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How to survive English V Solemne 1

I. Grammar
A. Simple Present

B. Present Continuous

C. Past simple

D. Past continuous

E. Past Participle

II. Vocabulary (study from the book)


A. Food & Restaurants

III. Pronunciation (study from the book)


A. /u:/

B. //
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IV. A. Simple Present


Used to talk about routines / thinks you do every day.
HINT. Some words appear a lot here:
o Everyday
o Every Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Friday/Saturday/Sunday
o Every Month/Year
o Once a week/month/year, twice a week/month/year, X times a week/month/year
o On weekends / on Mondays (day) / on July (month)
o FREQUENCY ADVERBS: always, usually, often, sometimes, never

Used to talk about things that are true / facts

FREQUENCY ADVERBS vary their position depending on the verb we are using.
o If we use a verb BE (am/is/are), the F. Adverb goes AFTER the verb BE. It cannot
separate the verb from the subject:
Ex: I am NEVER late
o If we use another verb (action or non-action), the F. Adverb goes BEFORE that
verb. It does separate the verb from the subject:
Ex: We ALWAYS eat pasta on weekends.

Grammar structure
*Affirmative: Subject + verb (s) + complement

She takes the bus at 8am everyday

Coffee boils at 100C

We usually have breakfast at 9am

Notes: The verb _s ending appears when we talk about third person singular: SHE HE IT. The
other pronouns dont take the _s.

She, He, It: takes


We, You, They, I : take_

There are also irregular verbs here: like BE and HAVE.


VERB BE: When we use the subject pronouns SHE HE IT, the verb BE corresponds to IS
She is twelve / He is my brother / It is a cat.

When we use the subject pronouns WE YOU THEY, the verb BE corresponds to ARE
and the subject I has the verb AM

VERB HAS: When we use the subject pronouns SHE HE IT, the verb HAVE changes into HAS
She has a car / He has a nice garden / it (my cat) has a new collar.

When we use the subject pronouns WE YOU THEY, and I the verb stays as: HAVE
I have a new car / We have a nice house / you have no sense of humor.

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*Negative: Subject + DO (auxiliary verb) + Not + verb + complement

She does not take the bus at 8am everyday

Coffee doesnt boil at 100C

We dont usually have breakfast at 9am

Notes: Here the auxiliary verb DO appears. It follows the same rule as the affirmative form.
She, He, It : Does not / Doesnt

We, You, They, I: Do not / Dont

The _s now goes with the auxiliary, and no longer goes along with the verb.

Correct: She doesnt take the bus

Incorrect: She doesnt takes the bus

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*Interrogative DO (auxiliary verb) + Subject + Verb + Complement

Does she take the bus at 8am every day?

Does coffee boil at 100C?

Do we usually have breakfast at 9am?

Notes: The Do Does rule follow the same pattern as before. DO is used with I, You, -they and
We, while DOES is used with She, He, and It.

Even though the auxiliary verb is the one that goes at the beginning in the interrogative form, the
WH-Questions goes before everything. Always. In every time tense (past, present, future)

What --- do you mean?


Where --- do you come from?
Why --- do you like chocolate? ----- and so on.
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B. Present Continuous
Used to talk about actions in progress (this is why its also known as present
progressive). Actions that are being done in the moment of speaking.
Used to talk about future arrangements (things youve planned to do in a near
future)
HINT. There are some words used with this tense.
o Now
o At the moment
o Right now
o Tonight*
o Today*
o Tomorrow*
*(when you ask for future arrangements. Ex. What are you doing
tonight?)
We DO NOT use Frequency adverbs here.
We DO NOT use non-actions verbs here
o These are STATES or FEELINGS. They do not take the _ing form
o Remember, those are: believe, prefer, depend, like, love, hate, agree,
have (de tener as possession), stand (de estar de pie), etc.
o Correct: I agree with you.
o Incorrect: Im agreeing with you. (NO NO NO plz no)
REMEMBER: some verbs have different _ing ending. Heres a link for you to check
it out in case you dont remember them:
http://www.grammar.cl/Notes/Spelling_ING.htm

Grammar structure
*Affirmative: Subject + verb BE + verb _ing + complement

She is taking the bus right now.

The coffee is boiling now.

We are having breakfast at this moment.

Notes: The verb BE depends on the subject:

She He It : IS
We You They: ARE
I: AM

Some _ing forms vary because of the verb ending:

Get: Getting (one syllable stressed, double the consonant)


pen: Opening (stress at the beginning, no double consonant)
Occr: Occurring (stress at the end, double consonant)

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*Negative: Subject + verb BE + NOT + verb _ing + complement

She is not taking the bus right now.

The coffee is not boiling now.

We are not having breakfast at this moment.

