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Dual Sports

It's always fun to cheer on your team or favorite player, but understanding a little bit about the
game and scoring can help. Let's take a look at a variety of dual sports.

One major dual sport is tennis, which involves a player using a racket to serve a ball over a low
net while the opposing player attempts to return the ball back over the net. In tennis, points are
awarded when a serve is failed to be returned. Tennis can be player against player, which is called
singles, or it can be two players against two players, which is called doubles.

Another dual sport is racquetball. This game is much like tennis, except there is no net. Instead,
the server hits the ball off of the opposing wall and the opponent must try to return the ball, again
hitting it back against the wall. In racquetball, points can only be awarded to the server. Much like
tennis, racquetball can be played either singles or doubles.

The last dual sport we'll discuss is wrestling, which involved two wresters competing for points.
However, wrestling has a complicated scoring system. A fall, or pin, is when a wrestler is able to
pin both his or her opponent's shoulders to the mat while exhibiting control. This awards the most
points, which is six. An escape from the opponent is worth one point, whereas reversing control is
worth two points. A bout is referred to as a major decision when the opponent wins by 8-14 points.
If an opponent is winning by 15 points, the match is stopped and the win is considered a technical
fall, worth five points. All the points per bout are counted toward the overall team score.
Lawn Tennis

Between 1859 and 1865, in Birmingham, England, Major Harry Gem, a solicitor, and his
friend Augurio Perera, a Spanish merchant, combined elements of the game of rackets and the
Spanish ball game pelota and played it on a croquet lawn in Edgbaston. In 1872, both men moved
to Leamington Spa and in 1874, with two doctors from the Warneford Hospital, founded the
world's first tennis club, the Leamington Tennis Club.

Mary Ewing Outerbridge played the game in Bermuda at Clermont, a house with a spacious
lawn in Paget parish. Innumerable histories claim that in 1874 Mary returned from Bermuda
aboard the ship S.S. Canima and introduced lawn tennis to the United States, setting up supposedly
the first tennis court in the United States on the grounds of the Staten Island Cricket and Baseball
Club, which was near where the Staten Island Ferry Terminal is today. The club was founded on
or about March 22, 1872. She is also mistakenly said to have played the first tennis game in the
US against her sister Laura in Staten Island, New York, on an hourglass-shaped court. However,
all this would have been impossible, as the tennis equipment she is said to have brought back from
Bermuda was not available in Bermuda until 1875, and her next trip to Bermuda, when it was
available there, was in 1877. In fact, lawn tennis was first introduced in the United States on a
grass court on Col. William Appleton's Estate in Nahant, Massachusetts by Dr. James Dwight ("the
Father of American Lawn Tennis"), Henry Slocum, Richard Dudley Sears and Sears' half-brother
Fred Sears, in 1874.

Many original tennis courts remain, including courts at Oxford, Cambridge, Falkland
Palace in Fife where Mary Queen of Scots regularly played, and Hampton Court Palace. Many of
the French courts were decommissioned with the terror that accompanied the French Revolution.
The Tennis Court Oath (Serment du Jeu de Paume) was a pivotal event during the first days of the
French Revolution. The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 of the 577 members from the Third
Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on 20 June 1789. Any history of
tennis that ignores its origins in the game that was (and is still in certain circles) known as tennis
until "lawn tennis" became popular in the late nineteenth century is inaccurate.

The Davis Cup, an annual competition between men's national teams, dates to 1900. The
analogous competition for women's national teams, the Fed Cup, was founded as the Federation
Cup in 1963 to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the International Tennis
Federation, also known as the ITF.

In 1926, promoter C.C. Pyle created the first professional tennis tour with a group of
American and French tennis players playing exhibition matches to paying audiences. The most
notable of these early professionals were the American Vinnie Richards and the Frenchwoman
Suzanne Lenglen. Once a player turned pro he or she could not compete in the major (amateur)
tournaments.

In 1968, commercial pressures and rumors of some amateurs taking money under the table
led to the abandonment of this distinction, inaugurating the open era, in which all players could
compete in all tournaments, and top players were able to make their living from tennis. With the
beginning of the open era, the establishment of an international professional tennis circuit, and
revenues from the sale of television rights, tennis's popularity has spread worldwide, and the sport
has shed its upper/middle-class English-speaking image (although it is acknowledged that this
stereotype still exists).

