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A STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DOING CODE

SWITCHING DURING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING


PROCESS FOR STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING BY THE FIRST
YEAR STUDENTS OF THE ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM FKIP
UNIVERSITY OF RIAU

BY

ROBI ESHA AKHMADI


0605120814

ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM


LANGUAGE AND ARTS DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHERS’ TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF RIAU
PEKANBARU
2008
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Language is an important part of our life. Wardraph (1986:1) stated that


language is what a member of particular society speaks. A society use language for
communication. One form of communication is the interaction between the speaker
and the listener; can be a student with a student, lecturer with a student, etc. Both of
them should concern about language acquisition that is communicative competence,
especially when communicating in foreign language.

English, as a tool of communication has an important role in English


Department FKIP UNRI Pekanbaru. English is used for communicating in teaching
and learning process. So, each student should master one of four basic language
skills, that is speaking subject (Speaking IC, I, II, III) in order to increase students
speaking ability. Actually, English is still difficult to be understood by the students
although most of them have learned it since they were in junior high school. Even
though the lecturers have repeatedly explained the material, most of students still
can not understand well. The author notices that not all students are able to do
communication in English. So, lecturers need to do code-switching communication
during teaching and learning process.

Code-switching is a term in linguistic referring to using more than one language


or variety in a communication. Bilingual person have the ability to do code-
switching or mix their language during the communication. This phenomenon
occurs when bilingual substitute a word or phrase from one language with a word or
phrase from another language. For example, in the sentences (1) Please, tutup
pintunya! (2) Saya tidak pergi because I am sick. (3) Tolong! Jangan di- report dulu
my thesis.

Ferawati (2007:3) stated that why the lecturer and the student do code
switching during teaching and learning process generally because of the students’
lack of English vocabulary, avoid bored situation they make a joke with the
language, and emphasize the massage in order to be understood.

The focus on this study is to find out the effectiveness of lecturers’ doing code
switching in teaching and learning process for the first year students’ understanding
of the learning material in English Study Program FKIP UNRI. The reason why the
writer focus on the effectiveness of doing code switching are generally most of
students can not do communication in English well and many lecturer do code-
switching in teaching and learning process to make the students more easy to
understand the material. The writer believes that code-switching can help the
student to understand the message prom the lecturer.
1.2 The Setting of The Problem

There are many people do the code-switching including the lecturer, and they
doing this with various reasons. The reasons are students’ lack of terminology in
one language, make a joke in order to avoid bored situation in the class, emphasize
message or information in order to be understood by the students easily, including
someone in conversation and repetition in one language, and the lecturer can not
express himself/herself in one language. In this study the writer focus on three
reasons why the lecturer do code switching; students’ lack of vocabulary, make a
joke, and emphasize message or information and the connection with students’
understanding about the learning material.

1.3 Limitation of The Problem

The writer limit the problem on the study of the lecturers’ effectiveness of doing
code switching for the students’ understanding during teaching and learning process
at the first year students of English Study Program FKIP UNRI.

1.4 Formulation of The Problem

Based on the limitation of the problem, the writer formulates the problems
follows: “How effective do the lecturers do code switching in their conversation
during teaching and learning process in term of students’ lack of vocabulary, make a
joke, and emphasize message or information for students’ understanding of learning
material at first year student of English Study Program FKIP UNRI?”

1.5 The General Objective of The Research

The general objective of the research is to find out how effective the lecturers do
code switching in term of students’ lack of vocabulary, make a joke, and emphasize
message or information for students’ understanding of learning material.

