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CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSIONS
Power quality is a very significant term that embraces every aspects linked with
amplitude, phase, frequency of the voltage and current waveform existing in a power circuit.
Any power quality problem manifested in voltage, current or frequency deviation that results
in failure of the customer equipment is known as power quality problem. The growing
number of power electronics based apparatus has produced a major impact on the quality of
electric power supply. The lack of quality in power supply may cause loss of production,
damage of equipment or appliances, increased power losses and interference with
communication lines. Therefore, it is obviously maintain high standards of power quality.

In recent years, Power engineers are increasingly concerned over the quality of
the electrical power. The modern power system consists of wide range of electrical,
electronic and power electronic equipment in commercial and industrial applications. Since
most of the electronic equipments performances are non-linear in nature, these will induce
harmonics in the system, which affect the sensitive loads. One among the many
compensating devices is Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) which specifically aims
at the integration of series-active and shunt-active power filters to mitigate any type of
voltage and current fluctuations and power factor correction in a power system network, such
that improved power quality can be made available at the point of common coupling.

The main research presented in this thesis work has been described that the development
of methodologies and associated procedure for improvement in the power quality (PQ)
Enhancement of the system through UPQC with the Bias Voltage Generator. A broad
discussion is specified in this thesis, how the PQ data from a typical power quality
monitoring system are converted into useful information that would be beneficial to utilities,
regulators and customers.

A broad discussion on PQ disturbances characterization has been carried in Chapter 1.


In initial, the extraction of PQ survey data and classification of PQ disturbances has been
done into continuous or variation type (steady state voltage, unbalance, flicker and
harmonics) and discrete or event type (Voltage sags, swells, oscillatory and impulsive
transients) to analyse them separately.

The literature review discussed in Chapter 2 suggests that there has been many studies

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undertaken on continuous PQ disturbances characterisation and related indices.

The Chapter 3 mainly focuses on the various Artificial Intelligence Techniques,


Metaheuristic Algorithms and their salient features are presented to assess the enhancement
of Power Quality Problems with Bias Voltage Generator based UPQC.

The Chapter 4 discusses about the implementation of the NFC and ANFIS techniques
for detecting and mitigating the voltage sag problems and the Results are concluded as
follows.

NFC BASED UPQC


In this work, it is proposed an Enhancement of PQ issue (voltage sag) using UPQC
device with a novel technique Bias Voltage Generator which is executed by one of the
artificial intelligence techniques Neuro Fuzzy Controller (NFC).The proposed controller was
implemented and the results were analyzed with relative techniques. In this case, to evaluate
the performance of the proposed controller, the considered PQ issue voltage sag was made to
occur in various time instants of the line voltage and it was subjected to the proposed
technique.

The proposed controller enhances the PQ of the supply waveform in a remarkable


level. The analysis using performance deviation showed that the PQ can be enhanced greatly
when the proposed controller is used in power devices. The comparative results assured the
PQ enhancing capability of the proposed controller over the relative controllers.

ANFIS BASED UPQC


In further work, an ANFIS based UPQC controller was proposed for compensating
the PQ problem. The proposed controller was implemented and the results were evaluated
with NFC, NN and FLC methods. Here, the voltage sag PQ problems were considered for
analyzing the performance of the ANFIS controller. The voltage sag issues were represented
at different time instants of the line voltage. The proposed controller has compensated the PQ
problem that is specified with the waveform. The PQ problem compensated by ANFIS with
0.03seconds compared with NN, NFC and FLC methods. The performance deviations were
evaluated in the proposed controller with the NFC, NN and FLC techniques. The
performance deviation of the proposed technique achieves a positive rate in solving all the
defined instants of occurrences of PQ issues. The comparative results showed that the

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proposed controller can achieve a better performance of PQ issues compared with the FLC,
NFC and NN based controllers.

The Chapter 5 discusses about the implementation of the NFC and ABC Algorithm
technique for detecting and mitigating the voltage sag problems and the Results are
concluded as follows.

ABC AND NFC BASED UPQC


In this research approach, PQ problem was compensated by the proposed ABC-NFC
technique. The voltage sag PQ problem was considered for analyzing the performance of the
proposed controller. Then, the proposed and existing technique results were evaluated and
compared. The line voltage with the PQ problems was occurred in the various time instants.
The proposed controller was compensated the PQ problem in less time, when compared to
the existing methods. Also, the PQ problem occurrences are defined with the different time
instants (T=0.01, 0.064, 0.105, 0.106, 0.1404 sec) the performance deviations were evaluated
in the proposed controller with the ANFIS, NFC, ANN and FLC techniques. The proposed
technique achieves a positive rate in solving all the defined instants of occurrences of PQ
issues. The comparative results showed that the proposed controller can achieve a better
performance of PQ issues compared with the ANFIS, FLC, NFC and ANN based controllers.

