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1 1 7056


^ Theoretical Series. No. 7.

^* "^OVELLO'S LIBRARY for the diffusion of MUSICAL KNOWLEDGE.

C/ " Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and ability. * There is no stond or impediment in the wit,
but may be wrought out by fit studies." Lord Bacon.












^'Ew York: THE H. W. GRAY CO., Solb Agents for the U.S.A.
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012 with funding from
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At no period in the History of IMusic has Instru- leaving to the hearer the delight of imagining the
meriUitiott,been more discussed than at the present cample mental notes of the chords. Others went
time. Tlie reason is doubtless to be found in still further, desiring to have no accompaniment

the recent development of this branch of the Art at all, affirming that harmony was but a barbaroue
and perhaps, also, in the multitude of criticisms, invention.
opinions, different doctrines, judgments, rational and Then came the turn of modulations. At the time i

irrational arguments spoken or written, for which when modulation was only into relative keys, the \

the slightest productions of the most inferior com- firstwlio ventured to pass into a foreign key was
posers form a pretext. treated with conttrmely
as might have been ex-
Great importance seems now attached to the art pected. Whatever the effect of this new modula-
of Instrumentation, which was unknown at the com- tion, uiasters severely objected to it. The innovator
" Listen

mencement of the last century and the advance

; vainly pleaded : observe how agree-
to it ;

of which, sixty years ago, many persons who passed ably it is brought in, how well worked, how adroitly
for sincere friends of Music endeavoured to prevent. linked with that which precedes and follows, and
There is an effort, nowadays, to place an obstacle how deliciously it sounds " " That's not the ques-

in the way of musical progress upon other points. tion!" was the reply. "This modulation is pro-
Tt has always been thus therefore we ought not
; hibited; therefore it must not he made!" But as^^
to feel surprise. At first, music was only acknow- on the contrary, that is the sole question through.
ledged as a series of consonant harmonies, inter- ont, modulations into foreign keys did not fail soon
mingled with discords of suspension and when
; to appear in high-class music, producing effects no
Monteverde attempted to add the chord of the less felicitous than unexpected. Almost immediately
seventh on the dominant without preparation, blame arose a new order of pedantry ; some composers
and invective of all kinds were levelled at him. thinking themselves degraded by modulating into
But this seventh once admitted, in spite of oppo- the dominant; and frolicking sweetly, in the smallest
sition, to companionship with the discords of sus- rondo, from the key of natural to that of FJ
pension, there were not wanting those among so- major.
called learned authorities who held in contempt all Time, little by little, has put each thing in its
compositions of which the harmony was simple, proper place. A
too rigid adherence to custom has
Bweet, clear, sonorous, natural. It was absolutely been distinguished from the reactions of vanity,
requisite, to please these gentry, that music should be folly, and obstinacy ; and it is now pretty generally
crammed with chords of the second major and minor, agreed, as concerns harmony, melody, and modula-
with sevenths, ninths, fourths, and fifths, employed tion, that whatever produces a good effect is good

without reason or intention, unless that of being that whatever produces a bad effect is had; and
as frequently as possible harsh to the ear. These that the authority of a hundred old men, even if
musicians took a fancy for dissonant chords, as they were each a hundred and twenty years of age,
certain animals have a predilection for salt, prickly cannot make ugly that which is beautiful, nc.
plants, and thorny shrubs. It was the exaggeration beautiful that which is ugly.
~^ j

^of reaction. As for instrumentation, expression, and rhythm,

Melody was not be found among these fine
to that is quite another affair. Their turn for being
combinations ; whenappeared, it was cried down
it discerned, denounced, admitted, fettered, freed, and
as the ruin of Art, the neglect of time-honoured exaggerated, not having come until much later,
rules, &c.,&c. All was apparently lost. Neverthe- they have not yet attained the point reached by
less, meli'dy maintained its ground and a reaction of
; other branches of the Art. It may be said thai
melody, in its turn, was not long in appearing. There instrumentation, as first in order, is at the stage oi
were fanatical melodists, to whom every piece of exai,'geration.
music in more than three parts was insupportable. It requires much time to discover Musical Medi-
Some of them asserted that, in the majority of cases, terraneans and still more to master their naviga-

the subject should be accompanied by a bass only, tion.


CHAPTER I. by one of them singly, nor by joining it to instru-

Evory sonorous body employed by the composer
ments of its own species, this can only be done
isa musical instrument. Hence, the following di-
by instancing the results obtained by masters in the
vision of the means now at his disposal :
Art, and tracing their mode of procedure ; results
(Violins which, doubtless, will be again modified in a thou-
Violas sand ways, for good or ill, by such composers as shall
Violes d'aniom' reproduce them.

BtriDfi^ed instruments
The object of this work is, first, the indication
Harps of the extent, and certain essential parts of the
Played by hand
-< Guitars mechanism of instruments next, the study (hitherto

( Mandolins much neglected) of the. quality of tone {timbre),

With keys Pianoforte. particular character, and powers of expression, per-
Hautboys taining to each of them ; and lastly, the best known
Oorni Inglesi
methods of proceeding, in order to group them
Bassons de quinte appropriately. Any endeavour to step beyond this
With reeds -J
Double -bassoons would be an attempt to set foot on the domain of
Clarinets inspiration ; where genius alone is capable of making
Corni di bassetti
discoveries, because to genius alone is reserved the
Saxophones right of traversing it.

Without reeds Flutes, great and small
r Organ
Wind instmments With keys Melodium CHAPTER II

( Concertina Instruments played with a bow.

Trumpets The Violin.
With mouthpiece, Bugles The four strings of a violin are usually tuned by
and of brass Trombones fifths ; thus :

Ophicleides 1st string. TX2

Bombardons 2n(t String.-'
3rd String.'
4th St^ing.T!^
Voices of men, women, children, and
artificial soprani. The highest string, E, is also called the chante-
Kettle-drums relle ;and generally known as such.
Ancient cvmbals These strings, when the fingers of the left hand
Set of bells
Of definite sonorousness do not modify the sound by shortening more or less
Keved harmonica the portion set in vibration by the bow, are called
Bells open strings the notes which are played on an

'Drums open string being indicated by an placed above
m percussion
Of indefinite Long-drums them.
sonorousness, Tambours de basque (or Tam-
and producing >

Cynibals bourine)
Some eminent composers and performers have
various charac- Triangles not chosen to hold themselves restricted to tliis
teristic noises Gongs method of tuning the violin. Paganini, in order
Pavilion Chinois. to give more brilliancy to the instrument, occa-
The employment of these various sonorous ele- sionally raised all the strings half a tone :

ments, and their application, either for colouring

the melody, harmony, and rhythm, or for producing
peculiar impressions (originating or not in an in- i= -^E^
tention of expression) independently of all aid from and, consequently transposing his part, he played
the three other great musical powers, constitutes in Dh, while the orchestra was in Ep, and in Ap,
the art of instrumentation. while the orchestra was in Bp, &c., thus keeping
Considered in its poetical aspect, this art is as the majority of his strings open
the sonorousness
little to be taught as that of inventing beautiful being greater when open, than when pressed by the
Bubjects, fine successions of chords, or original and finger
in keys where, with the ordinary method of
striking rhythmical forms. That which suits various tuning, that would not have been possible.
instruments, that which is practicable or not for De Beriot frequently raises merely the a whole G
them, oasy or difficult, dull or sonorous, may be tone in his concertos.
indii'ated it may also be pointed out, that such
; Baillot, on the contrary, sometimes lowers the G
and such an instrument is more fitted than an- half a tone, in order to produce softer and deeper
other, to produce certain effects, and to express effects.
certain sentiments; but as for combining them V\'inter has even employed Ft] instead of tha Qt
in groups in small orchestras or large masses, with a similar intention.
--as for the art of uniting them, mixing tliem, Having regard to the degree of skill at present
in such a way as to modify the sound of some attained by onr young violinists, this is about the
by that of others, giving to the ensemble a extent which may be assigned to the violin in a
particular tone, which could neither be produced well-constituted orchestra:


With all the chromatic intervals
the higiier ))art, and the other the lower. Beginning
with D
(3rd string) all intervals of a second, a third,
a fourth, a fifth, a sixth, a seventii, an octave, are prac-
3r ticable. But they become more and more difiicult
in proportion as they advance upon the higli etrin<,'3.

The great performers carry the range of the

violin several notes higher ; and even in the or-
With the clininiiiiC
chestra, a much greater degree of acuteuess may be intervals.
obtained by means of harmonics
of which mention
will be made liereafter. ;&c.
Shakes are practicable on all the steps of this S^f ?L*
_:r Witli tlic

vast ladder of three octaves and a half; but the ex-

r^ chroinatic

treme difficulty of those which occur on the three top- Easy. More and more

most notes A, B, C, is to be dreaded ; and, in the
_fl. i_-J , ,-. ^

St* &c.
With the
orchestra, it would be prudent not to employ them.
The minor shake on the fourth __^ bL^_ *^ .^.'W'' Easy. More and more
G '

string, from to A|?, should be rfe

avoided as much as possible
ii difficult.

Witli the
It is harsh and its effect is scarcely agreeable.
; chromatic
Chords of two, three, or four notes, which may '-^
^'.<if"*' Easy.' '
More and more
be struck, or played in arpeggio, on the violin, are difficult.

very numerous -,---- &c

and the effects they produce ex-

With the
tremely various. chromatid
Chords of two notes, resulting from what is called intervals.

the double-string, are well suited to melodic figures, ^:i:---Easy.n^ ""^riir"

to sustained phrases either /M-^e or piano, to accom-
paniments of all kinds, and to the trernolo.
Chords of three or four notes, on the contrary,
produce rather a bad effect when played piano "^ ^.^P*^^ 1 I
' ' '
Mo re and more
they seem rich and energetic only when played
loud and boldly as the bow can then strike the
With fae
strings sufficiently together to make them vibrate chromatid
r^ intervals.
simultaneously. 'J.jyiW'^'y r I ' ' More and more
It should not be foigotten, that, of these tliree or Emv. difficult.

four notes, two at most can be sustained ; the bow The

unison is sometimes employed on a double
being compelled to quit the others immediately after string but. although it can be done upon many

they are struck. It is therefore useless, in a sl^w or other notes, it is well to limit it to D, A, E because ;

measured movement, to write thus :

they are the only ones that offer, with the facility
necessary to good execution, variety of timbre, and
.-F a sonority due to the fact that one of the strings is
^-- >- >^ "
open :

The two upper notes are alone capable of being held ;

it is better to indicate the jjassage in this
1^=^ In the other
rr^r f^r

there being no open string, their execution becomes

rather difficult, and consequently, their strict intona
J^ r r r T T
fj- An clionls contained between the low (J and the
1 1
tion very rar(\
tow D are evidently impossible; since there is only A bass string can cross an upper open string, by
a single string (the G) to produce the two notes. pursuing an ascending movement while the open
When there is need of harmony in this extreme point string remains as a pedal :

of the scale, it can be obtained in the orchestra only b 0=0 zO=o=zzOz=:z With the :==m3or
iiy dividinuc the violins. Thi-: division is indicated
by the Italian word divisi ; or by the Frencii words -,-
r I
I c '

dirises (divided), and (i deux (in two), written over It will be seen that the D, here, remains open,
tiie passage :
while the ascnding scale is executed throughout upon
the fourth string.
^=$ The intervals of a ninth and a tenth are feasibly
but much less easy than the preceding ;
it is much
Thf> violins are then separated, that one set may play better not to write them for the orchestra, unless


the lower string is open, in vvbicli case there It is better in all the chords marked thus * to let
danger : them remain with three notes, and to omit the
^- ' lowest sounds
^^ J :


in With

J ?*-"*'

Care should be taken to avoid, as excessively difB- rJrT ^'

such leaps of a double V^ -^

cnlt not to say impossible
string as demand an immense displacing of the hand:
^ ;*-#-

"T I -I 1 I

f "i

In general, such leaps should not be written,

i2j. iH4.

1. : :* :^-
- -

^ b i^ . d?-

unless the two upper notes belong to a chord of

four notes which may be struck together :
Easy movement
in a of moderate speed :

notes may
is feasible, because the four -^
be struck at once ffl:p :

^ vZVp"

b^tj^rp- gg- :ff- g

In the following example, however, though the "I i

.1 . 1 I I

four notes can only be struck at once with some diffi- All these chords linked in this manner are not diffi-
culty (those of the last chord alone excepted), the cult. They may be executed in arpeggio ; that is to

leap from low to high is not less easy, the two say, by letting their notes be heard consecutively,
lower notes being on open strings, and the two from which frequently results the most agreeablf
others with the first and third fingeis : effects
in a pimiissimo especially:


A.mong chords of three, and particularly of four Nevertheless, there are designs, similar to the
notes, the bestand most sonorous are always those preceding, of which the four notes cannot, without
which contain most open strings. I even think that extreme difficulty, be played at once, yet which are
if none of these strings can be had for a chord of easily executed in arpeggio, by means of the first
four notes, it is better to rest contented with a chord and second fingers passing from the fourth string ta
of three notes. the first, in order to produce the low note and the
Here are those most used ; the most sonorous, and high note :

the least difficult :

J .J.

our~ OKT- 0r or- Ott^Oti--
Ott Cif 0*- 00- or 0*- 1

By omitting the high note or the low note of the


I , preceding examples, so many chords of three notea

arc obtained. There must be superadded those which
result from the various notes produced by the E
string above the 'wo centre open strings, or by the
E and the A, above the open I) only :

: ;


If It be required to strike an isolated chord, Occasion may here be taken to mention that the
in D minor or major, the disposition of the A custom is to divide the violins into two sets but ;

should not he made too difficult when not led up there is no reason why they sliould not be subdivided
to; it is better to take the following, -- jf*- into two or three sets, according to the object which
which is quite easy, and more sono- o^"p ^>p the composer has in view. Sometimes, it is eveu
rous, en account of the effect of the ^Ifr ^ F^^tP advantageous to carry the number of violin parts up
two open strings :
11 to eight, either for the sake of isolating from the
It may be seen by the preceding examples that grand mass eight single violins (plaj'ing in eighl
all chords of three notes are jwssible for the violin :
parts), or in order to divide the whole of the first
if care be taken, in those which contain no open and second violins into four equal portions.
string, to spread the parts sufficiently to allow an To return to the tremolo. The chief j)oiiit, in
interval of a fifth or sixth between them. The order to ensure its complete effect, is that the move-
sixth may be found either above or below, or ment of the bow shall be sufficiently rapid to produce
both: an actual tremulousness or quivering. The composer
must therefore write it with precision, keeping in /
\'iew the nature of the movement in which the
tremolo occurs for the performers, delighted to

Certain chords of three notes being practicable in avoid a mode of execution which fatigues them, will
two ways, it is always better to choose that which not fail to profit by any latitude allowed in this
contains an open string :

t?- tlm. or b.
Thus, in an Allegro assai, if the following were

(inod.-j^ "~~[1~ ^'''*''''

m to be written for a tremolo
l)oul)le shakes in thirds may be made, beginning
with the first B? below : the tremuloitsness would certainly exist but if the ;

h h- tr tremolo of an Adagio were indicated also by semi-

quavers, the performers would strictly keep to semi-
quavers the result of which would be, instead of

tremulousness, an effect of heaviness and flatness the

V>\\t as they are more difficult of execution than
most detestable. In such a case ~^"3 f? ~
simple shakes, and as the same effect may be ob- || _
the composer should write
tained more neatly by means of two separate violin-
parts, it is better, in general, to abstain from them and even, if the movement be slower:
in the orchestra. than an Adagio
The tremolo, simple or double, by many violins,

produces several excellent effects expresses ; it

The tremolo on the lower and middle notes of the
trouble, agitation, terror, in the respective shades of third and fourth string, is much more characteristic

piano, mezzo-forte, ami fortissimo, when it is placed infortissimo if the bow strike the strings near the
on one or two of the three strings, Gr, D, and A, and bridge. In large orchestras, and when the per-
when it is not carried much above the middle B?: formers take pains to give the full effect, it produces ^

Double cord a sound like that of a rapid and powerful cascade.

This mode of execution sliould be indicated by the
?^- i ?g- l\
words : near the bridge.
ff. A kind of tremolo occur*
fine application of tliis

It hassomething of a stormy, violent character, \ in the scene of the oracle, in the first act of Gluck'i
fortissimo on the middle of the first or second
the fortissimo
in iha Alceste.
string The effect of the tremiilousness of the second vio ,

linsand violas is there much enhanced by the grand ,'

and emphatic progression of the double-basses, by

the blow struck from time to time by the first violins,
It becomes, on the contrary, aerial, angelic, when by the successive introduction of the wind instru-
employed in several parts, and pianissimo, on the ments, and lastly by the sublime recitative which
high notes of the first string : this surging of the orchestra accompanies. I Icnow
nothing of this kind more dramatic or more terrible.
However, the idea of the tremolo near the bridge,
not having been expressed by Gluck in his score,
1st Violin
cannot be ascribed to him. The honor of it revertt
entirely to M. Habeneck, who, when directing the
studies of the Conservatoire pupils in this stupendous
scene, required the violins to trj" this energetic style
of execution
the advantage of which, in auch a case,
is incontestible :- -
Atcalt (ULuCK.)
No. 1


High Piiest

A-pollohas re -gard to our distressful piay'rs,

Apol-lon est sen-sible a nos gemis- sements.

and with portends sure conveys to me th'as-surance

t des si-gnes cer-tains m'en donnent I'assu - ran-ce

Fill'dbytheho ly fire, attendant on His presence, I am rais'd by his pow'r far above mortal man.
plein de I esprit di - vin qu'inspire sapr^-sen-ce je me sens e-le-ver audessus d'unmor-tel.

and on tlie altar burns, all proclainisto my soul that the God conifs in
et bril-le sur I'au-tel tout m'an-non-ce du Dieu ta pri - sen - ce su -

pe:-son, and of our fu- tare fate to speak him-self the purport. Feelings of a Ho-ly surrounding
pre -me ce dieu sur noa des-tins veut s'ex-pli - quer lui - - me-me I'horreurd'une tainte ^/louvan-le


fills my mind with awful dread the ground heneath my step seems to he falling
se r^panJ mttour de rnoi. la ter - re sous mes pas fuit et se preci-

P ^^r-

from me. Mar-ble it-self has life.

pi - te, 42- le mar - bre est ani- m(.


siicncp. O Queen, quitat his coming these the empty trappingsof thy power. Trem ble
len ce. Rei-ne depose a son aspect le viiin orrjuetl de la pvU-san-ce. Trem


For certain dramatic accompaniments of an agi- force and agitation to the sound of the viohns, and
, rated character, advantageous use is made of the suit many orchestral effects,in all kinds of wwrtwrr.?:

/broken, tremolo, occasion- y j^g^rzi^^^ff: Allegro.

ally upon one string-

P^ If. li- ~m- -9- -0- -J- '^' - ^

Bometimes upon two strings :

Lastly, there is another kind of tremolo, never -i 3 S S 3 8

employed nowadays, but of which Gluck has made -1-rf-

admirable use in his recitatives. It may be entitled
Andante can moto.
the undulating tremolo, and consists of a not very e-
rapid utterance of boimd notes on the same tone
while the bow never quits the string.
Nevertlu'less, in a phrase of broad movement and
In these non-measured accompaniments, the per-
vigorous character, simple notes marhedlii detached,
formers cannot precisely hit the same number of
notes in each bar,
some playing more, others produce a much better effect, when a true tremolo
is not employed upon each note. Thus the following
fewer; and from these differences results a sort of
fluctuation, or indecision in the orchestra, perfectly
Largo. :?"^. .k
adapted to express the uneasiness and anxiety of J,

certain scenes. Gluck wrote thus


t=l: 3^ taking
ip 1 ^ p-
of tlie
movement of
into consideration the slowness
an incomparably more noble
The different kinds of homing are of great im- and more powerful sonority, than this one :

portance, and exercise a singular influence on sonority Largo. ..

and on the expression of peculiar features and "melo-
dies. They should therefore be carefully indicated
according the nature the idea which
to of is to be Composers would be considered too minute, pro-
conveyed by the follovdng signs : bably, were they to indicate the mo- ements of the
bow in their score still, it is well, when a passage

demands lightness or extreme energy or amplitude

of sound, to indicate the mode of execution by these
words :

" With the point of the bow " or " with
For slurred notes, two and two ;
the heel of the bow;" or "with the full length of
the bow, upon each note." So the words " On
the bridge," and " On the finger-board,' designating
the spot nearer or farther from the bridge, where
For extended slurs :
the bow should strike the strings, might be used in
the same manner. The metallic sounds, slightly
0^=^3E^l rough, which the bows draws forth when near the
bridge, differ greatly from the soft veiled sounds
For staccato, or lightly detached notes, simple or which are generated when it is passed across the
double, which are to be executed during a single finger-board.

drawing of the bow, by means of a succession of In a symphonic piece, where the terrible mingles
small strokes that move it as little as possible :
with the grotesque, the back of the bow has been
employed in striking the strings. The use of this
whimsical means shoidd be very rare, and have
a decided purpose ; moreover it has perceptible
effect only in a large orchestra. The multitude
of bows then falling precipitately on the strings,
M^^S "^^^2 1^^^**

^^^^ L L h~m~^ 'F~^ '^ r

produce a sort of snapping noise, which would be
scarcely noticeable if the violins were few in
For 7narkedly detachednotes, which are to give number, so weak and short-lived is the sound thus
to the string all possible sonority, by permitting obtained.
it to vibrate alone after the bow has vigorously
Harmonics are tiiose sounds which are generated
struck it, and which particularly suit pieces of a by touching the strings with the fingers of the left
haughty, grand character, and of moderate move- hand, so as to divide them in their length, yet not
ment :
with sufficient pressure to place them in contact with
the finger-board, as is the case for ordinary sounds.
These Harmonics possess a singular cliaracter of
mysterious softness and the extreme acuteness of

Notes reiterated two, three, and four times (ac- some of them afford the violin, in the upper part, an
cording to the rapidity of the movement), give more immense compass. They are natural, or artificial.
: :


Natural harmonics are those which are produced by touching certain points of open strings. Her*
are some which may be produced most surely and vvitli the greatest sonority u]ion each string.
The black notes represent the real harmonics and the white notes indicate the notes touched upon ;

the open string:- - ,,.. . .

^^^ ^^^ ^^^

I 8^

First string, E.

Second string, A.

Third string, D.

Fourth string, G.

Artificial harmonics are to be obtained very distinctly throughout the extent of the gamut by means
of the first finger which, firmly pressed upon the string, while the other fingers touch it, serves for s

movable nut.
Here is the table of touched intervals, and of the real harmonics which they produce :

The touched octave gives its unison

> Real harmonics.
^.__ J J
4th finger touching the string.
4 4 4
^ With tlie chromatic interval*.

This fingering is little used,

excepting for the 4th string, on
account of its inconvenience.

Ist finger pressed

Real harmonics.

This fingering is more easy

The touched fifth gives than the preceding, aud lesi
octave above :
80 than the following.

The touched fourth gives

its twelfth above :
3Erg^'i_gjg: .
Finger pressed.

This fingering is the most easy, and is that which minor third, are very little used ; the harmonica
should be preferred for the orchestra, when the object being thus produced much less well :

is not to obtain as a real harmonic the twelfth of an

open string, for in that case the fin- '^

gering by fifth is preferable. Thus,
in order to sound singly a B in alt I
Ife' |: :

m The touched majjor

third gives its double
octave above
Real harmonics
3rd finger tOiiehed.
I toiiehed.

it is better to employ this positio

on account of the open E, of which Ihe touched

A m 3rd finger touched.

fifth (B) gives its octave above and is more sono- ; h

T t t ^
rous than a string upon which the first linger must
be pressed as for example
The minor third Real harmonics.
4 = gives its major seven- Fingers touching. ,
teenth above. 3 2 3

(^ ^-~ g^which gives equally :

^ [^r [jr
^^ rifcrrz.

The fingerings of the touched major third and r I

itt flntier pies*e<l.


least, care should be taken not to give them rapid

The touched major
sixth gives its twelfth
This fingering
less used than that

Real harmonics.
4th finger touching.
k successions of notes, if their perfect execution is t*
be ensured.
It is lawful for a composer to write them in two,
three, and even in four parts, according to the num-
of the fourth it is never-
; ber of violin parts. The effect of such chords, sus-
theless tolerably good, tained, is very remarkable, if it be warranted by the
and often useful : $=^P=f,=fr^
Finger pressed.
subject of the piece, and well mingled with the rest
of the orchestration. I have employed them for the
The positions of touched fourth and fifth are un-
time, in three parts, in the scherzo of a sym
doubtedly the most advantageous.
phony, above a fourth violin part not in harmonics,
Some performers sound double strings in har- which sJuikes continually on the least high note,
monics but this effect is so difficult to obtain, and,
; The great delicacy of the harmonics is still more

consequently, so hazardous, that composers can never enhanced in this passage by the use of mutes;
be advised to write it. and thus deadened, they issue from the extreme
/^ The harmonics of the fourth string, have some- heights of the musical scale, which it would be
thing of the quality of a flute they are preferable for
; impossible to reach with ordinary sounds.
delivering a slow air. Paganini employed them It would be well, in writing such chords in har
with wonderful success in the prayer of llo'ise. monies, not to neglect designating by notes of dif
The harmonics of the other strings acquire more ferent shape and size, placed one above another, the
delicacy and tenuity in proportion as they are higher; note for the finger tottching the string, and that of
it is precisely this character, and their crystalline the real harmonic (when touching an open string)
quality, which renders them appropriate to chords and the note of the finger pressing, that of the
that may be called fairy-like,
that is to say, to finger touching the strnng, and that of the real
those effects of harmony which inspire brilliant mu- harmonic, in the other cases. It is therefore some-
sings, and carry the imagination towards the most times necessary to employ three signs together
graceful fictions of the poetical and supernatural for a single sound as without this precaution the

world. However much they may have become fa- execution might become an inextricable muddle, in
miliar, nowadays, to our young violinists, they should which the author himself would have difficulty in
never be employed in a lively movement; or, at recognizing his own production.

No. 2.
Romeo and Juliet.
Solo Imo. Allegro.

Jomo Fnglese.

Clar. in Bt'.

1st Harps,

find Harpa.

Real harmonic. - - 8ve.

lit Violins
divided. Finger touching the string. CL rr XL
_ Finger pressed.

Real harmonic. 8ve.

Finger touching ths string. -

J'^ ^ '

_ Finger pressed.!

tnd Violins Real harmonic. - - 8ve.
divided Finger touching the open string ^0 .,_


M TiolODCelli.


PPP Pizz.

Sordines (or mutes) are little wooden implements in a special way, by the mixture of clear sounds
which are placed on the bridge of stringed instru- and veiled sounds. There are others also, where
ments in order to deaden their sonorousness and ; the character of the melody is sufficiently dissimilar
give them at the same time a mournful, mysterious from that of the accompaniments, which render the
and softened tone, which is frequently felicitous in use of the sordine advisable.
all styles of music. Sordines are most often used The composer, when introdticing sordines in the
in slow pieces ; but they serve scarcely less well, middle of a piece (which is indicated by the words
when the subject of the piece admits it, for rapid " con sordini"), should not forget to give the per-
and light designs, or for accompaniments of hurried formers time to put them on consequently, he will

rhythm. Gluck has effectually proved this in his be careful to arrange a previous rest for the violin
sublime monologue of the Italian {" Alceste") " Chi parts about equivalent to the duration of two bars
mi pai-la." in four time (moderato).
The custom is, when employing sordines, to cause A rest of such length is not necessary, when the
theu\ to be used by all the band of stringed instru- words " senza sordini" indicate they are to be re-
ments uevertheless, there are certain circumstances,
; moved ; this operation requiring much less time.
more frequent than is generally believed, under The sudden transition from sounds deadened in a
"hich sordines placed in a single part (the first mass of violins, to sounds clear and natural (without
'loims, for instance) vdll colour the instrumentation sordines), is often immensely effective.


SCHEBZO Preslitsimo,
No. :3. Romeo ana jutiel. Bbki fit



Andante 7ion mnlio.

Con Sordini. 6 No. 4 Alcesle. (Clock.)



This instrument is obsolete and quite unknown at the present day





^y; p
^-r-|r-rn U r-^4:-^rtj:1r&:gartrlrlr. |z j:--i^ I I

f The Pizzicato is still in general use for instrti- Here is a charming example of the em])loyment
/ ments played with the bow. The sounds obtained of the Pizzicato in the second viohns, violas, and
by vibrating the strings with the finger produce basses, while the first violins are playing with the
] accompaniments approved by singers, since they do bow. These contrasted effects ofsound blend here,
N not cover the voice; they do well also for symj^honic in a truly marvellous style, with the melodious 8igh
I effects, even in vigorous orchestral sallies, either in of the clarinet, the expression of which they serve to
/ the whole band of stringed instruments, or in one or heiffhten :

\ two parts only.