1.6 The Needs of The Research

By doing this research, the writer hopes the result will be useful in some sides:

1.6.1 To show how important the use of code switching to students in


teaching and learning process.
1.6.2 To give information and contribution to the readers about how
effective the use of code switching in teaching and learning process.
1.6.3 This study would be very useful for those who are interested in
doing a further research related to this study
1.6.4 The result of the study would be useful as the information for
English student who will be a teacher in order to improve their strategies in
teaching English.
1.7 Definitions of Terms

In order to understand clearly and to avoid misunderstanding of the terms used


in this study, the writer defines them as follows:

1.7.1 Code switching is combination more than one language and may
be combining in the different way in conversation or a single clause
(wardaugh: 1993) in this research means code switching is a people who
switch their language from Bahasa Indonesia into English or English into
Bahasa Indonesia in terms of students’ lack of vocabulary, make a joke, and
emphasize message or information during teaching and learning process.

1.7.2 Teachings is giving instruction to someone or cause to know and


be able to do something (Hornby) in this research teaching means an action
in giving instructions, motivation, and knowledge for students.

1.7.3 Effectiveness is something that having an effect; able to bring


about the result intended (Hornby) in this research means a lecturer do code
switching in a good way, and the result is students understand the material
easily.
CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Bilingualism

Before we are going to further theories about code switching, it is important to


know about bilingual. As it has been shown that code switching may occur in
bilingual and multilingual. The practice of using and understanding two or more
languages called bilingualism. (Hornby: 1977) wrote “To be considered as a
bilingual, a person must have the ability to use different languages”. Code switching
only can be used by bilingual; therefore the writer needs to include the statement of
“Bilingualism” in this chapter.

Fishman (1967) mentions that more than two language varieties can be reserved
for specific functions in a society. He also stated that bilingualisms is a subjects for
psychologists and psycholinguistics; it refers to an individual’s ability to use two
language variety. (Fishman 1967 in Fasold, 1984; 43)

A bilingual or multilingual situation can be producing still other effects on one


or more of the language (Wardaugh, 1993). Ervin – Tripp (1964) – in Hornby
(1977) also gave contribution about what is bilingual. He stated that speaking more
than one language is a natural way of life with a variety of factors determining
which language will be spoken on any particular occasion. The factors are such as;
situation, setting, topic, and other factors.

Grosjean (1983) also states that a bilingual may change varieties in one
language, changes language or both.

While Taylor (1976) noted that bilingual as a person who speaks two or more
languages, dialects or styles of speech that involve differences in sound, vocabulary
and syntax. It shows that bilingualism does not only involve the language itself, but
also involve linguistics feature; such as sound, syntax, lexical, and semantic.

Bilingualism is considered as ability or a competence of using more than one


language, even in comprehending or producing those languages in speaking, reading
and writing skills. Bilingualisms will be more valuable if a bilingual have learned
the two languages and spoken those two, and have been taught in both language.

2.2 Code Switching

Code switching is a term in linguistics referring to using more than one language
or variety in conversation. Code switching involves more than one language and
may combine in different ways. These are normally combination of various
languages. They may occur to some degree in repertoires of most bilingual persons
and some bilingual communities. Romain (1994) states that learning to speak more
than one language often involves putting together material from two languages. This
is a part of the normal process of growing up bilingual and acquiring competence in
more one language.

Some sociolinguistics also gives their definition about what code switching is,
those are:

1) Haughen (1965) in Choloros (1991). He uses the term code switching in


other to cover situational in which a bilingual introduces a complementary
unassimilated word from another language into his speech. He used code
switching to cover the alternate uses of two languages, but he emphasized on
the three different things code switching when a single word is introduces,
“integration” for over lapping of two languages.
2) Gumperz (1982) in Romaine (1989) stresses his definition on the
juxtaposition or equivalent two different languages. Ha states that
juxtaposition
3) Gal (1988) in Wardaugh (1993) also gives the definition of code switching,
but he stresses on conversational strategy. He states that code switching is a
conventional strategy is used to establish, cross or destroy group boundaries,
to create, evoke or change interpersonal relations with their rights and
obligation. From the definitions above, it can be concluded that people are
usually required to select a particular code whenever they choose to speak
and they may also decode to switch from one code to another code or mix
codes.