The Chapter 6 discusses about the implementation of the NFC and Modified CS
Algorithm technique for detecting and mitigating the voltage sag problems and the Results
were concluded as follows.

NFC AND MODIFIED CS BASED UPQC


The proposed NFC-Modified CS method based UPQC controller was proposed for
compensating the PQ problem. The proposed controller was implemented in the MATLAB.
The voltage sag PQ problems were considered for analyzing the performance of the proposed
controller. The line voltage with the PQ problems occurred in various time instants was
determined and evaluated their clearing time instants of the enhanced PQ problems. Then, the
proposed method follows FFT analysis. Similarly, the occurring and clearing time of the PQ
problems are measured with the ABC, ANFIS, NN, FLC and NFC methods and the outputs
are compared.

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The proposed controller compensated the PQ problem in less time, when compared to
the existing methods. Also, the PQ problem occurrences are defined with the different time
instants (T=0.05, 0.19, 0.11, 0.04, 0.17 sec), the performance deviations were evaluated in the
proposed controller with the ABC, ANFIS, NFC, NN and FLC techniques. The proposed
technique achieves a positive rate in solving all the defined instants of occurrences of PQ
issues. The comparative results showed that the proposed controller can achieve a better
performance of PQ issues compared with the ABC, ANFIS, NN, FLC and NFC based
controllers.

The following improvements have been achieved through this Research work.

Power Quality (PQ) of power operating device is one of todays most


important problematic subject for utility consumers and industrial consumers due to
increasing application of power electronic operating devices, which causes PQ
disturbances.
Now-a-days, to avoid the PQ disturbances and to enhance the PQ are the difficult
tasks. Hence, mitigating devices are used to overcome the PQ disturbances.
Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is one of the power electronics devices
that are used for enhancing the PQ.
In this research work, a PQ issue of voltage sag was considered to evaluate the
performance of the proposed various artificial intelligent controllers. The PQ issue
was made to occur in various time instants of the line voltage and it was
subjected to the proposed techniques/algorithms. The proposed controller enhances
the PQ of the system voltage waveform in a remarkable level.
The analysis was done for performance deviation that the Power Quality has been
enhanced greatly when the proposed controllers are used in UPQC.
The comparative results were assured that the PQ enhancing capability of the various
proposed artificial intelligent controllers such as FUZZY, NN, NFC, ANFIS, ABC
Modified CS based controllers.
It is identified that modified CS based NFC enhances more Power Quality of the
system as compared to others.

135

FUTURE SCOPE
There are several important points which need to be investigated but could not
be included in the scope of this research work. Thus, during this research, the following
issues have been identified as possible topics of work in future in this area:

The different control techniques like Phase Opposition Disposition, Alternate Phase O
pposition Disposition, Third Harmonic injection Pulse Width Modulation and Sine
Width Modulation with five level cascaded multilevel inverters are simulated and
compared for reduction of harmonics levels.
The control technique for multilevel power converters can be further simplified into
different levels, other class of power converters and inverters.
The levels of multilevel configuration can be increased and further improvements in
terms of performance for power quality issues can be broadly studied and could be
implemented with hardware circuits.
The same logic can be implemented for enhancing the other power quality problems
with bat algorithm, firefly algorithm, PSO algorithm etc...Need to conduct PQ Audits at
Multiple Information Levels using the PQ Investigator, improvement in Voltage
Regulation with Active PV Inverters etc.
Next-Generation Power Quality Database Management and Analysis System have to
be sustain for the purpose of analysis.
Capacity improvement and operation elasticity are two vital important limitations of
the centralized UPQC unit when located in a DG integrated network.

136

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[78] N.Radhakrishnan and M. Ramaswamy, Fuzzy Based Power Quality Enhancement


Strategy For Three Phase AC-DC Converter, International Journal of Electrical Engineering
& Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 188 - 196, ISSN Print: 0976-6545,
ISSN Online: 0976-6553.