No. 5.
Symphony in 15 flat. ErrtuovEW.




: ;;


/ If the pizzicato be employed in a forte, it should Tlie double and triple iteration of the upper notea.
/ be Tvritten, generally, neither too liigh nor too low in the two last examples, become extremely easy,
the extreme upper notes being shrill and wiry, and by tiie successive use of the first and second finger
the deeper ones too dull. Thus, in a strenuous on the same string.
tutti of wind instruments, a remarkably striking Small bound notes arc not impracticable in
effect will result from a pizzicato like this, assigned pizzicato. The following phrase from the Scherzo
to ail the stringed instruments : of Beethoven's Symphony in C minor, containing

^^^ some of them, is always well executed :

violins together. Aliegro.

Violas and Basses

Pizzicato chords of two, three, and four notes, are ^Hii&Ji^iig^'pjL^

equally valuable in a fortissimo the single finger


which violinists use, then traverses the strings so

rapidly tliat they seem struck altogether, and vibrate -P-P-H^
almost simultaneously.
Figures of accompaniment, pizzicato pia)w, have Some of our young violinists have learned from
always a graceful effect they afford a sense of
; Paganini to execute descending scales in rapid piz-
repose to the hearer, and impart when not abused zicato, by plucking the strings with the fingers of
variety to the features of the orchestra. In future, the left hand resting on the neck of the instrument
doubtless, more original and striking effects will be and pizzicato passages (still with the left hand), with
secured from pizzicato than have hitherto been ob- a mixture of strokes from the bow, even serve as
tained. Violinists, not considering pizzicato as an accompaniment to an air played by the bow. These
integral portion of violin-playing, have studied it various feats will doubtless become, in course of
but little. Even yet, they have only cared to use time, familiar to every violin-performer; and then
the thumb and forefinger in playing pizzicato; so will be available in composition.
that they have never been able to execute passages Violins are able, nowadays, to execute whatever
or arpeggios more rapid than the semiquavers of a they will. They play up to the extreme height
bar in four-time of very moderate speed. Whereas, as easily as in the middle passages the most rapid,

if, laying down their bow, they were to use the designs the most eccentric, do not dismay them. In
thumb and three fingers, letting the little finger an orchestra where they are sufficiently numerous,
8Upj)ort the right liand. by resting upon the violin, that which one fails to perform is done by others
as when playing the guitar, they would soon obtain and the result is that, without any apparent mistake,
fiicility in executing passages such as the following, the plirase is delivered as the author wrote it.
impossible at present :
In cases, however, where the rapidity, complica-
The figures placed abnre the notes, show the fingers of the right hand tion, and height of a passage make it too hazardous,
that are employed 3 4- indicating the thumb.
or if only for the s:dve of greater sureness and neat-
+ I 2 .1

ness of execution, it should be dispersed that is to ;

say, the mass of vioUns should be divided, and one

part of the passage given to some, the rest to others.
in this way the music of each division is sprinkled
with little rests unperceived by the hearer; allow-
ing, as it were, breathing-space to the violinists,
and affording them time to take carefully the diffi-
cult positions, and thus to obtain the necessary firm-
ness for a vigorous attack :


Here the division becomes unnecessary; the passage presenting no y, dispersing

difficulty, it would only weaken
w the general effect of the violins



without affording compensation.

b*---_j*^_--b- :*: ^" i*- -^ -o- -- "

Here, the dispersion

-^p^si.^'-JBjr^-^.m ^-^^t-f::^rtM^-t-t-f^l^r r -r--rr'^rfif- M^


-t^^ ?:%* (]. j>. .. M. -i^Z

becomes advantageous
SE^i -3=EE:~ i
Jt.M..m. -*-

^=?Ee^ E9: SPE EBEE

If be desired to have a similar or still more

it passage, rendering the join too apparent. Whereas,
difficult passage played by the whole mass of violins, the same division occurring on both sides among the
it w^ill be always better, as in the preceding example, two sets of violins, and between the two performers
to divide the first violins into two sets, and the second who read from the same desk, one playing the first
violins also, cansing these latter to double the two part and the other the second, it follows that the
parts of tlie first violins, than to allow all the first divided sets are so near eacli other that it is impos-
violins to play one portion, and all the second violins sible to perceive the dispersion of tlie passage, and
another for the distance of the two points of de-
; the hearer may imagine it to be executed entire by
partve of the sounds, will break the unity of the all the violins. It should therefore be written thus:

=.EPJ :5-E=^feE?=tei|
li Violins,

IguS Violins,

Moreover, this mode of procedure is applicable to string and, for certain melodies, of the high

all the parts of the orchestra which possess in them- notes of the third string. When i;8e is thus made
selves analogies of quality of tone or lightness; and of a particular string, it should be indicated with
it should be employed in all cases where a phrase is precision whereabouts this string is employed ex-
too difficult to admit of being well executed by clusively otherwise the performers will certainly

a single instrument, or single set of instnunents. yield to habit and to the facility of passing from one
1 think there might be made in the orchestra string to another, by playing the phrase in the usual
better use than hitherto of phrases on the fourth way:
-^ 3rd strina
4th ithng.'

^^^iS^^piS;^ iisii^l
It frequently happens that, in order to give a efifect of the peroration of the first movement in

passage greater energy, the first violins are doubled Beethoven's C minor Symphony is attributable to
by the second violins an octave lower but, if the ; the unison of the violins. It happens, even in
passage do not lie excessively high, it is better to such a case, that if, the violins being thus together,
double them in unison. The effect is thus incom- additional force should be sought by subjoining
parably finer and more forcible. The overwhelming the violas in octaves, this weak low^ doubling


on account c f the disproportionate upper part, pro- tiiesound of the violoncellos, taking care to ptit them
duces a futile imiruuuing, by which the vihratioii together (as much as the low compass of tlic instru-
of the high violin notea is rather obscured than ment will permit) in the unison and not in the octave.
MsiBted. It is preferable, if the viola part cannot This is what Beethoven did in the following pas-
be uiade prominent, to employ it in augmenting sage :

No. (;. Sgmrijnii ii C Minor. nEBTiii>VKK.



Jlarinets in Bb.

Horns in E^


Violins are more brilliant, and play more easily in keys which leave them the use of the open strings.
The key of 0, alone, appears to form an exception to this rule, as regards its sonorousness, which is
evidently less than that of the keys of A and E, although it keeps four open strings, while keeps but A
three, and E two only. Tiie timbre of the various keys for the violin may be thus characterized together ;

with their greater or less facility of execution :

Major. Minor.
C. Easy. Grave; but dull and vague. c. Easy. Gloomy; not very sonorous.
c#. Very difficult. Less vague
and more ;
4 Tolerably easy. Tragic; sonorous; elegant.

Db Difficult but less so

; Majestic. Db. Very difficult. Serious; not very sonorous.
than the preceding.
Easy. Gay, noisy, and rather D^- Easy. Lugubrious ; sonorous ;

commonplace. somewhat commonplace.

Dt Almost impracticable. Dull. Off- Almost impracticable. Dull.
Eb Easy. Majestic; tolerably sono- Efr. Difficult. Very vague ; and very
rous soft grave. ; ;
EB Not very difficult. Brilliant; pompous; noble. Easy. Screamy and ; slightly
Kb Impracticable. Fb. Impracticable.
FH Easy. Energetic ;
n- Rather difficult. Not verj' sonorous gloomy; ;


F|. Very difficult. Brilliant ; incisive.

n- Less difficult. Tragic; sonorous; incisive.
Gb. Very difficult. Less brilliant; more tender. Gb Impracticable.
Gtj Easy. Rather gay and ; slightly Easy. Melancholy ; tolerably
commonplace. sonorous ; soft.

Gt. Nearly impracticable. Dull ; but noble. Very difficult. Not ver}' sonorous; mourn-
ful ; elegant.

Ab. Not very difficult. Soft ; veiled ; very noble. At Very difficult: almost Very dull, and mournful;
impracticable. but noble.
Easy Brilliant; elegant, joyous. Easy. Tolerably sonorous soft ;

mournful; rather noble.

Ait. Inpracticable. Impracticable.
Bb. Easy. Noble ; but without distinc- Bb Difficult. Gloomy ; dull ; hoarse ;

tion. but noble.

BS. Not very difficult. Noble: sonorous; radiant. BH. Easy. Very sonorous; wild; rough-,
ominous; violent.
cb. Almost inipracticabie. Noble ; but not very Cb Imi)racticable.


Jnsfrument'i played with a b<iw. of which the com- violin, the sound of its low strings is peculiarly telling,
bination I'onns what is somewhat improperly termed its upper notes are distinguislicd by their mournfully
the quartet, are tlie base and main constituent cle- passionate accent, and its (puility of tone altogether,
ment of the orchestra. From them are evolved the profoundly melancholy, differs from that of other in-
greatest power of expression and an incontestable struments played with a bow. It has, nevertheless,
variety of different qualities of tone. Violins particu- been long neglected, or put to a use as unimpor-
larly are capable of a host of apparently inconsistent tant as ineffectual,
that of merely doubling the
shade? of expression. Tliey possess (in a mass) bass part an octave above. Several causes have
force, lightness, grace, accents both gloomy and operated to bring about the unjust treatment of
gay, tiiought, and passion. The only point is, to tills noble instrument. In the first place, the ma-
know how to make them speak JMoreover, it is jority of the composers of the last century, rarely
not needful to calculate for them.
as for wind in- writing four real parts, scarcely knew what to do
the duration of a holding -note, and to with it and when they did not readily find some

contrive for them occasional rests they are sure filling-up notes in the chords for it to play, they has-


never to be out of breath. Violins are faithful, in- tily wrote the Basso,
fatal col sometimes with so
\ telligent, active, and indefatigable servants. much heedlessness, that it produced a doubling in
Slow and tender melodies, confided too often the octave of the basses irreconcilable with the har-
now-a-days, to the wind instruments, are nevertheless mony or the melody, or with both one and the other.
Moreover, it was unfortunately impossible, at that
never better rendered tiian by a mass of violins.
time, to write anything for the violas of a prominent
Nothing can equal the touching sweetness of a
score of first strings made to sing by twenty well- character, requiring even ordinary skill in execution.

i skilled bows. That is, in fact, the true female voice Viola-players were always taken from among the
of the orchestra,
a voice at once passionate and
i<efuse of violinists. When a musician found himself
incapable of creditably filling the place of violinist,
chaste, heart-rending, yet soft, which can weep,
sigh, and lament, chant, pray, and muse, or burst
he took refuge among the violas. Hence it arose
that the viola performers knew neither how to play
forth into joyous accents, as none other can do. An
imperceptible movement of the arm, an almost the violin nor the viola. It must even be admitted
that, at the present time, this prejudice against the
nnconscious sentiment on the part of him who
viola part is not altogether destroyed ; and that there
experiences it, while producing scarcely any apparent
are still, in the best orchestras, many viola-players
effect when executed by a single violin, shall, when
multiplied by a number of them in unison, give who are not more proficient on that instrument than
forth enciianting gradation, irresistible impulse, on the violin. But the mischief resulting from for-
and accents which penetrate to the very heart's bearance towards them is daily becoming more
felt ; and, little by little, the viola will, like other
instruments, be confided only to clever hands. Its
quality of tone so strongly attracts and captivates the
attention that it is not necessary to have in the or-
The Viola. chestra quite so many violas as second violins; and the
expressive powers of this quality of tone are so marked,
The four strings of the viola are generally *,uned that, on the rare occasions which the old masters
in fifths, like those of the violin, and at a fifth afford for its display, it never fails to answer their
below them : purpose. Instance the profound impression pro-
duced by that movement in the Iphigenia in

m Tauride, where Orestes, overcome with fatigue,

panting, oppressed with remorse, grows more tranquil
as he repeats: "Composure lulls again my heart!"
Its ordinary compass is at least three octaves :
while the orchestra, deeply agitated, utters sobs and
convulsive sighs, attended throughout by the fearful

=s^m m
i^p^^^ m=i and persevering mutter of the violas. Although, in
this unspeakably fine piece of inspiration, theie is
not a note of voice or instruments without its sublime
intention, yet it should be observed that the fascination

W^igi^ji With the chronialic intervals. exercised over the hearers, and the sensation of
horror which causes their eyes to dilate and fill with
It is written on the C clef (3rd line); and on the tears, are principally attributable to the viola part,
G clef, when it extends high. to the quality of its third string, to its syncopated
rhythm, and to the strange effect of unison restilting
Wliat has been said in Chapter II. on the subject
from the syncopation of the A, abmptly broken in
of shakes, bowing, chords struck together or played
rpeggio, harmonics, &c., is throughout applicable to
the middle iiy another A
in the basses marking a

the viola, considered as a violin a fifth lower.

different rhythm

Of all the instruments in the orchestra, the one

whose excellent qualities have been longest mis-
andewtood is the viola. It is no less agile than the

No. 7.
Andante Iphigeniain ram id. Qlcc*.


m^^^'^^0?^^m^^^ ^=^=3=^:33r:3-
Violas ^ir-9----m-m-f^-m-m--m- -m-m^-- --^- -m-m m- \-m m m-m-a- m m-m- \
mm---- m-m-m -\-d-m -m--m-^^-m^

Orestes ^i*^
Le cal me
^^^^^z -^=:
sf Ifmpre^p ' sf
^ ^P tj^ ^P 'sf^ ^p '

sf^ ^p ' sp^ ^p

pl fr.

lulls a - gain licart, my woes at
ren tre dans mon ccBur, mes maux out

i^ l?^?li^^i l^^j^f ^gE p^ ^EFF =E ^ ^E^!E^ ^^E^fE

E4=5Ep5^^EEigSl^E^^^i^^-^^E^^g|E^^^-^ ^=:^^^
Sf~" "'P ^ ^P sf'^"^P Sf"^
^P Sf^
"^P ./^ ^P
jt: ^-: :: ^j . -p: .

length pre - vail To stay Hea - - ven's dis - nlea sure,
done las - si la CO - le - re ce - les te

'm EgE^ES^ i^E;g^^gEg^^gE|E^Eef^ gEESE^EEgH|^E==F.^i^gsEg^^Eg^


^^^mm^^^^^^mm^ -Mee^^i

sf^'^p V ^P P P
7f-^-^p '^P 7'^~^P Tf--^ 'f '/

'^^^^^^ .. .<^>-' :- .- -- --

My term
wm to tor nier pain come,
tou che au ter me du mal heur

'^ ^=^-==^^E^^E^-^EEr^^^E^^^:

^ ^= m E^=g ^1^^

'/~ P .f^-^p
^ - 0-
sf^ ^p
'/ P #/ ^ --f
sf^ ^p
:- ::
^ _-: :; :- -m-

Once more a mo - iiiont s pause is voucli - saf'd vile O
vous lais - sez res -pi rer par deO
- le - ri - - ci



m g m rp-

.-. ^-

s! - -p
_^_,^,^^ .1. j
^-y v- '. > :-: ^ scT--. ^ . -y , __ 1
*/^ c-=r_.
- \=z/ tr?'^zr-

Sii t5Ei
i 3=E^ l^^^l
res tes. Heavn's jus - tice, Heavn's . .

te. Dicux jus - tes. Ciel . . .

lfg ^^^^g^E^^-^=g=^^^=^^P^= [^=^-^-^~p^" ^m^m^i b^




j. -ff";:^* ^ M*^ ^*^ E^H^^;^p^

5^^=3^ a:=ds^g=a\=:


I^E^E [i^li^gl^^l fe^&Ei^3^^^1

In the overture of Iphigenia in AuUde, Gluck other instruments, necessarily soon palls it is too ;

lias made them sustain alone the lower part of unvaried, and too much imbued with moumfulness,
the harmony not so much, in this case, for the
; for any other result. It is not imfrequent, at the
sake of pi'ociucing an effect arising from the pecu- present day, to divide the violas into first violas
liarity of their quahty of tone, but in order to and second violas ; and in orchestras like that of
accompany as softly as possible the air of the iiret the opera, where they are snflQciently numerous,
violins, and to make more impressive the entrance of there is no difficulty in writing for them thus bnt ;

the basses ujion the forte after a considerable number in others, where there are at most four or five
Sacchini has also given the lower part to violas, division only serves to diminish the effect
of rests.
the violas alone, in the air of Qildipus " Your :
of a l)ody already weak in itself, and which the
court became my refuge;" without intending, how- other instruments are ever tending to overwhelm.
ever, to prepare an outburst. On the contrary, the It should also be remarked that the majority of
instrumentation here gives to the phrase of melody violas at present used in our French orchestras are
itaccompanies a most delicious calm and freshness. far from possessing the requisite degree of power
Melodies on the high strings of the viola have a they have neither the size, nor consequently the
marvellous beauty in scenes of a religious and antique strength of tone of veritable violas
being almost
character. Spontini was the first to conceive the violins strung with viola strings. Musical directors
idea of assigning the melody to them in several should absolutely prohibit the use of these mongrel
passages of his admirable prayers in the Vcstale. instruments ; the weak sonority of wliich impairs
Mehul, allured by the sympathy existing between one of the most interesting parts in the orchestra
the tone of the viola and the dreamy character by depriving it of energy and of its fine depth
of Ossianic poetry, constantly availed himself of of tone.
them, even to the exclusion of the violins, in his When the violoncellos play the air, it is some-
opera of JJthal. Hence arose wliat tlie critics of times excellent to double them in unison by the
the time called an intolerable monotony detrimental violas. The tone of the violoncellos then acquires
to the success of the work. It was in reference to additional roundness and purity, without becoming
this that Gretry exclaimed

" I'd give a guinea to
: less predominant. As an example of this, take
hear a first strvrg!" This quality of the viola, the theme of the Adagio \v Beethoven's minor
80 choice when it is judiciously employed, and Symphony:
skilfully contrasted with the timbres of violins and

No. 8.
Andante con moto. J" = 92 Sytaphony in C minor. Beetboveh.





1 1 705S

P Arco. f '

avoid the notes of chords beyond a third or fourth,

CHAPTER IV. unless the lower string be an open string. Thus,
The Viole d' Amour. the A
of the second octave gives every latitude to
the high D, to extend its scale above itself :

This instrument rather larger than the viola.


It has almost universally fallen into disuse and ;

^were it not for M. Urban

the onl}' player of the
instrument in Paris, it would be known to us only
by name.
It is needlesss to observe that the chords of the
It has sevencatgut strings, the three lowest of

which like the C and G of the viola, are covered minor third and the second
with silver wire. Below the neck of the instrument,
and passing beneath the bridge, are seven more i^p^fl
strings, of metal, tuned in unison with the others,
are impracticable below, since the sounds that con-
BO as to vibrate symputh.eticalJy with them thereby
giving to the instrument a second resonance, full
stitute them are necessarily on the string. A D
moment's reflection shows similar impossibilities on
of sweetness and mystery. It was formerly tuned
instruments played with a bow.
in several different whimsical ways but Urban ; M .
the lowest string of
Harmonics have an admirable
effect ou the viole
has adopted the following mode of tuning in thirds
d'amour. They are obtained precisely in the same
and fiiurths, as the most simple, and the most
way as those of the violin and viola excepting that ;
rational :

its seven open strings, being disposed as a common

Q" chord, give the viole d'amour great facility in pro-
,, , ard do.
;I8 ducing with rapidity the arpeggios of its chord of
-5th do.-
7th do.
- 1 D major, in the octave and double octave above
those of the chord of A
major in the twelfth above ;
The compass of the viole d'amour is three octaves and those of the chord of FJI major in the seven-
and a half, at least. It is written like the viola, teenth above :
on two clefs :
Real harmonics. -0.

Finger touching the octave.

With the Chromatic Intervals.
the octaves.

Sr - ? ^ f C
"^ rTZT ti^i if-

It may be seen, from the arrangement of its strings,

that the viole d'amour is peculiarly appropriate to Ileal harmonics. 14 .^ _-"..
chords of three, four, or more notes, whether played ~lf:.-m=t: Lj g^*Lr-<i-.^ ==tl
arpeggio, or struck, or sustained ; and above all to
Only it is evident tha Tniirhing
melodies of double notes. the lifihs.
in designing harmonies for this instrument, a dif-
Finger touching
the ,
S^j '

ferent plan nmst be pursued from that employed for

violins, violas, and violoncellos, which are tuned by
fifths ; and tliat care must be taken in general to (I u
p H


>-""^-*- viole d'amour, the keys of D, G, A, F4, or Bh, ak
those which will best allow of so doing. As these
three chords would doubtless not suffice for accompa-
Touching nying unintermittingly an air somewhat modulated,
*be fourths
there is no reason why a set of violes d'amour should
not be had, tuned in a different way : in C, for ex-
ample or in Dp according to the chords required
; ;

by the composer for his piece. The extreme charm

of these arpeggio harmonics on the open strings
quite deserve that every pains should be taken to
render them available.
The quality of the viole d'amour is faint and sweet >

Real harmonics.
Finger toucliing there is something seraphic in it,
partaking at once
the third.
^^^m^^ of the viola, and of the harmonics of the violin.
is peculiarly suitable to the legato style, to dreamy

melodies, and to the expression of ecstatic or religious

e feelings. Mons. Meyerbeer has felicitously intro-
these examples it will be seen that if it be duced it in Raoul's Romance, in the first act of the
proposed to use the charming arpeggios of the Huguenots:
No. 9.
'The Huguenots Meyerbeea.
Viole d'amour.

Ah! how en-chant - ing the

Ah qad spec-tade en - chan

Violoncello. tfez

Double-bass. @-g^

Here dis - clos'd to my

Vient s'of -Jrir a mes

, Drawn withjlie bosv^^ __ 7 Harmonics. Riten. -=



=^- \

=^r f
_- pu^]


h -
r H
1-^^ =
P!^= :.
rrrr-. -.

But this is merely a solo effect. What would not horn, or a flute in its middle part, mingled witb
be that, in an andante, of a mass of violes d'amour harp arpeggios It would really be a great pity

playing a fine prayer m several parts, or accom- to allow this choice instrument to become lost;
panying with their sustained harmonies a melody and any violinist might learn to play upon it bv
of violas, or violoncellos, or corni inglesi, or of a a few weeks' practice.


The V'wlonceUo.
Its four ritriugs are tuned in fiftlis, and precisely
an octave lower than the four strings of tiie viola


lit Siring- The following tenths /scr^

m: -2d suing would be impossible :
-8id String

4tb String The violoncello,on account of the depth of ita

compass may timbre and the thickness of its strings, is not suscep-
Ita be, even in the orchestra, tliree
tible of the extreme agility belonging to the violin
octaves and u half :

and viola. As to the natural and artificial harmonica

3 "** ' ViM\ tlie Chromatic Intervals.
^ tm=.
of which frequent use is made on the violoncello
in solo passages,
they are obtained by the same
means as those of the violin and viola. The length
The great performers go still higher ; hut, in of its strings even contributes to render the extreme
general, these extreme upper notes which have no upper notes in harmonics, which are produced near
beauty excepting in the conchision of slow passages the bridge, much more easy and more beautiful than
are seldom given in natural sounds they are mostly ;
those of the violin. Here is a table of those which
taken in harmonics, wliich are produced more easily, are best obtained from each strinar :

ajid are of better quality. It may not be amiss,

- loco.
before going fartlier, to warn the reader of tlie
double sense given to the G
clef in violoncello music.
^^'llen it is written from the commencement of a
Rpn1 harmonic
Beal Ji.irinrmif"; *~^
piece, or immediately after the F clef, it presents to 1st string.
the eye the octave above the real sounds :

Fingers touching the open strings.


^^^m pg Real harmonics.*^



with the ViolinB. 11.^11=1 ^^ gflf
It has its full value only when succeeding the C ~^ 0*^0
Fingers touching the string.
clef (on the fourth line) which case it represents
; in
the real sounds, and not their octave above :

ii^Ei^i :T=^E
E^i=pi 3rd strin

Effect. ===.z:rr=rqr-i:r.'9r=CrPr.:f
Unison with
the Violi 116.-^ z:i'.0.m *y-^ Ir-
Fingers touching the string.

This custom, which there nothing to justify, is

leads to errors the more frequent because certain

violoncellists refuse to conform to it, and choose to ilp^l^ I^^^gf
receive the G clef in its true acceptation. In order 4th string. Real harmonics.

to avoid all misconception, it \vill be here employed

only after the C clef, and when that clef would lead
us too far beyond the stave the G clef will then ;
Fn.gcrs touching the string.
always represent the real sounds, as in the preceding
example. The best way of obtaining artifical harmonics ia

That which has Ix-en said respecting double strings, that which consists in touching the fourth, while the
arpeggios, shakes, and the bowing of the violin, first finger or thumb, strongly pressed, forma the
applies equally to the violoncello. It should, how- factitious movable nut :

ever, never be lost sight of, that the violoncello strings,

being longer than those of the violin, demand a
wider extension of the fingers of the left hand :

m ^^i ^P
whence it follows that passages of tenths on a double
string, practicable on the violin and viola, are not so
nn the violoncello and that an isolated tenth cannot

'w struck, unless the lower note is on an open string.


This fingering is almost the only one practi- two qualities of tone resemble each other so closely
cable on the violoncello tlie position of the fifth
; as to be almost undistinguishable.
touched could hardly be used, excepting in the Example of harmonics :

apper part of the string, because the distances and

the proportions becoming much smaller than in the
lower, and the extension of the left hand proportion- !' :?" 'It

ably less, they then allow of the fifth being touclied 1st Violoncello
with the fourth finger, while the thumb serves for
the nut.

2nd Violoncellos.

D O" e 3rd Violoncellos.
^l^i^E^i^i?! 1 1"^ ^ 1 '1

(The sign indicates that the thumb is to be The same passage reproduced exactly, and more
placed transversely across the strings.) easily, in usual sounds, by violins :

1st Violins.

Scale of natural and artificial harmonics :

2iid Violins.

^t^ ^ ^ ^it Con sordini.

Real harmonics.


3 3 3_
3rd Violins.

Con sordini.
^ 1
-fJ. In the orchestra the part of the double-bass ig
ordinarily given to violoncellos, which they double
~^ 1 0000 O^ Q ^ an octave above or in unison but there are many
instances when it is advisable to separate them,

either to let them play, on the high strings, a melody

or melodious phrase or to take advantage of their

Harmonies in harmonics on the violoncello would peculiar sonorousness on an open string for producing
doubtless have a charming effect in the orchestra an effect of special harmony, by writing their part
with soft and slow music; nevertheless, it is easier, helom the double-basses or, lastly, to assign them a

and consequently less hazardous, to obtain the part nearly like that of tlie double-baases, but giving
same result by means of divided violins playing them more rapid notes, which the latter could not
high on the first string with sordines. These well execute :

Allegro non Iroppo.



Here the part of the violoncellos, more agitated mendous conflict of the minor second below, and at
and turbulent in its movement, has nevertheless the same time the rough vibration of the the
nearly the same notes as that of the double basses, fourth open string of the violoncello while the
the design of which it follow-s almost throughout. double basses grind out against the high octave of
In the following example, on the contrary, the vio- this C, the BO, which they tke forcibly on their
loncellos are entirely distinct from the double-basses, first string :

and go beneath them, in order to obtain the tre-



No. 10
Regviem. lit'.Hi.loi.


Hautboy I.

Ckrineti in A.


Hotns in E'^.


Horns in D. ^ r^=f= F

Horns in
A); high.

Borns in C.







Double 1mm<!>



Tlip composer should never without an excellent tone of the double-basses. When it is required to
reason that is to say, without being sure of pro- produce a very soft harmony of stringed instrumen:*,
ducing thereby a very marked effect entirely it is, on the contrary, often well to give the bass tc

separate the violoncellos from the double-basses; the violoncellos, omitting the double-basses, as Wcbsr
nor even write them, as many have done, a double has done, in the accompaniment to the Andante of
octave above. Such procedure has the result of con- Agatha's subhme air in the second act of the
siderably weakening the sonority of ihe fundamental Freyschutz. It is worthy of remark, m
notes of the harmony. The bass part, thus forsaken example, that tlie violas alone supply the bass
by the violoncellos, becomes dull, bald, extremely beneath a harmony of violins in four parts ttie

heavy, and ill-connected with the upper parts, wliich violoncellos only coming in, a little later, to double
are held at too great distance by the extreme depth of the violas :

No. 11.
Adagio. Der FreyschUtz. V'BSIU.





stars, like guar di - an epi - rits, Set their night - ly watch a hove
Ian - ges im mor - tel - les e le - vez ma voix au Roi des Rou.