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*Interrogative Verb BE + Subject + verb _ing + complement

Is she taking the bus right now?

Is the coffee boiling now?

Are we having breakfast at this moment?

Exercises Simple Present

1. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb

We sometimes ______________ (to read) books.

Emily ______________ (to go) to the disco.

It often ______________ (to rain) on Sundays.

Pete and his sister ______________ (to wash) the family car.

I always ______________ (to hurry) to the bus stop.

I ______________ (to like) lemonade very much.

The girls always______________ (to listen) to pop music.

Janet never ______________ (to wear) jeans.

Mr Smith______________ (to teach) Spanish and French.

You______________ (to do) your homework after school.

2 Simple present with 'have' and 'be'

have
1. We (to have) a nice garden.
is
2. She (to be) six years old.
has
3. Simon (to have) two rabbits and five goldfish.
am
4. I (to be) from Vienna, Austria.
are
5. They (to be) Sandy's parents.

1. Negative Sentences

Make negative sentences.

1. My father makes breakfast my father does make breakfast


2. They are eleven . They arent eleven
3. She writes a letter. . she is not write a letter

4. I speak Italian. I dont speak Italian


5. Danny phones his father on Sundays. danny is not phone his father on Sundays

2. Questions

Make questions.

1. you / to speak / English do you to speak English ?

2. when / he / to go / home when does he to go home ?

3. they / to clean / the bathroom what do they to clean the bathroom?

4. where / she / to ride / her bike where does she to ride her bike ?

5. Billy / to work / in the supermarket does billy to work in the supermarket


?

3. Signal Words

Find the signal words for simple present.

1. Which is a signal word for simple present?


now last Monday often
2. Which is a signal word for simple present?
sometimes at the moment yesterday
3. Which is a signal word for simple present?
last Friday every Friday next Friday
4. Which is not a signal word for simple present?
never already usually
5. Which is not a signal word for simple present?
Listen! first ... then ... seldom

Exercises Present Continuous


1. Make the present continuous - positive, negative or question

1) (we / go to the cinema later)


we are go to the cinema later

2) (they / work now)


they

3) (you / not / walk)


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4) (they / learn new things)?


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5) (when / he / start work)?


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6) (why / I / stay at home)?


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7) (it / get dark)?


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8) (we / not / win)


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9) (they / not / bring a cake)


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10) (the dog / not / play with a ball)


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11) (why / it / rain now)?
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12) (how / she / travel)?


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13) (where / you / work)?


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14) (what / we / watch)?


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15) (you / meet your friend at four)


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16) (I / take too much cake)?


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17) (you / think)?


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18) (we / study this evening)


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19) (Lucy and Steve / play the piano)


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20) (Sarah / not / tell a story)


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2. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb

Look! Andy ________________________ (work) in the garden.

I ________________________ (watch) TV at the moment.

We ________________________(read) a book.

She ________________________(play) the piano.

Listen! Sue and John________________________ (sing) .

My sister (to clean) ________________________ the bathroom.

Look! They (to go) ________________________ inside.


I (to wait) ________________________ in the car now.

Mrs Miller ________________________ (to listen) to CDs.

We (to speak) ________________________ English at the moment.

4. Negative Sentences

Rewrite the sentences using the negative forms.

1. We are playing a game.

2. I'm drawing a picture.

3. He is making pizza right now.

4. Susan and her brother are taking photos.

5. Dad is working in the kitchen.

5. Questions and Signal Words

Write questions in present progressive.

1. Robin / to ride / his bike -

2. where / she / to go -

3. what / your mother / to do / now -


4. Which is a signal word for the present progressive?
often now sometimes
5. Which is not a signal word for the present progressive?
always Look! at the moment
Exercises Simple Present VS Present
Continuous
1. Choose the correct option for each sentence

1 Mary never ____ TV at weekends.

watches
is watching

2 The drugstore ____ until nine oclock on workdays.

doesn't close
isn't closing

3 Kate ____ the guitar at nights.

is often playing
often plays

4 ____ in London this month?

Is he living
Does he live

5 ____ that woman over there your mum? She ___ at you.

Is / is looking
Is being / looks
6 They ____ because they are busy.
aren't coming
don't come

7 John ____ in the hospital saving lives.


works
is working

8 My father and I ____ sunbathing on the beach.

love
is loving

9 ____ the traditional Spaniard music?

Do you like
Are you liking

10 My friend Tom ____ a party next Friday night.

is giving
gives

Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate
tenses, then click the "Check" button to check your answers.

1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) her kids to football practice.

2. Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I

(study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris.

3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) .

4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain) .

5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always) .

6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) because everybody

(talk) so loudly.
7. Justin (write, currently) a book about his adventures in Tibet. I

hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished.

8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight?

Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) to a movie tonight with some

friends.