[79] B Jyothi, B Jyothsna Rani and M Venu Gopal Rao, Analysis Of Unified
Power Quality Conditioner During Voltage Sag And Swell Conditions, International
Journal Of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology, Vol.2, No.1, pp.85 -91, 2012.

[80] B. Kumara Swamy, P.Pavan Kumar and Ch V K R M V Prasad, A MATLAB Based


Power Quality Analyzer (PQA) For Enhancing Power Quality in The System,
International Journal Of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Research, Vol.3, No.1,
pp.73-86, 2013.

[81] S Khalid and Bharti Dwivedi, Power Quality: An Important Aspect,


International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol.2, No.11, pp.6485-
6490, 2010.

[82] C Nalini Kiran,Power Quality Improvement Using Active and Passive Power
Filters, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, Vol.2, No.1, pp.76-79,
2012.

[83] S H Laskar and Mohibullah,Power Quality Issues and Need of Intelligent PQ


Monitoring in the Smart Grid Environment, International Journal of Emerging
Technology and Advanced Engineering, Vol.2, No.9, pp.63-69, 2012.

146

[84] Nagendrababu Vasa, Sreekanth G, Narender Reddy Narra and Srujana A, Series
Compensation Technique for Voltage Sag Mitigation, International organization of
Scientific Research Journal of Engineering, Vol.2, No.8, pp.14 -24, 2012.

[85] Mahesh A Patel, Ankit R Patel, Dhaval R Vyas and Ketul M Patel, Use of PWM Tech-
niques for Power Quality Improvement, International Journal of Recent Trends in
Engineering, Vol.1, No.4, pp.99 -102, 2009.

[86] Paduchuri Chandra Babu and Subhransu Sekhar Dash, Design of Unified Power
Quality Conditioner (UPQC) Connected To Three Phase Four Wire System, International
Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol.4, No.1, pp.60 -64, 2012.

[87] Saleha Tabassum and B Mouli Chandra, Power Quality Improvement By UPQC
Using ANN Controller, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications,
Vol.2, No.4, pp.2019-2024, 2012.

[88] Laxman Rao and Hari Krishna, Enhancement of Power Quality by UPQC Device in
SCIG Wind Fram to Weak Grid Connection, International Journal of Modern Engineering
Research, Vol.2, No.5, pp4030 -4033, 2012.

[89] Yash Pal, A Swarup and Bhim Singh, 3P-3W UPQC with zig-zag transformer
for 3P-4W Distribution System, International Journal on Electrical Engineering and
Informatics, Vol.4, No.2, pp.231-244, 2012.

[90] G Sridhar Reddy, Feasibility Analysis of DGSC-UPQC, International Journal


of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, Vol.4, No.1, pp.32-47, 2010.

[91] Seema P Diwan, H P Inamdar and A P Vaidya, Simulation Studies of Shunt Passive
Harmonic Filters: Six Pulse Rectifier Load Power Factor Improvement and Harmonic
Control, International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol.2, No.1, pp.1 -6,
2011.

[92] Yash Pal, A Swarup and B Singh, A New Topology of Three-Phase Four-Wire
UPQC with a Simplified Control Algorithm, Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering,
Vol. 6, No. 1, pp.24-30, 2012.

147

[93] G Laxminarayana and G Umesh Kumar, Power Quality Improvement Using


UPQC for Wind Farm Generation System, International Journal of Advanced Research in
Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Vol.1, No.6, pp.523 -530, 2012.

[94] K Sandhya, A Jayalaxmi and M P Soni, Design of Unified Power Quality Conditioner
(UPQC) for Power Quality Improvement in Distribution System, International
organization of Scientific Research Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
Vol.4, No.2, pp.52-57, 2013.

[95] Nadezda Stanarevic, Hybridizing artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm with
differential evolution for large scale optimization problems, International Journal of
Mathematics And Computers in Simulation, Vol.6, No.1, pp.194 -202, 2012.

[96] Milan Tuba, Nebojsa Bacanin and Nadezda Stanarevic, Adjusted artificial bee colony
(ABC) algorithm for engineering problems, WSEAS Transactions on Computers, Vol.11,
No.4, pp.111-120, 2012.

[97] K S Ravi Kumar and S V A R Sastry, Application of PI, Fuzzy Logic and ANN in
Improvement of Power Quality using UPQC, International Conference on Sustainable
Energy and Intelligent Systems, pp.316-319, 2011.

[98] G Siva Kumar, B Kalyan Kumar and Mahesh K Mishra, Mitigation of Voltage Sags
with Phase Jumps by UPQC with PSO -Based ANFIS, IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, Vol.26, No.4, pp.2761-2773, 2011.