U^^. ^ J^-X^^
Quel beau del et que d'etoi-les
^^^^^^f^^^^^^-^-^^=^ ^'

Thro' the dark blue vault of sether Silence reigns with soothing pow'r But a storm o'er yonder mountain,
dansles vou - tes de i'a-zur maisquoisous de sombres voi-les


jsSgjgsB^gj^F^ga aiaiaaa^^a ^ ii

brooding, seems to loui:and alongyonforest'ssidecloudsof darkness slowly glide. Oh what

zon devient obs -cur quels nu-a-ges en che-min que d'o-ra - gespourde - main. Des


Violoncellos together, to the number of eight or

11 ^
which permit the use of them a open strings, are
ten, are essentiallymelodious their timbre, on the
; of a sinootii and deep sonorousness, perfectly appro-
upper strings, is one of the most expressive in the priate but their depth scarcely ever permits of

orchestra. Nothing is more voluptuously melan- giving them any other than basses more or less
choly, or more suited to the utterance of tender, melodious
the actual airs being reserved for the
languishing themes, than a mass of violoncellos upper strings. Weber, in the Overture to Oberon,
playing in unison upon the fiist string. They are has, with rare felicity, caused the violoncellos to sing
also excellent for airs of a religious character and ; above; while the two clarinets in A, in unison, make
the composer ought, in such a case, to select the their lower notes heard beneath them. The effect
strings upon which the phrase should be executed. is both new and striking :

The two lower strings, C and G, especially in keys

No. 12. Wzuer.

Adagio soatenuto.

Clarinets in A.

Horns in D.

Horns in a5.

Trompets in D.

in D.






ff ^
w- ffV
fa ", r -

^ g=^^=^

?<*- -F

// 1

m 1 p-

^=^ P^g^Iq^i^ p=^^

J.^J.^ 1
^E ^=q=F:
Senza sonliiii.

Although our violoncello-phxyers of the present the firsts executing a special })art of melody or har-

day are very skilful, and well able to execute all mony, and the seconds doubling the double-bassus,
it is seldom that rapid passages
sorts of difficulties, yet either in octave or in unison. Sometimes even, for
of violoncellos do not produce some confusion in the accompaniments of a melancholy, veiled, and mys-
lower part. As for those which require the use of the terious character, the bass is left to tlie double-basses
thumb, and lie among the higher notes, there is less alone, while above them are designed two different
to be expected they are not very sonorous, and are
parts for the violoncellos, which, joining the vicia
always of dubious precision. In modem orchestras of part, give a low four-part harmony. This method
large resources, where the violoncellos are numerous, is rarely well-contrived and care should bo Inker

they are frequently divided into firsts and seconds not to misuse it.

Adagio No. 13. Romeo and Julul. (BiBLIia.)


Corno Itigjeae

Clarinets in A


Tlie tremolo in double string,and forte arpeggios, execution,
tuning in fourths not compelling tne
suit violoncellos perfectly they add greatly to the
; performer to slnft in playing the scale; ami next,
richness of the harmony, and augment the general because of the great utility of the three low sounda
sonority of the orchestra. Koasini, in the introduc- E, F. and F|I, v/hich are wanting in double-basseh
tion of the overture to Guillaume Tell, has written tuned in fifths, and the absence of which frequently
a quintet for five ssolo violoncellos, accompanied in disturbs the order of the best-designed bass passages
pizzicato by the other violoncellos, divided into by enforcing for these notes an ungraceful and un-
firsts and seconds. These deep-toned timbres, all seasonable transposition above. These observations
of the same kind, are there of excellent effect and ; are especially applicable to English donble-bassea
serve to make still more impressive the brilliant which, although tuned in fourths, have, nevertheless,
orchestration of the succeeding Allegro. only three strings. A, D, G :

The pizzicato of the violoncello cannot have much

rapidity, and the means proposed for improving the
execution of that of violins cannot avail in this case,
owing to the thickness and tension of the strings, In a well-constituted orchestra there should be
and to their too great elevation above the finger- several four-string double-basses, tuned in thirda
board of the instrument. According to the proce- and fifths :

dure generally in use, players seldom exceed, in

pizzicato, the rapidity of eight quavers in a bar in
two-time (Allegro non troppo), or that of twelve
semiquavers, arpeggio, in a bar (Andantino). Thus there would be the other double-basses
Ailegro non troppo. .^. tuning in fourths an increase of open strings and
of sonority.

tuned in thirds
or: and firths.

'Pizzicato. i^
tuned in fourths.

Double-basses. To double-basses belong, in the orchestra, the

lowest sounds of the harmony. In a preceding
There are two kinds those with three, and those
chapter it has been shown in what cases they may
with four strings. Those with three strings are
tuned in fifths :
be separated from the violoncellos. The defect
which arises for the basses out of this disposal ma^
^ rni" be amended to a certain extent by doubhng them,
in octave or in unison, with the bassoons, the corni
Those with four, are tuned in fourths :

di bassetto, the bass clarinets, or the ordinary clari-

i nets in the extreme lower notes. But, for my part,
The sound of both is an octave lower than the I detest the use which certain musicians make on
note written. Their compass in the orchestra is two such occasions of trombones and ophicleides the
octaves and a quarter; allowing, for three-stringed quality of tone of which, having neither sympathy
double-basses, two notes less below. nor analogy with that of double-basses, of course
Double-bass {f^ ^ t mixes very badly with it. There are cases where
with fuur strings
-^^ |- ^,^=^=^^=^ the harmonics of the double-basses may be success-
fully introduced. The extreme tension of the string,

E^ f r
With the chromatic intervals.
their length and distance from the finger-board, do
not permit, however, of having recourse to artificial
harmonics. Natural harmonics come out very well,
particularly commencing from the first octave,
threestrin^s. ^-=i^=^=^ occupying the middle of the string ; they are the
same, in the octave below, as those of violoncellos.

^^ :=
With the chromatic intervals.
Strictly speaking, chords and arpeggios may be used
on the double-bass but it must be by giving them

two or three notes at the utmost, of which one only

The fonr-stringed double-bass appears to me pre should be fingered.
ferable to the other first, on account of facility in

tuned in fou

n n -F- n n-r~o n "^" n-*-n n-^n-i n-^n

n-f-n-i ii
tailed in fifths.
sT^ ff^ y/o //o


The xntennittcnt tremolo may easily be obtained, The continuous tremolo of double-basses, rather
tiianivs tothe elasticity ol" the bow, wiiich causes it, less close nevertheless of excellent
than this last, is
to re-bouiul several times on the strings, when a dramatic effect, and nothing gives a more menacing
bingle blow is somewhat sharply struck. aspect to the orchestra but it should not last too

Ailegru inoderato ^^^^ long, since the it occasions the perfonnira

ii-ho are jvilling to take the trouble of doing it well
soon renders it impossible. When it is needful
thus to disturb the depths of an orchestra during
This does not liold good in the following passage;
a long passage, the best way is to divide the
which is only rendered p by means of the continuoxis
double-basses, not giving them a real tremolo, but
tremolo, with some trouble, and by striking the
merely quick repercussions, mutually disagreeing as
strings with the end of the bow, which lacks force,
rhythmical values, while the violoncellos execute the
and brings out little tone.
AUeqro moderato.
true tremolo :


The semiquavers meeting only at the comence- rhythms, thus heard together, are even preferable
meiU of each accenteit part of the bar with the quavers Rapid diatonic groups of four or five notes have
in triplets of the other part, produce a dull murmur frequently an admirable effect, and are readily exe-
Boniething like the tremolo, which is thus tolerably cuted, provided the passage contain at least one
well supplied. On many occasions, these different open string :


More difficult on the double bass tuned in fifths : because there

occurs liO open string.

More difficult, on account

uf the descending notes.

If a long rajiid passage be absolutely requisite mended for violins ; at the same time, taking
for the double-basses, the best way is to divide great care not to remove the first double-basses
them, and apply the dispersing process recom- from the seconds.

I St Double-bass.

On the saine scale.

2nd Double-bass.

Some are so injudicious, now-a-days, as to write, fident of ability, toil away in ineffectual efforts at

for the heaviest of all instruments, passages of such executing the passage just as it is written. Com-
rapidity violoncellos themselves would find
that posers should therefore take care to ask of double-
difficulty executing them.
in Whence results a basses no more than possible things of which the ;

serious inconvenience lazy or incapable double-bass

good execution shall not l)e doubtful. It is enough
players, dismayed by such difficulties, give them to say that the old system of simplifying double-
up at the first glance, and set themselves to simplifyniji bass passages
a system generally adopted in the
the passage but this simplifying of some, not being ancient instrumental school, and of which the danger


that of others,
since they have not all tlie same has just been demonstrated is at present utterly

ideas upon the harmonic importance of the various renounced. If the author have written no othcj
notes contained in the passage,
there ensues a lior- than passages suitable to the instrument, the per-
rible disonler and confusion. This buzzing chaos, former must play them, nothing more, and nothing
full of strange noises and hideous grumblings, is less. AVhen tlie blame lies with the composer, it is
completed and heightened by the other double- he and the audience who take the consequences ;

bass players, who, either more zealous or more con- the performer being no longer responsible.


Flights of little notes, before large ones :- little preceding notes, B, 0, D, E, in the infernft.
scene in Orfeo, on the words, " At the dire howling

g^ -m-.s P-,i
of Cerberus," is well known. This hoarse barking,
one of the finest inspirations of Gluck, is rendered
the more terrible, by the author having placed it on
the third inversion of the chord of the diminished
are executed by slkling rapidly on the string, without seventh (F, G J, B, D) and, for the sake of giving

paying attention to the precision of any of the inter- his idea all the effect and vehemence possible, he has
mediate sounds and have an extremely good effect.
; doubled the double-basses in the octave, not only
The furious shock given to the whole orchestra by with the violoncellos, hut with the violas, and the
the double-basses coming upon the high F, by four entire mass of violins :

No. 14.
Allegro. Or/eo. Glvcx.




Soprano. l^^-.
^ on him
s'em -
pa -
^ is

with fear
son cceur

^5;^^==^ '^
^ m '^
Bass. ^paE^

i-m ^-m^m~m^i
g zmif-WMZfiTr-m-mzne'rii=^

at the 'liie hnwl in<;; of Cer - be - rus. foam ing with

a I'af - freux hur le - ment du Cer - here i - cu - mant

.nt^S^-t^^jcrff'^ i^LlT*^Lir-

Beethoven, also, has availed himself of these to be observed that Beethoven, in tliis example, and
scarcely articulate notes; but (contrary to the pre- in many other passages,has given to the double-basses
vious example), by accenting the first note of the group deep notes, beyond their power of executing, which
more than the last. He has done so in a passage leads to the supposition that the orchestra written
of the Storm in the Pastoral Symphony ;which lor })ossessed double-basses descending as low as the
so well dej)ict8 the raging of a violent wind and C, an octave below the violoncello C. Such instru
rain, and the muffled rumblings of the gust. It is ments are no longer to be found.

i^m~ Pastoral Symphony

No. lu.
Allegro. Met. J 80. 'L. Beethoven.
Flutes. rfc5=r r^ :

Hautboys. ^^ -"V^

Clarinets in *?. 9--&-_

B>irns in F. :^=^^Mfz^:=:

'^ ^
rrumpets in Et>.

Bassoons. ^5^
in F.


Violas. itTFi?
^i" Qizrgig:

Violoncellos. i^?^=ii=m f *"^^^^~r]*. f-:j ^t^^S^:3--*^:^-jf ^ ''^^F




?:=r|Szzq^ ^^^^



ztnmMM:w:air_mim-.m.mji .:w::fr*z


-<- ./--

^^^m^^^^m^^^^^ J gz



Sometimes has a fine and dramatic effect to give

it loncellos. Beethoven, in the scene oi
the violoncellos tlie real bass, or, at least, the notes Fidcliu, where Leonora and tlie dig Flo-
which determine the chords, and mark the accented restan's grave, has displayed all the pathetic and
parts of the bar while beneath them, the donble-bass
: gloomy sadness of this mode of instrumentation.
has an isolated part, the design of which, interrupted He has, however, given in this case the renl bass to
by rests, allows the harmony to rest npon the vio- the double-basses:
No. IG fjde/fo Beethovek.
Andatite con moto.


Clarinets in D.

Horns in C.



Double Bassoon.

1st Violins
with sordine.

2nd Violins
with sordine. \

Violas with



-0-m--m^'^--m--m- m'-^~m--^-'w'-m- - m--mm^-^-m--m--^m-m--m'-m~ '^''^'l^'9''V"0"9"9"9"0"0'


fP fP

m ^^P- =^m -'-'-- m



<f dpcres. W
^^^ Rocco.

Come dig away, for time Hies quiek - ly, tlie go-vcnor will soon be
jVe tardons point travaillons vi - te, fe go'iverneur bientdl vien

J ^ I


i -1-^-'^-

E^ ^- '
r- =t=t:


P -I

PA* i i
I r I

jfe: 3E^


Yonrzea - lous toil should well con

Du zele ar - dent qui nous a -


)ieie: . . . . come dig a - way, The governor willsoonbe here.

dia . . . . le gouver - neur,le you-vemeurhien tot vien-dra.

-n-i- 1-
- >-
P i


^^^fe^r= ^^

Col. C. B.

-- cret.-f^

tent him;iiiy\vil -ling aid youshall not lack.

gi - te sans doute un jour it vovs pa'ie - ra.

Come dig a-wav, fortimefliesquickly, thego-ver

ne tardons point travaillons vi - te k gou per


m^ ?^


f-^-^- -f

^'ourzea-lous toil should well con - tent him ;JIywill-iiig aid you shall not
Du ule ar - dent quivous a - gi - tesansdovte un jour il vims pair.

unr , willsoonbe here.

n'ur hitn tot viendra.

-rg: i ^y-^ T ^.g :-^gr

Quick here your hand, to help me lift tliis hur - den.

Viens done m'ai - der en le-vons cet - te pier - re



'tis well, 'tis well. Do not give way !

fort Wen, foTt bien, soutiens la bien


-zr . -rt

' /p'

fa - ther, I'll do my best to give as-sist - auce. It moves !

pi - re eM - ce bien la cequ'ilfaulfai - re voy - oni

push steadily. Tis

ren - ver. se fort



One efl'oT u in ore Ah ! what a load Ahlwliata load

en - CO - re ah quelfardeau Jort hien fort Men.


With the view of expressing a lugubrious silence, I iiave in a cantata divided the double-basses into
four parts; causing them thus to sustain long pianissimo chords, beneath a decrescendo of all tiie rest of
the orchestra.

No The May, the Emperor's death. Bkhlio*

1 5th nf or,

Unis. ''
^^^m "B*. -. bta-' ^bctr ~C<2.- "b(t

rt "P:
fP pociif

^=P ^
In C. ^ VP

in E? 2E
fp_. ^
t Horns
In C.


Bais-drum. m



m :^^=^^

All ! liow niournfiil the vi.-^iun, the fl^ig is black! AVhat ! lie is dead!
MaU que vois -je nu rivage I wi drnpeau noir ! Quoi ! lui viou- rir !


What! he is dead I

Quoi I lui men- rir .'

Double string.

Vl<((n cellos.

Doable- [>vs.
PP fH,^
!! ! ! !


^ Coups de canon lointain.

Cannon in the distance.

m -r -F --

He is dead ! He! glo IT, lone - ly wi - dow;

lui mourir lui ! gloi re qwl veu - pa - ge;

He is dead ! He O glo - ry, lone - ly wi - dew

hii moftrir lui gloi - re quel veu - va - ge


poco sf :^^P

w TT


r - ^E^g -t --

5=^g ^^ ^3^^^

around I see, around 1 see, tears e'en from e - ne - mies.

au-tour de moi autour de moi, pleu - rent ses en - ne - mis.

/=-?> >!=-? 'f=~.f



-m m m m
m rzt rr I
r r ^:^
Dim. sempre.

Sotio tmee.
pp, * [ o ^^^^ i?m a , bft.
Far from that rock let us huriy in si - lence starof the day, cease to shine in the
Loin de ce roc nomfuyons en si - len ce. I'astre du jour. abandon tu Its


PPP Put on nordini


^ 1^8


The o^ double-basses, either loud or

pizzicato what the sonority of double-basses by rendering
soft, is of good sonority, unless
it be employed on itmore gloomy and vague. A Piedmontese artist,
very high sounds; but it changes character according M. Langlois, who played in Paris about fifteen
to the harmonies beneath which it occurs. Thus, years ago, obtained with the bow, by pinching the
the famous pizzicato A, in the overture to Freyschutz, high string of the double-bass between the thumb
is big with threats and infernal accents, only because and forefinger of the left hand, instead of pressino- it
of the reflex of the chord of the diminished seventh, on the finger-board, and by rising thus, nearly to the
(FJI, A, C, Eb,) the first inversion of which it re- bridge, high sounds of singular acuteness, and in-
solves on the unaccented part of the bar. Let it credible power. If there were need to introduce in
become the major tonic, or dominant, produced the orchestra, a loud female cry, no instrument could
mezzo-forte, as in the case in question, and this A better utter it than double-basses employed in this
would no longer have anything strange in its effect. way. I doubt whether our artists are acquainted
Sordines are employed on double-basses, as on other with i\I. Langlois' method of producing acute
instruments played with a bow but the effect they
; soimds; but they would soon be able to make them
produce is little marked tJray only diminish some-
: selves familiar wi'ih it.
; ;


Jtrinoed Instruments plated with the hand. for instance, the I)b the harmonic of Cj ;
is only
and the player should quit pedal immediately this Cj
21ie Harp. he has taken it otherwise, he will not be ahle to

This instrument is essentially anti -chromatic ; nialce the CH heard,

the major third of the key in
that is to say, successions by half-tones are almost which he is playing and moreover, he must skip &

impossible to it. The reason of this will be presently string (DB) when ascending diatonically, which is
stated. Its compass was formerly but five octaves so inconvenient, that the use of such scales may be
and a sixth :
considered impracticable :

4 o

the same

Skip the
I i I


This inconvenience and difficulty are doubled

Db and in Gt? both keys nearly inaccessible,
except for certain chords. Again, the key of
Gb, like that of Ct?, presents another difficulty,
This be seen, belongs to the key
of Eb
scale, it will
and in this key all harps were tuned,
that of compelling the player to an actual trans-
position for some notes of his scale, since he nmst
when the skilful manufacturer Erard, seeking to
remedy the inconveniences of the system, invented
strike the Fjjt string when the written note is Gb J

the Bfa string when the note is Cb and the Cj

the mechanism which removed them, and pro-

string when the note is Db- As for the key of Cb,

posed tuning the harp in Cb; a course adopted by
it becomes more practicable if written in its other
The cliromatic
all harp players of the present day.
intervals can be obtained on the ancient harp only
that of BB but all the pedals being taken,

there still remains to be overcome in this scale (as in

by means of seven pedals, put in motion by the player,
that of Ab) the horrible difficulty of skipping a
and fixed one after the other with the foot, each of
string, and of quitting a pedal to retake it again,
which heightens by half a tone the note to which its
for the leading note (in harmonic) and the tonic,
mechanism applies, but throughout the extent of the
which occur upon the same string :

scale, and not singly Thus the F% pedal cannot

sharpen an F, without sharpening all the other Fs
in the scale by t!ie same action. Hence it results,
that every chromatic scale (unless in an excessively
slow movem<>;it), every progression of chords pro-
ceeding cbvomatically, or belonging to different It will be perceived that, for the execuiion of a

keys, the majority of florid passages containing chromatic scale of two octaves' extent like this
appogsiaturas with accidentals, or small chromatic Allegro.

notes, are all impracticable, or, at best, extremely

difficult, and detestably ugly. There are even,on the
harp in Eb, three chords of seventh major, and three
chords of ninth major, totally impossible to play
and which ought therefore to be banished from the
These are they
" Fed. Fed.
composer's store of harmonies. :

it isnecessary to put in action five pedals, rapidly and

in succession, for the first octave only and also that ;

they must be very promptly quitted, in order to


replace in their primitive condition those notes which

they raised, and which are to recur in the upper
octave, to be again retaken as in the first octave.
It is, evident that every chord in which
in fact, Such a scale therefore, even in a movement of
cb is be heard simultaneously with Bb, cannot
to moderate time, is impossible for any harp. If the
be possible since (the harp being tuned in Et?, and
; object be a succession of chords belonging to different
the pedals raising each string only a half-tone) Cb keys, the impossibility becomes still more evident
can only be produced by taking the Ba pedal, which because, in that case, several pedals will have to be
immediately destroys all the Bb^ in the scale. The taken at once and successively :

eame is the case with the Db, which results from

raising the Cfl and with the Gb, produced by the

raising of the F. The mechanism of the pedals of

the harp in Eb, only serving to restore the three
flattened notes (B, E, A) to their natural state, and
to sharpen four other notes (F, C, G, D), it follows,
that this harp can only be prepared in eight keys Certain appoggiaturas and ornaments containing
namely, Eb, Bb, F, C, G, D, A, E. The flattened chromatic successions, may, in fact, be executed after
keys are only produced in harmonics, and by taking a fashion but the majority of these ornaments, aa

and leaving quickly one or more pedals. In Ap, I have already observed, are scarcely practicable and :


those which form the exceptions ])roduce a very in- prised in the harmony. Thus, instead of giving to
different effect, on account of the influence which tlie the harp the following air, as previously played by
movement of the pedal taken and quitted at the same the violins
instant, exercises over tlie sonority of the string :
> Violins. AlUgrOj
^^^^^^ >
the author should Irave written it in the following


.Hit^. Allegro. .,. .,,:?:.,.
^ Eg^gj^l'"^
Tlie natiue of the harp's re(iuires the
sacrifice of the four successive semitones in tb'^
The following example, on tlie contrary, and all
third bar.
those, whicii, like it, contain several semitones in a
Struck with the important obstacles just cited,
short space, and in a quick movement, are next to
M. Erard invented, some years ago, the mechanism
impossible :

which has given to instruments so constructed the

name of double -action harps. Of what it consists,
and wherefore it allows the harp, if not to play
W^' chromatic successions, at least to play in all keys, and
to strike or arpeggio all chords, I will now show.
The double-action harp is tuned in Cp, and its
iliit^'EfE^Eif compass is six octaves and a quarter :

It should now be the harp, being

stated that
Loco -j_a-" ^
played with two hands,
written for upon two
lines. The lower line usually has the F clef and 8pa. Bassa.
the upper one the G
clef; but if the height of the _8a _ _
bass notes or the depth of the treble notes demand
it, the G
clef or the F clef may find themselves on il^hi^ rz^^i:::=^r=
the two lines at one and the same time.
b^Si" SEE2 i
It will be seen that tliis disposal renders the in-
The seven pedals with which it is furnished are
executable passages still more numerous for the harp made so that the player may, by means of each oi
in Bp since a passage that may be easy for the
them, raise at option eacii string a tone, or a semitone
right hand becomes impossible if the left hand wisli only. By taking in succession the seven semitone
to strike certain notes of accompaniment which are pedals, the harp in Cb can therefore be set in Gp,
altered by a pedal in the melody, while the harmony
in Db, in Ab, in Eb, in Bb, in F, or in Cfc. In
admits of them only in their ordinary condition :
still farther raising each string another semitone, by

means of the second action of the pedals, the seven

t^pr notes of the natural scale will become sharpened ;

since tlie seven pedals produce P'jit, Cjjj, Gjt, Djt,

^1 AJI, EJ, and Bjfc. which gives to the harp the power
of playing in the keys of G, D, E, B, F|, and CJ.
^ These, then, are all the keys accessible to the harp;
onl}', the minor scales cannot be set, unless by treat-
ing them, in ascending as in descending, without
regarding the usage adopted with respect to the sixth
and seventh notes otherwise, two pedals must be

taken and quitted :

Fed. Pad. |Quit. Quit.|


The two chords marked with a cross cannot be

played since they contain an Ftj, sharpened in the
; By adopting the interval of the augmented second
upper part. In such a case, therefore, the note wliich between the sixth and seventh note, the minor scale
thus presents itself under a double aspect, must be can be set, and the accidental use of the pedals will
suppressed in one or other of the parts. In the not be necessary; which is a considerable advantage,
preceding example, it is better to mutilate the chord and should suffice to make this scale preferred :

in the left hand, and leave out the Ffi.

When a melody already played by other instru-
ments is to be repeated on the harp, and contains
chromatin passages either impossible or hazardous, it As for the chords interdicted to the harp in Eb,
jshould be dexterously modified, by substituting for it will be seen that the double action renders then)
one or more of the altered notes, other notes com- possible.


Also, by a great stretch of the thumb and littlo

Nothing is more easy than to produce:
finger,chords of a tenth may be reached and con- ;

taese four notes being in the scale of tlie liarp inCb- sequently, such chords as these are possible :

The chord. 'ii; S4 Br merely requires the use

of the two semitone pedals, DH and Fh ;

But this position is less convenient, less natural,
wants only two also, FJ] and CH ; ^ii ft miist and therefore less sonorous since none of the fiugera;

can attack the string with as much force as in the

have three, Ct|, EjJ, andGil| tBZ need have ordinary position. Incidentally, let us note that
chords lying in the extreme lower part of the
but one, Fh ; and ' requires three, FJj, instrument, form groups without sonorousness,
and produce confused harmonies that should be
AQ, and Cq.
All this is done without difficulty. Even the avoided : <^^> Br These deep sounds are
chord which seems to contain at once Ch and Cp, is

equally practicable :
^f5tt^^^^|r only fit for doubling a bass in the octave below :

The Dbb is gained by means of the

(or CJ|)
pedal raising the a semitone, and the Cb is
produced by the pedal which raises the Bb a semi-
tone. The Acb comes from tiie Gb raised a semi- The successive execution of the notes of a chord,
either ascending or descending, is perfectly in the
tone, and the Fb
has no need of a pedal, being in
This chord, such as character of the harp it is even after its Italian
the Biale of the harp in CJ?- ;

I have just written it, will therefore be played under

name, arpa, that these passages have obtained the
title of arpeggios. Generally speaking, they should
this singular form :
^Efell^oEB \\herefore, it not exceed an octave in extent particularly, if tb ;

movement be quick otherwise, they would necessi-


would be better to write it in Cb major, and under

tate a change of position of extreme difficulty.

the following aspect :

^ "B^~"~ ^^ double-

action harps have to be employed in an orchestral

piece set for other instruments in Bn major, it would
be much better for sonority and convenience of exe-
cution to write their music in the key of Cb:

A llegro. :p ^. _^

m^ i^H-m

Almost impossible.
J:_Tr;t_ *_t: __:

The note which exceeds the extent of an octave

should never be written but for the termination of a
Composers should liave
a care, in writing harp
phrase; as thus :
parts, toforewarn the jilayer, a little in advance, of
the change he will have to make, and of the pedal
soon to be used, by placing, a few bars before the ^^^i^^^
occurrence of the modulation, such words as :

Frepare the 6^4, prepare the hey of CO, &c.

The following is very easy because the change ;

of position, occurring from below to above, does not

The nature of the instrument having been ex- require the use of the fourth finger, which can be
plained, we j)roceed now to the fingering, confounded
little employed, nor does it demand two consecutive
by many composers with that of the pianoforte, notes with the third :

which it nowise resembles. Chords of four notes

may be struck with each hand if the two extreme
notes do not extend beyond an octave :

Care should be taken, in general, not to write for

the hands too near together, but to keep them scpa-
: :


rated by an octave or a sixth at least, otherwise they

interfere with each other.

Moreover, if the two hands play an arpeggio chord

in thirds with each other, the same string being re-
taken by the finger of one hand, at the moment when
that of the other hand has just played it, it neces-
sarily follows that the string has not time to vibrate,
and that its sound is stifled as soon as born :
If the object be to make heard a rapid ascending
or descending arpeggio of greater extent than an
octave, instead of writing it in two parts it should
be dispersed by giving a fragment to one hand while
Very bad. the other changes its position, and so on, recipro-
cally. The passage would then appear thus :
R. H.

Allegro. --J

Very good ; be- feEgiptfr^t^^^: Left hand.'Ciir

R. H.
cause of the distance i Right hand. L. H
hands :
the two
If doubled in the octave, it would be impracticable.
All successions which oblige the same fingers to
.skip from one string to another can only be written The following is impossible in a quick movement ;

for a movement in very moderate time. but possible in a slow one :

When a rapid series of diatonic octaves is desired, .,.-p- 8Te.

tlieyshould generally be written for tlie two hands.