9. The business cards (be, normally ) printed by a company in New

York. Their prices (be) inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite

good.

10. This delicious chocolate (be) made by a small chocolatier in Zurich,

Switzerland.

CHECK OUT THESE PAGES FOR MORE EXERCISES TO DIFFERENTIATE SIMPLE PRESENT FROM PRESENT
CONTINUOUS:

http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/present-simple-present-continuous-1.html

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_present_progressive2.htm

http://www.english-4u.de/pres_prog_ex4.htm

B. PAST TENSES:
Past simple:
Use past simple for completed actions in the past.

In affirmative sentences, the main verb goes in past form. It is the same for all subjects:

(+): I had lunch at 2 oclock

(+): She had lunch at 2 oclock

In negative sentences, the auxiliary verb did goes in past (did is the past of do), so the
main verb goes in its infinitive form

(-) I didnt have lunch at 2 oclock

(-) She didnt have lunch at 2 oclock

In interrogative sentences, the auxiliary verb did goes in past at the beginning of the
sentece, and the main verb goes in its infinitive form

(?) Did I have lunch at 2 oclock?

(?) Did she have lunch at 2 oclock?

SIMPLE PAST combined with SIMPLE PAST:

When John arrived, they had dinner.

In order:

1. First John arrived.

2. Then, they had dinner.

Complete the with simple past:

1. When my boyfriend ______ (come) home, we ________ (go) to the cinema

2. She ________ (study) for her test and then she _________ (go) to the party.

3. We ___________ (cook) dinner and after that, we _________ (wash) the dishes
Past Continuous:

Use past continuous for ongoing actions in the past.

These sentences are usually interrupted by past simple.

Past continuous:

In affirmative sentences, the verb BE goes according to its subject and the main verb ends
in _ING form.

(+): We were having lunch at 2 oclock (when something happened)

(+): She was having lunch at 2 oclock

In negative sentences, the verb BE acts like the auxiliary verb, so it takes the negative with
it. The _ING form remains the same.

(-): We werent having lunch at 2 oclock

(-): She was not having lunch at 2 oclock

In interrogative sentences, the verb BE acts like the auxiliary verb, so it goes at the
beginning. The _ING form remains the same.

(?): Were we having lunch at 2 oclock?

(?): Was she having lunch at 2 oclock?

SIMPLE PAST combined with PAST CONTINUOUS:

When John arrived, they were having dinner.

In order:

1. When John arrived.


2. They were in the middle of dinner.

Complete the sentences with past contiuous

1. I _____________________ (not/listen) to music when I heard a noise.

2. The dogs ________________ (play) outside when the earthquake started.

3. _________Miss Jones _______________ (talk) to Mr. White when the murder happened?

4. You ________________ (cook) lunch at three oclock

5. My sister and I ________________________ (watch) a movie yesterday at noon.

6. I ______________________ (writing) an email when he arrived.

7. The man _____________________ (drive) home when he had the accident.

8. _____________ my parents __________ (leave) when it started to rain?

Past perfect

Use past continuous for actions that ended before another action in the past

In affirmative sentences, the auxiliary HAD which is the same for all subjects and the main
verb must be in past participle.

(+): The show had already started (when I arrived)

(+): She had talked to me (before you did)

In negative sentences, the auxiliary HAD takes the negative, and the main verb must be in
past participle.

(-): The show hadnt started (when I arrived)

(-): She had not talked to me (before you did)


SIMPLE PAST combined with PAST PARTICIPLE:

When John arrived, they had had dinner.

In order:

1. They had dinner (before)

2. John arrived.

Complete the sentences with past perfect

1. When I arrived at the cinema, the film _______________________(already/start).

2. She _________________(live) in China before she went to Thailand.

3. Julie and Anne ___________________ (not/meet) before the party

4. After they _________________ (eat) the shellfish, they began to feel sick.

5. If you _________________(listen) to me, you would have got the job.

6. He ________________ (not/use) email before, so I showed him how to use it

7. We were late for the plane because we _________________(forget) our passports.

8. She told me she _________________ (study) a lot before the exam.

9. She said that she _________________ (not/visit) the UK before.

Combining all past tenses together

1. Julie was sleeping from 3 until 4 oclock. I arrived at 3:30

Julie ___________________ when I ______________

1. Mom had dinner at 8 oclock. I had dinner at 9 oclock


When I _________ dinner, mom ______________________ (already) dinner

1. Sarah drove to Valdivia. In the middle of the trip, she had an accident.

When Sarah __________________ to Valdivia, she __________ an accident.

1. Luke read a book last night. I read the same book the next day.

Luke ________________ the book when I ________________ it the next day.

1. She only had $5 lucas. She bought that dress.

When she _______________ the dress, she _________________ (only) $5 lucas.


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