[99] K. Manimala, K. Selvi andR. Ahila, "Optimization techniques for improving power
quality data mining using wavelet packet based support vector machine", International
Journal of Neuro computing, Vol.77, No.1, pp.36 -47, 2012.

[100] Yuksel Oguz, Seydi Vakkas Ustun, Ismail Yabanova, Mehmet Yumurtaci and
Irfan Guney, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to improve the power quality of a
split shaft microturbine power generation system, International Journal of Power
Source,Vol.197, pp.196-209, 2012.

[101] A Mokhtarpour, M Bathaee and H A Shayanfar, Power Quality Compensation in


Smart Grids with a Single Phase UPQC-DG, 2nd Iranian Conference on Smart Grids, pp.1 -
5, 2012.

148

[102] Ramin Rajabioun,Cuckoo optimization Algorithm,Journal of Applied Soft


Computing, Vol.11, pp. 55085518, 2011.

[103] B. Kumara Swamy, P. Pavan Kumar and Ch V K R M V Prasad, A MATLAB Based


Power Quality Analyzer (PQA) For Enhancing Power Quality in The System, International
Journal Of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Research, Vol.3, No.1, pp.73-86, 2013.

[104] Abdesslem Layeb, A novel quantum inspired cuckoo search for Knapsack problems,
International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation, Vol. 3, No.5, pp. 297-305, 2011.

105] Zahra Moravej and Amir Akhlaghi, A novel approach based on cuckoo search for DG
allocation in distribution network, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy
Systems, Vol.44, No.1, pp.672679, January, 2013.

[106] S. Mikkili and A. K. Panda, Types-1 and -2 fuzzy logic controllers-based shunt active
filter Id-Iq control strategy with different fuzzy membership functions for power quality
improvement using RTDS hardware, International Journal of power electronics, Vol.6,
No.4, April, 2013.

[107] Khairul Najmy Abdul Rani, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek and Neoh Siew-Chin, Nature-
inspired Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Side Lobe Suppression in a Symmetric Linear
Antenna Array, Journal of Radio engineering, Vol.21, No.3, pp.865-874, 2012.

[108] M. Karthikeyan and K. Venkatalakshmi, Energy Conscious Clustering of Wireless


Sensor Network Using PSO incorporated Cuckoo Search, In proceedings of third IEEE
conference on computing communication & networking technologies, Coimbatore, pp.1-7,
2012.

149

LIST OF PAPER PUBLICATIONS

[1] Published a paper entitled Neuro Fuzzy Controller and Bias Voltage Generator aided
UPQC for Power Quality Maintenance, in International Journal of Computer Theory and
Engineering (IJCTE), Volume No.4, Issue No.1, Feb, 2012, Page No.59-66.
Authors: M.VISHNUVARDHAN and Dr. P.SANGAMESWARA RAJU.

[2] Published a paper entitled Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Compensating Power
Quality Problem: Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interference system (ANFIS) in International
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), Volume No.4, IssueNo.4, July
2013, Page No.74-92.
Authors: M.VISHNU VARDHAN, N.M.G.KUMAR, Dr. P. SANGAMESWARA RAJU.

[3] Published a paper entitled ABC and NFC based Unified Power Quality Conditioner
for Compensating Power Quality Problem in IOSR- Journal of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering (IOSR-JEEE), VolumeNo.7, IssueNo.1, July-Aug2013, Page No. 1-13.
Authors: M. VISHNU VARDHAN and Dr. P. SANGAMESWARA RAJU.

[4] Published a paper entitled NFC and Modified CS Algorithm based UPQC for
Compensating Power Quality Problem in an International Journal of Sciences and
Engineering Research (IJSER), VolumeNo.4, IssueNo.6, Sep-2013, Page No. 234-242.
Authors: M.VISHNU VARDHAN and Dr. P. SANGAMESWARA RAJU.

[5] Presented a paper at National Level Conference (NCCECP-13) in association with


technically sponsored by IEEE Hyderabad section title as Voltage Sag Mitigation by
Enhanced Neuro Fuzzy Controller Based UPQC and got Best Paper Prize, conducted by
Audisankara College of Engineering and Technology, Gudur, on 09th Nov, 2013.
Authors: M.VISHNU VARDHAN, N.M.G.KUMAR, Dr. P. SANGAMESWARA RAJU.

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