This equally applies to series of sixths. They are

always as with scales in thirds practicable for a
single hand, but only in descending the thumb ;

then sliding from one to the other of the upper notes,

while the lower notes are played by the three finger?. r^rrru--
Difficult ; because
The shake can be executed on the harp, but its
of the stretch it oc-
effect is only tolerable on the high notes. The
casions between the
thumb and fingers
iteration of the same note
unpleasant and difficult
upon ancient harps, on account of the slight grating
produced upon the string by the second finger, which
strikes it after the first, and interrupts its vibration :

Less difficult
ip Tliumb. T.

is easy, and of good effect, upon modern harps the ;

Less difficult:
Z. =l^-.-,_,-o-fc.-lZ_i-_gXgrS double action of the pedals allowing the player to
3 4 ;f 3 4 2 raise by a tone the next string to the one which
gives the iterated sound, so that the iteration is thus
As an exception to what has been said above produced on two strings in unison :

respecting the distance between the parts, tliese same

scales in thirds are practicable for two hands, be-
cause, in the diatonic movement, the inconvenience
of a string taken by one finger and retaken by an-
other is much less great, since the intermediate note
allows a little more time for vibration. Neverthe-
less, it is better either to write these series of thirds Iteration in two or four parts (very useful some-
for two harps, by giving the higher part to one and times in the orchestra) may likewise be obtained
the lower part to another or, if there be but one ; and more simply, by employing two or more harps,
harp, and much sound is wished to be obtained, and by writing crossfires, which present no difficulty
by separating the parts an octave, and writing series in the execution, and produce i)recisely the desired
of tenths. effect-."-


1st Harp.

Slid Harp.

Result to the hearer :

The effect of harpa (setting aside the question of with theirs. The lower strings (exclusive of ths
music intended to be heard near, as in a private soft and dull strings which are lov/est), with theii
room) is in proportion to their number. 'J he notes, sound so veiled, mysterious, and beautiful, have
the chords, or the arpeggios which they then tlirow scarcely ever been employed but for bass accom-
out amidst tlie orchestra and choir are of extreme paniments of the left hand and the more the

splendour. Nothing can be more in keeping with pity. It is true that harp-players do not care to
ideas of poetic festivities, or religious rites, than play long pieces among octaves so far removed
the sound of a large body of harps ingeniously in- from the body of the performer that he must lean
troduced. Alone, or in groups of two, three, or forward, with his arms at full length, maintain-
four, they have also a most happy effect, whether ing an awkward posture for more or less time ;

united to the orchestra, or serving to accompany but this reason can have had little weight with
voices and solo instruments. Of all known qualities composers. The fact is, they have not thought to
of tone, it is singular that the timbre of horns , trom- avail themselves of the especial quality in tone just
bones, and brass instruments generally, mingles best indicated.

Example of a beautiful
and soft sonority of the bass
strings :

The strings of the last upper octave have a deli- first fingers of the same hand ; thus j>roducing the
cate crystalline sound, of voluptuous freshness, which high octave of the usual sound. Harmonics may be
renders them fit for the expression of graceful fairy- produced by both hands.
like ideas, and for giving murmuring utterance t(j
the sweetest secrets of smiling melodies on condi- ;

tion, however, they are not attacked with

violence by the performer as then they yield a dry

hard sound, similar to that of broken glass, dis- Kxample.

agreeable and snapping.

The harmonics of the harp particularly of
many harps in unison
are still more magical.
Solo-players frequently employ them in tiie pedal-
points and cadences of their fantansies, variations,
and concertos. But nothing comes near the sonority
of these mysterious notes when united to chords from
flutes and clarinets playing in the medium. It is
really strange, that only once, and that not more
than three years ago,
the affinity of these qualities,
It iseven possible to produce two or three at a
time, with one hand but Ihen, it is prudent to let
and tlie poetry of their association, shoiild have been

the other have but one note to play.

The best, and almost the only, harmonics for the Harmonics.
fiarp, are those obtained by touching with the lower
and fleshy part of the palm of the hand the centre
of the string, while playing with the thumb and two
* Sfe example (No 21 nf llie hamioiiica on tile violin enii/Ioyed in
coiniHnation \\itli tliose on the tiaru. Harmonic


All tne strings of the harp are not fit for liar-
mouics only the two octaves above the last should

be employed for this purpose they being the sole


ones of which the strings are sufficiently long for

division by touching in the centre, and sufficiently
tightened for neatly producing harmonics.
Harmonics. ---^
In case the quickness of the movement and the
It will be understood how easy such a passage is
on learning that the jilayer has only to slide three
fingers from top to bottom along the harp-strings,
character of the instrumentation demands a speedy without fingering, and as fast as he likes since, by ;

transition of a harp part from one key into another, means of synonimes, the instrument is self-tuned
rery remote from that which precedes it (from Ej? exclusively in series of minor thirds, producing the
into Ejj}, for instance), it cannot be effected upon the chord of the diminished seventh ; and that, instead
same instrument there must then be a harp tuned
of having for the seal ;,
in the sharpened key, to succeed immediately the
one ])laying in t\\e flattened key. If the transition t=a^^=r^=rt:
^zdz -dzidBz
be not sudden, and there be but one harp-player
available, the composer must let the perfor- it has
mer have a sufficient number of rests for time to _j
apply the requisite modulatory pedals. When the
harps are numerous,
treated as integral parts of
the orchestra, and not merely used to accompany a
vocal or instrumental solo,
they are generally The A|3, it must be remarked, cannot be double,
divided into firsts and seconds, with distinct written and therefore has no repercussion. In fact, it is not
parts for each; which greatly adds to the richness of possible to have four synonimes at once, since there
their effect. A still greater number of different are only seven notes in the scale, and four syno-
harp-parts might doubtless be excellently employed ;
nimes would require eight strings. Moreover. (
and indeed, they become indispensable, as has just it observed, that the AJJ can only be obtained
Iteen seen, when the object is to render possible, upon one .string (the Ab string), and does not exist
without interruption to their playing, a sudden upon the next string (the Gb string) ; this latter

change of key. being only raised by the two actions of the pedal
The Theban bas-reliefs, where an elaborate repre- two semitones, which bring it to Ab. The same
sentation of antique harps may be found, prove that remark applies also to two other strings, Ct? and
they had no pedals and that, consequently, they
were incapable of modulation. There are therefore still wanting on the harp three
Those, not less antique, employed in our own synonimes, Dfl, Gh, and AJJ) but this defect for

days by the Welsh and Irish bards, have several it is a serious one
will be obviated when the ma-
rows of strings and, without doubt, this arrangement nufactures contrive (as Mr. Parish Alvars proposes)
places modulations and the chromatic style more or to constiuct for the pedals of the three notes, Cb,
less within their power. Fp, and Gb, a triple action which will permit them
I have specified above, in speaking of iteration, to be raised three semitones.
the essential advantage possessed by modern harps, Mr. Erard should not allow such a defect to remain
of placing two strings in unison, by means of the in thisinstrument it would be worthy so skilful a

double-action pedals : ^ od Bz manufacturer's ingenuity to be the first to remove

one these
of Cp's being produced by the Cb It is evident that, if all the synonime strings be
string, and the other by the Bp string raised a semi- not used at once, there will be chords left other than
)ii>aazzaz those of the diminished seventh ; and the various
tone : or ; one of these Eb's being pro- combinations that each affords, when an exact account
is taken of the action of the pedals on the strings,
duced by the Eb string, and the other by the Db will be still more numerous when the triple action of
etring raised two semitones. It ii hardly to be be-
the pedals, Cb, Fb, and Gb, shall have furnished the
lieved what resources great harp-players are now
three synonimes of which the harp at present i
:ible to derive from these double notes, which they
have named synonimes. Mr. Parish Alvars, the
most extraordinary player, perhaps, tliat has ever Guitar.
Deen heard on this instrument, executes passages
and arpeggios which at first sight appear utterly The guitar is an instrument suited for accompa-
Impossible, the whole difficulty of which, neverthe- nying the voice, and for figuring in certain quiel
less, consists only in an ingenious use of the pedals. compositions, as also for executing,singly, pieces more
He plays, for instance, with wonderful rapidity, or less complicated in several parts, which possess a
pflag^8 like tlie following : true charm when performed by really good pJayers


Tlie guitar has six strings, tuned in fouiths and a jirucetlure by which the forefinger of the left hand
thirde, as thus :
placed across the neck of the instrument, upon two,
three, or foiu- strings, serves as a temporary _/r<'^.
^^^mm {'I'hejret is the little piece the neck, on whicli
-cr the strings rest, and which decides the proper lengt'
It is sonu'tinies tuned in the following manner to be put in vibration.)
especially tor pieces written in the key of E :

SM .-d; :S: -^

Tiie three lower strings are of silk covered with And all portions
silver wire ; and the three otiiers, of catgut. The b of these cluirda

guitar is a transposing instrunieut of three octaves

and compass
a fifth in and written ; for with the G
clef, an octave above the real sound :

** "W^--
-tr -
- -:F=_:t_ -E- :ir--n
In D,
Witti the chromatic intervals.


In A.
-^ 3-

Major and minor shakes can be played throughout

the e.xtent of tliis scale.

almost impossible to write well for the guitar

It is
witliout being a player on the instrument. The
majority of composers wlio employ it, are, however,
far from knowing its powers and therefore they ;
frequently give it things to ))lay of excessive difli-
culty. little sonority, and small effect.
I shall endeavour, notwithstanding, to point out The flat keys are incomparably more difficult than
the proper method of writing simple accompani- the preceding and all require Barrage
The most
ments for it.
easy chords are the following :

In the usual position of the riglit hand, the little

finger resting upon the body of the instrument, the
thumb is used for playing the three lower strings.
In F. r^-g-
'-=t^=-a.-=, iz ; the forefinger plays the .Lo_ l




G, ^^ H- : the middle finger, the B, ^ - :3;

and the third finger, the first string, or E.

In Bf.:
whence it arises that, in j)laying chords of more than
four notes, the thumb is oblii^ed to slide over one or
In all chords, the enqtloytnent of the first and the
two of the lower strings, while the three fingers
third of the lower strings rvitliutit the second should
directly strike the three high strings. In chords of
be avoided because the thumb would then be

four notes, each finger strikes only the string appro-

obliged to skip over this second string in order to
priated to it the fingers change strings only when

go from the first to the third :

there is occasion to strike low chords like these :


The guitar being especially an instrument of har-
It is impossible to strike these chords but, by
mony, ii is very important to know the chorda and ;

likewise the arpeggios which it can execute. adding the second string to them, they become easy
Hero is a certain number in different keys. We
will bei;in with the easiest those which are
Jlayei without the use of Barr.-ige (marked Barr^), -' -.-^ -w- -WW
r I


Chords of the dominant sevcntli also should not

bfi written in the usual uosition of tlirce thirds above
eacii other, as

Tliey are next to impossible ;

this one is difficult,

but still, practicable, flr on account of the In this last arpeggio the two bound high notes
are played by catching the first string with the little
G, which is played on an open string. The following finger of the left hand.
is very easy, and ai the same time sonorous :
Arpeggios from iiigli to low are rather troublesome
E on the open string. but quite feasible :

iva^nz on account of the

The three following chords are easy, and link well

together, in all keys :
_S5 *,q^-
-3; 3: 3:

Likewise in FJ, in G, in Ab, &c. ^8.1- :::

-I I
r-J-j --41;
, I

^m L-i=gEE^fe
The same reversed on the contrary, very easy.
On account of the retrograde movement of the
thumb on the two low notes, the following are much
iJL^=^- more difficult, and less advantageous :

Of course, these chords may sometimes have more

than four notes, in keys which permit their having a
low open string; in A|^, for instance, in E^, in G,
in P in short, wherever one of these three notes

may be introduced as the bass :

Scales bound by twos and twos, with the reiteration

of a note, are elegant,and tolerably sonorous par-
This succession, which requires Barrage (marked

ticularly in the brilliant keys of the instrument :

Barre) of four strings,is equally practicable on the

two lower tliirds of the neck g-h-^"^- ~^3'^~n~ Atlegro.^'T-

of the s-uitar : ^E^^EgEgEESEllE --\;=rz.

and then, ascendingby semitones to!

which is the extreme point of height where this

fingering can be employed.
^^ e 7.


The following arpeggios have an excellent effect Scales in thirds, although difficult at their ex-
on the jruitar :
may be used in a moderately quick move-
ment :

-i I- -^.^ Difficult.



"^" ^^^ Diffiniilt.

This applies equally to series of sixths and octaves.

Reiterated notes, two, three, four, and even six or
eight times repeated, are easily done prolonged ;

reiterations {rouJements) on the same note are rarely

^=z good excepting on the first string, or at the utmost
on the three high strings :


12 -.2

The fifth touched pro

(!uces the tellth.

'1 oiu'liing Ihi'fiftlisof

the six open strings.


The fourth touched pro-

duces the double octave.

Touching the fourths

the six open strings.
The notes marked with a + are jilayed witli the
thumb ; the others with the first and second finger
in succession.
For reiterations (roulement.s), tlie thumb sliouW be
made to succeed the first and second fingers on the
same string :
The major third toucl .ed
produces the seventeen
Allegro Real harmonics.
- r:z:--g-rg3g^ g- g:P--g- fzqr:
Tuucliinp; tlie major third
of the six open strings.

The minor lird touched _fl_^f?-___
produces the nineteenth,!^ f=P
'^= h- b=tr=lr7
1" 1

-t::r-t::zr^= :rt::lr: r.trr:t=FP-F^C-t::pcr-p--cr:p
i |
or octave abo ve the l-'fli^?- Hr
+ 21 + 21 +?i+^'"*'

ttr-'-^.tr-r I F^*- --- *- g: Touching the minor .Irds

- * "-^ 4. 2 1 + 2 I +
of the six open strings, di

Harmonics are easily obtained from the guitar, and

upon many occasions felicitous use may be made of These harmonics are the least sonorous, and
them. The best are those produced by touching are obtained with difficulty. It should be understood
the octave, the fifth, the fourth, and the third, major, that this expression of ;vZ harmonics is relative to
of tlie open strings. the diapason belonging to the guitar, and not to
As was explained in the chapters on instruments the ordinary diapason ; for, strictly speaking, thet^e
played \\nth a bow, the touched octave brings out real harmonics are heard an octave below, like all

that same octave : the other sounds on this instmment.

each string, moreover, chromatic and diatonic
harmonics can be produced.
scales in artificial For
this purpose, it is necessary to press the fingers of
the left iiand on the notes desired to be heard an
To.iihinp the ortpves of
the lix open airings.
octave higher, then to touch the middle of the string
with the right forefinger, and to play behind the
forefinger with the thumb of the same hand:

I repeat that, without being aide to play the players as Zanni de Ferranti, Huerta, Sor, Ac, Bhould
guitar, one can hardly write for it pieces in several be studied.
parts, containing passages demanding all the rc- Since the introduction of the pianoforte into
Bonrces of the instrument. In order to have an idea all houses where the least taste for music exists,
of what the best performers are able to produce in tiie guitar has been little used, save in Spain and

this way, the compositions of such celebrated guitar- Italy. Some performers have studied i*'. and till


study it, as a solo instrument, in such a way as to It is written for on the G clef
derive from it effects no less original than delightful.
Composers employ it but little, either in the church,
theatre, or concert room. Its feeble sonority, which
does not allow union with other instruments,
or with many voices possessed even of ordinary The Estrings are of catgut the strings, of ; A
brilliancy, is doubtless the cause of this. Never-
steel the I) strings, of copper
; and the strings, ; G
theless, its melancholy and dreamy character might of catgut covered with silver wire.
more frequently be made available; it has a real The compass of the mandolin is about tliree
charm of its ov/n, and there would be no impossi- octaves :

bility in so writing for it as to make this manifest ^


The guitar unlike the majority of instruments t^^Mr,.

loses by being employed in numbers. The sound """" With the chromatic intKrvals.
of twelve guitars playing in unison is almost
Itan instrument more for melody than for har-
mony thougii its strings, being put in vibration

with a quill or plectrum, which the player holds in

Tke Mandolin. the riglit hand, may certainly allow chords of four
notes to be heard, such as these
The mandolin has almost fallen into disuse at
^ Si
fli_,' a__ J
1^^^ ^ -^ -^
present and this is a pity, for its quality of tone

thin and nasal though it be has something piquant -cr ->-


r .


and original about it which might occasionally be

made of effective use.
which are obtained by passing the quill rapidly over
the four double notes; but the effect of tliese groups
There are several kinds of mandolins the best ;
of simultaneous notes is rather poor, and the man-
known has four double strings that is to say, four ;
dolin has its real character and effect only in such
times two strings in unison, and tuned in fifths, like melodious accompaniments as the one written by
the violin Mozart in the second act of Don Giovanni
No. 18.
Don Giovanni. M(2ART.




forth nn-to thy win - dow, ome forth with con

vieni al - la fi - nes - tra deh vie - nia con - so


m 11


to thy lo
plan - to mi

^^ = q=P=^4s-^^5=n::
^: ^^ ;^Z^3EE^3ZgE
'I'lie mandolin is at present so neglected, that, in they are substituted and Mozart knew quite well

theatres where Don Giovanni is played, tiiere is what he was about in choosing the mandolin for
always a difficulty in performing this serenade j)iece. accompanying the amorous lay of his iiero.
Although a few days' study would enable a guitar-
jilaver, or even an ordinary violin-player, to acquire Stiuxged Tnstri;ments with Keys
sufficient knowledge of the mandolin for the purpose, T/ie Pianoforte.
so little respect is entertained for the intentions The pianoforte is an instrument with a key-board
of the great musters, whenever it is a question of and metallic strings, put in vibration by hammers.
breaking through old habits, that almost everywhere, Its present compass is six octaves and seven-eighths.
even at the Opera (the last jilace in the world where It is written on two different clefs at once the F del :

sucli liberties should l)e taken), they venture to play is appropriated to the left hand ; and tile G clef, to
the mandolin part of Don Giooanni on violins piz- the right hand.
Sometimes, according to the
zicati, or on guitars. The timbre of these instru- degree of height or depth of the passages assigned
ments has not the keen delicacy of that for which to the two hands,
the clefs are interchanged :



tva. Bassa. - -

The shake is practicable on all the notes of the the pianoforte, by taking care not to place between
Bcale. The player may any
strike or arpeggio in the extreme parts of each hand a distance greater
way, and with both hands, a chord of four or even than an octave or a ninth at most unless indeed tiie ;

five notes; but, at the same time, the harmony pedal which raises the dampers, by prolonging the
ehoidd be as close as possible : sounds without the player's finger remaining on the
key-board, allows of augmenting the distance be-

Xj I I
eS m tween the

Here is

an example in four parts, the pedal not

used :

Chords embracing an interval of a tenth may be

played, by omitting the third, and even the octave, j^ > I

for greater facility, as tlms :

mie^ 1 1* t

^ ^r- i

FoiiT and even five real parts may be written for



And here is another, employing the pedal :

-,--5. i"Tri 1-5- fsss- -^j^^TTi ^ * ^ J I

^^5B ^^^^

This sign ^ indicates that the dampers must be The number of such combinations among the
replaced by quitting the pedal. It is mostly used various parts playable on the pianoforte is very
when the harmony changes, in order to prevent the considerable. It would, indeed, be inipobsible to
vibration of the notes of the last chord from con- instance them all here, and only by studying the
tinuing on to the following chord. As regards this compositions of the great performers those of Liszt
excessive prolongation of the sound of each note, especially,
can a just idea be formed of the excel-
care should be taken, in employing the principal lence to which the art of pianoforte-playing haa
pedal, to avoid as much as possible appoggiaturas nowadays attained.
with accidentals [altei-ees], and passing notes in the It will there be seen that the limits of possibility
middle of the instrument because these notes, being
; on this instrument are unknown and that every day ;

sustained like the others, and thereby becoming in- they are farther removed by the new prodigies which
troduced into the hanuony to which nevertheless performers achieve.

they do not belong produce intolerable discords.
In the upper extremity of the key-board, where the
For the pianoforte, as for the harp, it is better in
certain cases
in arpeggios, for example not to
very short strings do not maintain tlieir sound so bring the hands too near each other. An arpeggio
long, these melodic ornaments are practicable. like the following would be rather inconvenient :

The hands are sometimes made to cross either in

obliging the right hand to pass over the left, or
in causing the left to pass over the right :

bsr^ M=m:-Jji^=m-^M-'-'i::;ji-E=::^m


It would be incomparably better to write it

tluis :

--ri *'r* "* "* [
r- f-r


Diatonic and chromatic scales in thirds, for bota

hands, are, however, easy :

These scales in two parts are practicable by one

hand alone, although difficult in a quick move-
ment. Moreover, in keys where there are few sharps


and flats, the two hands may be written for in aeries forte in the orchestra under the same conditions as
of sixth-thirds in three parts :
other instrnniciits; that is to say, letting it bring to

.. .. the ensemble its own peculiar resources,

i^^:^pi^ nothing can replace. Certain passages in Beethoven's

concertos ought, nevertheless, to have driiwn the
attention of composers to this point. Doubtless they
have all admired the marvellous effect produced in
55f=l=E^* his grand concerto in Ep, by the slow beatings
[batferirs^ of the two hands on the piano in the
The pianoforte, at tlie point of perfection to high octave during the air for the flute, clarinet, and
which onr skilful manufacturers have brought it bassoon, and upon the contretemps of the stringed
nowadays, may be considered in a double point of instruments. Thus attended, the sonority of the
view as an orchestral instninient, or as forming a
pianoforte is ot the most seductive kind ; it is
complete small orchestra in itself On only one oc- full of calm and freshness, and is a type of gruc*
eiufion has it been deemed well to employ the piano- it^ielf:

No. 19

in A.


Hums in Eb


gaUl- ^
E^5 1 -j^^ jv ^ j< 1 ^^g^^^^_^,.^-^-_^^,,,a.^^^

Double-bass. ^ j
^^r-1- J- 1 jv *i :;]^..iz^3i}^*=^= ^:



. r r r h:^ E?

?fl^i^^ te=^--F=3^^;
"^ cres.

* - - -- -*- -- croiT dim.

^~tZ=-ifZ ll^E^^^^l
mr^-^f-^-^^^^^^^^^'^^=p=\-^^=-^^=^^'^^^^^E^^z^ 0~^
8ves, - - - loco. >>--


-I* - -f- -^ -- PP __
=7= ^~^~'^~ ^='
^^^g^^g^^ ff



MfeS^^igi^: ^3^E^3E^^E



fe -^-ii=q= -

^^^ ^^=H-H ^ir=^=i

m l^^^g^^^^g^^^^^^^^i ^^ ^^^
E?^ EgZ^Eg^^q^ ^^^'^^Vr fe ?^

ggg^^Jfj^g g r-J^-^J^r'^^^^J^^^^s.^j ^^^^g^

^g^^- j>-") ^rj^g^^ j^ ^^^=j^^F^

m^ ^^EEggZ?=^^i^g-T-^^^^^-^E^^=^^^^^ESEgE
B^^^^^^^g^^^^^^^^^ ^ F- E^

Ped^ Sempre piu dim.
-^ - ^ .;=^


*-l ^ *-*-^ r:^^^* 1--~- V-^^m -^~

^^ 5SS=I X= '
y| I
! f I
! r
^im^Hm wmm^am hi^b^v ^^^b)


Fagot. Comi.
Ped. :^ ^= sd .
-.hf! B,t
lifES^i-l^ll: -tiil:


The part taken by the pianoforte, on the unique three parts executed by a piccolo flute, a flute, and a
occasion alluded to, is quite different. The author, clarinet, upon which trembles a double shake in
in a chorus of airy spirits, has employed the instru- octaves by the upper pair of pianoforte hands. No
ment d quatre inainn, in accompanying the voices. other known instrument could produce this sort of
The lower pair of hands execute rapid ascending harmonious quivering, which the pianoforte delivers
arpeggios in triplete, to which respond, at the second without difficulty, and which the sylph-like character
balf of the bar, another (descending) arpeggio in of the piece here renders desirable :

No. 20. Fantaisie sur la Tempete. Bkrlioz.



Flute Solo.

Flute Solo.

- ^ --


jg^ r ^g^^



tr^C S
'H^ ^
g;^_^g^^Jg-_.Jt;^ ^ -.ljJL_^_,l!^

J^ ;*


^^^^ .^s. .^i it"*-,. ^g -^i^^

_.^-^ ^ c
n;!^^ ^
m -r-


-^^ g :p- p^^^^^^^^?j::3 "Jgi .=&z


^np 5^5 -F_ j-ti^^i P

- laii da Mi-ran (ia, j\Ii- iMii (la,

ran da. Mi-Tan (la, Mi -ran

-S5 p- ;gE^EEE;-Zg^^EgZ^-':EEf^:^.^^^^^~-gEE^P
ran da, Mi -ran da,
ran da. Mi-ran

^E^E=E?^^ |e^=g^|5j^
- ran da, Mi -ran da,
- ran da. Mi-ran da,

-j^rL \^ zzz:z:

ran da, Mi-ran da.

ran da. Mi ran

- - rati da, Mi ran da,
- - run rfa. ,1/1 ran

now, now comes thy pro - des - tin'd lius band.

ehi te lie sti na - to spo


Whenever, on the contrary, the pianoforte is made composer, should reflect that the author of the work,
to go beyond soft effects, and attempt a forcible whatever it may be, has probably devoted a hundred
competition witli the orchestra, it vanisiies entirely. times more consideration to the place and duration
It should accompany, or be accompanied unless, ; of certain effects, to the indication of particular move-
like harps, employed numbers.
in large This would ments, to the design of his melody and rhytlmi, and
not be unadvisable, I feel persuaded but there ; to the choice of his chords and instmments, than he

would always be on account of the large space has given, before thus interfering. There cannot be
they occupy
much difficulty in assembling a dozen too strong a protest made against tlie senseless pri-
grand pianos in a moderate sized orchestra. vilege too often claimed by instrumentalists, singers,
Considered as a small orchestra in itself, the piano- and directors of orchestras. Such a mania is more
forte has its own appropriate instrumentation, which than ridiculous; it will lead, unless care be taken,
forms a portion of tlie pianist's art. It is his duty, to the introduction of innumerable and unjustifiable
on many occasions, to judge if it be requisite to irregularities into the Art, and to results the most
render certain parts prominent, whilst others are left disastrous. It rests with composers and critics to
in shadow; and if he ought to play conspicuously combine never tolerating it.
an intermediate passage, by giving Hghtness to the A pedal much
leas used than that which raises the
upper ornaments, and less force to the bass. It is
dampers of which, nevertheless, Beethoven and
for him to decide the occasion for changing fingers, some others have availed themselves with deUcious
or the eligibility of using the thumb only, for such results
is the soft pedal (one-string pedal). It is
and such melody. He knows, in writing for his not only of excellent effect, contrasted with the usua".
instrument, when the harmony should be spread or sound of the pianoforte, and with the pomp of sono-
brought close the various degrees of distance that
; rity produced bj' the principal pedal, but it is of
arpeggios should have, and the different sonority indisputable utility in accompanying singing, when
thence resulting. He should know, above all, how a character of softness and gentleness is to be given
to use the pedals judiciously. On this subject, it to the execution. It is indicated by these words :

ought to be observed that the great pianoforte com- " soft pedal " or, in Italian, " una corda."
; Its ac-
posers have never failed to mark with as much care tion consists in preventing the hammers from reach-
is appropriateness the places where the principal ing two of the three strings strung in unison for each
pedal should be taisen and quitted. Yet many per- note. Then only the third string vibrates; whence
both great and small
persist in neglecting results a diminution of sound by two thirds, and u
these indications, and keep the dampers constantly very remarkable differpnce of character.
raised, utterly forgetting that the harmonies must
necessarily be prolonged one into the other, in a
manner the most discordant. This a deplorable
Wind Instruments.
abuse of an excellent thing ; it is noise and confu-
sion substituted for sonority. It is, besides, the
natural consequence of that intolerable tendency in Before studying individually each member of thia
performers great and small
singers and instru- large family, we will fix as clearly as possible the
mentalists to rank foremost whatever they imagine musical vocabulary indicating the different degreeii
conduces to their own personal interest. They think of height or depth of certain instruments, the trans-
little of the respect which is invariably due from positions to which these differences lead, the esta-
executant to composer, and of the tacit but absolute blished mode of writing for them, and the denomi-
compact, made by the former to the audience, that nations which have been applied to them.
he will faithfully transmit the latter's idea to them, We will first indicate a line of demarcation be-
whether he honour moderate talent by acting as its tween those instruments of which the sound is pro-
interpreter, or deliver the immortal thought of a duced as shown by the musical signs, and those of
man of genius. In both cases, the performer who which the sound issues above or below the written

thus allows himself following the caprice of the note. From this classification the following list*
moment to go contrary to the intentions of the result :

Tiie Violin.
Viole d'amour.
Violoncello The Double-Bass.
Usual Flute All other Flutes than the one.
Hautboy The Corno Tnglese.
Clarinet in All Clarinets excepting the Clarinet in C
Bassoon f Basson-quinte.
Russian Bassoon ^Double- Bassoon.
Horn in high C All Horns excepting the Horn in high


C-orupt a Piston in C All Cornets a Piston excepting that in 0.
Tnimpet in All Trumpets excepting the Truiuj^t in C
Alt) Trombone \ Comets without Pistons.
Tenor Trombone > Alto Trombones with Valve.
Bass Trombone )
Ophicleide in C All Ophicleides excepting that in C.
Bombardon The Serpent.
Bass -Tuba.
Harp The Guitar.
^ .,, ,, /^when written on the G clef
(when written on their respec- -X

57 . ^. f
mienors and \j
i ,i j xi
their sounds then issuing

Voices <J 11 f
, . 1 11
tive clefs; and not all equally > ^ <\ ^ i i
-5 i

on the n cleff
Basses an octave below the vvnt-
G 1

Kettle -Drums. ^
Ancient Cymbals.
Sets of Bells.
Glockenspiel Keyed Instrument with stee bars.
Keyed Harmonica.

