Hence, you must learn a noun's gender sammatical gender has nothing, to do with along with the noun, One marker for that gender is any article that precedes the nouns. Along with definite and indefinite articles (in English: the and a or ‘an, possessives serve that function in German, you can see that mcin is the possessive corresponding to and ncuter nouns such as Mann and Kind have no ending on mein. Feminine and plural nouns require an con the end of a possessive like mein: It becomes meine. Likewise, Ihr is the possessive for Sie and the same ending, applies in the same cases. Just like Sie, its possessive Zbr is always capitalized f, and that maseuli Personal Pronouns (Personalpronomen) It esampee Das sind Erie und Inge This is Eric and Inge, sie studieven biew in Berlin, they study here in Berlin © Harry, Willians, wober kommt ib denn? Harry, William, where do you (all) come from? Wir sind aus England, aus Londen. We are from England, from London. The pronoun ibris the plural of dwt and is used when addressing more than one person whom you. know. The closest English equivalent is “you all” or “y“all” ‘ORMS AND STRUCTURES —28—_flinfundewanzig Forms and Structures Verbs: Conjugation (Verb: Konjugation) II Wir kommen aus Labi Er bat viele Freunde. Sprechen Sie Deutsch? infinitive kommen babren sprecl-en ‘singular ich komme babe spreche a du hommse— ast sprictst’ ost er/sie kommt bat spricht ot phiral wir kommen — ben sprechen em ihr komme — nd sgrecben sie/Sie kommen —baben —sprechen—-en see vowel ange ‘You will notice thar the only places where anything changes in the stem of the verb are in the aw and er/sie forms; in the case of haben, the -b- falls out of both forms, and in the case of spreches, the vowel in the stem changes from -e- to Only sein has a conjugation that follows no pattern. (see Chapter 1) his is the entire present tense conjugation, and there is only one present tense. Unlike English, German does not differentiate between static and progressive action: ich komme is both “T come” and Tam coming”. In German, there is no split of the verb into two parts. Numbers (Zah/en) 1 eins 6 sechs 16 secselon 2 swei 7 sieben 17 siebseln 3 dred Bache 18 achesebm 4 vier 9 newn 19 newnschm 5 fing 10 sem 20 swans; From 13 to 19, the single number is combined with zehm to create the new number. Note the changes, dropping the final -s- on sechs in sechelm and the second syllable on sicken to stelizebn Just like English’s version, elfand swalfare irregular. sechsundzwanzig 26~—- FORMS AND STRUCTURES Forms and Structures/Exercises 8 Communication Strategies samples Hallo, Timo, wie gels? Hi Timo, how's it go Na ja, e5.9¢ Oh well, aright The combination of nut and ja works in German much like the English “oh well” or a sigh. Iris not necessarily negative but is not positive, cither, vanpen Und wie geht es dir? And haw are you! Ach, nicht 50 gut Ob, not so well tach in German is very similar to “oh” in English (it also combines with other words, like oh” does) and is identical to the Scottish “ach”. 9 Translate into German: Hi, Jim. How's it going? ~ Good, and you? b Where do Gwen and Bob live? @ a 2 ~ ‘They live in Los Angeles on Mulholland Drive ¢ Fas born in Towa, but T have been living 1 aber te in Florida for a long time My faintly ig from Canada, but my parents and sibliags live in Oregon. 10 Translate into German: ‘2. Mr Rogers, this is Mrs. Beasley colleague from New York =Oh, bello, Mis Beasey! 1b Jennifer, are vou marde dé. No, I'm divorced, How old are your ebildrei? My sonis'ten and my daughter is twelve FORMS AND STRUCTURES/EXERCISES 27 —_siebenundzwanzig