Although some experts have seen code switching as reflecting a lack of


language ability, some other experts consider code switching to be a normal and
natural product of interaction between the bilingual (or multilingual) speaker’s
language. Code switching can be distinguished from other language contact
phenomena such as borrowing, pidgins and creoles, and transfer or interference.

In conclusion, a person who is bilingual or multilingual perhaps switch from


variety X to variety Y or from one language to another language for several reason
such as solidarity, emphasize the massage, make a joke, choice of topics, and
perceived social and culture distance. In other words, the motivation of the speaker
is an important consideration of choosing the words.

Noted: Most experts’ definitions of terms I took from Ferawati (2007)

2.3 Reasons on doing Code Switching

People who are bilingual or multilingual do code switching for a number of


reasons. Ferawati (2007:9) states some reasons why people do code switching; those
are to quote someone word or sentences, to specify addressee, to emphasize or to
qualify the message, to show expertise, raise status, and add authority, to specify
speaker involvement, to convey confidentially, angers and annoyance, to trigger
(communicative strategy), to exclude someone from a conversation and to mark and
emphasize group identity.

Some expert also states some statements which show the cause why people do
code switching:

1) Grosjean (1982) states that people switch when they can not find an
appropriate word or expression or when the language being used does not
have the items or appropriate translation. The reason of code switching is to
fill a linguistic need for lexical item, set a phrase, discourse maker, or
sentence filler. It may also involve fixed phrase of greeting or parting and
discourse maker.
2) Romaine (1989) states that code switching sometimes reiterate what had just
been said. Their function is to clarify or emphasize the message. Here the
switch itself is important not the referential value of the utterances. Since the
same thing is said in both languages. Another function of code switching is
to qualify a message.
3) Gumperz (1982) states three reasons why people do code switching. First is
code switching can be more convenient. Second is helping an ethnic
minority community retain a sense of cultural identity. Third is speaker may
not be able to express himself/herself in one language.

2.4 The Advantage of Code Switching

Romaine (1989) states the function of code switching is to clarify or emphasize


the message. Here the switch itself is important not the referential value of the
utterances. Since the same thing is said in both languages. Another function of code
switching is to qualify a message.

Code-switching seems to serve important communicative and cognitive


functions. However in the majority of communities studied some social stigma has
been attached to this mode of speaking by both in/out groups.

Chana (1984) studied listeners' evaluative reactions to code-switched speech by


a speaker who was also heard as a perfect Punjabi and as a perfect English speaker.
When he used the code-switched form he was considered fluent, intelligent, and
expressive than when he used only Punjabi or only English.
From the writer experience, the class will accept the material from teacher easily
if the teacher does code switching. Actually code switching is an interesting
technique in teaching and learning process. The students know the teacher’s point or
message easily. In addition the teacher can make joke in order to avoid boring
situation by doing code switching. If the class seems to be bored, the material will
be difficult accepted by the students. So the teacher can make a joke by using code
switching. In some cases, such in English study Program where the material is
taught by using English (a second language for all students) code switching can be
more useful. Teacher will do code switching because of students’ lack of
vocabulary. In short code switching can be a useful technique in teaching and
learning process in term of students’ lack of vocabulary, avoid boring situation and
send the message easily.

From those observations the writer concludes that code switching is a useful
technique. If it practices well by the teacher or lecturer, it will help the students
learn the material easily.

Most of experts’ observation I took from www.ncela.gwu.edu by Luisa Duran


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Location and Time of the Study

This research was carried out at English Study Program, FKIP Riau University
Pekanbaru. It conducted from ….. until ……, in academic year …..

3.3 Specific Objective of the Study

The specific objective of this research is to find out the effectiveness of doing
code switching during the teaching and learning process for the students’
understanding of material by the first year students.

3.4 Population and Sample

The population of the study is all the first year students in English Study
Program. They consist of ….. classes; class A consists of ….. students and class
B consists of ….. students. The number of students is small, so all the population
becomes the sample of the study.

3.5 Research Instrument

3.6 Data Collection Technique

3.7 Data Analyzing Technique