It will be seen by this table that if all the non- has become the fashion instead of saying simply
transposing instruments said to be in C, emit their tierce flute, ninth flute, which at least offers no con-
sounds as they are written, those, like the violin, fusion in the terms to call these instruments, flute
hautboy, and flute, which have no designation of key, in F, flute in Up. And to what does this lead ? In
are in the same condition. They are therefore, in a score, the small clarinet in J\p, of which the C
the composer's eye, similar to instruments in C. really makes Up, can execute the same part as a
Now, the denomination of some wind instruments, third flute, so-called in U ; and these two instru-
based on the natural sound of their tube, ha led to ments, bearing the names of different keys, are ne-
the most singular and most absurd consequences it ; vertheless in unison. The denomination of one or
has caused the art of writing for transposing instru- other must be false ;and it is absurd to adopt solely
ments to become a very complicated task, rendering iov Jlutes a mode of appellation and of designation
the musical vocabulary perfectly illogical. This is of keys, different from that in use for all other
the place to show a better way, and to establish in&triimentx.
some kind of order where we find so little existing. Hence the principle which I propose, and which
Performers sometimes say speaking of the tenor renders impossible all misunderstanding : the key

trombone the trombone inljjp; in speaking of the ofG is the point of comparison which should be taken
alto trombone, the trombone in .Sb ; and still more in specifying the keys of transposing instruments
frequently, in speaking of the usual flute, the flute The natural sound of the tube of non-transposing wind
in n. instruments can never be taken into consideration.
These designations are correct in the sense that All non-transposing instruments, or transposing
the tube of the two trombones, with the slide only in the octave of which consequently the writ-
closed, gives out, the one the notes of the chord of ten G
gives C are considered as being in C.
B\?, the other those of the chord of Ei? ; while the Accordingly, if an instrument of the same kind is
usual flute, Avitli holes stopped and its keys
its tuned above or below the pitch of the typical
closed, gives out the note D. But as performers instniment, this difference will be designated accord-
pay no regard to this resonance of the tube, as they ing to the relation which exists between it and the
produce really the written notes, as the of a tenor C key of G. Consequently, the violin, the flute, and
trombone is a C and not a Bjp, as that of the alto the hautboy which plays in unison with the cla-
trombone is still a G and not an _Ep, as that of the rinet in G, the trumpet in G, the horn in C, are in
flute is also a G and not a D, it evidently follows G ; and if a violin, a flute, or a hautboy be employed,
that these instruments are not, or are no longer in tuned a tone higher than the usual iustruments of
the list of trnnsposing instmments that they con- ; this name, this violin, this flute, this hautboy, then
sequently belong to that of the non-transposing playing in unison with clarinets in B, and trumpets
instruments ; and that they are supposed to be in in D, are in D.
C, like hautboys, clarinets, horns, cornets and trum- Whence I conclude that the old mode of desig-
pets in C ; while no designation of key should be nating flutes shoidd be abolished that the tiere*.

applied to them, other, at least, than that of G. flute should no longer be called flute in F. but
Tliis established, it will be seen of what importance flute in E\), since its 6' makes EQ
; and that ninth
it is not to call the usual flute, flute in I). The flutes and minor second flutes should no longer be
other flutes, higher than this one, having been called flutes in E\> ; but large or small flute in D^,
designated according to the difference existing since their G makes Z>b : and so on with all the
Detween their pitch and that of the usual flute, it other kevs.


Rked Instrvments. iDifllcuit.


The to. i':?*.. ftrzfl- ^Ji^ fl^g- ^*

family of double reed instruments should be
di8tin:^uisheii from tliat of single reed instruments.

The former is composed of five members : the
hautboy- tlie coruo inglese, tlie bassoon, the basson- Impossible
quiute, and the double-bassoon.
J}Jg- Vf'ia. !*-. iSfl. ^^f^ h^- <^ ;c:
The Hautboy c -<r;
Its compass is two octaves
iS and
ai a sixth. It is
written on the G clef :
Hautboys, like all other instruments, are much
more at their ease in keys where there are few sharps
or flats. They should hardly be made to play out of
this limit :

-m--m- ^

The last two notes should be used with much

pa^^P^lt=$J:^ 1 t:-nr

reserve the F particularly is hazardous, when it

The sounds that exceed it, eitlier below or above,
presents itself abruptly. Some hautboys have the being weak or thin, hard or all of rather
shrill, are
a bad quality. Rapid passages, chromatic or dia-
low Bb, 3 but this note, not being generally tonic, can be tolerably well executed on the hautboy ;

acquired on the instrument, is better avoided. but they only produce an ungraceful and almost ridi-
Boehm's system obviates the difficulties of fingering culous effect. The same is the case with arpeggios.
still belonging to the hautboy in its present state,
The opportunity for such passages can be but very
and met with in rapid passages from the middle C^ to r.ire and, indeed, we confess to not
: having yet met
the note above :
with them. That which tempts solo-performers to
use them in their fantasias or airs with variationa
goes but a little way to prove the contrary. The
\z or: hautboy especially a melodic instrument has a
'^ll is : it

paatoral character, full of tenderness nay, I would

And from the G^ to the Ff: ^rp^^^S^E:^^ oven say, of timidity.
It is nevertheless always written for, in the tutti
The shakes formed of these different intervals, parts, without paying attention to the expression of
and of some others also, are impossible, or exces- its timbre, because there it is lost, and the peculiarity

sively difficult, and produce a bad effect, as will of that expression cannot l)e distinguished. It is the
be seen from tlie following table :
same let it be at once understood with most other
wind instruments. The
only exception lies where
Difficult. Impossible. the sonority is exces.ssive, or tho quality of tone


m-EEi markedly distinctive. It is impossible without

trampling under foot both Art and good sense to
tr tr tr tr tr employ such exceptional instruments as simple
tr tr tr instruments of harmony. Among them may be
ranked trombones, ophicleides, double-bassoons, and
in many instances trumpets and cornets. Can-
dour, artless grace, soft joy, or the grief of a fragile
being, suits the hautboy's accents it expresses them ;

S^^^^li3=[Si^=^^t^ admirably in its cantabile.

A certain degree of agitation is also within it
^n^iffic ultTI tr . tr powers of expression; but care should l)e taken not
to urge it into utterances of passion or violent out-
bursts of anger, menace, or heroism for then ita ;

small acid-sweet voice becomes ineffectual, and abso-
Difficult. I

<r I
Impossible. I i i i i i

lutely grotesque. Some great masters Mozart among

have not escaped this error. In their scores
passages are to be found, the impassioned meaning
and martial accent of which contrast strangely with
the sound of the liautboy that executes them and ;

thence result, not only effects missed, but startling

disparities between stage and orchestra, melody and
instrumentation. The theme of a march, however
Difficult. .

manly, grand, or noble, loses its manliness, iti

grandeur, and its nobility if hautboys deliver it. It
has a chance of preserving something of its cha-


meter if given to flutes, and loses scarcely anything Fates "). These complaints of an innocent voice.
by being assigned to clarinets. Where in order to these continued supplications ever more and more
give more weight and body to the harmony, and appealing,
what instrument could they suit so well
more force to tlie group of wind instruments em- as a hautboy ? And the celebrated burden of the

ployed hautboys are absolutely needful in a piece air of Iphigenia in Tauride : " malhereuse
such as I have just described, they should at least be Iphigenie !
" And again, that childlike cry of the
written for in such a way that their quality of tone orchesti'a, when the midst of her en-
Alceste, in
(not suited to this particular style) is completely thusiasm and heroic self-devotion, struck by the
covered by the other instruments, and so blends recollection of her young sons, suddenly interrupts
witli the mass as no longer to be recognized. The the phrase of the theme " Eh, pourrai-je vivre sant

lower sounds of the hautboys, ungraceful when dis- toi?" to respond to this touching instrumental appeal,
played, may agree with cei'tain wild and lamenting with the heart-rending exclamation " O mes en- ;

harmonies, united to the low notes of the clarinets, fans !

" And
then, the discord of the minor second
and to the low D, E, F, and G of the flutes and in Armida's air on the words " Sauvez raoi de :

corni inglesi. I'amour " (" Save my weak heart from love ") All I

Gluck and Beethoven understood marvellously well this is sublime not only in dramatic thought, in

the use of this valuable instrument. To it they both profound expression, in grandeur and beauty of
owe tiie profound emotions excited by several of melody but also in the instrumentation, and the

their finest pages. I have only to quote, from Gluck, admirable choice of the hautboys from amidst a
the hautboy solo of Agamemnon's air in Iplivjenia throng of instruments, either inadequate, or incap-
in Aidide: " Peuvent-iis," &c. ("Can the harsh able of producing such impresssions :

No. 21. Iphigenia in Aulide. Gluck.
*t Violins.

Ind Violins.

Flutes and



Can the liarsh Fates cdndenin a Fa - tlu!i- to pre-pare the nl - tar liim
Peu-vent - Us or don-ner quun pi: - re de sa main jn-esenle a I'au

Double liasses.

U.^| "-B
: '


self. and plant witli his own liaiids the wre.itli that decks the viL-tini'slnow? Deck my ten der child, mv
/ pa - re du handeau mur - lei le front dCu-ne vie - time et si len-dre et n

I nc, - vcrwill o bcv their in - linnian decree ! I

je n'o - be i - rut point a cei ordre in-humain. Je

ne-vcr will o-!iey their in - hn - man de - cree. 1 hear in each
n'oh(- i - rai point a cet ordre in - hii - main. J'entendi re - ten

throb of my breast the plain - tive cry of outrag'd Na - tare, How she
tir danx vion sein h cri plain - tif de la nu tu - re el It

is more migh
est plus tit


^^ ^^ o- I I
324= -^A


than or - a - dfs pro . nounccd by Fates than or - a - cles pro - noixnced by

que let - ra - cles du rles - tin. que les o - ra - cles du det

Pates. I ne-ver will obey their in - hu - man decree, 1 iie-verwill obey their in-
tin. Je no - h-i- rai point a cet ordre in-humain, Je n'o - b^ - i-rai point a cet


No. 22. Armide. Gluck.


)st Violins. s=j-:3:^j=j^^ f^^^iS^rQ-r,-=5:^^^;^j^

f -
r' V- T

2nd Violins.

i 9-e-


Hornt in F.




$ pit. save my weak lieart from Love, save my weak lieart from Love.
bk S'tu-vez - moi de - Va - monr, suu - vez - mui de I'a - moiir.

^ ^ r -f^-^-f


Beethoven has demaiuled more t'roiu the joyous minor solo of tlie second return of tlie first movemeni
fcccent of the hautboys witness the solo in the
: of the Sympliiiny in A ; andante of
in tiie episodical
scherzo of the Pastoral Sympliony ; tliat in tlie tlie finale to the Eroica Symphony and, above all,

ec'herzo of the Choral Symphony that in ; the first in the air of Fidelio, wiiere Florestan, starving with
uiovenient of the Symphony in Bb. &c. But lie
has no less felicitously succeedeil in assigning tliem
hunger, believes himself,
in lus delirious agony,
surrounded by his weeping family, and mingles liis
Bad or forlorn jiassages. This may be seen in the tears of anguish with the broken sobs of the iiautboy

No. 23. Pastoral Symphony. Bef.tiiov en.


B&ssoons. vS^


^ ^=f=^^^^.=l :^==t

-^=^^' J J I

i -V l; -r r- l==l s^--^ gE^^^^SE

w I




No. 24. Symphony in A Beetkotbn



in .i.

Homs in A.



zjirr d.. M J

--^=W^==^ ^B^^
rg- ^ t^


gPg^ Pizz.
-^-^ *r

No. 2o. Kroica Symjihotty --]\y:i'. i iiovbn

Poco Andante.


Clarinets in Bfr

Ist k 2nd Horns (

in Et>.

3d Horn in El?







*- "^ '^* ' ' eres



No. 2G. /iJfl'io. BiKTHOVKl.

Poco Allegro.
Solo. ^

Horn* in P.

^-^ 5 % ^- ^






~ W 5^
$> 1 j^ E3^^^fH-^^=? 1 I^^EEg^EgE^^Mq^

J- =}r
^ =3?
5 ^-^

> ^ 1
^~ ^^=^=^


Whore am I? how comes it? my

Oil suis -jef quel chamte '
Xt- .Si-

P Dol.

Dim P Dj/.


.. _> ^ ^ ^ I _ ^ S J

heart is re - liev'd what calmness pre - vails o'er my senses an an gel de-
pire en man caeur Quel cal-me sou-dain je res -pi -re mon a me, vwn

m^ ^ ^ a g ^ ^z

-V^^^-^r- ^ :4,' V

sccndeth to watch o'er my woes, and bright - en the pros - pect of ear - ly de-liv'rance.
a -me re-nnit au hon -heur quel e - tre di - vin a mes maux vient sou-ri-re.

t t ?:

M EHfE ii

My wife, my Le - o - no - ra Le - o - no - ra. She smiles thro' the

E - pou - se que j'a - do - re El - le - no - re. c'est toi c'est

darkness she beck' - neth me for - ward. My an gol ! I come I

toi oui Pa - mour vient m'ouvrir . . . m'ou - vrir ce s^-jour.



The CoDW Inglesc. to be written in O ; if U play in D, the conic

inglese should be written in A ; &c.
This instrument is, so to speak, the alto of the What has just been said upon the difficulties of
hautboy, the compass of which it nearly equals. It fingering for the hautboy, in certain groups of
is written on the G clef, like a hautboy in F below; sharpened or flattened notes, applies also to the
and, consequently, a fifth above its real sound. corno inglese rapid passages upon it have a still

worse effect its quality of tone, less piercing, more


Its scale veiled, and deeper than that of the hautboy, does
.0. .0. not lend itself so well as the latter to the gaiety of
|=H5feS3HfHr=fel3:^=i^ rustic strains. Nor can it give utterance to anguished
Fipr^ali^igl complainings accents of keen grief are almost be-

yond its powers. It has a melancholy, dreamy, and

produces for the hearer this rather noble voice, the tone of which possesses a
vague, remote quality that renders it superior to all
zd others in exciting regret, and reviving images and
dT^ - *- With the chromatic
sentiments of the past, when the composer desires
3: J: intervals.
to touch the secret chords of tender memories. M.
Many corni inglesi possess also the low Bt?. Hal6vy has, with extreme felicity, employed two
corni inglesi in the ritornello of Eleazar's air, in the
If the orchestra play in C, the corno inglese ought fourth act of 2%e Jewess.
No. 27. I'm Jewess. II AI.E\Y.


Corni liig'esi.

tiumi ir. P.

isl Bassoon.

Ind Bassoon

ill P.




UOfcbt'*^ lvuu.




m 3^
f* ^- -F FF- E^ ^E^ZJEt
-* Hr
-r-^- g 1 I
^^-^ ;~je ^-p=iE^^^ J I

'^^.ri?^ :- f-r ^^ -F^^ ^^^^i^


i;i2=r=t^rt:r |g..'^3^Spp^=gg^^g^pEg:^i^jZ::5-^ ^7^"7l

lu the Adagio of one of my own symphonies, the of four kettle-drums, daring the silence of all the
coruo inglese, after having repeated in the bass oc- rest of the orchestra. The feelings of absence, of
l&\e the phrases of a hautboy
as the voice of a forgetful ness, of sorrowful loneliness, which arise in
youth might reply to that of a young girl in a pas- the bosoms of the audience on hearing this forsaken
toral dialogue
reiterates fragments of them (at the melody would lack half their power if played by
close of the movement) with a dull accompaniment any other instrument than the corno inglese.

No. 28. Fantastic Symphony. {Scene inthe fields.) BtfeLlOT.

Corno Inglese.

Ut Kettle drums 1st Drummer, drum-

in Bb, high F. stick of sponge.
Two Drummers. 2nd Drummer, do.

2nd Kettle drums

3rd do. do.
in Ab, C.
4th do. do.
Two Drummers.

#^" r -g^

J \


^^g "T-y W

ipp s ^/ /=- ^

The mixture of the low sounds of the corno |

effect was unknown either to Mozart, ^^'ebeT, oi
mglese with the bass notes of tlie ch^rinets and I
IJoetlioven. A magnificent example of it is to be
horns, during a tremolo of double-basses, gives a i loiuxl in tlie duet in the fourth act of tlio //(^(^t/eno^*;
sonority as peculiar as it is novel, and well suited and I tliink M. Meyerbeer is the first wlio caused
to colour, with its menacing impression, ideas it to he lieard on the stage.

ID which fear and sohcitude predominate. This

No. 29.
Thf Jlut/ucnols. M E v e r b k k H.

\-:^,m:^::^mm'^^^ l^Sr.^^:m jtjmzj^mzi.m ^.y*"



Corno Ing.we.

CUrinott in Bp

CUrinet in A.


Ccmets h Pislor
in B:.



DeoEie .>tar


IIIcompositions where the prevailing impression Difficult.

Ls tliat of mehuicholy, the frequent use of the corno tr

inLclese, hidden in the midst of the great mass of

instruments, is quite suitable. Theu, only one
hautboy part nee>l bo written; replacing the second I

by tliat of the corno inglese. Gluck has employed

this instrument in his Italian operas Teleniai'o and
Orpheo ; but without manifest intention, and with-
out much resultant effect. lie never iiitroiluced it
in iiis French scores. Neither Mozart, Beethoven,
nor Weber have used it wherefore, I know not. ;
DilticultTI DifficulTI

Tlic Bassoon.
The bassoon is the bass of the hautboy ; it has a
compass of more tiian three octaves ; and it is written
ncult. [Difficult. i Difficult. I

thus, upon two clefs


All others above Fj are cither bad or impossible.
With <hc Clironiatic Intervals.
This instrument leaves much to desire on the score
l)iit it is more than prudent not to carry itabove the of precision of intonation and would gain, perhajts,

last Bb- I'he keys with whieli it is now-a-days more than any other wind instrument from being
constructed according to Boeiim's system.
provided allow it to give the two low notes,
'I'iie bassoon is of tlie greatest use in tlie orchestra

on numerous occasions. Its sonority is not very

which formerly were out of its reach. Its fingering
great, and its quality of tone, absolutely devoid o/
ih the same as that of the ilute.
brilliancy or nobleness, has a tendency towards tht;
There are many shakes quite impossible for the
bft8K)on, at the two extremes of its scale.
grotesque which should be always kept in mind
when bringing it into prominence. Its low notes
I tr tr tr tr tr tr tr tr 1r
form excellent basses to the whole group of wooden
wind instruments. The bassoon is ordinarily writtet
for in two parts but large orchestras being always

provided with four bassoons, it can then be without

inconvenience writtten for in four real parts; or, still
DifticulT! Impossible. T Difficult.

tr tr


\ tr \ tr

better, in three
the lovs'cst part being doubled an

|gpiPp^^=3-^=|33^fe=^^ octave below, to strengthen the bass. The character

of its high notes is somewhat painful and suffering
would say even miserable but they can sometimes

1 Impossible.'
tr\ tr I
tr tr be introduced into either a slow melody, or passages
of accompaniment, with most sur]n-isiiig effect. Thus
^.z^,:^^i:S^^^^^^^^ the odd little cluckings heard in the scherzo of Beet-
hoven's C minor Symphony, towards the close of the
tr tr tr tr
decrescendo, are solely produced by the somewhat
fe^^si^i^?^^ilii^^^(i^ forced sound of the higli A|7, and the of the G
bassoons in unison :

No. 30. Beetiiuvkw,

Symphony in C minnr
Allegro, t^ = 96 Inio. Sulo.

Horns in Et?.

trUMne. P Pizx.

P Pizx.




Hautboy. Imu
m m

%5|#^^ ^^^feg^d-^aE^i^^^ F
'PP Sempre.

PP Sempre.

!fe ^ r rn r^pT'-K^E r r u^^^=^r=r^f=^r^=r ^i

m'kz ^ ^E| zzf^^r_ |

oz^ ^^^ S r r^g| J i* r H

When M. Meyerbeer, in his resurrection of the T^,

Nuns, wished to find a pale, cold, cadaverons sound,
he, on the contrary, obtained it from the weak middle
iE^"EE^|^g=ti^^ iL;t
notes of the bassoon :

No. 31.
Robert ie Diiible. Meyerbeer.
A ndante.

tSai;oons Soli. and detached, {the sforzandi slightly marked.)

4^-= *EME'Z^i:sc:*EiJ

7-t^^km ^^^^^^^i Rapid passages of bound notes may be successfully

employed they come out well when they are written

keys of the instrument, such as D,

in the favorite
G, F, i?b, -^b, A, and their relative minors.
The following passages produce an excellent effect
in the second act of the Huf/uenots

No. 32.
The //mi/umo/j. MetEiiein




Imo, Solo. ^ Col Vno. 2ndo.

O'arinet in Bb. .^=e ~ E9==


i Horns in Et?.

1 Horn in Bp,

I^ettle- drums
E^and Bt>.

rr^^==pz y * p ~^ z

2 Harpf.

f young girls.

Youiic; maidens fair,

Jennes beaules,


Very soft, legato

D<i>ib'.c bviio.


voiiiig maidens fair, who brave the Fi:n and noon -day heat.
jeunes beauU.^, bra-vent le jour et la cludeur.

The Basson-quinte. above the bassoon as does the corno inglese below the
hautboy. The corno inglese should be written a fifth
The liasson-quinte is a diminutive of the pre-
above the real sound, and the basson-quinte a fifih
ceding; and its pitch is a fifth higlier. It has
below; theretbre the basson-quinte will play in F

al)Out the same compass and, like it, is written upon

when the bassoons play in C, and in G when they

two clefs, lint transposing :

are in D, &c. There is no such instrument in the

generality of orchestras, where the corno inglese re-
places it advantageously in its two upper octaves
(>- ' With the chromatic intervals. Its quality of tone has less feeling, but more force,

^v)l'eh produces in real sounds tlie fdllo wing scale :

than that of the corno inglese, and would be of ex-
cellent effect in military music. It is a great pity
and \cry detrimental to wind instrument bands,
where masses of large and small bassoons might
With the cliromntic intervals. soften tlie harshness of its sound, tliat t!ie bassfjo-

The hasson-quinte occupies the same jiosition quinte should be entirely excluded from them.


2'lu: Double->n. C above the stave, partake only n little of the tart-
This -.iiatriiniciit is to tlie bassoon, what the dou- ness of the hautboy's loud sounds while in eliaracter ;

ole-bass is to tlie viohmcello. Tliat is to say, its

the lower sounds approach, l)y the roughneBS ol
ound is an octave lower than tlie written note. It (heir vibrations, those of certain notes fin the bassoon.
nas sekioiM nu)re tiian tliis con\pass :
'I'he clarinet is written on the clef; and its G
compass in three octaves and a half, or more :

b" " Witli \\w cliromatic intervals. i -^ .i;

" With the chromatic interval
<\"iiich produces in real sounds :-

zd --
^m-iz i: -jz
F=*= rfE=dE
Sve bassa - - loci.
r^] Difficult. Very hazardous.
The two notes of this scale come out with
first Four registers are reckoned on the clarinet : the
difficulty ;
and are very inefl'ective. on account of low. the chalunieau, the medium, and the higii.
their extreme deptii. The first comprises tiiis part of the scale :

It needless to add that this very ponderous


^TT^^ W^^
instrument is only suitable for grand effects of har-
mony, and to basses of a moderate degree of speed.
Beethoven has used it in the finale of his Sym])iionv
The second, this :

in C minor ;
and in that of his Choral
The^e notes are generally dull.
It is very valuable for large wiml instrument bands;

nevertheless, few players oarc to learn it. Occa-

sionally an attempt is made to replace it by the
The third contains the followingr notes
ophicleide, the sound of which has not the same
depth, since it is in unison with the usual bassoon,
and not on the octave below. Moreover, its quality
of tone has no analogy in point of character with that
of the double-bassoon. I think therefore it is better,
And tiie fourth is found in the eraainder of the
in the majority of cases, to do without the double scale n\> to the highest D :

bassoon part than to give it to an oj)hicleide. 2: ;C i=

, -1 .*- -t- -t- -
Simple reed instruments, sucli as the clarinet, and
the corno di bassetto, foi-m a family wiiose connection A considerable number of diatonic successions,
with tiiat of the hautboy is not so near as might be arpeggios and sliakes, formerly impracticable, are
tliought. That which distinguishes it especially, is no longer so, thanks to the ingenious mechanism of
the nature of its sound. The middle notes of the keys added to the instrument. They will become
clarinet are more limpid, more full, more pure than even easy when the system of Sax is adopted by all
double reed instruments, the sound of which
tliose of the manufacturers. It is however jjrudent these
isnever exempt from a certain tartne.s or harshness, improvements not being yet generally adopted not
more or less concealed by the ])layer's skill. The to write such passages as the following, unless the
Vgh sounds of tlie last octave, commencing with tlie movement be verv .>low :-

,^si_^^ i=^__ ^^-T- ^^paSiTS

? J- '- -i dr* i '

' '
-t -* *--


The number of major and minor shakes practicable !k A ^l sA #^

b.:^ij.t^i';.it-:..y: %. iJ-
on the clarinet is considerable. Those which are not
to be played with surety
subjoined scale
are designated in the
Diff. I
Very difficult. I
Diff- I

. Impossible. Imposs. I

"^1 I

Ir \
tr I

:3zz ^3^ , V- ; +^ T- 1 i -^ I -: 1 T-:^.
^=^ 17? |g i??,3i fi?S
Diff. I
Difficult. I
Diff. ~r Diff.
tr tr \ tr \ tr
The favorite keys of the clarinet are the keys of
i^9" at.^ "^-jf^Et P>'3- ^'^- 'K.S:
C, F, G, principally; and then those of B\?, E^.
.4 b, D^ major, and their relative minors. As there
exist clarinets in different keys, their use makes it
Diff. I
Diff. n
tr \
tr \ needless for the performer to play in keys containing

iS^fJ^^" 3?^=^-b?l -tl^ ^^5^^ many sharps and flats; as Ay^, E^, B'Q^, Dp, G|?
major, and their relative minors.

There are four clarinets in general use at present

tr tr tr tr
\ \ \

The small clarinet in ; Ep

to which it is not
well to give a compass beyond three octaves and two
notes :

blflT Diff.
tr I
r tr tr

Diff. Imp. biff. Imp.

tr \ tr \ tr tr
It is a minor third above the clarinet in C, and is
l^ifeil^ilSiPliiSl^ written for by transposing. Thus, to have the fol-
lowing passage

, tr , tr . tr \
tr \ ,
tr , tr , tr \ tr

Diff. Diff. Diff


it must be written

il^ft^^^^=^i Of the
and in A, the two
tlie clarinets in B\f
clarinet in C, and
have a compass equal to
tlie clarinet in C ; but, the one sounding a major
i4>ii|- ?44Mii-'gMI":U= second and the other a minor third lower, their
V Diff. I
Diff. parts should be written in keys so much higher.


in Ut>.

Theae expressions, " good," " bad," " passable," rather than the other from })reference for such and
do not here apply to the difficulty of" execution of such a quality of tone, and not from caprice. To
the phrases themselves but merely to tiiat of the
; persist as some performers do in playing (by
key in which they are written. Moreover, it should transposing) on the clarinet in p, is therefore,
be said that the rather difficult keys,
such as with a few exceptions, faithlessness of execution.