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles)
or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung
with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the
opponent's court. The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not
able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while
the opposite player will.

Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society and at all ages. The sport
can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including wheelchair users. The modern game of
tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as "lawn tennis". It had close
connections both to various field ("lawn") games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older
racket sport of real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term "tennis" referred to
real tennis, not lawn tennis: for example, in Disraeli's novel Sybil (1845), Lord Eugene De Vere
announces that he will "go down to Hampton Court and play tennis."

The rules of tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908
to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, and the adoption of the tiebreak
in the 1970s. A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review
technology coupled with a point challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of
a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye.

Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is also a popular worldwide


spectator sport. The four Grand Slam tournaments (also referred to as the "Majors") are especially
popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts,
Wimbledon played on grass courts, and the US Open played also on hard courts.
Table Tennis

Like most other sports, table tennis had humble beginnings as a parlor game, open to
anyone with access to a table, paddle, and ball. The game began in the 1880s, when lawn tennis
players adapted their game to play indoors during the winter.

Ping-Pong is a trademark name for table tennis and associated equipment. The name Ping-
Pong was invented by the English firm J. Jaques and Son at the end of the 1800s and later
trademarked in the United States by Parker Brothers, the board game company.

The game quickly caught on, and as early as 1901, tournaments were being conducted with
over 300 participants. The Ping-Pong Association was formed but was renamed The Table Tennis
Association in 1922.

In 1902 a visiting Japanese university professor took the game back to Japan, where he
introduced it to university students. Shortly after, a British salesman, Edward Shires, introduced it
to the people of Vienna and Budapest, and the seeds were sown for a sport that now enjoys
popularity all over the world. In Britain, table tennis had also begun to spread outside the distinctly
middle-class confines of London, and leagues sprang up in provincial towns as far apart as
Sunderland and Plymouth. In 1922, an All England Club was formed, which boasted such
luminaries as Jack Hobbs the cricketer and other famous names of the time from the world of sport.
The Daily Mirror organized and sponsored a nationwide tournament in which there were 40,000
competitors.

Table tennis was firmly on the map, and on April 24, 1927, the English Table Tennis
Association was born, under the chairmanship and direction of Ivor Montague, son of Lord
Ewatthling. He was not only to become the architect of modern-day table tennis, but he also
achieved critical acclaim as both a director and film producer. At the time, The ETTA had a
membership of 19 leagues but now has over 300, with around 75,000 registered players.

The first world championships were held in 1927 and were won by a Hungarian, Dr. Jacobi.
Apart from the famous Fred Perry redressing the balance for England in 1929, this was to be the
start of an unprecedented run of success for the Hungarians, who completely dominated the game
throughout the thirties. Their team was led by the legendary Victor Barna, whose inspiration and
skill did so much to elevate the game to sports status.

The 1950s saw the game turned upside down by the invention of the sponge or sandwich
rubber, this new material for bats, which, up until now, had been a relatively simple affair with a
universal thin covering of pimpled rubber.

Until this time, spin had played only a minor part in a game that had been dominated by
the defensive style of play. But these new bats or paddles, introduced by the Japanese, had the
capacity to move the ball around in an almost magical way. The ITTF, the games governing body,
was quick to legislate in a bid to control this new development, seen in some quarters as equipping
players with an unfair advantage. The thickness of the sponge and rubber sandwich was controlled
and remains so to this day. But the nature of the game had been changed, establishing the fast
attacking speed and spin style of the modern game.

Today, the sport both in England and abroad is very well established and is growing each
year. The culmination of this has been its recognition as an Olympic Games sport, being featured
for the first time in the 1988 games in Seoul. Television coverage of the mens singles final
attracted an incredible worldwide audience of 2 billion. In China, the game is played by literally
millions at work, in school, and in community parks. Chinese top players are regarded as national
heroes with pop star statuses.
Table tennis, also known as ping pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a
lightweight ball back and forth across a table using a small bat. The game takes place on a hard
table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, the rules are generally as follows: players must
allow a ball played toward them to bounce one time on their side of the table, and must return it
so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. A point is scored when a player fails to return
the ball within the rules. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. Spinning the ball alters its
trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage.

Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis


Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926. ITTF currently includes 226 member associations. The table
tennis official rules are specified in the ITTF handbook. Table tennis has been an Olympic sport
since 1988, with several event categories. From 1988 until 2004, these were men's singles,
women's singles, men's doubles and women's doubles. Since 2008, a team event has been played
instead of the doubles.
Badminton

Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the
modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of
the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock. ("Battledore" was an older term for "racquet".) Its
exact origin remains obscure. The name derives from the Duke of Beaufort's Badminton House in
Gloucestershire, but why or when remains unclear. As early as 1860, a London toy dealer named
Isaac Spratt published a booklet entitled Badminton Battledore A New Game, but no copy is
known to have survived. An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as
"battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, across a string suspended some five feet from the
ground".

The game may have originally developed among expatriate officers in British India, where
it was very popular by the 1870s. Ball badminton, a form of the game played with a wool ball
instead of a shuttlecock, was being played in Thanjavur as early as the 1850s[8] and was at first
played interchangeably with badminton by the British, the woollen ball being preferred in windy
or wet weather.
Early on, the game was also known as Poona or Poonah after the garrison town of Pune,
where it was particularly popular and where the first rules for the game were drawn up in 1873.
By 1875, officers returning home had started a badminton club in Folkestone. Initially, the sport
was played with sides ranging from 1 to 4 players, but it was quickly established that games
between two or four competitors worked the best. The shuttlecocks were coated with India rubber
and, in outdoor play, sometimes weighted with lead. Although the depth of the net was of no
consequence, it was preferred that it should reach the ground.

The sport was played under the Pune rules until 1887, when J. H. E. Hart of the Bath
Badminton Club drew up revised regulations. In 1890, Hart and Bagnel Wild again revised the
rules. The Badminton Association of England (BAE) published these rules in 1893 and officially
launched the sport at a house called "Dunbar" in Portsmouth on 13 September. The BAE started
the first badminton competition, the All England Open Badminton Championships for gentlemen's
doubles, ladies' doubles, and mixed doubles, in 1899. Singles competitions were added in 1900
and an EnglandIreland championship match appeared in 1904.

England, Scotland, Wales, Canada, Denmark, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, and New
Zealand were the founding members of the International Badminton Federation in 1934, now
known as the Badminton World Federation. India joined as an affiliate in 1936. The BWF now
governs international badminton. Although initiated in England, competitive men's badminton has
traditionally been dominated in Europe by Denmark. Worldwide, Asian nations have become
dominant in international competition. China, Denmark, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and South
Korea are the nations which have consistently produced world-class players in the past few
decades, with China being the greatest force in men's and women's competition recently.

The game has also become a popular backyard sport in the United States.

Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net.
Although it may be played with larger teams, the most common forms of the game are "singles"
(with one player per side) and "doubles" (with two players per side). Badminton is often played as
a casual outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach; formal games are played on a rectangular indoor
court. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the
opposing side's half of the court.

Each side may only strike the shuttlecock once before it passes over the net. Play ends once
the shuttlecock has struck the floor or if a fault has been called by the umpire, service judge, or (in
their absence) the opposing side.

The shuttlecock is a feathered or (in informal matches) plastic projectile which flies
differently from the balls used in many other sports. In particular, the feathers create much higher
drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly. Shuttlecocks also have a high top speed
compared to the balls in other racquet sports. The flight of the shuttlecock gives the sport its
distinctive nature.

The game developed in British India from the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock.
European play came to be dominated by Denmark but the game has became very popular in Asia,
with recent competitions dominated by China. Since 1992, badminton has been a Summer Olympic
sport with five events: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles, women's doubles, and mixed
doubles. At high levels of play, the sport demands excellent fitness: players require aerobic
stamina, agility, strength, speed, and precision. It is also a technical sport, requiring good motor
coordination and the development of sophisticated racquet movements.