Ah major, and EQ majur, are not to be entirely And this faithlessness becomes more manifest and
shunneil, for simple phrases and for a slow movement. more culpable when, for instance, the clarinet in
It will be seen that, independently of tiie particular A is employed by the composer, who may have
character of their quality of tone
of which we are written for it only to have the low J, which gives
about to speak,
these different clarinets are very
useful as affording facility of execution. It is to be
the a :
Clarinets in A. I
Ral sound
regretted that there are not more still. For instance,
those in the keys of Bti, and of D, which are rarely
to be found, would on numerous occasions offer would the player of the
What, in such a case, clari-
great resources to composers.
net in Bt> ilo, whose low E
gives only the D '!
The clarinet in D is little used, and unduly neg-
lected, for its quality of tone is pure, besides having Clarinet in Bt?.: Real sound :

remarkable power of penetration and on many

occasions excellent effect might be produced by it.

The small clarinet in /' (high), formerly employed He would transjwse the note in the octave and I

in military music, has been almost abandoned for thus destroy the effect, intended by the author I

that iu Eb, which is found, and with reason, to be which is intolerable I

less screamy, and quite sufficient for the keys ordi- It has been said that the clarinet has four registers ;

narily used in wind instrument pieces. Clarinets each of these registers has also a distinct quality of
have proportionately less purity, sweetness, and tone. That of the high register is somewhat tearing,

clearness, as their key is more and more removed and be used only in the fortissimo of the

above that of B\p, whi ,n is one of the finest on orchestra (some very high notes may nevertheless be
the instrument. The clarinet in C is harder than sustained piano, when the effect of the sound lias
that in i?b, and its voice has much less charm. been jjroperly jiropared) or in the bold passages of

a brilliant solo. Those of the chalumeau and medium

The small clarinet in ^fbas piercing tones, which
registers are suited to melodies, to arpeggios, and to
it is very easy to render mean, beginning from tlie
smootii passages and the low register is appropriate
A above the stave. Accordingly it has been em- ;

ployed, in a modern symphony, in order to parody,
particularly in the holding notes to those coldly
tlirtatfninij effects, those dark accents of motionleits
degrade, and biackguardize (if I may be pardoned
rage which Weber so ingeniously invented. If it
the expression) a melody; the dramatic intention
this strange transformation.
be desired to cnqiloy with salient effect the piercing
of the work requiring
cries of the extreme upper iK)tes, and if a too sudden
The small clarinet in F
has a still more marked ten-
advent of the dangerous note be dreaded on the
dency of the same kind. In projiortion as the instru-
performer's account, the introduction of the clarinet
ment becomes lower, it produces, on the contrary,
should be hidden beneath a loud chord from i\\i
scunds more veiled and more melancholy.
Generally speaking, performers should use only

whole of the orchestra, which ceasing the moment
Each of the clarinet sound has had time to settle firndy and
ihe instruments indicated by the author.
these mstniments having a particular character, it is

become clear leaves it then fully displayed with-
chosen one out danger:
<<t least probable that the composer has

Clarinei in Bb


> J yy Kettle-drums. ''' //'Kettle-drunis.^-'/

The occasions tor appi'ujn-iately inserting these the perusal of ancient epic poems. This beautiful
extremely high holding notes are very rare. soprano instrument, so ringing, so rich in penetrating
The character of the sounds of the medium
register, imbued with a kind of loftiness tempering
accents, when employed in masses, gains, as a solo,
in delicacy, fleeting nuancea, and mysterious
a noble tenderness, render them favorable for the tenderness, what it loses in force and powerful l)ril-
expression of sentiments and ideas the most poetic. lianey. Notiiing is so virginal, so pure, as the tint
Frivolous gaiety, and even perhaps artless joy, seem imparted to certain melodies by the tone of a clarinet
ulone unsuited to them. The clarinet is little ap- ]ilayed in themedium by a skilful performer.
propriate to the Jdyl ; it is an epic instrument, like It the one of all the wind instruments which

horns, trumpets, and trombones. Its voice is that of can best breathe forth, swell, diminish, and die away
heroic love and if masses of brass instruments, in
: its sound. Thence the precious faculty of producing
grand military symi)honies, awaken the idea of a distance, echo, an echo of echo, and a twilight sc^und.
warlike troop covered with glittering armour, march- What more admirable example could I quote of the
ing to glory or death, numerous unisons of clarinets, application of some of these nvances, than the
heard at the same time, seem to represent loving dreamy phrase of the clarinet, accompanied by a
.vomen, witli their proud eyes and deep affection, tremolo of stringed instruments, in the midst of the
whom the sound of arms exalts who sing while ; Allegro of the overture to Freyschiitz ! Does it
fighting, and who crown the victors, or die with the not depict the lonely maiden, the foresters fair be-
defeated. I have never been able to hear military trothed, who, raising her eyes to heaven, mingles
music from afar, without being profoundly moved her tender lament with the noise of the dark woods
by that feminine quality of tone in the clarinets. agitated by the storm ? Weber ! I

wid struck by images of this nature, just as after

No, Der FretjKcfiuiz Weber.
Aloltn Vivace. f f I^^S
Flute " "

Hautboy i!.

Clar. in Bt?.

Horns in EC*.

Horns in C.

Kass ons.



V iolas.

duo. Afolto vitdcf,

I take leave a>_'ain to quote, from my Monodnime, caused the instrument to be enveloped in a leathei
the effect
if not similar, yet analogous
of a clari- bag, which serves as a " mute." The mournful
net air. the fragmenift ui which, interrupted by rests, murmur, and half-stifled sound of the boIo, repeat-
are also accompanied by a tremolo of a portion of ing a melody previously heard in another move-
the stringed instruments, while the double-basses ment, has always forcibly struck the hearers. This
play pizzicato an occasional low note, producing be- shadow of music gives birth to sorrowful dejection,
neath the harmony a heavy pulsation, and a harp and provokes tears, more than the most dolorous
mtroduccs bits of scarcely-heard arpeggios.
But in accents. It excites melancholy as much as the
this case, in omier to give to the
sound of the clarinet trembling harmonies of the ^Eolian Harp.
aa accent as vague and remote as possible, I have

(Mvnodrame.) Leiio ou Ic retour a la vie.

H. Berlioz.

con sordini.

con tortlini

The instrument ihould be wrapped in a bag of cloth or leatbar.


a Teputo. a Tempo.

^-^^ '-rr-d-m-m=i-m'i
poco f ,

Ea5= -r

tnf^ ip


Sempri: /;|2 z

Beetlioven, bearini^ in mind the melancholy and

noble character of the melody in major ol the
immortal Andante in his Ttli Symphony, and in order
the better to render all that this phrase contains at
^^^=^^^i^i^ii ke.

the same time of passionate regret, lias not faiieil to

consi-u it to the clarinet. Glnck. for the ritonicU'^
of Al'ceste's air, " Ah, malgre moi, &c ," had at first v(i. III ch'n-mantP E rij - phi k.

written a flute ;but, ])erceiving doubtless that the doi'd the cliainiing E - vy - phi - le.

quality of tone of this instrument was too weak, ar.d

Substitute two hautboys for the two clarinets, and
lacked the nobleness necessary to tlie delivery of a
tlie effect will be destroyed.
theme imbued with so much desolation and mournful
grandeur, gave it to the clarinet. The clarinets wanting, liowever,
This delicious orchestral effect is
again play, simultaneously with the voice, that other
in the i)rinted score of Sacchini's chef d'ceuvre but ;

air of Alceste, replete with sorrowful resignation, representation,,

I liave too often remarked it in the
" Ah, divinit^s implacables."
not to feel certain of my memory.
An effect of another kind results from three slow
notes of the clarinets in thirds in the air of Gidipus, Neither Sacchini, nor Gluck, nor any of the great
" Votre cceur devint mon asile." It is after the con-
masters of that time availed themselves of the low
clus'ion of the theme, that Polynice, before beginning I cannot guess the reason.
notes of tlie instrument.
his air, turns towards the daughter of Theseus,^ and Mozart appears to be the first wlio bronglit tliem int^'>
adds, as he looks at her, "Je coi^nus, &c." These
use for accompaniments of a serious cliaracter, such
two clarinets in thirds, descenUing softly previous to as that of the trio of masks, in Don (riovaniii. It
the conmiencement of the voice part, at the moment was reserved for Weber to discover all that is terri-
when the two lovers interchange a tender regard, ble in the quality of tone of these low sounds, svhen
have an excellent dramatic meaning, and produce an eiiiplovcd in sustaining sinister harmonies. It is
exquisite musical result. The two instrumental betterj in such a case, to write them in two parts,
voices are here an emblem of love and
than to place the clarinets in unison or in octave.
Listening to them, one almost sees Eryphile^ mo-
destly casting down her eyes. It is admirable '. I'lie more numerous the notes of the harmony, the

more striking will be the effect. If there be three

clarinets at disposal for the chord, Cj^, E, i/t?, f('r
-:0^==^= instance, this diminished seventh well worked, well
-M=^^ introduced and instrumented in that way, would have
a fearful aspect, which might be further rendcreii
Polynice. gloomy, by adding '4ow double (J given to a la-^s-
Je con nits j " - <'" eiar'ni.'t


It is a very beautiful instrument, stnd one regrel'

ClMiret in C not to find it in all well-constituted orchestras.

The Bass Clarinet,

Clannet in C.
Lower than the preceding, is an octave belov

the clarinet in Bp ; there is another in C, however

(an octave below the clarinet in C) bnt that in 7ib ;

is much more usual. As it is always the same

constructed o larger dimensions, as
the ordinary clarinet, its compass remains much the
same. Its reed is a little weaker and more covered
than that of the other clarinets. The bass clarinet
is evidently not destined to re|)Iace in the upper notes

Tlie Alto Clarinet the high clarinets but, certainly, to extend their

compass below. Nevertheless, very beautiful effects

Is no other than a clarinet in F (low)
or in E\^
result from doubling, in the octave below, the high
(low) ; and consequently is a fifth below the clarinets
notes of the B\> clarinet, by a bai* clarinet. It is
in C or in B\?, of which it has the whole compass.
written, like other clarinets, on the G clef :

It is written tlierefore, in transposing, either a fifth,

or a sixth major above the real sound.

Bass Clarinet
Alto Clarinet in Bf.
in F.

Effect in real
Effect in real sounds.

The best notes are the lowest ones but, owing to ;

the slowness of the vibrations, tliey should not be

made to follow each other too rapidly. M. Meyer-
beer has caused the bass clarinet to utter an eloquent
monologue in the trio of the fifth act of The

No. 86. Les Huguenots. MEYERBEEa

Marcel ^fe
Bass Clarinet
in Bf.

-- -mi

Do you know, as I join your hands in this mya

Sa-vez - vous qu'en joi-gnant voz mains dans ces te -

SEn^-a is^^^^g
tc - rious place, thus 1
^^con - se - crate ye, . thus your entrance I bless in - to bonds of so -

bres je con - sa - ere et bi - nis . . le ban - qtiet des a - dieuz et Jm -io - oei /v -


Valentine. 'PPP

According to the manner of writing for it, and Improvements in Clarinets.

the talent of the performer, this instrument may The manufacture of these instruments, which
borrow tlie wild quality of tone which distinguishes remained long almost in its infancy, is now-a-
for so
the bass notes of the ordinary clarinet, or the calm, days in a state of progress that cannot fail to bring
solemn, and sacerdotal accent belonging to certain the most valuable results. Already great advance has
registers of the organ. It is therefore of frequent been made by M. Adolphe Sax, the skilful and ac-
and fine application ; and moreover, if four or five complished Parisian manufacturer. By sliglitly
be employed in unison, it gives a rich and excellent elongating the tube of the clarinet towards the bell,
sonority to the wind instrumentb of the orchestral he has caused it to gain an additional semitone below
bass. and consequently it can now produce the Ep or Di.
The Corno di Bassetto The Bt? of the medium, -(^ ^f^d^ which was bad
Would no otherwise differ from the alto clarinet in
on the old clarinet, one of the best notes on tha
F {low) than by the little brass bell mouth which
modern instrument.

The following shakes :

prolongs its lower extremity, were it not that it

has the faculty of descending chromatically as far
the C, a tliird below the lowest note of the clari-
net : --W^^
Corno di bassetto. the arpeggios of F to F, a^Ezr^zEr^jr^^Tyff

and numerous other formerly impossible passages,

I] jT -^^-i-*"*" With 'he chroraalic intervals.
have now become easy and of good effect. It is
Keal sounds. b:! well known that the notes of the high register are the
dread of composers and performers, who dare to use
them very seldom, and only with extreme precaution.
The notes which extend above this compass are Thanks to a little key placed close to the mo'jtb-piece
of the clarinet, M. Sax has rendered these oounds as
very hazardous nor is there any good reason for

employing them, since the high clarinets yield pure, as smooth, and almost as easy, as those of the
them without difficulty, and with much more
purity. medium. Thus the double lip, -^ rr- which
Like those of the bass-clarinet, the low notes of
the conio di bassetto are the finest and the most
composers hardly ventured to write, comes out from
marked in character. It should be observed, how-
the clarinets of M. Sax without urging, or prepara-
ever, that all those below the E,
tion, or effort, on the part of the performer; it may
be played pianissimo without the least danger, and
-=a. =3= it is at least as sweet as that of tb.e flute. As a
rt. remedy against the obstacles arising from the too
f.Tn only be emitted slowly, and by detaching them great dryness or too great moisture necessarily
one from another. A
passage like the following induced by the uso of wooden mouth-pieces, accord-
would not be practicable :
ing as the instrument may have remained some days
Alleyretlo. without being played, or, on the contrary, have been
too long used, M. Sax has given to the clarinet a
mouth-piece of gilt metal, which enhances the i)ril-
liancv of its tone, and is free from the drawbacks
to which wooden mouth-pieces are sui)ject. This
this fine instrament in two parts
Mozait has used clarinet has more compass, more equalness, more
fordarkening the colour of his liarmonies in his facility, and more precision than the old one wliile ;

Mequicm ; and has assigned to it some important the fingering remains the same, excepting that if. is
solos in his opera, La (Jlemenza di 2\to.
in some respects simplified.


M. Adolplie yax's new bass chniiwf is still more two semitones below and tiiree ibove, which give*; ,

feiproved. It has 22 keys.Tliat wiiicli especially three complete octaves :

rtistingiiislies it from the old one is its perfect pre- Very I

tision of intonation, an equalized temperament liard.!

throughout the chromatic scale, and a greater

intensity of tone.
As its tube is very long, the bell of the instru-
ment, the performer standing upright, nearly touches With the chromatic intervals.

the ground; hence an unfortunate smothering of the However, as all performers have not the key,
sound, hail not the skilful fabricator thought of that is to say, the little metalic valves which give
remedying this by means of a concave metallic
reflector, which, placed lieneath the bell, prevents
to the flute the low and CQ. it is better, in
the majority of cases, to abstain from tiiese two notes
the sound from being lost, directs it at will, and in writing for the orchestra. The two last high
considerably augments its voi'jne.
soimds ^tj, C, should not be employed pianis-
The basn-clarinets of M. Sct. are in Bt?. simo, on account of a certain difficulty which at-
tends their emission, and their rather harsh sounds
Wind Instkuaients without Ref.ds. b

The Flute. The Bp, on the contrary, -, conies out

Tliis instrument, which long time remained
for a
.mperfect in very many respects, is now, thanks to without trouble and may be sustained as piauo.aa ;

the skill of certain manufucturers, and to the system desired, without the least danger. The number of
of fabrication pursued by Bcehni, according to tlie notes on which shakes may be made were rather
discovery of Gordon,
as complete, as true, and of restricted in the old flute but, thanks to the keys ;

as equal a sonority as could be desired. added to the modern one, the major and minor ehake
All wood wind instruments, moreover, will soon is practicable upon a large portion of its chromatic
be in the same condition. One can understand that scale :-

their truth of intonation could not be irreproachable

under the old system far from it since their holes ;

ir \


were always pierced according to tlie natural stretch

of the performer's fingers, and not according to the 5-r^=^"?i5^5^^fe^'
rational division of the sound-tube
a division based
upon the laws of resonance, and decided by the focus
of vibration. Gordon, and after him, Boehm, began
by piercing the holes of their wind instruments at
tlie exact points of the tube indicated by the Jihysi-
I !

tr I

;al principle of resonance, without paying regard to

the facility, or even the possibility of placing the
fingers of the hand upon tliem assured as they
; Diff.
tr tr tr\ tr tr tr tr tr tr
were of being able to accomplish this at last in one
- ,
. , ^ \ \ \

way or other.
The instrument once pierced and rendered true by
this proceeding, they invented a mechanism of keys
and rings placed in certain spots were the per-
them, and serving
foraier's fingers could easily reach
to open aad which were beyond the
close those holes
command of the fingers. By this means the old =:3.zl--\z-===i:=.\=.-=E=.-tLz=.-.-=E==^zs,zi
fingering necessarily became changed and the per- ;

formers had to commence new methods of practice :


but this difficulty soon being surmounted, and the Sves'

new instruments offering such ample compensation, ., , I
tr . ir \ tr \ tr ^ \
tr i^^ ^tr L J tr

we have no doubt that in a few years, the exam])le

spreading ever more and more, wooden wind in- I
Imposs. I
Diff. I
Diff. |
Very diff.

struments, constructed on Gordon's and Boehm's

system, will bare entirely superseded the old
The flute, a lew years ago, had only the following
oompags :

With the chromatic intervals.

Icpoij. ImprisM
There have been successively added to this scale I

Withflutes coustnicted upon Boelun's method, notes, and in sustaining high sounds useful in th*
jliakesare practicable on the notes of the very ex- orchestra for adding fullness to the upper harmonies
treme upper part of the scale and from tlie Dt?
Generally speaking, this is true nevertheless, ot

below up to tlie highest (/ ; moreover, tlioy are studying the instrument carefully, tiiere may b(
incomparably more true of intonation. discovered an expression peculiar to it, and an apti-
The ilute is the most agile of all the wind instru- tude for rendering certain sentiments, in whi(di no
ments it is equally suited to rapid passages (dia-
; other instriinient can couipete witli it. If, fur
tonic or chromatic) slurred or detached, to arpeggios, instance, it were requisite to give to a sad air an
and even to very extended passages iiUe this : accent of desolation, but of humility and rosignatioi'
at the same time, the feeble sounds of the flute's
medium, in the keys of C
minor and D
minor espe-
cially, would certainly produce the desired eft'ect.
One master only, seems to me to have known how
Also, to iterated notes, liice those played staccato
to avail iiimself of this pale colouring and he is

which are obtained by double- Oluck. On listening to the melodramatic movement

on the violin ;

tonguini) in l> minor, which he has placed in the Klysian

fields scene of Orfeo, it will be at once seen that
Alltgro a flute oidy could fittingly utter this melody. A
hautboy woulil have been too puerile, and its voice
would not have seemed sufficiently pure the como ;

inglese is too low; a clarinet would doubtless have

answered better ; but certain soimds would have
been too powerful
none of its softest notes could
have reduced themselves to the feeble, faint, veilefl
sound of the i^ natural of the medium, and of the
The keys of D, O, C\ F, A, E^, B\?, E\>: and first yyp above the lines, which imparts so much
their relative minors, are the iavorite keys of the sadness to the flute in this key of D
minor, where
flute the others are greatly more difficult.
; flute A these notes frequently occur. In short, neither the
of Boehm's, on the contrary, can be played in 1)[) violin, the viola, nor the violoncello, used in solo or
almost as easily as in Z>3. in masses, would serve to express this very sublime
The sound of this instrument is sweet in the me- lament of a suffering and despairing departed spirit.
dium, rather piercing in the high notes, and very It required precisely the instrument selected by the
characteristic in the low <mes. The quality of tone author. And Gluck's melody is conceived in suet
of the medium, and of that of the high portion, has a way that the flute lends itself to all the uneasy
not a very special or decided expression. It may writhings of this eternal grief, still imbued with the
be employed in melodies, or accents of varied cha- })assions of earthly life. It is at first a voice scarcely
racter l)ut without eqiuiUing either the artless gaiety
; audible, which seems being overheard then
to fear ;

of the iiautlioy, or the noble tenderness of the cla- it laments softly, rising into the accent of reproach,
rinet. It should seem then that the flute is an in- then into that of j)rofound woe, the cry of a heart
strument well-nigh devoid of exp.ressioij but which torn by incurable wounds, then falling little by little
may be introduced anywhere and everywhere, on into complaint, regret, and the sorrowing murmur of
account of its facility in executing groups of rapid a resigned soul. What a jxjet I

No. 3G

Single Flute.

1st Violins.


notes, B\p, A\?, O, F, and E\}, in flutes, have, thus

1st Flute. grouped, something of the sonorousness of the
harmonica. Thirds of hautboys, corni inglesi, or
clarinets, do not resemble them.
2inl Flute.
The low sounds of the flute are seldom, or else ill,
employed by the majority of composers. Weber, in
An effect remarkablefor its sweetness is tliat of two numerous passages of the Freyschritz, and, before
flutes playing, in the medium, successions of thirds him, Gluck, in the religious march in Alceste, have
in b or in Ap
both being keys extremely favor- nevertheless shown what may he done with it in
able to the velvet sounds of this instrument. Beau- harmonies imbued with seriousness and thought.
tiful examples of this are to be found in the chorus
These bass notes, as I have already said, mingle
of Priests in the first act of (Edipus: " vous, que admirably with the low sounds of corni inglesi and
I'innocence meme," and in the cavatina of the duet clarinets; they give the softened shade of a dark
in the Vestah : " Les Dieux prendront pitie." The colouring :

Aictste. Gluck.




Col. ViKi. I mo

F - ^ 8^ fi *^ :-

^^ ^=fEE=
i< :^ ^ -^.- _o
cr ^.^?

*:* I


Another instcanco of this occurs in the ux.-imple hence results that they predominate, instead oi
quoted from \Veber"s Freyschniz (page 35). Tliere blending with the whole; and thus the instrumenta-
is something ineffably dreamy in these low holding tion becomes hard and piercing rather than sonorous
notes of the two flutes, as, during her melancholy and harmonious.
prayer, Agatha contemplates the summits of tlio Flutes form a family of themselves
like hautboys

trees silvered by the rays of the night planet.

and clarinets and are quite as numerous. The large
In general the modern masters keep their flutes flute of which mention has just been made is the
too constantly in the high range; they seeui afraid most used. For ordinary orchestras no more than two
that these instruments will not be suiiiciently dis- parts for the large flute are written ; nevertheless soft
tinguished amidst the mass of the orchestra. It chords held on by three flutes would often have an


excellent effect. A clianiiing result is produced by the ])eculiarity of their feeble tone, it is better to
the associatini\ of a single flute aliove, with four rejjlace them by their corresponding sounds in the
violins a high harmony in five parts. second octave of the large flute.
Notwithstanding tlie prevailing custom for which Piccolo flutes are strangely abused now -a-days
there however of always giving to the
is reason, as is the case with all instruments whose vibrations
first highest notes of the harmony, there
flute the tiirill, ])ierce, or flash forth. In [)ieces of a joyou?
are many occasions in which a contrary plan might chaiacter, the sounds of the second octave,
be pursued with success.

The Piccolo Flute.

lUMV be very suitable, in all their gradations while
It is an octave higher tlinn the preceding :

the njiper notes,-

are excellent (fortissimo) for violent and tearing

Kffect :

effects : in a storm, for instance, or in a scene of

fierce or infernal character. Thus, the piccolo flute
It has the same compass, always excepting the figures incomparably in the fourth movement of
Heethoven's Pastoral Symphony
now alone and
double high C, -r-, which comes out with displayed, above the low tremolo of violas and basses,
inntating the whistlings of a tempest whose full force

great difficulty, and with a sound almost insufferalile

is not yet unchained
now on the higlier notes still,
together with the entire mass of the orchestra.

GlucU, in the tempest of Iphiqenia in Tauride, has

8o that it should never be written. The BQ, -^^ r shown how to make the high sounds of the ))iccolo
flutes in unison grate still nnu-c roughly, by writing
is of exceeding hardness, and can only be eni])loycd them in a succession of sixths, a fourth above the
in a fortismma of the whole orchestra. It is almost first violins. The sound of the piccolo flutes issuing
useless, by contrary reason, to write the notes of out in the upper octave produces therefore a suc-
the lower octave, since they would be scarcely cessi<ju of elevenths with the first violins, the
heard, and, uidess for an effect to be produced by harshness of which is here of the very best effect

No. 38. Pastoral Si/niphoiiy. li tF-'lKoVKN.


Piccolo Flute.

-hyUaa n
^* V * g^ 1-

^1 [;&z=3 ZI^^ [


ill H17.





t^^^vwcr ' ipr--r-W- *- JJ T

^^^- r - T ^C '


Ipbigt'iita %n Tutt'lCe. -OLl c c


Large Flvits.

fvo HiccoU. <-e-



g- f

: cj^
tst Hautboy.

2nd Hautboy.

Clarinets in C.

Horns and
Trumpets in D.


Viola. -^
Violino Imo,

__ ?
-^^^^- ^i 1^ -

*=- o- F-=*
r-> 1:



Jn the chorus of Scytliians in tlie same opera {Tphi- worthy, generally speaking, of the nelodic Rtylv to
genia in Ttuiritlf), the two piccolo flvites double in the which it is applied.
octave tiie little grouped passagesof the violins; these The piccolo flute may have a very happy effect in
whistlins? notes,mingled with the ravings of the savage soft passages and it is mere prejudice to think that

troop, with the measured and incessant din ofthe cym- it sliould only be played loudly. Sometimes it serves
bals and tamhourine, make one shiver. (See Ex. 64.) to continue the high scale of the large flute, by
Everyone has remarked the diabolic sneer of the succeeding the latter at the moment when it reaches
two piccolo flutes in thirds, in the drinking song of high notes beyond its command. The passing from
the FreyscJiuf:. It is one of Weber's happiest one instrument to the other may then be easily
orchestral inventions : managed by the composer in such a way as to makfr
it appear that there is oidy one flute of extraordin.ary


^ Piccolo Flute
. . 1 i*^--i

. . . .

Spontini, in his magniflcent bacchanalian strain in

the Dana'idcs (since become an orgy chorus in
JVurmahal) first conceived the idea of uniting a
short piercing cry of the piccolo flutes to a stroke of
the cymbals. The singular sympathy discovered
Large Flute.
between these very dissimilar instruments had not A charming instance of this device occurs in a
been thought of before. The
and rends
effect cuts plirase played pianissimo on a low holding note of
instantaneously, like the stab of a poignard. This the stringed instruments, in the first act of Auber's
effect is very characteristic
even when employing ojiera, Lf Dieii ct la licnjaderc.

only the two instrun.ents mentioned hut its force is;

In military music advantageous use is made of
augmented by an abrupt stroke of the kettle-drums, three other flutes, which might be very serviceable
ioined to a brief chord of all the other instruments. in ordinary orchestras; these are:
Firstly, Tlw tierce flute (said to be in F). of
whicii tiie C makes jg/b, and which should from all
Piccolo Flutes.
that has been said in commencing this chapter be
classed among transposing instruments in Eb- It
is exactly a minor third above the ordinary flute

from which it differs only in that particular, and in

'lautbnys and
Clarinets. its more crystalline qualify of tone.

Horns and
Trumpets in D. ,,_|JeJe-^-^

^^-^J^Fgft^^- ::
Wooden drumsticks
Kettle drums.
l^^^>HEE^^[^ZE^^ Secondly, llie minor ninth piccolo Jinte (said to
be in Fp), the C of which makes Db and which
ff accordingly may be classed among the transposing

the sound.

Cymbals. -r instruments in Dp. It is a semitone higher than

the octave piccolo flute ; and it should be similarly
ff //
-r-. treated :

Violins and
Violas. --V '^ * *
ff * C^ r fe^^^^Epf=?l|
8as-es and
=^' __ _^-_^P^*--_ _^^
ff Effect.

These different examples, and others that I could

cite, appear to mc admirable in every respect. Thirdly, Tlie tenth piccolo Jlute (said to be in F)^
Beethoven, Gluck, Weber, and Spontini have thus of which the C makes ; E^
'ind which we will call
aiade ingenious use
no less original than rational tenth piccolo flute in E\?. It is an octave above the
of the piccolo flute. But when I hear the instru- minor third flute, and a tenth above the ordinary
ment employed in doubling in triple octave the air flute :
oi a baritone, or casting its squeaking voice into the
midst of a religious harmony, or strengthening and
for the sake (jf noise only the high
part of the orchestra from beginning to end of the
act of an opera, I cannot help feeling this mode
nf tnstrunieiitatiiin to be 3 ))latitude and stupidity
; :


It should not be niide to go above the high The compass of the instrument is indefinite ; il
A. varies with its dimension,
which is ordinarily de-
^., and even thij note is excessively piercing, signated by the length in feet of the pipe forndng

ind comes out with difficulty.
the lowest note of the key-board. Thus they say
an organ of thirty-two feet, of sixteen, of eight, or
of four feet.
Some orchestras also possess a large minor second An instrument which possesses, with the lowest
fiute, of wliich tlie C makes Dp
which should be

of thirty -ttvo feet an open
stop called openjlute
called flute in DV, and of which the diapason is only
flute ofsixteen feet, an open flute of eight feet, a
fi semitone higher than that of the ordinary flute.
Prestant, or open flute of four feet, and the Principal
which sounds the octave above the preceding, haf
the immense compass of eight octaves:

Compass of 32 feet.

All these flutes, which concur in increasing the
2 octaves lower .... l octave lower

high comj)as8 of the instrument, and of which the
qualities of tone are variously characterised, are
useful, moreover, in rendering the execution more
asy, and in preserving to the flute its sonorousness, Compass of 16 feet.
by allowing it to play in one of its l)rilliant keys,
while the orchestra is written in one of its duller
keys. It is evidently much more advantageous, for
8ve hasKA.
bassa. ..._.*. lorn.
a piece in Eufor instance, to prefer the ninth minor

piccolo flute in Dp, to the octave piccolo flute ; be-
cause the former of these plays in the key of D,
which is mucli easier and more full-sounding.
It is a pity that the FlUte d'amour should have Compass of 8 feet.
been allowed to fall into disuse its diapason was a

minor third below the ordinary flute (in A, therefore).

isEd^^zi^l^^E^ ^=S=rH:

i^^^^i^^^ Compass of the Prestant of 4 feet.
This completes the low-compassed family of the
instrument (which might be made, however, as nu-
merous a family as that of the clarinets, if needful)
and its soft smooth quality of tone might be of ex-
cellent effect, either for contrasting with the quality
of high flutes or hautboys, or for giving greater body
and depth of colour to those harmonies already so ^^ii^=^^^
which result from the bass notes of flutes, Compass of the Principal.
corni inglesi, and clarinets.
-^ -&--(-

Wind Instruments with Key-boards.

-z>-- :
The Organ* 8r9.

Is an instrument with a key-board and pipes of

-wood and of metal, made to vibrate by means of the ,_^^fL:j:i:
wind sent through them from bellows.
P t=i ^^ 1
The number, greater or less, of series of pipes of With all the Chromatic Intervals.

different kinds and different dimensions possessed

These five stops as may be seen have each four
by an organ, gives it a proportional variety of stops, octaves but many others among those of which we

by means of which the organist can change the shall presently speak, have only three, or even two.
quality of tone, the power of sound, and the compass At the present time, organ-builders give five notes
of the instrument. higher to their key-boards. The compass above is
The mechanism by means of which, on drawing
out a little piecj of wood, the organist makes such thus extended, chromatically, up to F,
and such a stop speak, is called a register.
[ What is here said upon the organ refers to Continental organs, A large organ generally possesses five key-bogjJs
tnJ therefore applies bat psrtiallj to the organ in this country.
one above another.


The first nearest to the organist is the choir- Among the reed stops, we will only specify the
organ key-board (le clavier du I'ositif). following :

The second, that of tiie great organ. First, the bombarde a stop of great power, which

The third is the bombarde key-board. is played on a sejjarate key-board, or on tiie pedal.
The fourth, the recitative key-board. Its first pipe is sixteen-feet and it is in unison with

the echo key-board.

'I'he fifth, the open sixteen-feet.
There is, moreover, a sixth key-board placed in Second, the trumpet stop which sounds the uni-

such a manner as to be put in action by the feet of son of tlie eight-feet pipe, and cousecjuenlly the high
ihe performer; and for this reason it is called the octave of the bombarde.
pedal key-board. This is dedicated to tlie lowest Third, the clarion stop ; the iiigh octave of the
notes of the organ. It has only the two octaves at trumpet stop.
the lower end, and often even lacks certain notes of Fourth, the Cremona stop ; the unison of the
these. Many of the stops the eight-feet stops, for trumpet stop, but less brilliant it is always placed
occurring at the same time on the three in the choir-organ.

key-boards of the great organ, the choir-organ, and Fifth, tlio vox hvmuna stop
; which sounds the
the pedal, may be doubled or tripled. eight-feet pipe, and placed in the great organ.
The stops of the organ are divided into mouth Sixth, the hautboy stop ; which sounds in uuisoa
tops, and reed stops thus named, the first, from
; with the trumpet stop. It has usually the upper
a sort of open mouth
at one of the extremities, octaves only btit it is completed by means of the

serving for the formation of the sound, and the bassoon stop, which furnishes the two other octaves.
second, from a little tongue of brass placed also at These diiferent stops imitate tolerably well in their
the extremity, producing a peculiar quality of tone. quality of tone the instruments whose names they
The mouth stops are divided into foundation or bear. There are organs which possess many others,
octave stops, and mutation stops. The foundation such as the corno stop, the trombone stop, &c.
stops are open or closed the closed stops
; called Every organ should have a draw-stop which serves

bourdons are an octave below the open pipes of the for the principal sounds, which corresponds with the
same size. whole of the key-board, and which, for tiiis reason,
The mutation stops have this peculiarity, that is called the Principal.

they give above each sound, its third, its fifth, its The fingering of the organ is the same as that of
tenth, in such a way as to represent, by the action of the pianoforte,
with this difference that the emis-
everal small pipes, the aliquot parts or harmonics of sion of the sounds being less instantaneous, such
the large pipes. Organ manufacturers and organists rapid successions cannot be executed as on the
agree in finding excellent the effect produced by this pianoforte the mechanism of the key-l)oard, more-

multiplied resonance, which, however, decidedly over, obliging the organist to press his Hultits more
causes several different keys to be heard at once. upon each key. This instrument possesses the power
They say, " it would be insufferable, if the higher of sustaining the sounds as long as may be desired
sounds were distinguished but they are not heard,
it is therefore more suited than any otlier to the

the lowest sound absorbing them." It remains to be bound style that is to say, to that in which tl

explained how tliat which is not hard can produce harmony makes the most frequent use of suspensioni
a good effect to tlie ear. At any rate, this singular and prolongations, and of oblique movement. Ir,
proceeding will always tend to give the organ the my opinion, however, this is no reason for invariably
harmonic resonance which is vainly sought to be remaining within the limits of this style. Music for
avoided in horizontal grand pianofortes and which, ;
the organ is sometimes written upon three lines the ;

to my thinking, is one of the worst defects in sono- two upper ones for the hands, and the under one for
rity occasioned to this instrument by modem im- the pedal key-board.
The organ seems able like the pianoforte, and
Among the mutation stops are reckoned, the gros
even better to present itself in the instrumental
nazard, which sounds the fifth of the eight-feet open heirarchy under two aspects as an instrument :

flute. belonging to the orchestra, or as being in itself a
The grosse tierce, which sounds the fifth of the complete and independent orchestra. It is doubtless
Prestant. possible to blend the organ with the divers consti-
The onzifeme de nazard, which is in unison with tuent elements of the orchestra, and this has been
the Principal. many times done but it is strangely derogatory to

The tierce, sounding the third above the Principal. the majestic instrument to reduce it to a -econdary
The furniture, or ploin jeu, which consists of three place. Moreover, it sliouid be felt that the smooth,
ranks of pipes, and of seven ranks of aliquot pipes equal, and uniform sonorousness of the organ, never
the one with the other. entirely melts into the variously characterized sound*
The cymbal, which differs from the furniture stop, of the orchestra, and that there seems to exist between
only by its pipes being less thick. these two musical powers a secret antipathy. The
The cornet, a very brilliant stop, of two octaves, Organ and the Orcliestra are both Kings or rather, ;

and of five only plays in the upper

ranks of pipes ; it one is Emperor, the other Pope their mission is ;

part. Large organs possess three cornet stops, one not the same their interests are too vast, and too

on the choir-organ, another on the great organ, and diverse, to be confounded together. Therefore, on
a third on the recitative key-board. almost all occasions when this singular connociion


IS atl(;m})ted, eitlier the organ much predoniiiiates and awe-striking; but it is not in its Tiatare vc
over tlip. having been
orchestra, or the orchestra, deliver tliem in rapid succession. It cannot there-
raised to an immoderate degree of influence, ahnost fore, like the orchestra, .suddenly pass from I'iano
eclipses its adversary. to Forte, or from Forte to F'udw. Imjirovements
The the organ seem alone suitable for
soft stops of recently introduced into its construction enable it
accompanying the in general, the organ is
voice, by the successive employment of different f<tops in
formetl for absolute dominion it is a jealous and ; conjunction
to produce a sort of crescendo and ;

intolerant instrument. In one case only, it seems then bring in a decrescendo by withdrawing them
to me, can the organ, without dercgation, mingle in the same order. But the gradation and re-
with the choir and orchestra; but even tlien gradation obtained by this ingenious method dc
on condition of itself remaining in solemn isolation. not admit of the intermediate shades which give
For example, if a mass of voices placed in the so much force to these fluctuations of the orchestra.
choir of a cliurch, at a great distance from the organ,
There is always felt more or less tlie operation ol
interrupted its chaunts from time to time, that tiiey an inanimate mechanism. Erard's instrument, known
might be repeated on the organ, in part, or en- uutler the name of the expressive organ (" I'orgue
tirely if the same choir, in a rite of some sad cha-
expressif") alone gives the possibility of really
racter, were accompanied by a lament from the swelling and diminishing the sound but it is not ;

orchestra and from the organ, issuing thus from the yet adopted in churches. Serious men of otherwise
two extreme points of the temple, the organ suc- excellent understanding
condemn its use. as de-
ceeding to the orchestra, like the mysterious echo of structive of the religious character and intention of
its lamentation,
this would be a mode of instru- the organ.
mentation susceptible of grand and sublime effects. Without entering upon the great question, so often
But, even in tiiis case, the organ would not really discussed, nf 'he propriety of expression in sacred
mingle with the otiier instruments it would answer
music a question which simple good sense exempt

them, it would interrogate them and the alliance : from prejudice might resolve in a moment will
between the two rival powers would be the more take leave to point out to the partisans of un-
sincere, because neither the one nor the other ornate music, of plain-song, and of tlie inexpressive
would lose any of its dignity. Whenever I have organ (asthe loud and soft stops of different

heard the organ playing at the same time with qualities of tone did not already give to the organ
the orchestra, it has seemed to me to produce a variety and expression) we will just request them

detestable effect, and to impair that of the or- we say, to observe that they are the first to exciaiir
chestra instead of augmenting it. This is not with admiration, when the performance of a chorus
the place for determining the manner in which the in a sacred work, sliines by the delicacy of its gra-

organ considered as a complete orchestra in itself duated effects of crescendo, decrescendo, light and
should be individually treated. liave not We shade, swelled, sustained, or suppressed sounds, in
undertaken the task of giving a series of systems a word, by all those attril)Utes which are wanting
of the different instruments; but merely a careful in the organ, antl which Erard's invention will tend
study of the best mode of making them conduce to to supply. Tliese persons are therefore evidently
musical effect in association. The knowledge of the inconsistent with themselves unless they pretend

organ, the art of choosing its different stops, and of '

(as they are very capable of doing) that expressive
contrasting them one with the other, constitutes the gradations, perfectly appropriate, religious, and ca-
talent of the organist, sujjposing him to be, accord-


tholic, in the human voice, become suddenly, when

ing to custom, an extempore player. In the contrary applied to the organ, irreligious, heterodox, and
that is to say, considering him merely as a impious. It is singular also,
let me be pardoned

simple performer having to execute a written this digression,

that these critical conservatives of

work, he should scrupulously conform to the in- orthodoxy in the matter of religious music, who
structions of the composer who is bound to kn(nv
maintain, and with reason, that true religious senti-
the special resources of the instrument he writes ment directs inspiration (while j)rohibiting the ex-
for, and to employ them judiciously. ]iression of gradations in this sentiment), have never
I^ut these
resources are so vast and numerous, that the com- thouglit of blaming the use of quick fugues, which
poser will never be well acquainted with them, for ages have formed the staple of organ music in all
as it appears to us,
unless he be himself an accom- scliools. Is it that tiie themes of these fugues some
f'lished organist. of which express nothing, while many other's are

If, organ be combined with

in a composition, the
of a fashion at least grotesque,
become grave and
religious merely because they are treated in fugal
and with other instruments, it should not be
forgotten that its pitch is lomer by a whole tone than
style ;
that is to say, in the form which tends to
reprtjduce them oftenest and disfilay them most
the present pitch of the orchestra; and that, therefore,
constantly ? Is it that these multiplied introduc- be treated as a transposing instrument in
tions of different parts, these imitations in canon
Bb. (The organ of St. Thomas at Leipzig, on the
these scraps of twisted and tangled phrases, pursuing,
contrary, is a tone hiyhfr than the orchestra.)*
flying, and rolling over one another, this " confusion
The organ possesses effects of sonority, soft, loud, worse confounded," where true melody is exciuded,
" Tins la aoplicable only to ancient organs modern ora:in-buildere tune
where the chords succeed each other so rapidly tliat

ilieir in-truiiients to the pitch of the orrhestrn. their character can scarcely be discerned, this m'^ea-


lant Biibvcrsion of all system, tliis appearance of They have two kinds of sounds, very different in
ilisonler,these abrupt interruptions of one part by character ojien sounds, almost all of which are the

another, those hideous musical pascpiinades, ex-

all natural resonance of the harmonic divisions of the
cellent for depicting an orgy of savages, or a dance instrument's tube, and come; out without other assist-
of detuons become transformed in passing through ance than that of the lips and breath of the player ;
the pipes of an organ, and assume the serious, the and closed sounds, which are obtained by closing
grand, tlie calm accent, either suppliant or contem- more or less the bell (the lower orifice of tiie horn/
plative, of holy prayer, of meditation, or even of with the hand.
terror, religious awe and dread 1 There are organi- l"'irst, here is tiie table of open sounds on the
sations sufficientlymonstrous to find all this true. difterent first and second horns :

At any rate, the critics I have just alluded to, with- Rare.
Compass of the 2nd Horn.
out precisely affirming that quick organ fugues are
imbued with religious feeling, have never blamed
their inappropriateness and absurdity, probably be-
^ ;^"'^a

Compass of the 1st Horn.

cause they found them in long-established use be- ;

cause the most learned masters, following mere rou-

tine, have written large numbers of them and lastly, ;
because writers who treat of religious music, being ~^^^-^'
ordinarily very much attached to cliristian dogmas,
involuntarily consider everything that leads to alter- Compass of the 2nd Horn. k h t^ n-^*-


ation in ideas consecrated by time as dangerous and

incompatible witli the immutability of faith. For ^^'

our parts, and to return to our subject, we con- Compass of the 1st Horn.

fess to thinking that if Erard's invention were ap-

plied to the old organ, merely as a new stop, so that
it might enable the organist to employ expressive

sounds, if he thought proper, or at least so that it

uiight swell and diminish certain sounds indepen- Rare.
dently of others, it would be a real improvement,
entirely to the advantage of the true religious style.

Brass Instruments with Mouth-pieces.

The Horn.
As this instrument possesses a large number ot
movable crooks, which render its pitch more or less

low and more or less high, its comj)as3 cannot be
precisely stated, without at the same time knowing
the kind of horn in question. It is, in fact, easier to
produce high sounds than low sounds on horns of a
low key excepting, however, the keys of A, B'O,

and C (low), when the extreme l^gth of the tube

renders the emission of high notes very difficult.
It is easier, on the contrary, to give low notes than
high notes, on horns whose keys are high. More-
over, certain horn-players, using a large motith-
piece,and being well-practised in giving low sounds,
cannot bring forth the higher ones while others, ;

who use a narrow mouth-piece, and have accustomed

themselves to give forth the high note.s, cannot
produce the lower ones.
There is then a particular compass for each key of
the instrument, and likewise two others of a special
character, belonging to performers who play the
high part (that of the first horn), and the low part
^ (that of the second horn).
The horn is written on the G clef, and on the F
tjlef; with this particularity established by custom,
that the G clef is considered as being lower by an
octave ihau it really is. The subjoined examples will
mike this understood.
\j --

All horn* with the exception of the horn in C This open Fj{ cannot be lo easily played aa the OSji hut it comes
above, are transposing instruments that is to say,
out very wellif it be preceded by a neighliouring note like OBi or FJ

thoir .vritton notes do not represent the real sounds. or A. It is a little too hiih.


the duller and rougher the njte and the more diffi- ;

cult are certainty and precision in the playing, 'inere

is therefore an important distinction to be made among

the closed sounds ; which will be designated by

affixing the sign \ to those which are the best notes
and for bell must be only half closed.
which the
The whitenotes are the cpen sounds, the table
of which is given above and the black, represen:

^ 2nd Horn. |
# the closed sounds.

(^ k^ .s ^- :

Very difficult (Very

^ .;^. 1" ^ -<e- " 1st Horn. |

jand very dull.]

i difficult]
land very dull.|
t^? h ir-nr^^i='-^]\
U y^,- 1^^

c Mi:
2nd Horn.

^ ^1 Rough

P IVery I

2nd Horn. I

(Mjz ;5^_ti_ Horn.
Before going farther, and in order to be able to
give the table of the complete compass of the horn,
we will here mention that there are still some open
^^^^S^ zi20z
notes, less known than the preceding, yet reverthelesa

Horns in C,
very useful. They are, the high Gb,^^E^| 'lie
intonation of which is always a little lower, and
Non - trans-
posing Instru- which only appears truly in tune when placeu
ments; wlieie between two Fs,

notes are
written on the
This key is the worst of all. ff tto

Effect. Me
it can therefore never replace Fjft ; the low ^{>,
The double G below, marked with the sign *, is easier in the higher
keys ; but is bad and uncertain in most other keys generally. II which is obtained by forcing a G, and by-
family of horns there are horns is complete

in all hcys, altlioughit is generally thought other-

compressing the lips; and the low Fj], H
wise Those which appear to be wanting in the
chromatic scale are obtained by means of a length- which comes out, on the contrary, by leaving the
ening piece which lowers the instrument a semitone. lips free. These two last notes are very valuable ;
Thus, although we have, in fact, formed of all pieces, the At?, particularly, produces on many occasions an
only horns in B\? (low), in C, in D, in E\), in Eh, excellent effect in all the keys higher than the key of
in >, in G, in A\?, in A^ (high), in Bb (high), D. As to the Fjlj, it is of more uncertain emission;
and in G (high) by adding lengthening pieces to
and there is more difficulty in sustaining it precisely
the keys of BO and C (low), -4^ is obtained, and in tune.

^Q (low) and, by the same means, the key of D

These low sounds can, strictly speaking, be played
is traniiformed into D\} (or C%), the kev of G into
without preparation but to this end they should

G\? (or Fpj, and the key of C (high) into B"^ not be preceded by notes too high it is neverthe- :

(high) (or Cp) this last key is obtained by merely

less much better, as a rule, to place them after
drawing the slide of the horn in C (high). aG:
The dosed sounds present, not only as compared
with the open sounds, but even with themselves, ^3F
marked differences of tone and sonorousness. These '^^W$^ w- ?=-

differences arise from the greater or smaller opening The passing from the At? to the Fh is practirAh
left in the hell by the hand of the performer. For cer- in a moderate movement :
tain notes the bell should be closed a quarter, a third.
or one luilf ; for others, it requires to be closed almost
entirely. The narrower the opening left in the bell, t^ ^
' .


Certaiu honi-players jiroduce beneath these notes,

EH, ^W.

:H ;

1 advise composers never to em-

a detestable note, and almost
Horns in Bt>,
or in C, or m D.

Tills one,
higher keys, would
^ =^ d=:;-

on a horn in F, and in the
also be very bad in the keys of
ploy it, or the following five low notes, which rarely C and of 5b low:
come out well in tune, which there is much trouble Allegro.
in fixing, and which should not be attempted, at ^^3^^=d:-gE|3^ EEE35
any rate, only on middle horns, such as the horns in
D, E, and /'; and in a descending progression :-
Care should be taken, as much as possible, in em-

^^m^ iNatural note.

iNatural note.

ploying closed sounds, particularly in the orchestra,
to intersperse them with open sounds
skip from one closed note to another
and not to
or, at least,
from a bad closed note to another equally bad. Thus,

it would be absurd to write

Bv uniting the compass of the first horn with that
of tiie second, and by making the factitious open

notes, tir closed notes, succeed the natural open notes, "-^
. .

the following immense chromatic scale results, On the contrary, a passage like this
ascending from low to high :

General Compass of thk Horn.

isnot deficient in sonority, and can easily be executed,
because it contains but one bad closed note (the first
Horn in F Ap); while the same passage transposed would be
ridiculous, and of excessive difficulty :

Bad example.

:1^^^^ - -It

From these three examples it appears that the best
closed sounds with the exception of the five follow-

are to be found above the middle At?
^ they form

the series already indicated :

^^^^^^^Sl ^
Closed J [aosedp Closed; Closed;'
Dull. Good. I
Good Good. I
Good. Je-
i^^i^B^fel ^m^=\ a
Closed [
I A little too
Hence, the phrase in Ab above cited, while good
Good. Less good. low.
in one octave, becomes detestable when transposed

^miUli^ei^^i^^ an octave below, where it runs almost entirely upon

the worst closed notes,
A little
toT! r ^'"^'^'l!
Good Less (jood.

i ^- ^^a
mm. moreover, it begins with an open note, the A [7, i^^^S ^

This the place to point out that rapid succes-

and a factitious note, which thus attacked rapidly,
sions are the more difficult on the horn according as without preparation, is of extremely hazardous utter-
its key is lower; its tube, which is then of con-
siderable length,
not being able to be put instan- The old masters limited themselves, in general, to
taneously in vibration. As for natural low notes, in the use of open sounds; which they wrote it must
Imost all keys, they can only succeed each other in be owned
very clumsily. Beethoven himself is ex-
a moderate movement; it is, moreover, a general ceedingly reserved in his use of closed sounds, when
law, which should be observed in all instruments, he does not treat the horns in solo. Examples of their
that, since the low sounds are those which result employment are rather rare in his orchestral writing
from the smallest number of vibrations in a second, and when he has recourse to them, it is almost
the sonorous body should have the requisite tiTiie always for a striking effect. Instance the closed
for the production of its sound. Thus, the following sounds of the three horns in E\?, in the scherzo of
passage, on a low horn, would be impracticable, and the Eroica Symj)hony, and the low Fi of the second
of bad effect : horn in D
in the scherzo of the Symphony in A;

No. 40. Snfunir. Btoica. BatrBovEN



Cl&rinets in 6 h.

tf.^^f. ,f^,fff

Presla meno assai No. 41. Symphirtiy in A BEErHo>iB

Imo. Solo



riariiiets in A

Home in D.

Trumpet in D.


Omms, A, F.


m^^m Zf,=,^ ^^^^

-^ F- 5^



Thig syateir is doabtlesa greatly superior to the never be employed as notes of filling up but onlj ;

contrary method, adopted nowadays by the majority in order to produce effects inherent to their dull,
of French and Italian composers, which consists in hoarse, and wild quality of tone. For a melodic
writing for the horns exactly as for bassoons or design, the form of which imperiously demands th#
clarinets, witiiout taking into account the enormous presence of this note, I would except only the
difference existing between closed sounds and open middle ^b '

sounds, as also between certain closed sounds and

certain others, and without caring for the difficulty
the player has in taking such and such a note after ;gg^i pgg^g^^
another note which does not lead to it naturally,
for the dubious correctnesss,
for the slight sonorous-
The low Bb,^= is once introduced with
ness or hoarse and strange character of the intona-
tions produced by closing the two thirds or three excellent dramatic purpose, by Weber, in the scent
fourths of the bell,
in short, without appearing of the Freyschutz where Gaspard invokes Zamiel
to have a misgiving that a thorough knowledge of but this sound is so closed, and consequently so
the instrument, together with taste and good sense, dull, that it is not heard. only be re-
It could
may have something to do with the use of the sounds marked by the whole orchestra suddenly censing
which these pupil-masters thus introduce at all risks at the moment of its utterance. Thus, the middle
into the orchestra. Even the parsimony of the A\>, written by Meyerbeer in the Nun-scene of
ancients is preferable to such ignorant and odious Robert le Diahle, when Robert approaches the tomb
prodigality. When
closed sounds are not written to gather the enchanted branch, gains general atten-
for a particular effect, those at least should be tion only on account of the silence of almost all the
avoided of which the sonority is too weak and too other instrunients and yet this note is much more

mucli unlike the otlier sounds of the horn. sonorous than the low Bp. In certain scenes of
Of these, are, the Dj;] and the Dj? below the stave, silent horror, a very great effect may result from

Ah these closed notes in several parts. Mehul is the

the and the low Bb, W- _ and
only one, I believe, who has perceived this, in his
the A(? of the medium, which should opera of Phrosine et Melidore.

No. 42. Phrotine et Mllidure. M eddl.

Allegro Mo derato,

Ut Hom in D.

Ind Horn in G.

3rd Horn in D.

My re - dress tliou shall be.

Tu se - rat mon vengeur.


Maj'jr and minor shakes are practicable on the of the closed sounds, when needful to modulate
Ijorn but in a small portion of the scale only.
; ratliei from the principal key,
the resources of
These are the best :
the instrument would be very limited but with ;

Less good four, on the contrary, even when it is desired to

tr tr
tr j employ only the open notes, it is easy to manage by
means of an interchange of heys
A composer who takes four horns in the same key
Horns are generally written whatever may be
almost always gives proof of egregious want of
their key, and that of the orchestra without sharps
judgment. It is incomparably better to employ two
or flats at tlie clef. When the horn is treated as a horns in one key and two in another or the first ;

reciting part, however, it is better, if the instrument

and second horn in the same key, the third in ano-
be not in the same key as the orchestra, to indicate
at the clef the sharps or flats required by the key
ther, and the fourth in another
which would be still
more preferable or, lastly, four horns in four diffe-

but it should always be so managed as that very few

rent keys which should be done especially when a
are employed. Thus, the horn in is very well F ;

large number of open sounds is wanted.

selected for the performance of a solo, when the
The orchestra playing, for instance, in A^, these
orchestra is playing in ; Ep
first, because it is one
four horns might be, the first, inA^ ; the second,
of the best keys of the instrument, and next, because
in (on account of its E producing G;|, which
this combination does not necessitate for the horn
gives enharmonically the A2) the third, in F, and

^part more than two flats (B and E) at the clef; one

the fourth, in C. Or, the first in A'q. : the second,
of which (the B) being, in the medium and in the
high, an open note, does not diminish the sonorous-
in D^
; the third, in E'tj ; the fourth, in low BJB
(on account of its E producing D||, which gives
ness of the portion of its scale which would be most
enharmonically Eb). The" composer may also ac-
employed in such a case :

cording to the texture of the piece combine the four
-Jtz keys in several other ways; it is for him to calculate
Horn in F.
^- ^iif^p^gi the exigences of his harmonies, and to make the

^^i^^^^^^^^ choice of his horns subservient to their need.
By this means there are very few chords in which
four, three, or at least two open notes may not ba

w^^i'^m ^^^1 introduced.

Effect of the
Horn part.
3e^ i^^^^^ 1st Horn in Af

Jnd Horn in E!}

Srd Horn in F.

4th Horn in C.

it is true, that a horn in E\>, for a passage like

this, would be quite as advantageous :

Horn in Et?

But if the melody bring in frequently the fourth
and sixth degree of this scale (^P ^"d C)- ^be horn
in F would be a great deal better than the horn in
E\} ; its two notes, -
^ j

which produce

^ being much
better than those of the

horn in E\>,
sounds. x/~
^ ~'
representing the same

Orchestras formerly possessed but two horns ;

but at present composers always find them provided

Rnlh four. Willi two horns even by making use
; r


When many keys are used at the same

different author did well in using this singular means of
time, it is high keys to the first
better to give the giving ^doom and remoteness to the most open
liorns, and the low keys to the second horns. sound of the horn in D.
Anotlier precaution, which many composers un- Rossini, in the hunting-scene of the second act
wisely neglect, is that of not making the performer, of Guillaume conceived the idea of causing a
in the same piece, exchange a very high key for a diatonic phrase to be executed by four Ev horns in
very low key, and vice-versa. The horn player, for unison. It is very original. When four horns are
instance, finds it very awkward to pass suddenly from thus united, either in a sustained air, or in a rapid
the key of A
(high), to tliat of .Sb (low) and by ; passage which requires tlie use of closed sounds and

means of four horns which are now to be found in open sounds, it is far better (unless the idea be based
all orchestras
there is never any necessity, when a on this very variety and inequality of sounds) to put
change of key occurs, for skips so disproportioned. them all in different keys the open sounds on some,

The hom and melancholy instrument

is a noble thus compensating the slight sonority of the corre-
yet the expression of its quality of tone, and its sponding closed sotmds on others, preserve the
Bonority, do not unfit it for figuring in any kind balance, and give to the scale of the four combined
of piece. It blends easily with the general har- horns a kind of homogeneousness. Thus, while the
mony and the composer even the least skilful
; horn in C gives the Eb (closed), if the horn in '12
may, if he choose, either make it play an im- gives the (open), the horn in F
the Bb (open),
portant part, or a useful but subordinate one. No and a horn in B^ the F (closed), there results from
master, in my opinion, has ever known how to these four different qualities a very sonorous and
avail himself of its powers more originally, more beautiful Eb- It will be seen that nearly the same
poetically, and at the same time more completely, advantage attends all the other notes.
than Weber. In his three finest works, Oberon,
Euryanthe, and Der Freyschiitz, he causes the Horn in F
horn to speak a language as admirable as it is novel
a language which Mehul and Beethoven alone
Beem to have comprehended before him, and of
which Meyerbeer, better than any one, has main-
tained the purity. The horn is, of all orchestral
instruments, that which Gluck wrote least well for ;

a simple inspection of one of his works suffices to

lay bare his want of sldll in this respect. must We
however quote, as a stroke of genius, those
three Effect
notes of the horn imitating the conch of Charon in
the air from Alceste : "Charon now calls thee I"
They are middle C's, given in unison by two horns
An advantageous proceeding of which I know
but one example
consists in making three or four
in ; but the author having conceived the idea of horns in different keys succeed each other for the
causing the bells of each to be closed, it follows execution of a suln air. As each of them takes in
that the two instruments serve mutually as a sor- the phrase those notes which correspond with its
dine, and the sounds, interclashing, have a distant

open sounds, there results, if the melodic frag
effect, and a cavernous timbre most strange and
dramatic :
ments be adroitly linked one to another, a strait:
seemingly executed by a single horn, and having
almost all its notes equal and open.
Horns in D.
Ctoie their bei fr Andante.

Charon. imz m ^F-^^ ^ =^ Horn in Et".

1 \ 1

Charon now calls

Ca-ron Cap -pel

Hom in C.
mm^^S: -i.

=rm in Ab.

Hom in D.

gtfr r^i^-p
hark to his voice !

entends fa

however, that Gliick would have obtained

I think,
nearly the same result with the closed middle Ab
of two horns in <7b :
Horns in G[>.

But perhaps,
*ere no) so sure of taking such
at that period, the performers
notes;and the m^m^^^


moreover the effect of adding to the scale of the

instrument six semitones below its lowest natural

sound. Thus, in taking this C, ^ as the

4=.-: extreme point of the compass of the horn below, th<

-J- .t>r*-
pistons give it the following notes in addition :

^ :3:
i It is the same with all the brass instruments,

_. -...b-k:...
trumpets, cornets, bugles, and tromliones, to which
r^-dz* - the meciianism of the pistons is a|)plied.
The compass of the liorn with three pistons, in
a mixed key like the key of E^, would therefore be
this :

Very rare and difficult


to keep steady.

8va Bassa-^ ^^^^.^ ^ ^^^^^ ,^^,^

rj: :d:,:3:
83: -arui- o-
8va Bassa J^^5^-|lE^^rli^E^
I have said that the horn is a noble and iiielan-

iholy instrument,notwithstanding the jocund

hunting flunrislics so often quoted. In fact, th?
gaiety of tiiese strains arises rather from the melody Tills .system offers advantages, especially for the

itself, than from the quality of tone of the horns.

second horns, owing to the considerable blanks which
Hunting flourislies are only really jocund when it fills up between their natural low notes, commencing
playe<l on trumpets
an instrument little musical, from the last low G ascending, but the
the strident tone of which, even in the open air,
bears no resemblance to the chaste and reserved timbre of the horn with pistons differs a little
voice of the horn. By forcing in a particular way from that of the ordinary horn, which it cannot
the emission of the air from the tube of a horn, it is therefore entirely replace. I think it should be
brought, however, to resemble that of the trumpet. treated almost like an instrument apart, and as
1'he sound may sometimes be made brassy (cuivre) particularly fitted for giving good basses, vibrant
with excellent effect, even on closed notes. When and energetic, yet not possessing so much force ae
there is need to force the open notes, composers gene- the low sounds of the tenor trombone, to which its
rally require the performers
in order to give the own bear much resemblance. It can also render a

sound all possible roughness to elevate the bells of melody well, especially one principally on the medium
their instruments; and they then indicate the position notes.
of the lioni by these words Raise the Bells.
: A The best keys for the horn with pistons the only
magnificent example of the employment of this means ones indeed which leave nothing to desire on the
is to be found in the final crash of the duet in

score of correctness in tune
are the intermediate
]\I61ud's Evphrosyne et Curadin: "Gardez vous de keys. Thus, the horns in i^Q, F, G, and A\^, are
la jalousie." L'nder the influence of this fearful yell much preferable to the others.
of the horn.s, Gr^try one day answered somebody who Many composers show themselves opposed to
asked him his opinion of the tempestuous piece :
this new instrument, because, since its introduction
" It is enough to split the roof of the theatre with into orchestras, certain horn-players, using the
the skulls of the audience ! pistons for playing ordinary horn parts, find it more
convenient to produce by this mechanism, as open
The Horn with three pistons ; and the Horn notes, notes intentionally written as closed notes

with calces.
by the author. This is, in fact, a dangerous abuse
but it is for orchestral conductors to prevent its
The horn with pistons can make
notes open all its increase and, moreover, it should not be lost sight

notes, by means of a particular mechanism

of which of that tiie horn with pistons, in the hands of a
the actiim consists in changing instantaneously the clever player, can give all the closed sounds of the
key of the horn. Thus the use of such and such a ordinary iiorn, and yet more: since it can execute
piston transforms the F
horn into an horn or an E ; the whole scale without employing a single open
horn, into a Dhorn, &c.; whence it follows that note. Sirce the use of tiie pistons, by changing
the open notes of one key being added to those of the key of the instrument, gains the open notes
other keys, the complete chromatic scale is obtained of other keys, in addition to tiiose of tlie principal
m open bcuuiIh. The use of the three pistons has key, it is clear that it mii.^t also secure the closed


rotes. Thus, the horn in F naturally gives this should only be wrif.eL as a passing note placed
between a G and an E,
open C,
^ which produces F: and, by

means of the

produces G;
pistons, this open

hut if the hand be employed in the

I), ^p^^| which
and care must be taken neither
m^m to come upon it un-
bell, BO as to lower these two notes one tone, the prepared nor to sustain it. _
The medium BJ?, on the contrary, ^^ 5^:= jg
first becomes a Bj?, ^=i producing EJp closed. always a little too flat.
It is well to avoid the employment of the low 0,
and the second a 0,
It is
composer to indicate, by the word
for the
H producing F, also closed. i^
^- on trumpets lower than the trumpet in F.

" closed," and by the figures

^ or f showing how , this note isweak, of common quality in tone, without
much the bell must be stopped, the notes which he being appropriate for any characteristic effect
and ;
does not wish produced open. It can easily be replaced by a
sound of the horn,
For a scale written like the following incomparably better in all respects.
The three extreme high notes
bfi. t;iQ- :p;

1==-^=^ siz -.-tiz

while very hazardous on trumpets in lorv A, B\;,
the performer will therefore take the proper pistons and C, are impracticable in higher keys. The
for the open scale of C might, however, be reached, even in the key of E\>,
if it were thus brought in, Icmd :

1e EEj: 1^
and the employment of the hand, stopping the two
thirds of the bell upon each note, will make it into ff
a scale of B\>, of which all the sounds will be the
Such a jiassage, which the greater number of
dullest and most closed that can be obtained on the German and English players would face without
horn. It is thus possible, on the horn with pistons, hesitation,
would be, however, very dangerous in
after having played a passage in open sounds, to France, where there exists generally, in the use of
repeat it in closed sounds, like a very distant echo. brass instruments, much difiBculty in going high.
There are trumpets of many kinds, in B)}, in C
The horn with valves differs from the preceeding
only by the nature of its mechanism. in D,E^, in E^, in V, and in G ; very rarely in
high A\;. By means of the lengthening piece, of
This difference is all in it3 favor on tlie score of
which mention was made in speaking of horns, and
flexibilityand quality of tone. The sounds of the
which lowers the instrument a half tone, trumpets
horn with valves do not materially differ from those
are produced in A, in ^t], in I>\} (or Ci), in G^
of the ordinary horn. This instrument is already
(or P\)- By means of a double lengthening piece
in general use tliroughont Germany, and, without
which lowers the trumpet a whole tone, the key of
doubt, will soon become so everywhere.
low .4b is even obtained ;but this key is the worst
of all. The finest quality of tone, on the contrary,
The Trumpet.
is that of the trumpet in D^ ; an instrument full of
Itscompass is nearly the same as that of the horn, brilliancy, and of remarkably precise intonation
but ;

of which it possesses (in the upper octave) all the which seldom employed, because the majority of
natural open notes it is written on the G clef
composers are ignorant of its existence.
After what I have said above of the notes of the
two extremes of the trumpet scale, it is easy to
conclude that the compass of this instrument is not
the same in all keys. The low trumpets like all
other instruments of this kind should avoid the
Some performers succeed tolerably well in pro- lowest note while the high trumpets cannot reach

ducing certain closed notes on the trumpet, by the most acute sounds.
as on the horn the hand into the Here is a table of the different kevs :

bell; but the effect of these notes is so bad, and

their intonation so uncertain, that an immense ma-

jority nf composers have wisely abstained, and still Trumpet in

From this proscription low A t?.
abstain, from using them.
ehould oe excepted, and considered as an open note,

ihe high F, _A |
It conies out by aid of the lips

only, but its intonation is always too sharp. It &tr I


er; difficult!

Truiiipel in
a Effect.

rrumpet in


Trumpet in

P^^^^^l The low double
which must be written on the
marked witli this sign *,
of excellent clef, is

sonority in the three high keys; on many occasions

admirable use may be made of it.
Trumpets in high A^ are seldom found but in
military bands ; is very brilliant, but
their sound
their compass is than that of trumpets in
still less
G, since they cannot go above the fourth C;
liigh Aj7.
in ^:
=3 -^ -^ ^^
rt -IT


Sax now makes small octave trumpets and
tenth trumpets (in high C, and in high [?,) of excellent
t;ound. 'I'hey should be found in all orchestras, and in all
military bands.
trumpet in

The shake is hardly practicable in general on the

trumpet, and I think it should be abstained from
d_-o-:S in the orchestra.
E=3=3=gr-J:8ar:ff=t:: The following three shakes, however, come out

tolerably well :

Bad I
DifficultTI =t:
frumpet in n<-
^^'hat I have said witli regard to diffi rent keys
on the horn, and of the way of using them by means
of interchange, is applicable in all respects to the
trumpet. It should be added, though, that tha
Effect. E_^EEa-^^?^:^e^^lE^: opportunity of writing for it in different keys does
not often present itself. The greater part of our
orchestras only provide a compoaerwith two trumpets
fliidiflerent. Difficult.
and two cornets-i-pistons, instead of

four trumpets.
O-ri l"- I

It is better, in this case, to leavethe two trumpets

Trnmnet in

:3- ^ o- both iu one key, as the cornets-u-pistuns can give

all the intervals, and as their quality of tone ia no(
so dissimilar from that of the trumpetu but that
Effect. they can resemble them well in the whole combi-
nation, and thus suffice to complete the harnicuy.


111 is no need of employing trumpets

general, there
iu^ two different keys, excepting when, in the
minor mode, it is desired to empower them to pro-
duce simultaneously the third and fifth degree of
the scale. In G't iiiiuor, for instance, if it he ne-
cessary to cause one trumpet to sound successively
tiie two notes, G|I, B, while the other sounds, at a Effect,

tliird above or a sixth below, the other two notes,

B, Djft, a trumpet must be taken in i^b ("^t wiiich
the E and the G
produce Gi, B), and a trumpet
in B'^ (of and the E give the B
which the 'x^^r^^SS^^^^^^^
and the Dj|) this is what has been done by M.
; Notwithstanding the routine genendly pursued,
Meyerbeer in the grand scene of the fourth act of charming piano effects are to be obtained from
the Huguenots. trumpets. Gluck was one of the first to prove it
by his long holding-note of the two trumpets, united
Trumpet in Ei]. pianissimo on the dominant, in the andante of the
-m~S m S m ^^^
introduction to Iphigenia in Tauride ; and since
then, Beethoven (especially in the andante of his
rrumpet in Bi). Symphony in A) and Weber have obtained great
advantage therefrom.

No. 43. Iphigvnia in Tauride. Glucr..


Trumpets and
Horns in D.


No. 44. Symphun'j in i. Beethove K.


Haatbo} s

Fniii-'pitB in D


Prunit, D, A
1 :;


In order that these notes
certainty, tiiey should,
be produced with
be taken in the
in general,
medium, and not succeed each other too rapidly.
l-T^^H^ ^^^^I
Rare, anrt in the |

lower keys only.

The five following may be taken and sustained 1 ;

pianissimo The high trumpets with cylinders

such as those in t
G can

/T\ /TS /T\ an d in descend chromatically as far as FJ,

1 m but these extreme notes are of but poor quality.
s. U
The Bp of the medium being too flat, this defect Major and minor shakes feasible on the trumpet
of precision should be corrected as much as possible with cylinders are the same as those of the cornet
bv the force of emitting the sound. It cannot be with three pistons. (See, farther on, the table of
shakes for this instrument.)
Valved trumpets, called so on account of a
does not offer the same risk it may be sustained
movable valve similar to that of the trombone, and
and taken softly, at least on the four lower keys, worked by the right hand, are adapted to produce
the tiuest intervals. Their sound is precisely the
^fl, Bb, -ff B, and C. In the key of B, I think that
a clever player can even give to this C, wiien sus- same as that of simple trumpets, and their compass
taining it, much softness but it is prudent to con- is this :

ceal its entrance by a forte in the rest of the I

Impossible in the
keys of C, of O,
orchestra. I
and below thm.
quality of tone of the trumj)et
comports with warlike ideas, with cries
; it
is noble and
si m
of fury and of vengeance, as with songs of triumph; w- H3-
it lends itself to the expression of all energetic, lofty, Impossible in the I

keys of C, of D,
and grand sentiments, and to the majority of tragic I
and below them.

accents. It may even figure in a jocund piece

provided the joy assume a character of impulse or of
pomp and grandeur.
Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distin- :erS^zP^^
guished nature of its quality in tone, there are few #^a}(ci:Si^^ife
instruments that have been more degraded than the
trumpet. Down to Beethoven and Weber, every com- The Cornet with three pistons; and with cylinders.

poser not excepting Mozart persisted in either Its about two octaves and two or three
compass is
confining it to the unworthy function of fiUing-up, notes. The mechanism of the pistons with which it is
or in causing it to sound two or three commonplace furnished allows of its giving all the chromatic de-
rhythmical formulae, as vapid and ridiculous as they
are incompatible, very often, with the character of grees as far as the low Fj, ^^ti^B; nevertheless
the pieces in which they occur. This detestable
practice is at last abandoned. All composers, now- this note and the tvv'o or three that precede it in
adays, of any merit and style, accord to their descending,
such as A, Ab> G, are hardly prac-
melodic designs, their form of accompaniment, and ticable save on high cornets. It is possible, on
the trumpet's powers of sound, all the latitude, these high cornets, to get out the double below,
variety, and independence which the nature of the
histiument allows. It has needed almost a century "j7 " ; the first note of the natural resonance of
for the attainment of this end. -TCr-
Tru^npftn with pistons and with cylinders have the trumpet, as will presently be seen but it is a ;

the advantage of being able, like the horns with note of very hazardous utterance, of very bad quality,
pistons, to give all the intervals of the chromatic and of very dubious utility.
scale. They have lost nothing of the quality of There are comets in C, in Sp, in A, in AQ, in G,
the ordinary trumpet by the super-addition of these in F, in Eh, in E^, and in D. By means of the
facilities, and their correctness of intonation is satis-
lengthening-piece, mentioned in speaking of horns
factory. The trumpets with cylinders are the best and trumpets, which lowers the instrument half a
they will soon come into general use. tone, it is doubtless possible to obtain the keys of
kryed trumpets, still employed in some Italian Bh, FJIf, and even D\); but the facility of modulating,
orchestras, cannot be compared to them in this given by the pistons, renders these changes of key
respect. almost useless. Besides, the low keys, such as
I'he general compass of trumpets Nxith pistons and
with cylinders is this
those of O, F, E, and D,
are generally of indifferent
quality, and wanting in correctness of intonation.

plmiifferently good, and |

The best cornets those, I, think, which should be

passable only in the
higliei keys. almost exclusively used
are the cornets in G, and
ES especially in At>, a]], and B\). The highest of all,
ijpg|^2*= the cornet in C, is rather hard to play, while itj
intonation is not beyond reproach.


iSubjoined is the compass we may assign to the

With the chromatic iiuervals
different keys of the cornet-d- piston; certain players,
however, obtain some very dangerous notes, both Cornet in El^
sbove and below, but these shall not be reckoned.
Its music is written on the G clef. The natural re-

sonance of its tube shorter than that of trumpets With the chromatic intervaU._ i

gives the following notes :

$m ^=^=sfl^ fto.

The chromatic compass given by the pistons, in Comet in Eb

the different keys is as follows :

lof bi With the chromatic intervals.

Cornet in C,
real sounds.


s^^^^^^^^m Cornet in D.

Cornet in Bb

An opportunity occurs here for pointing out with

regard to the last high notes of these examples,
which all produce the same G, 7k []. that they

are of much less hazardous emission, and of much

better sonority in the high keys than in the low

tsmet in A ones. Thus the high Bp of the cornet in A, ^ fl

==^ and the

Effect. high G of the cornet in C, ^^^^H i^'e incomparably

better and more easy to play than the high F of the

cornet in D, -Jl a or than the high E of the

Cornet in Ab

cornet in SP, ^^ H And yet all these notes

Effect. a
sound the same G, ^<j
j y
H Moreover, this observ-

ation applies equally to all brass instruments.

Thegreater number of major and minor shakea

Comet in O. are practicable and of good effect on the following
part of the compass of the high cornets-a-pistons,
such as those in A, B^, and C.


Cornet in F.

*" '"
tr ir tr * tr tr
;; .;;


Doubtful. naturally produce (without pistons) these three note*


is always its second octave going from low to high.

Therefore, cornets-i-pistons have their favorite notes
especially in this second octave. By considering the
We now proceed to the relations established
cornets in A, in Bf and in C, as trumpets an octave
between the pitches of the various keys of horns,
tnimpets, and cornets. above the trumpets in A, in Bt?, and in C, they might
The first low sound of tlie cornet in C, as already be so written for but thishaabeen judiciously avoided,

is an octave above that of the trumpet in C
and cornets are actually written for in their place on
the musical scale, by making their lowest sound pro-
;just as the first low sound of this trumpet is an oc-
ceed from an octave above the lowest sound of the trum-
tave above that of the horn in (low) C. The natu-
ral notes of the horn (those which result from the
pet. The best notes of these cornets are within thw
compass, and in the vicinity, of their second octave
resonance of the tube) thus reproduce themselves an
octave above, and in ihe same order, in the trumpet r Favorite notes.

wliile those of tlie trumpet also all reproduce tiiem-

elves an octave above, and in the same order, in the "SrdOctsTe

cornet, if the player's lips had the necessary force to ;il-

7"! St Octave^ y
2nd Octave.
bring out the highest ones which is not the case. ;

If comets were written for as trumpets, these

1st 8ve. 2nd 8ve. 3rd 8ve. notes would always be below the stave, and would
Morn in .

low C. _ involve the constant employment of ledger lines

'^-^ L,^ .. -* "
Thus :

Real _"*
cleff written an octave above
sounds. ;

according to the adopted custom Favourite notes. "~N
for learners. Cornet in C, J<S5-
This note exists it is really the first low one of the
written like f^z
a trumpet in
5iorn hut in all the low keys it is so detestable, and even
; C, (high.)
o indistinct, that we have abstained from giving it a place -W --2ird Octave.
in the scale of the sounds of the horn in (low) C and ;

for even greater reason, in that of the key of (low) Bb. This inconvenient method of writing for cornets-i-
pistonsis nevertheless adopted in Prussian militsry

music and of this it is well to be aware.


There remains to consider (the key of being

taken as tlie point of departure, in horns, tnimpets,
and cornets), that the changing keys of the cornet
proceed by elongation, and therefore, by becoming
low,')- and lower : this is why, in displaying their
scale, we have commenced with the highest keys
whereas, those of trumpets and^ horns (with the
exception of three,
those in BQ, in Bp, and in
It willbe seen by the above, and it is highly low A, which are lower than the key of 0) proceed
important to be remembered, that the portion of by shortening, and consequently by becoming higher
the scale of a brass instrument in which it can and hiiifher.

OiFFERi.NT Keys of tuk CORNI Different Keys of the Trumpet. D ifferent Key S OF THE H<
1st. C (typical key) 1 Ab (rare). high.
2nd. Btj. Gt, BSJ high.
3rd. Bb. Gb. Bb high.
-s I

4th. A. F.
5th. Ab. Ei,. Ab.
Gth. G. Eb. Gb.
7th. Gb- D^. Gb.
8th. F. F.
9th. Ek). C (typical). Eij.
lOih. El7 I 2
llth. D. Bb. <^ Dft.

A (tvry rare). \% Db.

C (typical). ^?

A {very rare J. J^


Let us now observe what affinities exist between plying all tlie gaps whieli separate their natural notes
horns trumpets, and cornets and the respective ; from each otlier, but tiiey also add six elii:^matio
pooition they occupy in the scale ol' sounds. notes below the two lowest sounds. Thus, for
I will here add that trumpets with pistons, or with cornets :

cylinders, having as
have just said their best
notes within the compass, and in the vicinity, of
2nd low sound.
their third octave (which is found in unison with !^
that of the second of the cornet ), passages written
for cornet8-a-i)islons iu A, in B, and in C, within Bad and impracticable.
this comj)as8 : 1st low sound.

rzr: Sva. bassa

"^ "" For trum])ets :-

will necessarily be executable on trnmpets in A, in Detestable.

B, and in (.', without causing any change.

allows of replacing, witliout disadvantage, cornets
This 2nd low sound.
by trumpets with cylinders, in orchestras like 8V3. bassa.J,^ S*"
Still more detestable.
German ones, which have no cornets.
Cornets in A, in B, and in C, have, minutely Ut low sound.

less compasss than trumpets in A, in B,
and in C
since they can scarcely reach above the
This first low is so indistinct and difficult to
sustain that the notes added below for the pistons
A it
real, ^!zz|] become, may
be imagined,
as absolutely im-
Cornet in A. Cornet in BtJ. Cornet in C. practicable. the same for the horns.
It is
Although the cornet possesses all the degrees of

i i P m the chromatic scale, the choice of key in changing

is not immaterial. It is always better to take that
Trumpets, on the contrary, have, in the first place, which offers the means of employing the most natu-
several more notes below however poor tliey may ral notes,
it is scarcely necessary here to repeat that
be; and, moreover, produce, more easily than cornets, the natural notes are those which come out without
the aid of the pistons, by the sole effect of the
this same A. .
^3:3^ in the keys of D :

resonance of the tube of the instrument such as, ;

Trumpet in D. Trumpet in F.
^^ :=l=i

P Some artists, gifted

and F:
with vigour of
i lip, can even
sound the E of the trumpet in G, ^zi=:[j which
and wnich bears few or no sharps the or flats at
signature. When the orchestra playing is in JE'fl,

G the cornet BS one the
for instance, as iu is of
produces B,
^ H and the of the trumpet in
good, the cornet
least ^h should which in be used,
F, 3;^^zH which produces C, ^Sl^^B; but merely would then play in G :

in passing,and if these notes be adroitly led up to. Orchestra.

But performers capable of reaching these extreme
notes are rare, and they should not, in writing, be
too much counted upon.
Cornet in
Trumpets, having a narrow tube, a small mouth-
piece and a bell of little extent, attack the high
notes with more facility. The tube of cornets, on If the orchestra be in B, the cornet in ^K should
the contrary, being rather thick, and almost conical, still be used ; it would then plav in F:
their bell and their mouthpiece, also, being rather
larger, the mastery of low notes becomes more easy
to them than that of high notes, and their tone
acquires the peculiar quality which tlistinguishesthat
of trumpets. This is the cause of difference.
Before proceeding to the examination of the
in a:.
expressive character of the cornet-a-pistons it is
not unneedful to repeat here what I have said, in If the orchestra be in E\p, the cornet in 2?b should

epeaking of the horn with pistons, respecting the be taken, playing with one flat at the signature,
action of the three cylinders, or pistons, adaj)ted consequently in F; and so on with the rest.
to brass instruments generally. Not only do The cornet-a-pistons is very much the fashion in
these three cylinders give to instruments the chro- France at present, particularly in a certain musical
matic scale (above tkeir first octave), thereby sup- world where elevation and yurity of style are not

considered essential qualities ; and it has thus be- loftiness of the trumpet, renders the use of the
come the indispensable solo instrument for quadrilles, cornet-^-pistons in exalted melodies a matter of
galops, airs with variations, and other second-rate great difficulty. It may figure there with advan-
compositions. The frequency witli which nowa- tage, however ;but very rarely, and on condition of
days we hear melodies devoid of all originality and playing only phrases of large construction and of
distinction executed on this instrument in the ball- indisputable dignity. Thus, the ritornello of the
room, together with the character of its timbr-e, trio in Robert le Diable. " my son," &c., agrees
which has neither the nobleness of the horn, nor the well with the cornet-a-pistons :

No. 45.
Andante Cantabile, Robert le Diable. Meyerbeer

Clarinets in A.


Horns in B
pi PP
m ^
Very staccato.
"*' -

p-^-^-r-E g
-q ^ g^^p^^

Horns in
Bb t 1
j^j^^^ J j"i 1 L'^^^^'^^^T^g^S^^
Very staccato.

Horns in D. ^ PP
^3^3 *i "

Very staccato.

Horni in 0.

As soft and legato as possible.

Cai lets k Pistons

in Aa.




InEi;. BE

Rock* I



^^^^ =^=^ ^P^f-^i ^^?-^i 1 1 ,n"?-i-T=F^&-J^-^^H

.Joyous melodies will always have to fear from this
instrument a loss of a portion of their nobleness, if
highest of them all,

The Soprano Trombone, the smallest and
exists still in some parts of
they have any, or, if they have none an additional Germany, but is unknown in France ; it has scarcely
triviality. A phrase which might appear tolerable, ever been used in the scores of the great masters ;

played on violins, or on wooden wind instruments, which is no reason, however, why it should not figure
would become poor and detestably vulgar if brought there sooner or later, as it is by no means certain that
out by the bitin<jr,noisy, shameless sounds of the cornet- trumpets with pistons
even the highest can ad-
s-pistons. This danger is obviated if the phrase be vantageously supply its place. Glnck alone, in his
of such a nature that it can be played at the same Italian score of Orfeo, has written for the soprano
time by one or more trombones the grand tone of
; trombone under the name of Cornetto. He has
which then covers and ennobles that of the cornet. made it double the soprano voices of the chorus,
Employed in harmony, the cornet blends very well while the alto, tenor, and bass trombones double the
with the general mass of brass instnimeiits; it serves to other voices.
complete the chords of the trumpets, and to contri- These three last-named trombones are the only
bute to the orchestra those diatonic or chromatic ones in general use. It should also be stated, how-
groupes of notes which, on account of their rapidity, ever, that the alto trombone does not exist in all
suit neither the trombones nor the liorns. Cornets- French orchestras, while the bass trombone is almost
^-pistons are generally written for in two parts, each unknown among tliem being in nearly every case

often in a different key. confounded with the third tenor trombone, which
plays the lowest part, and for this reason is. very
IVombon/s. im{)roperly, called the bass trombone, though ma
kinds of trombones, each of which
'ITiere are four terially differing from it.

bears the name of the human voice to whicii it has Trombones are instruments %vith slides, of which
the nearest resemblance in quality of tone and com- the double tube can be len;rthened or shortened intsn-


It may
by a simple movement of the player's arm.
be conceived that these variations of the
tubes which,
sounded in their totality, give foi
iirstlow sound, a Bb :

lenofth of tiie tube completely change the key of the

which is the case. Whence it follows
that trombones, possessing, like all brass instru-
ments, the notes resulting from the natural resonance
of the tube in all positions, have a complete chro-
Hence the instrument is sometimes called the trom-
matic scale, interrupted only at one point below i"*
bone in Bp. It is therefore a fourth below the alto
will be presently seen.
trombone and its compass is this
; :

The Alto Trombone.

This trombone has a compass of more than two
octaves and a half; it is written for on the clef,
Very difficult.
third line :

Of bad quality!
-- -42
J |


5^- ^ =1=: PI ifal-

With all
the chromatic int